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Chapter 1

The Problem and Its Scope

Introduction

After graduating from high school, a student is bound to enter the next phase of his

life—college. But before he could go on with his journey, he should first know where to begin.

That is where he finds himself in crossroads in the process of choosing a course.

The student's future — whether he succeeds or not — is influenced by the course he

chooses. The chosen course should be one that captures the interest of the student. But

nowadays, a student's choice of career is often influenced by his environment. Factors that

contribute to a student's educational aspirations and ability to persist are often prevalent in their

home environments (Acker-Ball, 2007).

Family influence is widely interpreted as parents or caregivers instilling their values

onto their child, whether purposefully or unintentionally (Williams-Washington, Melon, and

Blau, 2008).

Parents are most probably the only people who are involved with their child’s education

throughout their entire school years. They are thus likely to have great interest in their child’s

learning overall and be the most affected by the outcomes of any schooling decisions (Mitchell,

2007). For some students, it may lead to their success. But for some, they may be forced to

stray from the path that they have chosen for themselves which would eventually lead them to

slacking off or get failing grades. Parent and pupil frustration results when parent's ambitions

and hopes for their child do not coincide with his abilities or interests (Kahayon & Aquino,

2000).
Of those concerned about a child’s education, parents have the most long-term

relationship with children, giving them insights into what is right for their child that not even

the most famous educational expert could ever hope to have. Ultimately, parents should be the

final decision makers about their child’s education (Nelson, 2010). Even so, the parents’

decisions affect each student differently.

Statement of the Problem

The study encompasses the different effects of family influence among students. The

following questions are to be answered in this study:

1. What role do your parents play in the career guidance process?

2. What are the effects of following your parents’ career choice to your studies?
Conceptual Framework

This study uses the input-process-output model. The input frame shows the center of

the study. The process frame shows the different steps done by the researchers in the

gathering of data which includes the distribution of survey questionnaires and documentation

of the results gathered. The output frame includes the implication of the data gathered and the

purpose of this study.

Input Process Output


Family Influence: The researchers To gain knowledge on
Effects of Following presented letters of how family influence
the Parents’ Career permission to conduct affects a student’s
Choice a survey to the deans educational behavior.
from each department
of Baliuag University.
After receiving
permission, the
researchers distributed
survey questionnaires
to gather information
concerning the study.
The researchers tallied
the results of the
survey and analyzed
its results.

Significance of the study

This study aims to show the effects of following the parent’s career choice to the

following:

Parents. For them to understand the behavior of their children towards their course.

Teachers. For them to understand the reason why some students have a hard time in passing

their course.
Administration. For them to be aware of what is happening to their students, and to advise the

teachers on how to handle and help their students.

Students. For them to have a better view of their interest especially in choosing their course

and to have an insight in the results of their grades.

Scope and delimitation

The focus of this study is to determine the effects of family influence in choosing the

students' course. This study encompasses college students from the Baliuag University under

the following departments: College of Education, College of Business Administration, College

of Nursing, College of Environmental Design and Engineering, College of Information

Technology and Education and College Hospitality Management and Tourism. Only 6 students

per department and only 4 students from College of Arts and Science were chosen as the subject

of study.
Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the related literature and studies used by the researchers as basis

to further expand the knowledge about the study. In this chapter, the related literature and

studies were summarized to show the concepts, ideas, and the statements which were found to

support the results of the study.

Related Literature

Parents are most probably the only people who are involved with their child’s education

throughout their entire school years. They are thus likely to have great interest in their child’s

learning overall and be the most affected by the outcomes of any schooling decisions (Mitchell,

2007).

The statement identifies the parents as the ones who are most dominant when it comes

to influencing their child’s education especially in their decision-making. It is mostly because

parents involve themselves in their child’s learning.

The career or occupation of the parents or other significant individuals are well

observed at close range; thus, the child is able to develop mental schemata that are well

imprinted in the mind, allowing for greater appreciation, understanding and imitation of actions

and behavior (Villar, Ph.D., 2009).

The student’s career choice is significantly influenced by their parent’s occupation or

career background. Parents’ occupation can also affect the child’s actions and behaviors toward

the course they shall pursue.

Pupil and parent frustration results when parents’ ambitions and hopes for their child

do not coincide with his abilities or interests (Kahayon & Aquino, 2000).
The above statement mentions the pupil and parent frustration as a major decision-

making problem. Oftentimes, the parents’ hopes for their child is not what he believes is

suitable for him and therefore affecting the child’s educational behavior.

It is true that, for most people, satisfaction in life is dependent upon a source of

livelihood (Kahayon & Aquino, 2000).

Thus, source of livelihood has also become a basis for career choice. Parents consider

those careers which would provide and serve as a source of livelihood for their children in the

near future.

Of those concerned about a child’s education, parents have the most long-term

relationship with children, giving them insights into what is right for their child that not even

the most famous educational expert could ever hope to have. Ultimately, parents should be the

final decision makers about their child’s education (Nelson, 2010).

It is stated that parents should be the ones who make the final decision concerning their

child’s education. It is because parents know their child better than anyone, even against

experts.

Parents play important, if not critical, roles in educating and supporting learners with

their educational needs (Mitchell, 2007).

Regular contact with parents will heighten the student’s own sense of accountability.

Children will obtain positive messages about the importance of their education if they see their

parents working together (Mitchell, 2007).

Spending more time with their parents would benefit a student especially his education.

Parents can become great examples and role models for their own children through consistency

in their words and their actions.

In the book of Brown and Lent (2008), factors affecting decision-making were

identified. One factor seems to reflect decision-making problems involving “Interpersonal


Conflicts and Barriers”. Manifest variables that loaded highly on this factor included indices

of conflict involving disagreements with significant others, perceptions of external barriers,

and situational constraints. Also, experiences of approach-approach conflict had a salient

secondary loading on this factor, suggesting, perhaps, that persons experiencing conflicts with

significant others and other forms of external barriers may be stuck between two occupational

options – one preferred by the client and the other preferred by significant others.

As stated above, some problems occur in relation with decision-making. Conflict

between parents and child occurs when the child is stuck between the option to choose his

preferred course or the other course preferred by his parents.

Another factor identified is defined by identity diffusion and lack of self-clarity, it is

also marked by variables reflecting a lack of confidence in career decision-making skills,

immature career attitudes, unstable career goals, a reduced likelihood of being in an ego-

identity-achieved status, and a concurrent lack of motivation to make and commit to a decision

(Brown and Lent, 2008).

Lack of self-clarity can become a problem for decision makers. The student’s

indecisiveness may pose as a factor for him to be influenced by his environment during his

career decision making.

Related Studies

Factors that contribute to a student's educational aspirations and ability to persist are

often prevalent in their home environments (Acker-Ball, 2007).

Family influence is widely interpreted as parents or caregivers instilling their values

onto their child, whether purposefully or unintentionally (Williams-Washington, Melon, and

Blau, 2008).
Parents are placed ahead of career guidance professionals, teachers, and tutors as the

prefer source of advice for young people (Arulmani, Bakshi, Leong and Watts, 2014). Students

often seek advice from their parents before asking others.

These advices given by the parents gives a positive effect to the students. Ma and Yeh

(2005) indicated a tendency for youths who are more connected to their parents to be more

amenable to their parents’ desires and to select careers based on their advice, and thus achieve

career certainty without prior exploration (Dutt, 2009).

A dissertation completed by Stoever (2002) evaluated parental support in predicting

college success. Gloria and Ho (2003) found that successful college students reported being

strongly encouraged by parents towards obtaining a college education. These students also

reported placing a high value on acquiring a college education and a strong education to earning

an undergraduate degree (Ulmer, 2008).

The statement further explains the positive effects of parental influence among students

especially in achieving high grades.


Chapter 3

Methodology

This chapter deals with the methods that the researchers used in this study. In this

chapter, the research design, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, data

gathering, and data analysis are included. This also contains the measurement and formulas to

be used.

Research Design

In this study, the researchers used the descriptive research design to know the

influence of family in the college students of Baliuag University in choosing their career.

Descriptive research design, which are also sometimes called observational designs, produce

information on groups and phenomena that already exists; no new groups are created (Fink,

2003). The researchers used tools as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.

This means that the researchers asked specific and narrow questions, and collected numerical

data from participant’s answer to the questions.

Location

This study was done in Consuelo Alejo Santiago Building in Baliuag University-Main

Campus, Gil Carlos St., Baliuag, Bulacan.


Respondents

In conducting the study, the researchers got the total number of department in the site

of Baliuag University in the net. After that, the researchers only chose six students from each

department: College of Business Administration and Accountancy, College of Nursing,

College of Education, College of Information Technology Education, College of

Environmental Design and Engineering, College of Hospitality Management and Tourism;

and four students from College of Arts and Sciences.

Year Gender
Department Course
2nd 3rd 4th Male Female

CAS BS Psy 3 3

BAPS 1 1

CON BSN 6 1 5

CITE BSIT 3 2 1

BSIS 3 1 2

CBAA BSBA 1 1 1 2 1

BSA 3 3

CHMT BSTM 3 3

BSHM 2 1 3

COED BEED 3 3

BSED 3 1 2

CEDE BSCE 3 3

BSME 3 3
Questionnaire

The questionnaires used in this study were outlined by the researchers. It is made up

of eight questions which aims to answer the corresponding stated problems that this study

aims to answer.

Tools for Data Gathering

In conducting the survey, the researchers provided letters to each department signed

by the respective Deans as their permission for the researchers to distribute survey

questionnaires from their respective students. The letter was also presented to the professor

who was in charge of the students before they conducted a survey.

The participants were given enough time to respond and answer the survey truthfully

with the assurance that their answers would be used for academic purposes only. There were

no incentives offered to participants for participating in the research.

The data collection was tabulated and analyzed. Analyses of data were guided by the

corresponding percentage.

In gathering more data and information the researchers used books from the library

and similar studies from the Archives and Museum.


Formula

Upon the retrieval of the accomplished research questionnaires from the respondents,

the data were collected and analyzed.

In computing the respondent’s answer per choices to acquire the main effects of

family in choosing student’s career, based on the book of Benigno (2006), the formula to be

used is:
𝑛
f = 𝑁 x 100

wherein:

n = number of students who answered per choice

N = total number of students who answered the survey questionnaires

f = percentage