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Work Motivation - the set of internal and external reasonably comfortable temperature
forces that cause a worker of employee to choose a 2. Secondary Needs (Social & Psychological Needs)
course of action and engage in a certain behavior. Self Esteem
Sense of Duty
1. Level of the effort – Making a full commitment to Self Assertion
excellence versus doing just enough to get by To giving
2. Direction and focus of the behavior – positive Belonging
factors are dependability, creativity, timeliness; Receiving affection
dysfunctional factors are tardiness, absenteeism,
withdrawal, and low performance THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY ABRAHAM
3. Persistence of the behavior – repeatedly MASLOW
maintaining the effort versus giving up prematurely.
 Lower order needs
MODEL OF MOTIVATION First level of need is Physiological
1. Affiliation Motivation – is a drive to relate people needs (food, air, water, and sleep)
on a social basis Second level of need is Safety needs
Achievement Oriented People – work harder (bodily safety and economic security)
when their supervisor provide detailed evaluation of  Higher order needs
their work behavior. Third level of need is Social needs
Achievement Motivated People – select (concerns love, belonging, and social
assistants who are technically capable, with little environment at work.)
regard for personal feelings about them. Fourth level of need is Esteem needs
2. Power Motivation – is a drive to influence people, (one’s feeling of self worth and of
take control, and change situation competence)
Power Motivated People – make excellent Fifth level of need is Self-actualization
managers if their drives are for institutional power (becoming all that one is capable of
instead of personal power. becoming, using one’s skills to the fullest and
Institutional Power – is the need to stretching talents to the maximum)
influence others’ behavior for the good of the whole
 Maintenance Factor (Hygiene Factor) – they
Motivational Drives – as a product of the cultural are necessary for building a foundation on
environment in which they live. These drives affect which to create a reasonable level of
the way people view their jobs and approach their motivation in employees
lives.  Motivational Factors (Motivators or
Achievement Motivation – is a drive some people Satisfiers) – condition that operate primarily
have to pursue and attain goals. to build this motivation, but their absence
Achievement – A drive to accomplish objectives and rarely is strongly dissatisfying.
get ahead
Affiliation – A drive to relate to people effectively Job Content – Motivators are mostly job centered
Power – A drive to influence people and situation Job Context – Maintenance factors
Intrinsic Motivators – are internal rewards that a
THREE MAJOR AWARDS person feels when performing a job
1. Fair Treatment (job security, adequate Extrinsic Motivators – are external rewards that occur
compensation, and respect) apart from the nature of the work, providing no direct
2. Sense of Achievement ( purpose, enablement, satisfaction at the time the work is performed.
challenge, feedback, and recognition)
3. Camaraderie (teamwork)  Herzberg model was based on and applies
best to managerial, professional, and upper
TYPES OF NEEDS level white collar employees. The model also
1. Primary Needs (Physical Needs) appear to reduce the motivational importance
Food of pay, status, and relation with others.
THE ERG THEORY reinforcer accompanies each correct behavior of an
- is a need hierarchy theory of motivation that was employee.
developed by Clayton Aldefer. He believed that in Partial Reinforcement – occurs when only some of
motivating people, we are confronted by three sets of the correct behaviors are reinforced – either a certain
needs: existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G). time or after a number of correct response.


1. Existence – which combine physiological and Goals – are targets and objectives for future
security factors. Pay, working conditions, job security, performance.
and fringe benefits. Goal Setting – works as a motivational process
2. Relatedness – involves being understood and because it creates a discrepancy between current and
accepted by people above. expected performance
3. Growth – desire for both self esteem and self Self Efficacy – an internal belief regarding one’s job
actualization related capabilities and competencies.


1. Goal Acceptance – effective goals need to be not
only understood but accepted
2. Specificity – goals need to be specific, clear, and
measurable as possible so that employees will know
when a goal is reached
3. Challenge – Employees work harder when they
have difficult goals to accomplish rather than easy
4. Performance Monitoring – observing behavior,
inspecting output, or studying documents of
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION performance indicators.
-Managers become more conscious motivators. 5. Performance Feedback – the timely provision of
data and judgement regarding task related result .
Organizational Behavior Modification –is the Tends to encourage better job performance, and self
application in organizations of the principles of generated feedback is an especially powerful
behavior modification, which evolved from the work motivational tool.
of B.F. Skinner.
Law of Effect – which states that a person tends to EXPECTANCY THEORY
repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable - One of the process theories refer to the expectancy
consequences (reinforcement) and tends not to theory that was developed by Victor Vroom. This
repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable theory sees that people as choosing a course of action
consequences according to what they anticipate will give them the
Social Learning – also known as vicarious learning. greatest awards.
Employees do not always have to learn directly from
their experiences. Vroom elaborated by explaining that motivation is a
Positive Reinforcement – provides favorable product of the following factors:
consequences that encourage repetition of a 1. Valence -how much one wants a reward;
behavior. Favorable consequences should be 2. Expectancy -one’s estimate of the probability that
personalized, timely, specific, high impact, and as effort will result in successful performance;
spontaneous as possible. 3. Instrumentality -one’s estimate that performance
Shaping – is a systematic and progressive application will result in receiving the award.
of positive reinforcement.
Negative Reinforcement – occurs when behavior is The formula is: Valence x Expectancy x
accompanied by removal of an unfavorable Instrumentality = Motivation
Punishment – is the administration of an unfavorable Valence – refers to the strength of a person’s
consequences that discourages a certain behavior preference for receiving a reward. It is an expression
Extinction – is the withholding of significant positive of the amount of one’s desire to reach a goal
consequences that were previously provided for a Expectancy – is the strength of belief that one’s work
desirable behavior. related effort will result in completion of task
Continuous Reinforcement – occurs when a Instrumentality – represents the employee’s belief
that a reward will be received once the task is
Primary Outcome – result directly from action
Secondary Outcome – follow from primary