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course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.


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Drilling | Completion |Workover


Handbook
Well Control

Version 1.3
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Chevron's drilling and completions organization has a vision to


be the Clear Leader in every location that we operate. To
achieve that vision we must be the Clear Leader in well
control. Maintaining well control, managing influxes, and
ensuring that we always keep hydrocarbons where they need
to be ensures that we can continue to operate efficiently and
effectively. Our people are the most important part of our well
control effort. Having qualified well trained people on our
locations is the first and last line of defense against a loss of
well control. Our well control training, well control standard
and Wellsafe all work in concert to ensure that everyone in our
operations has the tools and competency to be successful. This
well control handbook is one of those tools and allows you to
have access to all of the concepts that you have learned in
training at your fingertips when you need them. I recommend
that you spend some time familiarizing yourself with the
handbook before you need it. Bookmark pages that might be
needed in an emergency and always use it as a reference in
actual well control situations.

Dave Payne

Chevron Well Control Handbook


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Company Confidential.

Tenet 7
regulations.”

Chevron Well Control Handbook


1 PREPARATION

“Always comply with all applicable rules and

1- 1
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Introduction
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Well Control Goals


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Chevron’s recommended well control practices are


based on principles that guarantee containment.
DPP
Chevron operational well control goals, established CP
principally to protect people and the environment are as
follows (listed in decreasing priority):
• Maintain primary hydrostatic control of the well at all
times during well operations.
• Efficiently use secondary well control options
whenever primary control of the well is lost. By
emphasizing the need for the earliest practical
detection of a kick, followed by rapid well shut-in, the
probability of successfully controlling a kick using Drillstring
standard, appropriate procedures is enhanced. Float

• Restore primary control of the well, using acceptable


well control methods, to enhance safety and Kick
operational performance objectives (in that order of Influx
priority). Based on specific local conditions an SBU
level MOC can be put in place to select an
appropriate kill technique such as the Wait & Weight
Method, bullheading, etc.

The procedures and methods detailed in this handbook can be referenced and
used to help implement, maintain, and restore well control for all operations and
rig-work employed by Chevron.
Chevron rig-work and operations include drilling, completions and workovers, and
well intervention work. Rig types used to achieve the objectives of each
operational plan include:
• Land drilling rigs
• Offshore jack-ups and platform rigs (surface BOP)
• Offshore semis and drillships (subsea BOP)
• Pulling units, hydraulic workover rigs, snubbing units, wireline/slick line units
and coiled tubing units
Each application of this equipment requires specific operational plans but all
require sound well control practices and procedures.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 2


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Introduction - continued
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Drilling Program
• Casing Depths
• MW vs Pore psi
• Bit & Hydraulics
Completion Plan
• Cleanout Run
• Perforating Details
• Frac / Gravel Pac
Common Goal: • Run Completion Assy
Well Control • Well Testing
• ND BOP, NU Tree

Workover Work
• Kill Well
• ND Tree, NU BOP
• Pull Completion Tubing
• Run Workstring
• Conduct WO Work
• ND BOP, NU Tree

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 3


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

D&C GTS Well Control Requirements (excerpts)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Blowout Contingency Plan


There shall be an updated Blowout Contingency Plan (BCP) in
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

place when conducting D&C activities.

Emergency Evacuation Procedures


Each rig shall have an emergency evacuation procedure for well
designs that require the use of a diverter system or riser-less
drilling.
• Rigs equipped with a diverter should have a documented rig-
specific diverting procedure.
• The procedure shall clearly define roles and responsibilities for
rig crew involved in the diverting procedure.

Drill String Float


There shall be at least one solid float installed in drilling BHAs
when conducting drilling activities. If possible, a solid float should
be installed in applicable work strings as well.

Minimum Fluid Inventories


Each drilling, completion, or workover operation should establish
and maintain sufficient inventories of:
Drilling Fluids
Barite – bulk and /or sack materials
Additives as per the type of drilling fluid in use.
LCM
Workover / Completion Brines
Liquid Brine of sufficient density
Spike Fluids
Fluid loss control additives
Cement
Offshore rigs should establish and maintain minimum inventory.

Subsea Operations
• Choke line friction pressures should be taken any time there is
a change in mud weight or mud properties.
• Choke and kill lines should be flushed regularly and left filled
with current mud weight. These lines should be circulated prior
to BPUTS during well control operations.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 4


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

D&C GTS Well Control Requirements (excerpts)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

To mitigate risk associated with potential well control events, Chevron has
adopted the following Well Control Requirements (taken from the Global
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Standard).
1. Reporting protocol for well control event shall include a discussion, before
the well control operations commence, that covers at least the following:
o Kill method
o Kill weight mud
o Use of safety factors in excess of the initial circulating
pressure
o Kill pump rate
o Maximum initial shut-in casing pressure
o Kick tolerance
o Stabilized shut-in casing pressure
2. For subsea stack operations, each rig shall have defined requirements for
pipe hang-off. These requirements shall include the following, at a minimum:
• Criteria used to make the determination to hang-off.
• Method to determine the set down weight on the hang-off rams
and/or the tension required on the drillpipe at the stack.
• Action to take with the annular after hang-off.
• Clear understanding of capacities of the variable-bore rams as hang-
off rams.
• Location and justification of the shear blind rams in the stack.
3. Each rig shall have a defined process to determine if and/or when pipe
movement will be allowed if the annular is used for well control.
4. Each rig shall define which BOP element is to be used during the well
kill procedure.
• The uppermost BOP element should be used during initial shut-in
conditions unless current operations dictate otherwise.
• The uppermost BOP element is usually the annular, which allows for
location of tool joints as well as movement of pipe if required.
Note: The lowermost set of pipe rams should be defined as
“master/safety pipe rams.”
5. Communication and documentation protocols shall be defined to authorize
the use of an off-bottom kill procedure. At a minimum, management of
change (MOC) with risk and uncertainty management documentation should
be completed with approval from BU D&C management.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 5


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

D&C GTS Well Control Requirements (excerpts)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

6. A Chevron drill/wellsite manager (DSM/WSM), with a valid Chevron Well


Control Certificate, shall supervise the overall well kill operation at the work
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

site. The Chevron DSM/WSM that oversees the well kill operation should be
the most senior and / or lead DSM/WSM.
7. Bridging document for each rig or workover unit shall identify the primary
choke operator, verify the choke operator’s competency, and explain the
process for confirming choke operator competency.
8. To prepare for and respond to potential well control situations, specific well
control procedures shall be defined and developed for non-routine
operations that require special consideration. Examples include the following:
• Gravel pack screens or perforated liners across the BOP stack and
within the well.
• Tubing with control lines across the BOP stack.
• BOP equipment failure that requires remotely operated vehicle
intervention to operate stack functions and the like.
• Multi-string completions.
9. For rigs equipped with shear rams and blind shear rams, the BU shall ensure
that rig teams document well control procedures and operations when non-
shearable tubulars are across the stack. These procedures shall include
specific shearing instructions for any tubular, posting of specific shearing
instructions at the driller’s station, and a shear matrix (tubular shearing table)
that identifies non-shearable tubulars.
10. Well control procedures shall be defined and developed for special
operations, such as the following:
• High-pressure/high-temperature conditions
• Managed pressure drilling
• Dual gradient drilling
• Closed hole circulating drilling
• Mud cap drilling
• Casing drilling
• Horizontal drilling
• Slim hole drilling
• Steam boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE)
considerations
• Air blows
• Air drilling
• Shallow Hazards

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 6


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Barriers (D&C Global Technical Standard: Well Barrier Design)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

In a well design, a barrier is a component or practice that contributes to total


system reliability by preventing formation fluid or gas flow.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

The three classifications of barriers are:


1. Hydrostatic
2. Cement
3. Mechanical

Hydrostatic Barrier
A hydrostatic barrier is achieved through the effect of hydrostatic pressure
from a column of fluid.

Hydrostatic Barrier Examples:


• Drilling Mud
• Completion Brines
• Sea Water
• Oils

A static test is the primary means of Hydrostatic Barrier Verification. It is used


to verify that a fluid column has sufficient hydrostatic pressure to overcome
pore pressure.

Cement Barrier
A column of cement is defined as a barrier after it has reached its planned
minimum compressive strength.

Cement Barrier Verification


• Verification to prevent flow
o Positive pressure test
o Inflow test

• Verification of placement (inside the wellbore or casing annulus) is also


required. Placement of a cement plug may verified by set-down weight for
example.

Mechanical Barrier
A mechanical barrier is achieved through mechanical means. The barrier
elements may contain metal and/or elastomeric rubber or polymer.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 7


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Barriers - continued
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Mechanical Barrier Examples:


• Blowout preventer (BOP) & production tree, & sub sea test tree (SSTT)
• Bridge plugs, cement retainers, crown plugs, tree caps
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

• Full opening safety valve (FOSV), top drive FOSV, IBOP


• Permanent packer with plug, storm packer, test packers
• Casing, tubing & liner hangers - with seal
• Back pressure valve (BPV) and two-way check valve

Barrier integrity shall be verified upon installation and at periodic intervals, as


required.

APPLICATION OF THE BARRIER STANDARD


Routine Operations
All Chevron D&C, Intervention, Environmental Management Company (EMC),
and Base Business (BB) case operations shall have a minimum of two
independent barriers available within or on a well to prevent uncontrolled flow
from the wellbore.

Long-term Suspension & Abandonment


Two barriers shall be in place (neither of which shall be hydrostatic).
Deepwater Recommendation – One of the two barriers should be a mechanical
barrier with a minimum of 100 ft MD of cement above it.

Non-routine Operations
During non-routine operations (operations where maintaining 2 barriers is not
possible or practical), proceeding with a single barrier for a finite duration is
permissible if supported by SOP and risk assessment.

If one of the required minimum barriers fails, forward operations


shall be suspended until the minimum number of required barriers
can be re-established.

Prior to commencing operations, a well diagram or table shall be


prepared that defines the barriers to prevent flow along each
potential flow path, for each stage of the well construction process.
 This shall include barriers put in place for short-term
suspension if the rig is to be moved off location for any reason.
 During operations, if any deviations occur from the original plan
or if the condition of the barrier changes, the well diagram or
table shall be updated to reflect current conditions.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 8


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Training & Competency


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

All rig personnel having well control duties must be competent in


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

their ability to perform those duties. To ensure competency Chevron


requires:

Well Control Training


All CVX supervisory personnel must maintain a Chevron recognized well control
certification at the level of their job duties.

Well Assessments
All personnel will be regularly assessed to ensure competency is maintained.

Participation in Well Control Drills


Rig personnel must regularly participate in the following Drills:

Drills (D&C GTS: Well Control Requirements) Frequency (per crew)


Hole Monitoring While Drilling, Milling, or Once per week
Circulating
Shut-In Drill Once per week
Well Kill Drill Once per month
Choke Drill Once per month
Diverter Drill Once per month
Stripping Drill Once per quarter
Non-Shearable Drill Prior to event

Drill for Non-Routine Operations Once per operation


Emergency Disconnect Sequence Drill Once per month

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1- 9


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Well Control Responsibilities


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

The following Contractor and Service Company personnel


assignments are for an offshore floating vessel. Similar
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

assignments and responsibilities should be available and posted


for any rig working for Chevron D&C.

Toolpusher
• Ensures that the crew is organized and prepared for killing the well.
• Liases with the Drill /Well Site Manager (DSM/WSM) throughout the well kill
operation.
• May operate the choke (or his designee).
Driller
• The Driller is responsible for monitoring the well at all times, identifying kick
indicators, and shutting-in the well quickly and safely.
• Once the well is shut-in, calls the Person-in-Charge.
• On floating rigs, calls the Subsea Engineer to the drill floor initially.
• Monitors key parameters (pressures, volumes and time) and designates a
crew member to record same during the kill operation.
• Operates the mud pump during the kill operation.
Assistant Driller / Derrickhand
• Lines up the mud gas separator and vacuum degasser.
• Lines up the mixing pumps and bulk barite system for weighting up the mud
and stands by for specific instructions from TP and Mud Engineer.
• Once pumping starts, keeps constant check on mud weight and pit volumes
and reports these to the Driller.
Floormen
• Follow instructions from Driller
Mud Engineer
• Reports to the pit room to check the AD/Derrickhand’s preparations and co-
ordinates the building and maintenance of the required mud system.
• Checks and confirms all volumes of mud and chemicals on board. Monitors
mud properties and return flow for any abnormalities.
• Checks and confirms calibration of mud balance.
Barge Supervisor / Captain
• Ensures that the bulk system is charged and ready for use.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 10


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Well Control Responsibilities - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

• Stands-by in the control room or bridge in preparation for responding to an


emergency situation.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

• Notifies the standby vessel (if available) to move into evacuation position.
• Ensures readiness of the evacuation equipment.
Crane Operator
• Ensures that doors and hatches are closed, where necessary.
• Assists mud mixing operations.
• Supervises Roustabouts
• Report to mud pits / sack room to assist the AD and Derrickhand.
Subsea Engineer
• Reports initially to the drill floor to check functions and operating pressures on
the BOP control panel. He/she must be present at the control panel in case of
equipment problems.
Mud Logging Engineers
• Report to the mud logging unit and continuously monitor the circulating and
drilling systems.
• Review all data and report any abnormalities to the DSM/WSM, Driller, and
Senior Toolpusher.
Cementer
• Ensures that the cement unit is tested and ready for operation.
• Ensures slurry formulation and additives are ready in case a cement plug is
required.
• Operates the cement unit, if required, under the instruction of the Senior
Toolpusher.
Electrician / Mechanic
• Standby for possible instructions.
Control Room Operator
• Ensures that rig stability is maintained and monitors safety systems (Gas
Alarms, etc.) during well control operations.
Radio Operator
• Logs all calls, telexes and faxes and keeps the lines open for the DSM/WSM,
OIM and any other personnel authorized by the OIM to use the
communications system.
• Assists the OIM and DSM/WSM in all matters of communication.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 11


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Basic Concepts: Wellbore Pressures


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Hydrostatic Pressure
𝐻𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐻𝑃 = 0.052 × 𝑀𝑊 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

To calculate the total vertical depth (TVD):


MW
10.8 ppg 𝑇𝑉𝐷 = 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝐾𝑂𝑃 + (𝑀𝐷 − 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝐾𝑂𝑃 ) × cos(𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛)
4000’
𝑇𝑉𝐷 = 4000 + (10000 − 4000) × cos(40°)
𝑇𝑉𝐷 = 4000 + 4596 = 8596′

𝐻𝑃 = 0.052 × 10.8 × 8596 = 4828 𝑝𝑠𝑖

6000’
4596 ‘
4828 psi

Displacement
TVD=8,596’ TMD=10,000’

500 psi

𝐀𝐝𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐏𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐞𝐬
𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝐻𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝐻𝑃 + 𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
Gas 𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑆𝑃 + 𝐻𝑃𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝐴𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝐺𝑎𝑠 + 𝐻𝑃𝐺𝑎𝑠 + 𝐻𝑃𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝐵𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝐺𝑎𝑠
400’
2 ppg
𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 500 + 0.052 × 2 × 400 + 0.052 × 10.8 × (8596 − 400)
𝐵𝐻𝑃 ≅ 500 + 42 + 4603 = 5145 𝑝𝑠𝑖

MW
6000’ 10.8 ppg 5145 psi

TMD=10,000’
TVD=8596’

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 12


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

U-Tube Concept
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Drill String Annulus


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

SIDPP SICP

Original MW
(OMW)

ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥

Well TVD

Formation Pressure

IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIPS (Static Wellbore)

1. 𝐻𝑃𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 0.052 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷 × 𝑂𝑀𝑊


2. 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 = 0.052 × (𝑇𝑉𝐷 − ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥) × 𝑂𝑀𝑊 + 0.052 × ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 × 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥
3. 𝐻𝑃𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 + 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 = 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 + 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 (assume no float in string)
4. 𝐻𝑃𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 + 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 = 𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠 + 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃
5. 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 × 𝑂𝑀𝑊 − 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥
6. With no trapped pressure on the well:
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 𝐻𝑃𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 + 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃
And: (Always Round Up to Next 0.1 ppg when calculating KMW)
𝐾𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝐾𝑀𝑊 = 𝑂𝑀𝑊 + 𝐾𝑖𝑐𝑘 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦(𝐾𝐼)
𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃
𝐾𝑀𝑊 = 𝑂𝑀𝑊 +
0.052 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 13


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Circulating System Friction Pressure


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Standpipe pressure is the sum of the “friction”


pressures associated with circulating the drilling
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

fluid through the circulation path.


The system path consists of the surface lines and standpipe, top
drive components, drill string, bit, and then up the annulus and out
the flow line.
𝑆𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓 + 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑑𝑠+𝐵𝐻𝐴 + 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑏𝑖𝑡 + 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛 + 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑜𝑘𝑒
The magnitude of the friction pressure is determined by:
• Geometry (Length and Flow Area)
• Fluid Properties (Density, Rheology)
𝑀𝑊2
𝐹𝑟𝑃2 = 𝐹𝑟𝑃1 ×
𝑀𝑊1
• Flow Rate
2
𝑄2
𝐹𝑟𝑃2 = 𝐹𝑟𝑃1 ×
𝑄1

Pressure gauges read the hydrostatic pressure on top of the gauge and the friction
pressure downstream of the gauge location. When the total annular component
of friction pressure is converted to a MW term and added to the MW in the well it
is known as the Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD).
𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛
𝐸𝐶𝐷 = 𝑀𝑊 +
0.052 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷
Example:
Total depth (straight hole) is 14,000 ft and the MW is 12.0 ppg. The annular
friction loss @ 120 spm while drilling ahead is 140 psi. What would the ECD be?
140
𝐸𝐶𝐷 = 12.0 + = 12 + 0.19~ 12.2 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑒
0.052 × 14000

The following formula relates the circulating system friction pressures with the
surface choke back pressure and yields BHP used for circulating kill procedures.

𝑆𝑃𝑃𝑝𝑠𝑖 − 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝐷𝑆 + 𝐻𝑃𝐷𝑆 = 𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑆𝑃 + 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛 + 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛 + 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝐶𝐿 + 𝐹𝑟𝑃𝑐ℎ𝑜𝑘𝑒


Subsea

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 14


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Slow Circulating Rates (SCRs)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Slow Circulating Rates (SCRs)


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Standpipe (drill pipe) pressure is used


Standpipe
during well control operations that require
Pressure
circulation to verify correct bottom hole CL
KLFP
pressure. Normally, well kills are performed
at reduced pump rates (as compared to
drilling rates) and these slow pump rates
are know as SCRs (Slow Circulating Rates).
Slower pump rates are used during well kill
operations for a variety of reasons
including:
• Friction pressure in annulus is assumed
negligible
• Easier for choke operator to control
choke pressures
• Reduces wear and erosion of choke
manifold and choke components
• Easier to control barite additions and
MW maintenance
• Reduces the pressures on the wellbore
The readings recorded are actually the pressures associated with the slower pump
rates and are taken when:
• Changes in MW or mud properties
• Bit nozzles / BHA changes
• After each trip
• Every 500 ft of well depth
• After major pump/surface equipment changes or repairs

Friction Pressures for Subsea Choke and Kill Lines are


Required
For subsea operations, the choke and/or kill lines (when part of the flow path)
apply pressure on the wellbore. Because this friction pressure can be significant
due to water depth and the reduced ID of the lines, the Friction Pressures for the
Choke & Kill Lines are routinely measured, recorded, and accounted for.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 15


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Gas Law and Gas Behavior


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Open Wellbore
Boyle’s Law
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Boyle’s Law of Gas describes gas behavior relative


V2=20 bbl to pressure and volume.
MW
10 bbl 𝑃1 × 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 × 𝑉2
10.0 ppg

If the gas (due to density differences) moved (and


5000 ft TVD
expanded) up the well to 5000 ft TVD, what
Pgas=? would be the resulting pressure and volume of
Vgas=?
the gas?
The pressure of the gas would be equal to the HP
of the mud above:
𝑃2 = 0.052 × 10.0 × 5000 = 2600 𝑝𝑠𝑖

10 bbl
Using Boyles Law the new volume of the gas
TVD
10,000 ft would be:
P1≅ 5200 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑃1 × 𝑉1 5200 × 10
(Neglecting HP of the gas) 𝑉2 = = = 20 𝑏𝑏𝑙
𝑃2 2600

Gas Migration SIDPP SICP


Boyle’s Law can also be used to predict well pressures 200 psi 200 psi
as gas migrates toward the surface in a closed in well.
Consider the shut-in well and conditions shown at
right. The well drilled into a pressured zone and shut-
in quickly and a 1 bbl kick taken.
If no volume is bled from the well, what would the MW
resulting increase in SIDPP, BHP, and SICP be if the 10.0 ppg
1 bbl gas bubble migrated upward 5000 ft (neglect the
HP of the 1 bbl of gas )?
Pgas
The pressure of the gas can be calculated by using
Boyles Law, the new pressure of the gas would be:
𝑃1 × 𝑉1 5400 × 1
𝑃2 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠 = = = 5400 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑉2 1 5000 ft
Resulting pressures would be:
𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝐻𝑃 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑢𝑑 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑡ℎ 𝑔𝑎𝑠 + 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠
𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 0.052 × 10 × 5000 + 5400 = 8000 psi 1 bbl

𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 = 𝐵𝐻𝑃 − 𝐻𝑃𝐷𝑃 = 8000 − 5200 = 2800 𝑝𝑠𝑖


TVD
𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠 − 𝐻𝑃 𝑜𝑓 𝑚𝑢𝑑 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑔𝑎𝑠
10,000 ft
𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 5400 − 0.052 × 10 × 5000 = 2800 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Initial BHP=5400 psi
FP=5400 psi
Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 16
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 1 - Preparation

Drilling Fluids Basics


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Drilling Fluid Types


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

 Water base mud


 Oil base mud / synthetic base mud
o effected by temperature and compressibility

Drilling Fluid properties (water base)


 Mud weight
 Flow properties regarding well control:
o Plastic viscosity (PV) - Has the most significant effect on friction
pressures
o Yield point (YP) Important for hole cleaning and effects friction
pressures (ECD, surge and swab)
o Gel strengths – causes static fluids to resist flow (may result in
pressure surges to “break the gels”)
 Fluid loss & cake thickness
 Base components – chlorides, calcium ion, etc.

Effects of Fluid Properties on BHP


 Water base mud, oil base / synthetic base mud
o High rheological properties contribute to
• Swabbing
• Poor mud displacement while cementing
• High ECDs
• Re-circulation of gas cut mud
o Low rheological properties cause:
• Poor hole cleaning
• Barite sag and settling

Mud Balance

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 1 - 17


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Company Confidential.

Tenet 2

Chevron Well Control Handbook


controlled condition.”
“Always operate in a safe and
2 CAUSES OF KICKS

2- 1
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Improper Hole Fill


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

30
20 40 The drop in fluid level when pulling
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

pipe from a well can cause


10 50 hydrostatic pressure to drop below
bbl
0 60 formation pressure. Hole-fill should
be verified on a routine basis and is
usually done using a continuously
Trip Tank circulating tank of adequate
sensitivity.

Trip sheets must be used to record and compare the


actual fill volumes with the calculated pipe
displacement so that any abnormal fill-ups can be
detected and acted upon. Mud bucket (in good working
condition) should be used when pulling “wet” pipe to
capture the mud spilled when breaking connections
and returned to the trip tank for accounting.

TRIP SHEET (tripping out)


5
Displacement of _________ 19.50
inch __________ 0.0076 bbl/ft (dry) __________
ppf _________ 0.243 bbl/ft (wet)

Trip on: Singles Doubles X 39


Stands # of Stands to Casing Shoe: __________ stnds

Stand Trip Measured Calculated Discrepancy


Stand Trip Measured Calculated Discrepanc
Tank Hole Fill Fill/Disp
Tank Hole Fill Fill/Disp y
# Inc Vol Inc Cum Inc Cum Inc Cum Remarks

Str 48.0
Pump 20 bbl slug OK!
t

1 1 47.2 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 -0.1 -0.1 Pulling Dry

2 1 46.5 0.7 1.5 0.7 1.4 0 -0.1 Dry

3 1 45.9 0.6 2.1 0.7 2.1 0.1 0 Dry

4 1 45.4 0.5 2.6 0.7 2.8 0.2 0.2 Dry

5 1 45.2 0.2 2.8 0.7 3.5 0.5 0.7 Dry

10 5 44.0 1.2 4.0 3.5 7.0 2.3 3.0 Dry

15 5

20 5

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2- 2


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Tripping Considerations
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Trip Tank
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

A trip tank must be used to accurately monitor hole fill-up (and


returns) during trips. If possible, a circulating pump should be
used to continually circulate across the top of the hole while
tripping. Always stop the trip when filling or emptying the trip
tank or switching trip tanks. Allow the mud logger (if available)
to get accurate readings as well. Accurately record the fill history
on an approved “Trip Sheet”. This document is part of the
fingerprinting process.

Slugs
A slug should be pumped to allow for pulling pipe dry
whenever possible. The pumping of the slug should be
monitored using the PVT of the entire pit volume to accurately
measure volume returns while the slug is pumped and falls. Slug
volume and weight should be consistent from trip to trip when
practical.

Pumping Out
If hole conditions dictate, the drill pipe should be pumped out of
the hole to the casing shoe, liner top, or other pre-determined
depth to minimize swab pressures. A rig specific procedure
should be developed to ensure consistency, accurate
monitoring, and fingerprinting.

Tripping-In
The trip in shall be done with attention to running speeds to
prevent excessive surges. Be aware that high surge pressures
can be caused when initiating circulation and also when lowering
(or raising) the pipe during circulation.

Breaking Circulation
Very high surge pressures can be induced when breaking
circulation. Consider staging in the hole to help in breaking
circulation, particularly if the mud is in poor condition and gels
are high.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2- 3


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Abnormal Formation Pore Pressure


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Pore Pressure is the pressure of the


naturally occurring fluids within “pore
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

spaces” of formations within the earth.

Pore pressure is generally classified as:


• Normal (Seawater 8.5 to 10.0 ppge)
• Abnormal (9.8 to Overburden)
• Subnormal (< 8.5 ppge)

Causes of abnormal
formation pressure include:
• Under–compaction of shale
• Anticline gas cap
• Uplifting / faulting
• Artesian effect
• Flow between zones Abnormally Pressured Shale

Under-compaction of Shale
In marine basins, the formations are
Sea Water formed over time by a process of
deposition, subsidence, and
compaction of sediments. The weight
or “overburden” of the sediments
causes subsidence, and compaction.
Formation Water
Migrating to Surface Compaction squeezes the marine
water present upward toward lower
pressure. If the flow of sea water in
the rock is impeded due to an
impermeable barrier (cap rock), the
Caprock or Impermeable Barrier fluids become abnormally pressured
and begin to support some of the
overbalance.
A change in the balance of the
sedimentation, subsidence,
compaction process, such as the case
for turbidite flows or other geologic
Under-compaction of Shale forces, can also cause shale to be
under-compacted.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2- 4


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Abnormal Formation Pressure-continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Anticline Gas Cap


Abnormal pressure can also occur as the result of depth and
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

structure changes within a reservoir. Pressure encountered at the


gas / water contact may be normally pressure, which overpressures
the top of the gas cap due to the density difference between the
formation water and the compression of the gas.

Well B Well A Well A:


4000 ft x 0.465 = 1860 psi FP
1860
3000 ft 𝐸𝑀𝑊 = ~9.0 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑒
0.052 × 4000

GAS

Well B would encounter


WATER
Abnormal Pressure Due
to the Anticline

Well B:
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑠 = 1860 𝑝𝑠𝑖 − 𝐻𝑃𝐺𝑎𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛
𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑠 = 1860 𝑝𝑠𝑖 − 0.103 × 1000 = 1757 psi
1757
𝑀𝑊𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 = = 11.3 𝑝𝑝𝑔
0.052 × 3000

Artesian Effect
Artesian springs carrying water from an elevated source can cause abnormal
pressure conditions when drilling near the base of the structure. This occurs in
mountainous or hilly geographic regions.
Flow Between Zones
Cross flow between zones can occur due to communication within the fault lines
or when drilling in an area where an underground blowout may have occurred.
Higher pressure from a lower zone is unchecked and flows to a shallower zone.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2- 5


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Abnormal Formation Pressure - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Faulting
A formation originally deposited
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

under normal pressure can be 8,000 ft


10,000 ft
uplifted due to tectonics or other
geological forces. The pressure 4650 psi
within the uplifted section is
trapped in the formation and is now 4650 psi
abnormal for that depth. There may
be no rig warning signs when
drilling into a fault. Abnormal Pressure Due to Faulting

Indicators of Abnormal Pressure Include:


• Change in the ROP
• Changes in the trends or drilling parameters such as torque
and drag
• Logging While Drilling (LWD) and Measurement While Drilling
(MWD)
• Increasing Background Gas, Trip Gas, and Connection Gas
• Change in size, shape, or volume of cuttings
• Changes in the mud properties such as chlorides and in the
flow-line temperature

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2- 6


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Swabbing
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Swabbing can occur whenever pipe is


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

pulled from the well or raised as when


making a connection. Swabbing is
dependent upon the rheology of the
drilling fluid, the speed at which pipe is
pulled, and the hydraulic diameters of the
tubulars and annulus (especially the BHA
and annulus). In some instances, swabbing
can reduce the BHP to a value lower than
the formation pressure, causing formation
fluid to enter the wellbore. This is known
as a “swabbed in” kick.
Influx From
High viscosity mud, tight annulus Swab Due to
clearances, packed BHA, and swelling Balled Up BHA
formations are some of the factors that
increase the risk of swabbing. In such
conditions, extra care should be taken
when moving the drill string upward.

Causes of Swabbing

• Pulling the pipe too fast


• Tight annular clearance
• High angle wells – cutting beds
• Poor fluid rheology

Indicators include:
• Torque / Drag
• Well flow w/upward pipe
movement
• Trip Tank Readings

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2- 7


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Loss of Circulation
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Loss of circulation can be very costly and


in severe cases can lead to a well control
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

incident. Drillers should remain vigilant


to fluid loss to the wellbore and Unconsolidated
excessive losses should be prevented if
possible. Attempts should be made to
cure the problem whenever it occurs.

Some causes of loss of circulation are:


Vugular
• Setting casing too shallow and not
gaining sufficient fracture strength
• Drilling with excessive overbalance
Cavernous
• Drilling too fast resulting in cuttings
loading the annulus
• Excessive swab/surge pressures
• Hole packing off
• Pore pressure regression / depleted
zones
If possible always keep the hole full,
even if it is with water. Be prepared to
Fractured
shut the well in. Formation

Seepage Loss (< 10 bbl/hr )


Gradual losses Losses Due to Natural Fractures
 Operation not interrupted
 Possible warning of increased Severe Loss (>35 bbl/hr)
loss severity
• Operations suspended
Partial Loss (10-35 bbl/hr) • Minimal return flow when
 Immediate drop in fluid level circulating
when pumps are stopped • Remedial action required
 Slow to regain returns after
starting circulation
Total Loss (No Returns)
 Returns flow stops immediately
 Operations usually interrupted
 Pump pressure decrease
 Remedial action required
 String weight increase (possible)
 Remedial action required

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2- 8


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
KLP

Dilution of
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

drilling fluid
due to influx.
riser to kill mud.
Failing to displace
All Rights Reserved.

Low Density Fluid

Barite Settling & Sag


SIDPP
Company Confidential.

Chevron Well Control Handbook


SICP

materials in
surface pits.

Pumping “light”

or Negative tests)
fluid pills (sweeps
Settling of weight
HUMAN ERROR!

2- 9
2 - Causes of Kicks
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Shallow Hazards
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Shallow Hazard
A shallow hazard is a formation which has the potential to flow to the surface
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

and is encountered before a competent shoe is set (no BOP is installed). Types
of shallow hazards include both shallow water and shallow gas flow. The most
prudent option available is to avoid the hazard but if encountered the flow must
be diverted and personnel evacuated. Shallow hazards occur on land, and on
both bottom supported and floating operations.
Shallow gas is often due to unexpected pressure at the top of a gas bearing
zone and may be extremely prolific and capable of very high flow rates.
Offshore examples include: recently deposited sand lenses which become
totally enveloped by mudstones, as well as limestone reefs buried at a shallow
depth. These formations can be highly porous and permeable and may also be
unconsolidated which can cause severe erosion of BOP components when
diverting.

Problems Associated with Shallow Gas or Water Flows:


• Compromised wellbore integrity:
o Sediment washout (cement integrity)
o Casing collapse and buckling in nearby wells
o Formation of seafloor craters and mounds
o Project delays
• Very small reductions in BHP can result in underbalance conditions.
• High flow rates cause rapid reduction in hydrostatic pressure.
• Integrity of shallow shoe can be compromised if the well is shut-in.
• Gas may reach the surface very rapidly, risking crew and equipment.

Diverter
Hydraulic Divert Valves
Vent Line

Vent Line
Conductor Casing

Diverter System for Bottom Supported Rig


Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2 - 10
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Shallow Hazards - continued


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Planning:
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

• Seismic data (bright spots)


• Move surface location
• Drill directionally to avoid bright spots
• Proper cement design
Well Design:
• Offset Well Information
• If possible, design wells to install BOPs before encountering a potential
shallow hazard:
o Evaluate the probability of the casing shoe permitting shutting in
the well.
o Evaluate the consequences of shallow casing shoe failure (RUMS).
Rig Selection:
• Diverter system equipment
• Drill the shallow surface section riser-less if possible (MODU)
• Rig’s mooring and release mechanisms
• Crew experience/competence

𝐻𝑃 = 0.052 × 0.5 × 1000 = 26 𝑝𝑠𝑖

Note:
At a depth of 1000 ft, a 0.5 ppg
increase in MW only results in a HP
increase of 26 psi. This makes it
very difficult to maintain adequate
1000’ TVD overbalance when an over-
pressured zone is encountered.
MW 8.5 → 9.0 ppg

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2 - 11


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Kick Awareness and Well Operations


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Rig Operation Kick Awareness


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Increased swab / surge risk


Filling casing while running, float equipment and
failures
Casing and
Cement hardening and hydrostatic pressure
Cementing Importance of waiting on cement time
Monitoring well while displacing / pumping mud and
cement volumes

Practices for displacing to lower density fluid


Wellbore Fluid
Displacement fluids and pressure effects across well
Displacements barriers

Risks and mitigations


Negative Testing Pressure differentials, formation fluids influx

Perforating and Handling influx volumes and types


Drill Stem Testing Underbalanced perforating
(DST) Reversing

Slick line
• Alloys available for H2S & CO2
• OD of wire is easy to seal around /packing element
in stuffing box
Wireline Braided line
Operations • Multi-strand, stronger than slick line
• OD of wire require a grease seal arrangement
e-line
• Multi-strand with internal wires sheathed with
insulating material

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2 - 12


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 2 - Causes of Kicks

Kick Awareness & Well Operations – cont.


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Rig Operation Kick Awareness


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Lubricators
• Sufficient length to cover tool string
• 5000 psi, 10000 psi, & 15,000psi units
BOPs, Slick line Valve/Ram and Seal
• Manual or hydraulic
Wireline • Cannot manually open a hydraulic slick line valve
• Can manually close a hydraulic valve if fitting on
Operations valve is removed
(continued) • Seal can contain pressure without wire
Braided Line BOP
• Grease must be injected between upper and lower
rams to effect a seal on well pressure
• Should wire break, a ball check or pump out plug
will stop flow from the top of lubricator

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 2 - 13


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Company Confidential.

Tenet 6

Chevron Well Control Handbook


of dedicated systems.”
“Always maintain the integrity
3 KICK INDICATORS

3- 1
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Positive Indicators (Drilling)


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DRILLER IS EMPOWERED TO
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

IMMEDIATELY SHUT THE WELL IN!

Flow With Pumps Off


Since a well is more likely to flow with the pumps off due to the loss of ECD,
stopping the pumps and checking for flow allows for detecting possible
underbalance while drilling.

Flow-Check Procedure
While Drilling:
1. Pick up off bottom
2. Shut the pump(s) off
3. Check for flow for a minimum of 15 minutes (do not break joint if on a
connection)

Chevron requires the Driller to shut-in immediately if there is


flow with pumps off.

Increase in Flow-Out
w/No Change in Flow-In
If the flow show device indicates an increase in flow returns. The Driller should
immediately shut in the well.

Increase in Pit Volume


If the pit volume totalizer (PVT) shows an increase in pit level . The Driller
should immediately shut in the well.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 2


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Positive Indicators (Tripping)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

DRILLER IS EMPOWERED TO IMMEDIATELY


SHUT THE WELL IN!

Flow w/Pipe Static


Anytime flow is detected with the pipe static, the Driller is to immediately
shut- in the well.

Flow Checks While Tripping:


• Establish well is static prior POOH ( use trip sheets).
• Flow check prior to pulling BHA into the BOP stack.

Trip Log Deviation


A trip tank system providing continuous hole fill-up should be used when
tripping both in and out of the hole. A trip tank, allows comparison of fluid
volumes pumped into or returned from a well with the steel volumes pulled
out or run in. Using incremental and cumulative figures, if less fluid volume
than calculated is needed to fill the hole while tripping out, or more fluid is
displaced out of the hole than calculated while tripping in, a flow check should
be performed.

If the flow check is positive, the well should be immediately shut in. If the flow
check is negative, trip to bottom carefully, circulate bottoms up, and condition
the mud.

Note:
When pulling a wet drill string (from a closed drill pipe float or plugged pipe
for whatever reason), internal string volume lost must be considered in
calculations unless it is recaptured into a measured mud tank.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 3


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Flow Check Opportunities


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Drilling
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

• After any drilling break


• Prior to making any connection during
drilling
• Before and after running a survey
• Prior to slip and cut operations

Tripping
• Anytime pipe displacement or hole-fill is
incorrect during a trip
• Prior to pulling or running non-shearables
through the BOP

Subsea
• Anytime a trip is suspended in order to
boost the riser
• Prior to recommencing a trip after boosting
the riser

During wireline operations


While testing the BOPs
After any well control operation
After unseating a packer
After cutting a casing string
Any time Driller is in doubt as to the
occurrence of a kick
Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 4
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Possible Kick Indicators


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Real Time Warning Signs that Require Investigation


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

by Crew Members but Do Not Require Immediate


Well Shut-in.

Reduction in Pump Pressure or Increase


In Stroke Rate
A loss of pump pressure and a corresponding increase in the pump rate may
occur due to the differential pressure between the drill string and annulus
when an influx is in the well. A washout in the drill string can have the same
indicators, but the Driller should always react as if a kick is occurring and
conduct a flow check to verify the well is static.

Drilling Breaks
A sudden change in ROP is known as a drilling break. This may be either an
increase or a decrease in penetration rate and can reflect a sudden change in
down-hole conditions. This sudden change could coincide with changes in
formation type, permeability, fluid content, or pressure.

If the bit penetrates a formation that is underbalanced due to insufficient


mud hydrostatic pressure, penetration rate may increase dramatically.

LWD Resistivity Decrease

LWD (Logging While Drilling) conducts a real time electric-log of formation


resistivity while drilling. The under-compacted shale in an abnormally pressured
zone will have more natural “sea water” in the pore spaces. As a result the
resistivity value decreases and the shale becomes more “conductive”.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 5


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Possible Kick Indicators - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Increase in Torque & Drag


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Increased drag and / or torque are often noted when drilling into over-pressured
formations. This is due to the inability of the under-balancing mud column to hold
back physical encroachment of the formation into the wellbore.
Drag and rotating torque are indirect indicators of overpressure. Increases often
may indicate that a transition zone is being drilled. Up drag and down drag, as well
as off bottom & while drilling torque values, should be recorded at pre-
determined intervals (often at each pipe connection) and plotted. Plots should be
reviewed for changes in trends that may indicate an impending problem.

Bottoms Up Warning Signs of Increasing Formation


Pressure that Require Investigation by Crew Members
but Do Not Require Immediate Well Shut-in.

Changes in Mud Properties & Increase in


Flow-line Temperature
A change in fluid properties after bottoms-up circulation clearly indicates that
formation fluid has entered the wellbore. Mud chlorides may increase due to an
increase of pore volume when drilling “under-compacted” shale. Usually the pore
space contains native waters which may add chlorides to the mud system.
In some muds, the viscosity will increase when salt water enters the wellbore and
mixes with the mud. This is called flocculation because the small particles of mud
solids, which are normally dispersed, form small clumps called flocs.
In oil-based muds, water contamination acts as a “solid” and causes viscosity
increases.
Abnormally pressured shale is usually beneath an impermeable formation which
serves an insulating barrier. This causes the pressured shale to be at a higher
temperature than that of a normally pressured zone and is usually indicated by an
increase in flow-line temperature of the returning mud.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 6


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Possible Kick Indicators -continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Increase in Connection, Background, and


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Trip Gas
Background Gas
Background gas describes the residual gas units measured during routine
drilling operations. It can be thought of as a baseline to compare increases and
usually manifests as an increasing trend as more open hole is exposed. When a
transition zone is penetrated, the background gas will increase at a rate in
excess of the normal trend.

Connection Gas
Whenever the pumps are stopped to allow for a connection, bottom-hole
pressure is reduced by the loss of ECD. This allows for a small quantity of gas to
enter the wellbore. It is indicated when pumped to the surface and displayed as
an increase in gas units appropriate to the bottoms-up time. Connection gas
peaks can also be influenced by swabbing, as the pipe is raised for a
connection.
Trip Gas
Trip gas is similar to connection gas but is usually greater in magnitude because
of the increased non-pumping time and the increased chances of swabbing.
Trip gas peaks will show on bottoms up after a round trip or after a time of non-
drilling activity. Swabbing of a formation exposed up hole may cause trip gas
peaks to correlate from a shallower depth than that of bottoms-up. Lag time
calculations may help determine the location of the formation producing the
trip gas peak.

Changes in Cuttings Volume, Shape and


Size
Increasing pore pressure results in the HP becoming near balance and even
underbalanced to the pore pressure. This causes borehole stability problems
due to lack of hydrostatic support. Large quantities of cavings can “slough” or
“pop”into the wellbore as a result. Shale cavings tend to be long and splintery.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 7


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Connection and Trip Gas Patterns


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Connection gas patterns can help detect entry into a


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

transition zone of increasing formation pore pressure.

Gas →
0 0 0
CG CG

CG CG CG

CG
CG
CG
CG
CG

Time

PP < ESD < ECD ESD < PP < ECD ESD < ECD < PP

Equivalent Static ESD is less than PP ESD and ECD are


Density greater than and Pore Pressure both less than PP
Pore Pressure Increasing and Pore Pressure
(Transition Zone) Increasing

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 8


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Ballooning
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

“Ballooning” can occur as the mud weight in use approaches the


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

formation fracture MW value. If surge or ECD pressures exceed the


minimum horizontal stress within exposed formation, fractures may
open allowing mud flow into the fractures. When the pump is
stopped (as in the case of making a connection) the down-hole
pressure reduction allows the fractures to close, and mud is
squeezed back into the wellbore. This effect, which can make the
well appear to be kicking, is known as “ballooning”.

Fractures Open
Allowing Mud
Flow

Wellbore Pressure Wellbore Pressure


< Min Horizontal Stress > Min Horizontal Stress

Prerequisite Condition of Ballooning that Must Occur:


Previous loss of fluids down-hole with pumps on.

Indications of Ballooning:
• The well flows with pumps off but the initial flow will gradually
reduce with time.
• If the well is shut-in, there may be low initial shut in casing
pressure, this pressure will be no higher than the annular friction
pressure from surface to the point of fluid loss. The casing
pressure will bleed off and not build back up when conducting a
trapped pressure check.
• ECD approaching fracture pressure.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3- 9


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 3 - Kick Indicators

Ballooning - continued
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

If the flow on connections is suspected to be “ballooning”, the


initial response should be to treat the flow as a kick and shut-in
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

the well. It is also recommended to circulate bottoms up using a


constant BHP method.
Flow-back Volume (bbl) →

Kick

Flowback

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Connections Time →

If ballooning conditions persist on subsequent connections, the


return flow can and should be finger printed. If on any subsequent
connection the finger print does not match the previous flow trend
the well should be again shut in and circulated out using the first
circulation of the Drillers Method.

Shark Tooth Profile

Wellbore Ballooning Profile

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 3 - 10


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
All Rights Reserved.

Tenet 3
Company Confidential.

Chevron Well Control Handbook


place and functioning.”
4 WELL SHUT-IN

“Always ensure safety devices are in

4- 1
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 4 - Well Shut-in

While Drilling
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

1. Space Out
Rig Floor
Driller should always know
the space out to prevent a
tool joint from being across Height RKB
To Annular BOP
a BOP element during well
control operations.

2. Shut Down

After picking up to “space


out” height, the Driller must
stop the pumps to prevent
pressure from being trapped
on the well.

3. Shut-in

Close a preventer to a closed


choke. Then Open the HCR
Valve to record the SICP.
ALWAYS VERIFY THE WELL IS
SHUT IN!

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 4- 2


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 4 - Well Shut-in

While Tripping
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

1. Stab Safety Valve

Safety valve (fully opened)


and functioning tool must be
readily available on rig floor.
Note: Only have the proper
ONE! Close SV after making Rig Floor
up.

2. Space Out

Driller should always know the


Space Out to prevent a Tool Joint
from being across a BOP element
during well control operations.

3. Shut-in

Close a preventer to a closed


choke. Then Open the HCR
Valve to record SICP.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 4- 3


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 4 - Well Shut-in

Always Verify Well is Shut-in


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Inspect BOP Stack


for Leaks
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Walk around and inspect the


BOP stack for any visible leaks
from weep holes, flanges,
outlet valves etc. Also monitor
for possible flow through the
bell nipple and flow line back
into rig pits or trip tank.
For subsea wells, line up riser
to trip tank and monitor for
flow.

Confirm Manifold & Line-up for Hard Shut-in

HC1(NC) 13(NC)

HC2(NC) 12(NO) 15(NO)

5(NC)
To
4(NC) 8(NO) MGS
From BOP 6(NO)

9(NC)
1(NO) 3(NC) 7(NC)

2(NC)
MC2(NC) 11(NC)

MC1(NC) 10(NC) 14(NC)


Primary Flow Path

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 4- 4


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 4 - Well Shut-in

Critical Shut-in Considerations


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Shut-in Procedures Must be Written and


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Posted for all Rig Operations Including:


• Tripping / Drilling
• While Out of Hole
• Running Casing, Liners & Cementing
• For Wireline / Slickline Operations

Shut-in Considerations

BOPE arrangement and specifications


• Tool Joint Location
• Initial Closing (annular vs. ram)
• Closing Time
• Size, closing/shearing pressure, closing volume
• Non-Shearables across BOP Stack

Temperature / H2S
• Packing Elements
• Internal Seals Work Pipe?
• OBM / WBM Yes / No
Pipe in Hole (current operation)
• Pipe TJ across Stack
• Pipe On/Off Bottom
• No Pipe in Hole

Wireline in Hole
• Lubricator (pressure rating)
• No Lubricator: Annular, cut-drop

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 4- 5


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 4 - Well Shut-in

Diverting
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Ensure diverter valves open


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

prior to diverter element


closing.

Downwind Side

Procedure (below)
For JU Rig with Conventional Diverter
The following procedure serves only as an example.
Prepare a specific diverter procedure for each rig.

While Drilling or Tripping


1. Upon noticing the first positive indicator of well
flow (pit gain or increase in flow or flow with
pumps off):
2. Sound the alarm – long blast on driller’s air
horn.
3. Close the diverter. (This should open both vent valves, close the fill-up line
and shaker valve, and close the diverter element.)
4. Close the upwind vent line valve if necessary.
5. Notify the Drill Site Manager and Toolpusher. Prepare for immediate
evacuation of the rig.
6. Evacuation procedures should ensure that rig power is shut down, and all
potential sources of ignition are eliminated.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 4- 6


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Company Confidential.

Tenet 4
procedures.”

Chevron Well Control Handbook


5 BOP EQUIPMENT

“Always follow safe work practices and

5- 1
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

BOP Stack
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

API Classification of BOPs


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Chevron policy is to “meet or exceed” the


recommendations described by API
Standard 53 with regard to BOP
equipment requirements. Please refer to
Standard 53 for guidance when specifying
BOPE for any well. Blowout preventer
equipment is based on rated working
pressure, the most commonly used (2000,
3,000, 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000,
25000, and 30000 psi ) are designated as
2K, 3K, 5K, 10K, 15K, 20K, 25K, and 30K.
Working Pressure Requirements
To select the working pressure rating for a
particular stack, start with the assumption
that the preventer equipment will be
required to contain the maximum
pressure that the highest pressured
reservoir could impose at the surface. As
a safety factor, add the differential
between that pressure value and the next
higher nominal rated working pressure.
API Standard 53 classification or “class” of a BOP stack is the total number of ram
and annular preventers in the BOP stack.
The alphanumeric designation shall be assigned to the quantity of pressure
containment sealing components in the vertical wellbore of a BOP stack. The
rams or ram cavities are to be designated with an “R” followed by the numeric
quantity of rams or ram cavities. After the classification of the BOP stack has been
identified, the next nomenclature identifies the quantity of annular type
preventers installed. Example: A Class 6 BOP system installed with two annular
and four ram type preventers is designated as “Class 6-A2-R4”.
The arrangement of preventers and outlets on the stack should provide means
to:
• Close and seal on the DP, tubing, casing, or liner and allow circulation
• Close and seal on open hole and allow volumetric well control operations
• Strip the drill string

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 2


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

CVX Surface Well Control Systems Requirements


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Application WO D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

MASP (psi) 0 - 500 0 - 500 501 - 1500 501 - 3,500 7,500 12,500 75% RWP
Minimum RWP of
2K or less 2K or less 2000 5000 10,000 15,000 >15,000
rams* (psi)
Use of Csg Head
Yes Yes No No No No No
Outlets Allowed
Use of BOP side
Yes Yes Yes1 Yes1 Yes1 Yes1 Yes1
Outlets Allowed
Drilling Spool
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Required
Minimum ID of
2" 2" 3" 3" 3" 3" 3"
Outlets (in)
Hydraulic Operated
Ram Type BOP's No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Required
Hydraulic Operated
"Fail Close" C/K
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Valves Required
(minimum one each)
Manual Operated C/K
Valves (supplement Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hyd. Valve)
Check Valve Required No No No2 No2 No2 No2 No2
Class 2 -
API BOP Classification
A0/R2 Class 5-
(note: in accordance
Class 2 - A1/R4
with S53, the first ram Class 3 - Class 3 - Class 3 - Class 4 - Class 4 -
A2/R0 or
to be installed shall A1/R2 A1/R2 A1/R2 A1/R3 A1/R3
or Class 5 -
be a Blind Ram or
Class 2 - A2/R3
Blind/Shear Ram).
A1/R1
Minimum of two
closures required for
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
wireline, pipe and
casings/liners.
Shear Rams Required No No Yes3 Yes3 Yes3 Yes3 Yes3
Annular
Pipe Annular Annular
Shearing
Pipe Spool Annular Annular Shearing Shearing
Blind
Allowable Blind Blind Shearing Shearing Blind Blind
Pipe
Configurations or or Blind Blind Pipe Pipe
Pipe
(Top to Bottom) Annular Annular Spool Spool Spool Spool
Spool
Blind Spool Pipe Pipe Pipe Pipe
Pipe
Blind

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 3


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

CVX Surface Well Control Systems Requirements


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Continued
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Application WO D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C WO / D&C


MASP (psi) 0 - 500 0 - 500 501 - 1500 501 -3,500 7,500 12,500 75% RWP
Pit Volume Totalizer Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Flow Show
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Indicator(s)
Flowline Gas
No No Yes4 Yes4 Yes4 Yes4 Yes4
Detection
Drill String Float No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
1 x Inside BOP (for
each connection size No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
& type)
2 x Drill String Safety
Valves (for each
No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
connection size &
type)
Mud Gas Separator No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Trip Tank No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Mechanical or
Vacuum Type No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Degasser
Capping Stack
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Capabilities 5

* = Based on the combined loading of the end connection as provided in API 16AF.
1 = Must have incorporated into PM Program a rigorous inspection process. (NTE Yearly)
2 = Not required because Hydraulically operated "Fail Close Valve(s)" installed.
3 = When BSR's are installed, they must have the shearing capabilities to shear the drill pipe, tubing and
those casings / liners installed across a production zone or exposed hydrocarbons that are capable of
flowing to surface.
4 = When clear, low viscosity fluids are used and the gas will break out in the BOP before it enters the
flowline, eliminating the necessity for installing flowline gas detector.
5= The BU well control plan must identify the interfaces required for the installation of a capping stack,
snubbing unit, coil tubing and wireline lubricator system. The well control plan must also include the
inspection, maintenance and testing requirements that need to be implemented to preserve those
interfaces in the event they are needed.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 4


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

BOP Stack
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

BOP Stack Considerations


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

• The wellhead component below


the BOP stack must be tested.
Annular
• Use of master rams for well kills
is not recommended.
SBR
• Use of drilling spool outlets are
Pipe Ram recommended for well control
operations.
Pipe Ram
• Shear/blind rams are
recommended in the top
position.
Pipe Ram • Use of original equipment
manufacturer (OEM) parts is
required.

BOPE Testing (Per API STD 53)


Function test: Testing Criteria
• Weekly, alternating between  Use water to test BOPs.
remote panels  Pump through MGS, choke and kill
Pressure test: lines, manifold and valves.
• Prior to spud or upon  Check (choke panel) gauge
installation accuracy.
• After disconnection or repair  Provide means to prevent pressure
of any pressure containment buildup in the casing (such as
seal, but limited to the opening casing valves).
effected component  Stabilize pressure for at least five
• Not to exceed 21 days or per minutes.
local regulations  Apply low pressure test of 250–350
• Do not apply high pressure test psi.
before low pressure test is  Ensure weep hole is open
complete, per API/BSEE
guidelines.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 5


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

BOP Stack - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Ram Secondary Packing


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Vent
(weep) hole

Plastic injection screw

Secondary packing
Check valve
Primary
packing
O-Rings
Piston
Weep hole location

• Open chamber is vented back to accumulator


• Vent should not be blocked

Ram and Auxiliary Equipment Testing


• High pressure test the ram BOPs to the lowest value of either the:
– Maximum rated working pressure of the rams.
– Maximum rated working pressure of the wellhead.
• Subsequent high pressure test to a pressure greater than MASP, not
MAASP (API Std 53), but not to exceed the rated working pressure
Note: Test wellhead/wellhead outlets/choke manifold/choke and kill lines/BOP
connection to low/high pressure.
Annular BOP Testing
Initial high pressure test to 70% of rated working pressure or ram test pressure,
whichever is less.
Subsequent high pressure test is the same as initial pressure testing.
“Packer creep” may cause some initial pressure bleed off.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 6


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Ram BOPs
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Ram types: Performance Issues:


• Pipe rams • Differential pressure across rams from
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

• Variable pipe rams above


• Shear rams • Closing / Opening Ratios of pistons
• Blind rams • Hydraulic area of closing pistons for
• Blind / shear rams shearing pipe
• Hydraulic fluid volume to open and close
• Minimum hydraulic fluid operating
pressure requirements
Example: Closing Ratio
Consider a ram with an 11” piston and a 4” ram shaft. Calculate the closing ratio.
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 0.785 × 𝐷𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 2 = 0.785 × 112 = 95.0 𝑖𝑛2
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑤𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑏𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 0.785 × 𝐷𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 2 = 0.785 × 42 = 12.6 𝑖𝑛2
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑠𝑖 95.0
𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = = = 7.54
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑤𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑏𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑝𝑠𝑖 12.6
What “adjusted operating pressure” would be required to close this ram against 15,000 psi
maximum BOP working pressure?
1. Calculate:
𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑏𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 15000
Equivalent Closing Pressure Loss= = = 1990 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 7.54
2. Calculate:
𝐴𝑑𝑗𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
= 𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + 𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠
𝐴𝑑𝑗𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 1500 + 1990 = 3490 𝑝𝑠𝑖
NOV: Product Bulletin PC-92-006-SF Rev 3, Feb 2014

Drill pipe F opening =12.6 sq in x 15000 psi


=189,000 lbs

Ram
Preventer

F closing =95 sq in x 1990 psi


=189,000 lbs

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 7


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Ram BOPS: Shearing Ratio


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Drill pipe Shear Ram Booster Ram Booster


Preventer Shaft Area Piston
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Main Operator Booster


Piston Area Piston Area

𝐵𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑃𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 + 𝑀𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 − 𝐵𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑎𝑚 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝑀𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑎𝑚 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

Example: Shearing Ratio


Consider a ram with a 14” main cylinder diameter and a 4 1/4” ram shaft with a
booster cylinder diameter of 10” with a booster shaft diameter of 4” . Calculate the
Shearing Ratio.
𝑀𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 0.785 × 𝐷𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 2 = 0.785 × 142 = 153.86 𝑖𝑛2
𝑀𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 0.785 × 𝐷𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 2 = 0.785 × 4.252 = 14.18 𝑖𝑛2
𝐵𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑃𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 0.785 × 𝐷𝑝𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑛 2 = 0.785 × 102 = 78.5 𝑖𝑛2
𝐵𝑜𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑆ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 0.785 × 𝐷𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 2 = 0.785 × 42 = 12.56 𝑖𝑛2
78.5 + 153.86 − 12.56 219.8
𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 = = = 15.50
14.18 14.18
What “adjusted operating pressure” would be required to shear and seal with this ram
against 15,000 psi maximum BOP working pressure?
1. Calculate:
𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑏𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 15000
Equivalent Closing Pressure Loss= = = 968 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 15.50
2. Calculate:
𝐴𝑑𝑗𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
= 𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + 𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠
𝐴𝑑𝑗𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 1500 + 968 = 2468 𝑝𝑠𝑖
NOV: Product Bulletin PC-92-006-SF Rev 3, Feb 2014
NOTE: Use MASP as the input for wellbore pressure to ensure the accumulator
has sufficient operating pressure to shut-in and / or shear the drill pipe being
used (under MASP conditions).

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 8


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Annular Preventers
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Annular preventers have a doughnut-shaped element with bonded steel


reinforcing. Extrusion of the element into the wellbore is effected by upwards
movement of a hydraulically actuated piston. The element is designed to seal
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

around most shapes or sizes of pipe and to close off on an open hole.

Types (Manufacturers)
• Hydril (MSP, GK, GL, and GX)
• NOV / Shaffer (Spherical )
• Cameron (Type D)

Performance Issues
• Closing pressure coupled with wellbore pressure can cause high internal
stress in the element, thus reducing the effective life.
• Flush cavities and inspect element after each well.
• Drilling tools (bits) should be run with caution through the BOP to prevent
element wear.
• Only close on open hole in emergencies as causes excessive wear on
element.
• Reduce closing pressure when stripping, lower tool joints slowly through
element.
• Rotation and / or reciprocation of pipe through the annular is possible but it
can cause excessive wear on the element.

Rubber Packing Element

Opening Port Annular Regulator

Closing Port

Annular
Preventer
Operating
Piston/Cylinder

3000 psi
600 - 1200 psi
Atmospheric

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5- 9


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Diverters
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

A diverter system is designed to route shallow hazard flows away from the drilling
rig/platform while allowing time for evacuation of rig personnel. The diverter is
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

installed on conductor or drive pipe prior to running the surface casing and
installing a full BOP stack and choke manifold. The diverter works similarly to the
annular preventer and is designed to pack off around the kelly, drill string or casing
and direct flow to a safe location. Valves in the system direct the well flow when
the diverter is actuated.
Conventional annular blowout preventers or rotating heads are commonly used as
diverters. The rated working pressure of the diverter and vent line(s) is not of
prime importance; rather they are sized to permit diversion of well fluids while
minimizing wellbore backpressure. A minimum of 10 in. vent lines are required for
land and jack-ups and a minimum of 12 in. diameter for floaters.

Bell
Flowline Nipple

Automatic
Pump
Accumulator
Unit

MSP 30 in.

Close
Open Diverter Vent
Line Drilling
Spool

Full Opening Valve


(Automatically Opens
when Diverter is Closed) 30 in. Drive
or
Conductor Pipe

-
MSP 30 inch Diverter
Rigged for Surface Installation

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 10


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

BOP Control System


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

The BOP control system should be equipped with a minimum of three control
manifolds; main control at the accumulator unit, a Driller’s control panel located
on the rig floor, and a remote panel which may be located in the Toolpusher’s
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

office or other safe location.

Main control unit components


• A regulator to reduce accumulator pressure to manifold (operating) pressure
for the ram preventers and valves.
• A regulator to reduce accumulator pressure to the variable operating
pressure for the annular preventer(s).
• Control handles, or switches, for all functions. A hinged cover should be
placed over critical functions (shear/blind rams, wellhead disconnect, etc.).
• Pressure gauges for accumulator, manifold, and annular pressures
• A valve to bypass the manifold regulator
• Tie-in points for accumulators, charge pumps, remote panels and air lines
• A vent line for bleeding off accumulator fluid to the reservoir tank
• A pressure relief valve for the hydraulic and electric pumps
• Bottles

Main Control Unit

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 11


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

BOP Control System - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Driller’s panel
• Controls for each BOP stack function
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

and to adjust the manifold regulators


• Read-outs for the accumulator
pressure, regulated manifold and
annular pressures and flow-meter (if
any)
• Air supply pressure display
• A schematic of the BOP arrangement
showing kill and choke line outlets
and having ram sizes marked
• Covers, or interlocks, for critical
functions
• Visual and / or audible warning
alarms for low accumulator pressure,
air pressure, or fluid levels

Remote panel
• Controls for each BOP function
• Schematic of BOP arrangement,
showing kill and choke line outlets
and ram sizes and positions
• Covers or locks for critical functions
• Visual and / or audible warning
alarms for low accumulator pressure, Driller’s Panel
air pressure, or fluid levels

Always leave in OPEN or CLOSE position during normal use.


Block only when rig move or repair.

Regulated
Supply psi
OPEN

To BOP From BOP


Open Close

3 Position
To
4- Way
Reservoir Valve / Solenoid (close position)

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 12


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Typical Accumulator System


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Bank of Bottles
Air Power Source
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

(100 – 130 psi) Hydro-


Pneumatic
Switch

Bank Isolator Valve R


PUMP E
(AIR) S
E
R
PUMP
V
O
I
Bank Bleeder Valve
R

Power Source
Electric
#2 (electric) Pressure
Switch

ACCUMULATOR
PRESSURE

Manifold
By-Pass Valve MANIFOLD
Manifold Annular An PRESSURE
Regulator Regulator Reg

ANNULAR
MANIFOLD PRESSURE

C O
O
ANNULAR
RAM RAM RAM HCR To C
Reservoir

0 psi 1500 psi 500-1500 psi 3000 psi

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 13


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Accumulator Fluid Volumes


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

1000 3000 1200


psi psi psi
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

3.3 gal
N2
8.3 gal
10 gal N2
6.7 gal 5 gal
N2
Hyd
Fluid
1.7 gal
H Fluid

Fully Operating Fully


Precharged Condition Expended

𝐔𝐬𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 𝐀𝐜𝐜𝐮𝐦𝐮𝐥𝐚𝐭𝐨𝐫 𝐃𝐢𝐬𝐜𝐡𝐚𝐫𝐠𝐞 𝐕𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞

𝑃𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑃𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒
𝑉𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 𝑉𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑙𝑒 × −
𝑃𝑀𝑖𝑛 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝐴𝑐𝑐 𝑆𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚

1000 1000
𝑉𝑈𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 = 10 × − = 10 × 0.833 − 0.333 = 5 𝑔𝑎𝑙
1200 3000

3000 psi System 5000 psi System

Pre-charge - 1000 psi Pre-charge - 1500 psi


Manifold – 1500 psi Manifold – 1500 psi

Minimum Usable Fluid Volume (Chevron)

1.5 Times the volume necessary to close all applicable BOPE


components one time and open the hydraulic valve(s), with a
minimum of 200 psi above pre-charge remaining.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 14


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Accumulator Drawdown Test (API STD 53)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Purpose of Test:
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

• Verify the system is able to support the volume and pressure requirements of
the BOPs in use.
• Ensure the system is capable of securing the well in event of total loss of
power.
• Checks the plumbing and valve line-up
• Ensure each bottle is working appropriately

Shall be performed after the initial nipple-up of the BOPs, after any repairs that
required isolation/partial isolation of the system, or every 6 months from previous
test.

Procedure Surface Stack (API STD 53)

1. Position a properly sized joint of DP or test mandrel in the BOPs.


2. Turn off the power supply to all accumulator charging pumps (air, electric,
etc.).
3. Record the initial accumulator pressure. Manifold and annular regulators shall
be set at the manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure for the BOP
stack.
4. Individually close a maximum of four (4) pipe rams with the smallest operating
volumes (except blind or blind shear ram BOPs) and record the closing times.
To simulate closure of the blind or blind shear rams, open one set of the pipe
rams.
5. Open the hydraulic operated valve(s) and record the closing time.
6. Close the (largest volume) annular BOP and record the closing time.
7. Record the final accumulator pressure. The final accumulator pressure shall be
equal to or greater than 200 psi above pre-charge pressure.

Closing Times:
• Each ram shall close in 30 seconds or less.
• Annular BOPs less than 18 ¾ inch must close in 30 seconds or less.
• Annular BOPs 18 ¾ inch or greater must close in 45 seconds or less.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 15


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Choke Manifold Valve Positions


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

For Hard Shut-in While Drilling and Tripping


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

A numbering scheme for all valves and chokes should be


put into place to eliminate confusion when lining up any
manifold for drilling and tripping operations. In addition to
the numbering scheme, a recommended choke manifold
specific diagram showing valve / choke lineup
requirements (normally open (NO), and normally closed
(NC) for hard shut while drilling or tripping. It is
recommended this diagram be posted on the choke
manifold and in the dog house for quick reference by the
rig crews.

Example Manifold & Proper Valve Positions


HC1(NC) 13(NC)

HC2(NC) 12(NO) 15(NO)

5(NC)
To
HCR MGS
4(NC) 8(NO)
6(NO)

9(NC)
1(NC) 1(NO) 3(NC) 7(NC)

2(NC)
MC2(NC) 11(NC)

MC1(NC) 10(NC) 14(NC)


Primary Flow Path

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 16


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 5 – BOP Equipment

Detection Equipment
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Pit Volume Totalizer (PVT)


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Pit volume measuring systems, complete with audible and visual alarms, should be
installed to detect fluid gains and/or losses. These devices transmit a signal from
sensors located in the drilling fluid pits to instrumentation near the Driller’s station
on the rig floor.

Flow Rate Sensor


A flow rate sensor, complete with audible and visual alarms, should be mounted in
the flow line to provide for early detection of formation fluid entering the well or of
loss of returns

Sample Flow Rate and PVT Indicators Display

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 5 - 17


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
All Rights Reserved.

Tenet 1
Company Confidential.

Chevron Well Control Handbook


environmental limits.”
“Always operate within design and
6 KICK TOLERANCE

6- 1
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Maximum Anticipated Surface Pressure (MASP)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Used to design the well program:



This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Casing design (casing burst/collapse)


• BOP pressure requirements
• Wellhead pressure requirements

Assumptions (typically specific to well, SBU, or field):


• Partial/total evacuation of well “worst case”
• Known pore pressure profile
• Known fracture gradient

Example: Total Evacuation


𝑀𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑝𝑠𝑖 − 𝐻𝑃𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑒𝑙𝑙
𝑀𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 0.052 × 14.5 × 12400 − 0.1 × 12400 (𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛)
𝑀𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 9350 − 1240 = 8110 𝑝𝑠𝑖

8110 MASP

Gas Gradient = 0.1 psi/ft

Gas Sand @ 12400’ TVD


Pore Pressure = 14.5 ppge = 9350 psi

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 2


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Maximum Initial Shut In Casing Pressure (MISICP)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

SICP MISICP
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

MISICP Relevance

MISICP is a description of initial shut-in


conditions only and is used for well kill planning
to determine:
• Pump Rate
• Selection of Safety Factors
• Calculation of Kick Tolerance

If the initial shut-in casing pressure equals or


exceeds the MISCIP, the shoe may be
Influx compromised.

𝑀𝐼𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 0.052 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 − 𝐶𝑀𝑊 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒

Leak-Off Test (LOT)


The strength of the weak point of a well is measured by the Leak-Off Test (LOT) or
Formation Integrity Test (FIT). FIT/LOT is used for MISICP, MAASP, and KT
calculations. Therefore effort should be made to obtain a quality LOT (or FIT). The
formation Fracture Pressure is exceeded when conducting a LOT, and the
equivalent MW value is recorded. The LOT does not change as drilling progresses
but the MISICP value does (as MW changes).

Example: Typical LOT Plot


Shoe TVD = 4,800 ft
MW=10.2 ppg
LOT Pressure =620 psi ● ● ●
620 psi ●
● ●
𝐿𝑂𝑇 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 ● ●
𝐿𝑂𝑇 = 𝐶𝑀𝑊 + ●
Test Pressure

0.052 × 𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 𝑇𝑉𝐷 Leak-off Point



620 ●
𝐿𝑂𝑇 = 10.2 +
0.052 × 4800 ●

𝐿𝑂𝑇 = 12.68 = 12.6 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑒

Note: Always Round Down For LOT


Determination! Volume Pumped (1/4 bbl increments)

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 3


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Maximum Allowable Annular Shut-in Pressure (MAASP)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

1 Influx Below the Shoe


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

CP 𝑀𝐴𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 𝐹𝑟𝑎𝑐 𝑝𝑠𝑖@𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 − 𝐻𝑃 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒

Remains Constant

The HP above the shoe remains constant even as


the gas is circulated up the well and expands.
Therefore, the MAASP remains constant during
this period even though the casing pressure is
increasing.
Max Shoe Pressure
= Gas @ Shoe

The increasing casing pressure and the constant


HP above the shoe causes the shoe pressure to
increase to a maximum just as the top of the
influx reaches shoe depth.

2 Influx Above the Shoe


CP
𝑀𝐴𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 𝐹𝑟𝑎𝑐 𝑝𝑠𝑖@𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 − 𝐻𝑃 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒

Decreasing due
to gas expansion
ℎ 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥

The HP above the shoe is now decreasing as the gas


is circulated up the well and expands. Therefore the
MAASP value is increasing at the same rate that HP
is being lost. This is why the MISICP is no longer a
determinate of “breaking the shoe down” once the
influx is above the shoe.

Note: The maximum surface casing pressure occurs


when the top of the influx first reaches the surface.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 4


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Kick Tolerance (KT)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Definition:
Kick Tolerance is the maximum kick volume (KV) for a given kick intensity (KI) at a
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

particular depth that can be successfully shut-in and circulated out of a well
without exceeding the well’s weak point fracture pressure.
Applications:
1. Design KT
Kick tolerance criteria should be specified for each planned hole section
with the designed KT criteria associated with that interval’s TD.
2. Operational KT (During Drilling Operations)
For the wellbore being drilled the kick tolerance will change from day to
day due to the changes in mud weight and the increasing depth of the
well. For these reasons, the “actual” KT should be calculated regularly and
discussed with the drill crew to reinforce the importance of early kick
detection and well shut-in.
Determination:
The wellbore is under increased pressure during well control operations. This
includes from initial shut-in to circulating out and killing the well. The
MISICP/MAASP value is the indication used for shoe “breakdown” during the shut-
in and initial circulation phase and is the primary parameter associated with
calculating KT.
𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠
𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + 0.052 × 𝑀𝑊 − 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 × ℎ 𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥
By setting the CP at shut-in and when circulating the influx to the shoe (maximum
condition of shoe stress) equal to MISICP/MAASP allows a determination of the
“window” of KV values for varying kick intensity.

For KV=0

𝑀𝐼𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠



KI (psi or ppg)

For KI=0

KT Window 𝑀𝐼𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠


KV (bbl)

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 5


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Operational KT
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Kick Intensity (KI)


• Kick Intensity is the pressure difference
SIDPP
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

between the hydrostatic pressure in the


well and the formation pore pressure SICP
(usually expressed as a ppg term). It is
the same physical quantity as SIDPP but
in ppg instead of psi. For example, if we
took a 1.6 ppg kick , this would mean
that the HP in the well is 1.6 ppg MW = 13.0 ppg
underbalanced with respect to
9 5/8”,47#
formation pore pressure. @ 4200 TVD
𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 LOT=14.8 ppge
𝐾𝐼 =
0.052 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷
ACF= 0.046 bpf
Kick Volume (KV)
• Kick Volume is the volume of formation
fluid that entered the wellbore. The
volume gained at the surface will ACF= 0.029 bpf
650 ft
provide an indication of this volume.
Maximum height of gas influx (KH max)
• KH max is the maximum vertical height of Drilling 8 ½” Hole
influx for a given KI anywhere in the @ 9800’ TVD
open hole that if reached will cause leak-
off to the the formation.

Procedure : Example (Gas Kick of 2.0 ppg density)


1. Calculate MISICP & ensure this value is up to date.
𝑀𝐼𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 0.052 × 14.8 − 13 × 4200 = 393 𝑝𝑠𝑖
2. Calculate maximum kick intensity (KI max) with KV = 0.
393
𝐾𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 0.77 𝑝𝑝𝑔
0.052 × 9800
3. The vertical kick height (KH) can be calculated for any given KI. Calculate
maximum kick height (KHmax) with KI = 0 (swabbed kick).
𝑀𝐼𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 − 0.052 × 𝐾𝐼 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑤𝑒𝑙𝑙 393 − 0.052 × 0 × 9800
𝐾𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 687 𝑓𝑡
0.052 × (𝑀𝑊 − 𝑊𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 ) 0.052 × 13 − 2
4. Calculate maximum static kick volume (KVstatic) with the influx on bottom using
(KHmax).
𝐾𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 = 𝐾𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹𝐵𝐻𝐴&𝐷𝑃
𝐾𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 = 650 × 0.029 + (687 − 650) × 0.046 = 20.5 𝑏𝑏𝑙
Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 6
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Operational KT - continued
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

5. Using the same KHmax calculate kick volume with the top of the gas at the
casing shoe (KVshoe). (Note: Skip this step for Oil or Saltwater Influx)
𝐾𝑉𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 = 𝐾𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 = 687 × 0.046 = 31.6 𝑏𝑏𝑙
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

6. Calculate the KVdynamic by using P1V1=P2V2 to convert KVshoe to conditions on


bottom (KVdynamic). (Skip for Oil or Saltwater Influx).
𝐹𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝐾𝑉𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒
𝐾𝑉𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 =
𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + 𝐻𝑃𝑇𝑉𝐷
0.052 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 × 𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒𝑇𝑉𝐷 × 𝐾𝑉𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 3232 × 31.6
𝐾𝑉𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 = = = 15.4 𝑏𝑏𝑙
𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + 0.052 × 𝑀𝑊 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷 0 + 6625
7. Compare both KVstatic and KVdynamic . Use the lesser volume as KV in KT window
(for KI=0). Plot only the KV static value for Oil or Saltwater Influx.
8. Identify KT window for the well.

𝐾𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.77 𝑝𝑝𝑔

𝐾𝑉𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 = 15.4 𝑏𝑏𝑙

𝐾𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 = 20.5 𝑏𝑏𝑙

KT Window for Example Well – Chart Made Using


The Chevron Rig Site Well Control app.

The KT window can be constructed (sufficiently accurate) by drawing a straight


line from KImax and KV (dynamic and static). The Chevron Rig Site Well Control
app calculates the KV for varying KIs from zero KI to KImax.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 7


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Design Kick Tolerance


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Design KT can be used to check that a planned


hole section TD can be reached with a specified
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

KT target.

Example:
Plan is to drill 8 ½” hole to 9800’ TVD/MD
with a planned MW of 13.0 ppg at TD. The 9 5/8”,47#
well plan calls for setting 9 ⅝ 47# casing @ 4200 TVD
at 4200 ft TVD/MD. Anticipated shoe LOT
8 ½”X 5” DP
is 14.8 ppge. ACF- 0.0459 bbl/ft

Management has indicated TD should be


reached with the following KT parameters:
Drill 8 ½” Hole
KV = 5 bbl and KI = 0.5 ppg. to 9800’ TVD
Does the well plan meet management
objectives?

1. Use the formula below to calculate the maximum TVD for a planned hole
section that can be drilled with a given KI and KV target.
𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑀𝑎𝑥 =
𝐴𝐶𝐹𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 − 𝑀𝑊 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 2
=
𝑀𝑊 + 𝐾𝐼 × 𝑀𝑊 − 𝑊𝑇𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 × 𝐾𝑉 + 𝐾𝐼 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒

0.0459 × 14.8 × 14.8 − 13.0 × 42002


𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑀𝑎𝑥 =
13.0 + 0.5 × 13.0 − 1.98 × 5 + 0.5 × 0.0459 × 14.8 × 4200
𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑀𝑎𝑥 = 9,938 𝑓𝑡
2. Use the formula below to calculate the Kick Tolerance (KV) for a given KI. (For
Example: What is the KV for a 0.5 ppg KI at planned TD?)

𝐴𝐶𝐹𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 − 𝑀𝑊 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 − 𝐾𝐼 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷


𝐾𝑉 =
𝑀𝑊 + 𝐾𝐼 × 𝑀𝑊 − 𝑊𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷

0.0459 × 14.8 × 4200 × 14.8 − 13.0 × 4200 − 0.5 × 9800


𝐾𝑉 = = 5.2 𝑏𝑏𝑙
13.0 + 0.5 × 13.0 − 1.98 × 9800

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 8


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 6 - Kick Tolerance

Design Kick Tolerance - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

3. Use the formula below to calculate the minimum LOT required to meet the TD
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

objective and have a KT of KI=0.5 ppg and KV=5 bbl.

Where:
𝑎 = 𝐴𝐶𝐹𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 2 = 0.0459 × 42002 = 809676.00
𝑏 = 𝐴𝐶𝐹𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 2 × 𝑀𝑊 + 𝐴𝐶𝐹𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷 × 𝐾𝐼
b = 0.0459 × 42002 × 13.0 + 0.0459 × 4200 × 9800 × 0.5 = 11470410.00

𝑐 = 𝐾𝑉 × 𝑀𝑊 + 𝐾𝐼 × 𝑀𝑊 − 𝑊𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷

c = 5 × 13.0 + 0.5 × 13.0 − 1.98 × 9800 = 7289730.00


𝑏 + 𝑏2 + 4 × 𝑎 × 𝑐
𝐿𝑂𝑇𝑀𝑖𝑛 =
2×𝑎
11470410 + 114704102 + 4 × 809676 × 7289730
= = 14.77 𝑝𝑝𝑔𝑒
2 × 809676
4. Use the formula below to calculate the maximum MW (pore pressure) required
to drill to TD objective and have a KT specified as KI=0.5 ppg and KV=5.0 bbl.

Where:
𝑇𝑉𝐷 × 𝐾𝑉 × (𝐾𝐼 − 𝑊𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 ) + 𝐿𝑂𝑇 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 2
𝑎=
𝑇𝑉𝐷 × 𝐾𝑉
𝑇𝑉𝐷 × 𝐾𝐼 × 𝐿𝑂𝑇 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹 − 𝑊𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 × 𝐾𝑉 − 𝐴𝐶𝐹 ∗ 𝐿𝑂𝑇 2 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷𝑆ℎ𝑜𝑒 2
𝑏=
𝑇𝑉𝐷 × 𝐾𝑉
9800 × 5.0 × 0.5 − 2.0 + 14.8 × 0.046 × 42002
𝑎= = 243.59
9800 × 5.0
9800 × 0.5 × 14.8 × 4200 × 0.046 − 2.0 × 5.0 − 0.046 × 14.82 × 42002
𝑏= = 3342.37
9800 × 5.0

𝑎 𝑎 2
𝑀𝑎𝑥 𝑀𝑊 = − + +𝑏
2 2

2
243.59 243.59
𝑀𝑎𝑥 𝑀𝑊 = − + + 3342.37 = 13.02 𝑝𝑝𝑔
2 2

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 6- 9


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Version 1.3
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Company Confidential.

Tenet 10

Chevron Well Control Handbook


7 PROCEDURES

that affect procedures and equipment.”


“Always involve the right people in decisions

7- 1
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Trapped Pressure Check


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Identify After Initial Shut-in


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Pressure can be trapped in the well by:


• Shutting in with pumps still running and
poor choke manipulation.
• Attempting to bump the float.
• Migrating gas after initial shut-in.
Consequences of trapped pressure include:
• Improper shut-in pressure recordings.
• Formation breakdown and / or pipe light
conditions.

How to Remove
Bleed very small increments of mud (coffee
cups) from the choke and verify that
pressure has reduced and stabilized.

SIDPP
SICP

Check After Kill To


Confirm Well is Dead

After the first circulation of the Driller’s


method, the shut in casing pressure and
shut in drill pipe pressure should both be
equal to the initial SIDPP (plus any trapped
pressure). If both are equal but higher than
the SIDPP value then a Trapped Pressure
Check should be conducted. This should
also be done after circulating kill mud
weight around to confirm well is dead.

Always be aware that excessive bleeding


may allow additional influx.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 2


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Bump The Float (BTF)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

DPP
Procedure CP
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

1. If not previously done, mark the SICP


value on the choke panel gauge to
represent the initial stabilized SICP value.
2. Line up to pump OMW into the drill
string.
3. Pump as slowly as possible into the drill
string with well and choke closed. (Use
cement pump if available at ¼ bbl per
min.)
Drill string
4. The drill pipe pressure will increase Float
continuously pressuring the string up to
open the float. Watch closely for an
increase in casing pressure as mud in the Kick
Influx
annulus becomes pressured (after the
float has opened).
5. When the casing pressure increase is
noted, stop the pump and record the
new CP and the “trapped” pressure
increase.
6. Read the drill pipe pressure and subtract the
trapped pressure slowly from the casing gauge. Record the value
as the SIDPP. Tapped pressure or SF

𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 = 𝐷𝑃 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 − (𝐶𝑃 𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 − 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 )

7. Bleed trapped pressure from casing pressure if desired.

Consider leaving some residual “trapped” pressure to use as the Safety


Factor for the well kill.

At times, people confuse the increase in casing pressure due to pumping


with gas migrating in the well. Usually gas migration is not an issue since
bumping the float should only take a short amount of time.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 3


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Bring Pump Up To Speed (BPUTS) for Surface BOP


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

900
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

ICP
800

500
Example:
SICP
SIDPP from BTF = 250 psi
400 Original SICP = 400 psi
Drill Pipe Casing
Desired Kill Rate = 30 spm
30 DPP Value = 900 psi
Safety Margin 100 psi
SPM Choke Position
0024
Pump % Open % Closed
Strokes
Open Close

1. As the pump comes on line the Choke Operator should crack open the choke
as needed to maintain casing pressure at the Original SICP value (plus any
desired Safety Margin). Choke Operator should provide constant feedback to
the Driller as to the progress.
2. Use choke to control CP constant until DP pressure has stabilized @ the kill
pump rate. Read and record this drill pipe pressure as the BPUTS Value.
3. Determine the Initial Circulating Pressure (ICP) and mark this on the Choke
Panel Gauge for reference.

𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝐵𝑃𝑈𝑇𝑆 𝐷𝑃 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 − 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝑀


𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 900 − 100 = 800 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑆𝐶𝑅 = 𝐼𝐶𝑃 − 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃
𝑆𝐶𝑅 = 800 − 250 = 550 𝑝𝑠𝑖

Note: Bring Pump To Off (BPTO) is done to shut down the mud pump (at any
time) during well control operations. BPTO is done the same way as BPUTS,
but pump rate is slowly reduced to zero while casing pressure held constant.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 4


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Establishing Correct ICP


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

The choke panel


gauge readings for
SICP
400 a shut–in well are
Drill Pipe Casing
shown here. (Float
0
not yet bumped,
SPM and SICP = 400 psi)
Choke Position
00000
Pump % Open % Closed
Strokes
Open Close

The float is bumped and the SIDPP obtained. Pumps are started and
brought up to the desired rate while choke pressure is held constant.
After which, the resulting pressures are shown below :
(DP pressure = 900 psi and Casing pressure = 500 psi).
What is the correct ICP?

The casing pressure


is 100 psi above ICP
the original shut in 800 900

value of 400 psi.


This means the 500
well is 100 psi SICP
400
overbalanced. The
Drill Pipe Casing
correct DP pressure 30
needed to balance SPM Choke Position
the formation
00046
pressure (the ICP)
Pump % Open % Closed
is 800 psi and Strokes
marked on the Open Close
gauge as such.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 5


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Use CP To Guide Adjustments To The DP Pressure


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

3rd Then Wait and Check for


Desired ICP = 800
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

900

500

1st Open Choke to Drop


2nd Choke Pressure to 400
Note DP pressure is
Drill Pipe Casing
100 psi too high. 30
SPM Choke Position
0038
Pump % Open % Closed
Strokes
Open Close

Use the surface casing pressure to help manage DP


pressure when making adjustments with the choke.

For example: If drill pipe pressure (as noted above) is


100 psi too high, open the choke and allow the casing
pressure to reduce by 100 psi. Then wait for the DP
gauge to reflect the change after the lag time
(approximate 2 second per 1000 ft of well measured
depth). Do the opposite if the DP pressure is too low.

Learning how to “drive” the choke controls helps


prevent the “windshield wiper” effect on the DP
pressure gauge.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 6


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Driller’s Method (DM)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

The Driller’s Method is a 2 circulation well kill procedure.


1. First circulation removes the influx (using OMW)
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

2. Second circulation displaces OMW with KMW

Two Rules of the Driller’s Method:


1. Hold casing pressure constant (surface BOP) or kill line pressure constant
(subsea BOP) while BPUTS.
2. Hold the pressure constant on the side of the U-tube that has constant fluid
density.
These two rules work regardless of drill string geometry or wellbore deviation.

First Circulation
ICP + Safety Margin
1. BTF and obtain SIDPP.
2. Using Original Mud Weight Fluid,
BPUTS to desired Kill Rate holding
casing pressure constant and establish
ICP. Mark the ICP on Choke Panel. Influx
Exiting Choke
3. Maintain DP pressure constant at the
ICP (plus desired safety margin) value
until all influx is circulated from the
well. Conduct a dynamic check: the Original
circulating CP should be at or nearly MW
equal to the original SIDPP if all influx is
removed.
4. BPTO (stop the pump) holding casing
pressure constant. Conduct a static
check: the SIDPP and SICP should be
equal and both should be at or near the
original SIDPP value (plus the safety
margin used).
5. Prepare or have available Kill Mud
Weight fluid.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 7


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Driller’s Method (DM) - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Second Circulation
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

1. BPUTS holding casing pressure constant


using Kill Mud Weight fluid to the
desired Kill Rate. DP pressure should be
K MW equal to the original ICP established in
the First Circulation.
2. Calculate the drill string capacity.
3. Maintain Casing Pressure Constant as
the KMW is circulated down the drill
string.
NOTE: It is critical that the annulus is
clear of gas if casing pressure is held
constant. If a clean annulus is in
question, a DP Pressure Schedule
should be developed and followed to
ensure correct BHP.

4. When Kill Mud Weight fluid begins exiting the drill string, note and record
the Drill Pipe Pressure (less any Safety Factor) as the Final Circulating
Pressure (FCP). Maintain the drill pipe pressure at the FCP value (plus
desired Safety Factor) until KMW returns to the surface.
5. BPTO (stop the pump) holding casing pressure constant. Conduct a static
check: SICP and SIDPP should be zero and the well dead (trapped pressure,
if any, will show on both SIDPP and SICP).

Advantages of the Driller’s Method


• Circulation can be started right away if necessary
• Allows removing the influx from the well even if weighting materials or
means of increasing the mud weight are insufficient
• Minimizes the effect/chance for gas migration
• First and Second Circulations are simple to execute without calculations

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 8


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Driller’s Method Pressure Profiles


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Driller’s Method (1st circulation)


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

ICP
Pressure →

DP psi
Casing psi
Shoe psi

SICP X
SIDPP X

BPUTS To Bit To Shoe Gas @ Bottoms


Surface Up
Pump Strokes →

Driller’s Method (2nd circulation)

DP psi
Pressure →

Casing psi
ICP
Shoe psi

FCP

SIDPP XX

To Bit To Shoe Bottoms Up Total Circ

Pump Strokes →
Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7- 9
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Wait & Weight Method (W&W)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

The Wait and Weight Method gets it’s name from


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

the fact that there is a ”waiting” time while the mud


weight is increased or ”weighted up” prior to
circulating the influx from the hole. The well is shut-
in and an accurate SIDPP obtained by bumping the
float. Care should be taken not to include “trapped” KMW
pressure into the SIDPP value used to determine the
Kill Mud Weight (KMW).
While increasing the active mud weight to the KMW
value, construct a drill pipe pressure reduction OMW
schedule. The schedule will be used as the drill string
is “killed” and the influx is circulated up the annulus.
If the influx is gas, the casing pressure will need to
increase due to the gas expansion. The drill pipe
pressure reduction schedule must be followed during
this time.
Once kill mud weight is circulated to the bit, the DP is
maintained constant (Final Circulating Pressure) until KMW returns to the
surface. At this point the well should be dead.
Generally, the well can be killed in one complete circulation. However, since it is
recommended to use a mud weight that balances formation pressure, additional
circulating time will be required to increase the mud weight by a suitable safety
factor prior to returning to normal operations.
The W&W Method only has application for underbalanced kicks requiring a MW
increase.
Advantages of the W &W Method
• Pressures exerted in the wellbore will generally be lower than that for the
Driller’s Method. This difference is most significant for gas kicks
• The maximum pressure exerted on the shoe (or weak point in the open hole)
will normally be lower thus reducing the risk of mud loss
(Assuming: Voldrillstring<Annular Vol beneath shoe)
• The well and well control equipment will be under pressure for less time

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 10


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Wait & Weight Method (W&W)-continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Procedure : Example SIDPP = 250 psi


SCR=550 psi @ 30 spm
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

1. Calculate KMW value and begin weighting up SICP = 250 psi


active system to KMW. Have sufficient supply to
maintain a complete circulation of KMW.
𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃
𝐾𝑀𝑊 = + 𝑂𝑀𝑊
0.052 × 𝑇𝑉𝐷 KMW
250 12.6 ppg
= + 12.0 = 12.6 𝑝𝑝𝑔
0.052 × 8000
2. Calculate ICP, FCP, strokes to bit, and complete a
Drill Pipe Pressure Schedule. OMW
12.0 ppg
𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 + 𝑆𝐶𝑅 = 250 + 550 = 800 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐾𝑀𝑊 12.6
𝐹𝐶𝑃 = × 𝑆𝐶𝑅 = × 550~580 𝑝𝑠𝑖 Pump Stks
𝑂𝑀𝑊 12
To Bit
𝐷𝑟𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑉𝑜𝑙 1200 stks
𝑆𝑡𝑘𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝐵𝑖𝑡 = = 1200 𝑠𝑡𝑘s
𝑃𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑏𝑏𝑙 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑘
TVD/TMD=8000 ft
DP Pressure Schedule
a. Calculate the drop in drill pipe pressure per pump stroke to bit.
𝐼𝐶𝑃 − 𝐹𝐶𝑃 800 − 580
𝐷𝑃𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑘 = = = 0.1833 𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑠𝑡𝑘
𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓 𝑡𝑜 𝐵𝑖𝑡 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑠 1200
b. Select a Pump Stroke Increment (typically 100 stks per increment) and
calculate the DP Pressure Reduction per Pump Stroke Increment.
𝐷𝑃𝑃 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑠𝑡𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 100 × 𝐷𝑃𝑃 𝑑𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑘 = 100 × 0.1833 = 18 𝑝𝑠𝑖
c. Calculate the DPP Increments (DPPI) per Strokes to Bit Schedule.
𝐷𝑃𝑃𝐼1 = 𝐼𝐶𝑃 − 𝐷𝑃𝑃 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 782 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐷𝑃𝑃𝐼2 = 𝐷𝑃𝑃𝐼1 − 𝐷𝑃𝑃 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 764 𝑝𝑠𝑖 … … 𝑒𝑡𝑐.

Pump DP pressure Pump DP pressure


Strokes Strokes
0 ICP=800 500 710
100 DPPI1=782 600 692
200 DPPI2=764
300 746
400 728 StB=1200 FCP=580
DP Pressure Schedule
Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 11
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Pressure →

SICP X
SIDPP X

Version 1.3
ICP
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

To Bit
FCP
All Rights Reserved.

To Shoe
Company Confidential.

Surface
W & W Method

Pump Strokes →

Chevron Well Control Handbook


Gas to Bottoms Up
DP psi
Wait & Weight Method Pressure Profiles

Shoe psi
Casing psi

Total Circ
7 - Well Control Procedures

7 - 12
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Wait & Weight Method:High Angle/Horizontal Well


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

SIDPP Corrected DP Pressure Schedule


The Drill Pipe Pressure Schedule should be
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

SICP corrected for high angle / horizontal


wellbores. Significant deviation changes
such as Kick Off Points (KOP) and End Of
Build (EOB) sections should be noted and
KOPVD, & KOPMD the DP pressure at the corresponding
measured depth (pump strokes) should be
used to create the DPP schedule.
EOBVD, & EOBMD
Note:
The circulating pressures and pump strokes
TVD / TMD should be scaled linearly between each
significant directional change s (KOPs &
EOBs) in the well path. Recommended to
use for high angle (>35 degrees) wells.
Required Calculations:
For a well having the following directional data:
KOP (Vertical Depth, Measured Depth) and EOB (Vertical Depth, Measured Depth)
The determinations of KMW, ICP, and FCP are the same as shown before. The
following additional calculations would need to be made when constructing the
DPP Schedule.
𝐹𝐶𝑃 − 𝑆𝐶𝑅) × 𝐾𝑂𝑃𝑀𝐷 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 × 𝐾𝑂𝑃𝑉𝐷
𝐷𝑃𝑃 @ 𝐴𝑛𝑦 𝐾𝑂𝑃 = 𝐼𝐶𝑃 + −
𝑇𝑀𝐷 𝑇𝑉𝐷
𝐹𝐶𝑃 − 𝑆𝐶𝑅) × 𝐸𝑂𝐵𝑀𝐷 𝑆𝐼𝐷𝑃𝑃 × 𝐸𝑂𝐵𝑉𝐷
𝐷𝑃𝑃 @ 𝐴𝑛𝑦 𝐸𝑂𝐵 = 𝐼𝐶𝑃 + −
𝑇𝑀𝐷 𝑇𝑉𝐷

Note: For increased accuracy when calculating the drill string volume and
corresponding strokes, use the drill string IDs associated with any tapered strings
(if used). The strokes to bit and the corresponding strokes to KOP, and to EOB,
should be included in the DPP Schedule.
Strokes DP Pressure Strokes DP Pressure Strokes DP Pressure

0 ICP Stk to KOP DPP@KOP Stk to EOB DPP@EOB

Stk to KOP DPP@KOP Stk to EOB DPP@EOB Stk to Bit FCP

Corrected DP Pressure Schedule


Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 13
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method
Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

The objective of the Volumetric Method is to maintain BHP


This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

relatively constant as a gas influx migrates up the wellbore when


circulation below the influx is not possible.

Instances where the VM may be required include:


• Plugged Drill string
• Off Bottom
• Pumps inoperative
• Packed off below kick
• Out of hole

Considerations for Volumetric Method


Surface Requirements
• Ability to measure small amounts of mud from the choke manifold.
• Ability to make small casing pressure adjustments with the choke.
Subsea Operations
• Recommend using Volumetric Control until gas reaches the BOP (monitor
KLP and CP) then use Dynamic Volumetric/Lubrication Procedure.

Note Concerning Various Well Configurations:


When bleeding volume from the well, the ACF for the section of hole
where the gas is expanding should be used to calculate the bleed
volumes for a particular cycle. However, it is difficult to know precisely
where the gas bubble is as it moves up the well. For most wells use of
the uppermost ACF is a conservative solution. However, for wells having
significantly tapered strings: (1) use the ACF and/or MI increment for
the lower section for the first one or two cycles and then switch to the
upper annular MI value or (2) select a relatively high Safety Factor value
and use the upper ACF and/or MI value.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 14


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Procedure : Example A Initial SICP = 200 psi


Now =320 psi and rising (OB = 120 psi)
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

Pit Gain = 7 bbls


MISICP=2574 psi
30
20 40

10 50
9 ⅝” x 5”
ACF=0.0489 bbl/ft 0 60

Mud Weight
10.5 ppg Trip Tank

9 5/8 @ 11,000’
LOT = 15.0 ppge

P gas
15,000’ TVD/MD

1. Check the MISICP value and select a Safety Factor (SF). (Since the SICP of 200
psi is significantly less than the MISCIP of 2574 psi, a SF of 100 psi is acceptable.
Additionally, this well does not qualify for special treatment concerning the
annular geometry.)
2. Check the MISICP and select a Pressure Increment (PI). (Since the SICP of 200
psi is significantly less than the MISCIP of 2574 psi, a PI of 100 psi is
acceptable.)
3. Calculate Mud Increment using the uppermost ACF value.
𝑃𝐼 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹 100 × 0.0489
𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑀𝐼 = = = 9.0 𝑏𝑏𝑙
0.052 × 𝑀𝑊 0.052 × 10.5
4. Allow CP to increase by the SF and PI to:
𝐶𝑃1 = 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 + 𝑆𝐹 + 𝑃𝐼 = 200 + 100 + 100 = 400 𝑝𝑠𝑖
5. Bleed mud from well while maintaining casing pressure constant at CP1 until
the Mud Increment (MI) has been bled back.
6. Close choke and allow CP to increase by the PI to:
𝐶𝑃2 = 𝐶𝑃1 + 𝑃𝐼 = 400 + 100 = 500 𝑝𝑠𝑖

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 15


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

7. Bleed mud from well while maintaining casing pressure constant at CP2 until
the Mud Increment (MI) has been bled back.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

8. Repeat steps 6 & 7 until casing pressure stops increasing and remains
constant, which indicates that all gas is at the surface, or until a preferred
circulating method can be implemented.

Schedule: Example A
800
Casing Pressure (psi) →

CP3= 600 psi


600
CP2= 500 psi

CP1= 400 psi PI = 100 psi


400
PI = 100 psi

SF = 100 psi
200
Initial SICP = 200 psi

0 9.0 18.0 27.0 36.0


Volume Bled (bbls) →

8700
8600
Bottomhole 8500
Pressure 8400
8300
8200
0 9.0 18.0 27.0 36.0

Volume Bled (bbls) →


(Based on Example Well Data Shown)

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 16


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Initial SICP = 700 psi


Now = 820 psi and rising
Example B
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

30
20 40 This well has a long liner
section which requires
10 50
additional consideration
0 60 concerning the MI
calculation and the selection
Trip Tank of an appropriate Safety
Factor.
9⅝
11,000’ Well Data: Kick Info:
14,403 ft
MW = 14.5 ppg = 0.754 psi /ft SIDPP = 140 psi
SICP = 700 psi
5” DP x over to 3½” DP @ 10600’ Pit Gain = 15 bbl
7” 9 ⅝ @ 11,000’ TVD/TMD MISICP = 2808 psi
18,000’ 7” Liner @ 18,000’ TVD/TMD
TOL @ 10750’ TVD (LOT=17.5 ppge) Annulus packed-
P gas 6” Open Hole 18,000’– 22000’ off above bit. Kick
is migrating
TD – 22,000’ TVD/TMD 9⅝” X 5”ACF = 0.0489 bbl/ft above pack-off.
6” Open Hole Diameter 7” X 3½” ACF = 0.0241 bbl/ft
6” X 3½” ACF = 0.0230 bbl/ft

Procedure: Example B

1. Consider MISICP and select a Safety Factor (SF). For this case, the gas location
will be tracked as the influx migrates up the hole so each ACF will be
considered. (For this example the SF = 200 psi).
𝑆𝐹 = 200 𝑝𝑠𝑖
2. Consider MISICP and select a Pressure Increment (PI). (For this example the
PI = 200 psi).
𝑃𝐼 = 200 𝑝𝑠𝑖
3. Calculate the Mud Increment (MI) for each annular section.
𝑃𝐼 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹
𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑀𝐼 =
0.052 × 𝑀𝑊

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 17


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

200 × 0.0230
𝑀𝐼𝑂𝐻×3½" = = 6.1 𝑏𝑏𝑙
0.052 × 14.5
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

200 × 0.0241
𝑀𝐼𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟×3½" = = 6.4 𝑏𝑏𝑙
0.052 × 14.5
200 × 0.0489
𝑀𝐼9⅝"×5" = = 13.0 𝑏𝑏𝑙
0.052 × 14.5
4. Allow CP to increase by the SF and PI to:
𝐶𝑃1 = 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 + 𝑆𝐹 + 𝑃𝐼 = 700 + 200 + 200 = 1100 𝑝𝑠𝑖
5. Select and use the Mud Increment MI corresponding to the location of the gas
(neglect BHA):
𝑀𝐼𝑂𝐻×3½" = 6.1 𝑏𝑏𝑙
6. Bleed mud from well while maintaining casing pressure constant at CP1 until
the Mud Increment (MI) has been bled back.
7. After each cycle, calculate the volume of gas (Vgas), pressure of gas (Pgas), and
top of gas bubble.
Note: If the influx volume is accurately known, these formulas can “track” the
location of the gas as it migrates up the hole. If the volume is not known then
skip this step and use the upper ACF and a “high” SF as discussed.
𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠2 = 𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠1 + 𝑉𝑜𝑙 𝐵𝑙𝑒𝑑𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒
𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠2 = 15 + 6.1 = 21.1 𝑏𝑏𝑙
𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠1 × 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠1
𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠2 =
𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠2
15 × 16728
𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠2 = = 11,891 𝑝𝑠𝑖
21.1
𝐵𝐻𝑃 − 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠
𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠 = 𝑇𝑉𝐷 −
𝑀𝑢𝑑𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
16928 − 11891
𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠 = 22000 − = 15,320 𝑓𝑡
0.754
𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠
𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠 = 𝐵𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠 +
𝐴𝐶𝐹
21.1
𝐷𝑒𝑡𝑝ℎ 𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠 = 15,320 − = 14,403 𝑓𝑡
0.023
8. Close choke and allow CP to increase by PI to:
𝐶𝑃2 = 𝐶𝑃1 + 𝑃𝐼
𝐶𝑃2 = 1100 + 200 = 1300 𝑝𝑠𝑖

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 18


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

9. Repeat steps 5, 6, 7, & 8 until casing pressure stops increasing and remains
constant, which indicates that all gas is at the surface, or until a preferred
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

circulating method can be implemented.

2000
CP5= 1900 psi
Casing Pressure (psi)→

1600 CP3= 1500 psi

1200 Schedule: Example B


CP2= 1300 psi

CP1= 1100 psi


800

400 Initial SICP = 700 psi

0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0


6.1 12.5 25.5 38.5 51.5 64.5

Volume Bleed (bbl)→

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 19


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Cycles CP ACF Vol Cum BHP Vol P L Top of


psi Bled Vol Gas Gas Gas Gas
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

1 M 1100 0.023 0 0 17128 15.0 16728 652 20817


B 1100 0.023 6.1 6.1 16928 21.1 11891 917 14403

2 M 1300 0.0241 0 6.1 17128 21.1 11891 876 14179


B 1300 0.0241 6.4 12.5 16928 27.5 9127 1141 10512

3 M 1500 0.0489 0 12.5 17128 27.5 9127 562 10826


B 1500 0.0489 13. 25.5 16928 40.5 6201 827 6946

4 M 1700 0.0489 0 25.5 17128 40.5 6201 827 6681


B 1700 0.0489 13. 38.5 16928 53.4 4696 1093 4684

5 M 1900 0.0489 0 38.5 17128 53.4 4696 1093 4419


B 1900 0.0489 13. 51.5 16928 66.4 3779 1358 3202

6 M 2100 0.0489 0 51.5 17128 66.4 3779 1358 2937


B 2100 0.0489 13. 64.5 16928 79.4 3161 1623 2118

7 M 2300 0.0489 0 64.5 17128 79.4 3161 1623 1853


B 2300 0.0489 13. 77.5 16928 92.3 2717 1888 1264

8 M 2500 0.0489 0 77.5 17128 92.3 2717 1888 999


B 2500 0.0489 13. 90.5 16928 105. 2382 2154 555

9 M 2700 0.0489 0 90.5 17128 105. 2382 2154 290


B 2700 0.0489 13. 103. 16928 118. 2120 2419 0

Data From Example Well B

M-Migrate
B-Bleed

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 20


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Volumetric Method - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Note:
The time spent bleeding during the first “cycle” is normally the longest. Each
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

successive bleed would be shorter and shorter.

The initial size of the influx relative to the calculated MI for that annular section,
dictates the cycle times. For this example, the if the original volume of the influx
was 5 bbl (instead of the 15), the calculated MI of 6.1 bbl for the first bleed, would
have the influx half-way up the well during the first bleed cycle (Influx size more
than doubled).

For the example given, if the influx was migrating at a rate of 750 ft per hour,
would require 9 hours to bleed the 6.1 bbl (bottom of gas migrates from 22,000 ft
to 15,320 ft).

Influx Migration rate can be calculated by:


𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 (𝑝𝑠𝑖 / ℎ𝑟)
𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 𝑀𝑖𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒(𝑓𝑡 / ℎ𝑟) =
𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 (𝑝𝑠𝑖 / 𝑓𝑡)

To track the location of the gas as it migrates up the hole while implementing the
Volumetric Procedure, the following diagram can be used to determining the
bottom of the gas.

Gas
Pressure

HP of Mud Beneath Bubble

𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠 + 𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝐻𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑡ℎ 𝑔𝑎𝑠

Relationship After Each Bleed

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 21


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Lube and Bleed Procedure


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Lube and Bleed Method is used to lower


From surface pressure while keeping BHP
Trip Tank 900 psi
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

within design limits . This is accomplished


through the addition of mud (HP) & the
removal of gas (surface pressure). The
method is used when:
Ann Cap
• Gas is at surface and CP is constant
0.046 bbl/ft • Circulation below the influx is not
possible.

Shoe MISICP
5200’ 1433 psi
Surface Equipment Requirements
LOT
15.5 ppg 1. Access to well via kill line.
2. Accurate measuring tank (Trip or
MW Stripping Tank).
10.2 ppg
3. High pressure, low displacement mud
pump.
Plugged Bit
4. Choke manifold that will allow for
small changes in CP to be made by the
choke operator.
5. CP Gauge that can measure small
Procedure | Example increments of pressure.

1. Pump Original Mud Weight (OMW) into the well and increase the CP by a
small, predetermined amount (recommend 50-100 psi). Accurately measure
the amount of mud that was added to the well coinciding with the change in
CP. Determine the initial gas volume & initial gas height using:
𝐶𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 × 𝑉𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 =
𝐶𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 − 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝑉𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙
ℎ𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑙 =
𝐴𝐶𝐹
Using the example wellbore above, pumps were kicked in and the CP was
increased by 100 psi (from SICP of 900 psi to the CPlube value of 1000 psi). Trip
tank shows this change in CP took 7 bbls of 10.2 ppg mud (OMW).

𝑉𝐺𝑎𝑠 𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 70 𝑏𝑏𝑙𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑠


ℎ𝐺𝑎𝑠 𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 1522 𝑓𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑠

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 22


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Lube & Bleed - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

2. Determine the Lube Mud Weight (LMW) to be used. Options for LMW range
from Original Mud Weight (OMW) to Kill Mud Weight (KMW). If a well top kill is
desired, calculate the minimum LMW required using:
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃
𝐿𝑀𝑊𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝐾𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑀𝑊 = + 𝐺𝑎𝑠 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒 (𝑝𝑝𝑔)
0.052 ∗ ℎ 𝐺𝑎𝑠 𝐼𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙
𝐿𝑀𝑊𝑂𝑀𝑊 = 10.2 𝑝𝑝𝑔 = 0.5304 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑓𝑡
𝐿𝑀𝑊𝑇𝑜𝑝 𝐾𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑀𝑊 = 13. 4 𝑝𝑝𝑔 = 0.6968 𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑓𝑡
Note: Because the calculated LMWTop Kill MW was greater than the OMW, it is an
indication that the well is underbalanced; pumping OMW in this case will not kill
the well.
Note: Gas Weight assumed to be 2.0 ppg (0.104 psi/ft) in this example when
calculating LMWKMW
3. Calculate the hydrostatic pressure per barrel for the OMW, the selected LMW,
and for the assumed Gas Weight.
𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑀𝑢𝑑 (𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑓𝑡)
𝐻𝑃𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑏𝑙 =
𝐴𝐶𝐹 (𝑏𝑏𝑙 𝑓𝑡)
𝐻𝑃𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑏𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑂𝑀𝑊 = 11.53 𝑝𝑠𝑖/𝑏𝑏𝑙
𝐻𝑃𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑏𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝐾𝑀𝑊 = 15.14 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑏𝑏𝑙
𝐻𝑃𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑏𝑙 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑠 = 2.26 𝑝𝑠𝑖 /𝑏𝑏𝑙
4. Calculate Initial Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure (MAASPi).
𝑀𝐴𝐴𝑆𝑃 = 𝑃𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑜𝑓𝑓 − 𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 = 𝑃𝐿𝑒𝑎𝑘𝑜𝑓𝑓 − 𝐻𝑃𝑚𝑢𝑑 − 𝐻𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑠
𝑀𝐴𝐴𝑆𝑃𝑖 = 0.052 × 15.5 × 5200 − 0.052 × 10.2 × (5200 − 1522) − 0.104
× 1522
= 4191 − 1951 − 158 = 2082 𝑝𝑠𝑖
5. Select a Safety Factor (SF) and a Pressure Increment (PI) based on MAASPi.
Because the initial CPlube of 1000 psi is significantly less than the Initial MAASPi
of 2082 psi, a SF of 100 psi and a PI of 200 psi are reasonable to select
6. Calculate the Over Balance (OB) added and adjust (bleed) casing pressure to the
desired CP bleed value (Prior to each bleed, allow sufficient time for the lubed
mud to fall through the gas).
𝑂𝐵 = 𝐻𝑃 𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑 + 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑃 + 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑠
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝐵𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 𝑂𝐵 − 𝑆𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑
𝐶𝑃𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 𝐶𝑃𝑙𝑢𝑏𝑒 − 𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝐵𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑑
𝑂𝐵 = 7 × 11.53 + 100 + 0 ≅ 181 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝐵𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 181 − 100 = 81 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐶𝑃𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 1000 − 81 = 919 𝑝𝑠𝑖 (𝑆𝐹 = 100 𝑝𝑠𝑖)
Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 23
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Lube & Bleed - continued


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

7. Calculate the new MAASP.


𝑀𝐴𝐴𝑆𝑃𝑁𝑒𝑤 = 𝑀𝐴𝐴𝑆𝑃𝑜𝑙𝑑 − 𝐻𝑃 𝐴𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

𝐻𝑃𝐴𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 = 𝐿𝑀𝑊𝐻𝑃 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑏𝑙 − 𝐺𝑎𝑠𝐻𝑃 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑏𝑙 × 𝑉𝐿𝑢𝑏𝑒
Note: Ignoring the Gas HP yields a more conservative MAASP, and that is what is
shown here.
𝐻𝑃𝐴𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑒 = 11.53 × 7 ≅ 81 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑀𝐴𝐴𝑆𝑃𝑁𝑒𝑤 = 2082 − 81 = 2001 𝑝𝑠𝑖
8. Check MAASPNew and lubricate mud into the well until the CP increases by the PI.
Measure the volume of mud pumped from the trip tank. (For this Cycle: Trip tank
shows the well took 11.3 bbl of 13.4 ppg LMW Top Kill MW to increase the CP from
the CP Bleed value of 919 psi to the CP Lube value of 1119 psi.
9. Calculate the HP added.
𝐻𝑃𝑎𝑑𝑑𝑒𝑑 = 𝐿𝑀𝑊𝐻𝑃 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑏𝑏𝑙 × 𝑉𝐿𝑢𝑏𝑒
= 15.14 × 11.3 = 171 𝑝𝑠𝑖
10. Bleed gas from the well and decreases casing pressure to the desired value.
𝑂𝐵 = 11.3 × 15.15 + 200 + 100 ≅ 471 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝐵𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 471 − 100 = 371 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐶𝑃𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑑 = 1119 − 371 = 748 𝑝𝑠𝑖 (𝑆𝐹 = 100 𝑝𝑠𝑖)
11. Repeat Step 7, 8, 9, & 10 until all gas has been removed from the well.

Lube MAASP Casing Lube Vol HP Vol


Cycles Bleed To Lube Add Gas(70)

1 2082 SICP=900 1000 7 81 63

2 2001 919 1119 11.3 171 51.7

3 1831 749 949 10.9 165 40.9

4 1666 584 784 10.4 158 30.5

5 1508 426 626 9.7 147 20.8

6 1360 278 478 8.7 131 12.2

7 1229 147 347 6.9 105 5.3

8 1124 42 242 4.2 64 ~

0 Bled casing to zero, filled hole


w/13.4 ppg

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 24


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Lube and Bleed (WO/CO)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

Lube and bleed can be difficult in a


WO/CO operation due to the well losing
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

fluid to open perforations. The following


method of Lube & Bleed can be used in
this situation. Initial SICP
Gas Influx
250 psi
30 bbl
Pre-requisites for achieving success are:
1. Lube Fluid Weight = Fluid Weight in
wellbore ACF
2. Single bubble @ surface 0.0613 bbl/ft
3. HP of gas negligible
CO Brine
10.4 ppg
Procedure : Example
9 5/8” N80
47# Casing
1. Lubricate original weight fluid into 0.0732 bbl/ft
the annulus to increase the initial Burst = 6870 psi
casing pressure (P1) by a desired
margin (PM). The new CP is now P2.
Select PM=100 psi for this example.
Top Perfs
𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃 = 𝑃1 = 250 𝑝𝑠𝑖 9,800 ft
Bottom Perfs
P2 = 250+100=350 psi 10,000 ft
2. Allow time for the lube fluid to fall Formation
through the gas and for the casing Pressure Grad = 0.5408 psi/ft
pressure to stabilize. For this Frac Grad = 0.728 psi/ft
example, P2 stabilized at 320 psi.
Lube & Bleed WO/CO Example
3. Calculate the P3 value and bleed gas
from the choke to reduce casing
pressure from P2 to the calculated P3 Lube Value
value.
𝑃1 2
𝑃3 =
𝑃2 P2
2502
𝑃3 = = 195 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑃1 2
320 P1 𝑃3 =
𝑃2
Bleed casing pressure from 320 psi
to the new P1 value of 195 psi. Initial CP
4. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 until
P3
completed as shown in diagram to
the right. Bleed Value

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 25


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Stripping with Volumetric Control


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

IBOP Requirements
• Proper equipment line up (able to bleed
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

FOSV small volumes through choke and into a


calibrated trip tank)
• Installation of a full opening safety valve
(FOSV) and an inside BOP.
• “Pipe Heavy” conditions

Consideration
N2
Surge Adjust annular closing pressure and use
Bottle a surge bottle installed on the annular
hydraulic closing line to prevent element
wear. Grease or oil on pipe helps
prevent wear as well.

Manual (or Hydraulic) Have Contingencies For:


Choke
 Good communication
throughout
 Stuck pipe
 High pressures
Calibrated  Wear on annular element
Trip Tank  Wellbore bridges

Factors that can affect well pressures when stripping:


Compression - fluids can be compressed as pipe is lowered into shut-in well..
Influx penetration – elongates the influx, resulting in additional hydrostatic
pressure loss when bleeding mud from the well.
Gas migration and expansion - must be accounted for and controlled properly.
Under-bleeding - not bleeding sufficient volume can result in added wellbore
pressures.
Over-bleeding – bleeding excessive volume can result in possible underbalance.
Artificial migration - once pipe has penetrated the influx, additional pipe
stripped will displace the influx up the hole.
Restored overbalance – returning the drill string to bottom and the pipe filled
with original MW restores the original overbalance (if any) on the well.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 26


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Stripping with Volumetric Control (continued)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

SICP - 120 psi


Example: MW
30 stands off bottom
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

12.0 ppg MISICP


Pit Gain ~ 20 bbls 1092 psi
5” 19.50 Grade G pipe:
8 ½” Hole Size, 660 ft of 6” BHA
9 5/8” 47.0 Casing (ID = 8.681”)
ACF 0.05 bbl/ft

Notes: 9 5/8” @ 6000 ft


 The pipe should be lowered LOT – 15.5 ppg
slowly (30-45 ft/min).
 Floor-men to remove burrs from ACF 0.047 bbl/ft
tool joints and paste with
lubricant.
ACF 0.035 bbl/ft
 Pipe should be filled from the
inside BOP to the surface
regularly. ACF 0.07 bbl/ft

Stand Length = 93 ft
Procedure : Example

1. Bump The Float (BTF) and measure the SIDPP to determine influx location.
SIDPP=SICP ...Influx Below Bit
SIDPP<SICP but≠ 0 ...Above and/or Below Bit
SIDPP= 0 ...Influx Above The Bit (if well not originally underbalanced).
Example – SIDP = 120 psi, indicating influx below bit.
2. Check MISICP and select Safety Factor (SF), Pressure Increment (PI), and
calculate closed end pipe displacement and the mud increment (MI).
MISICP=1092 psi 𝑆𝐹 = 100 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃𝐼 = 100 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑂𝐷𝐷𝑃 2
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝐶𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝐸𝑛𝑑 = = 0.0243 𝑏𝑏𝑙/𝑓𝑡 → 2.25 𝑏𝑏𝑙/𝑠𝑡𝑛𝑑
1029.4
𝑃𝐼 × 𝐴𝐶𝐹 100 × 0.05
𝑀𝑢𝑑 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑀𝐼 = = = 8.0 𝑏𝑏𝑙
0.052 × 𝑀𝑊 0.052 × 12
3. If influx is below the bit, the influx will be penetrated. When penetrated, the
gas bubble will expand while bleeding mud from the well. This reduction in
hydrostatic pressure (HP penetration) may result in the well going underbalanced.
To compensate for this, calculate the maximum height of the gas with BHA on
bottom and compare it to the height of the gas with the BHA above the influx.

Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 27


© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Stripping with Volumetric Control (continued)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

For the first few stands


stripped, the well may be
“overbalanced” by the sum
of (SF+ PI + Pinflux) until the
influx is penetrated. When
back on bottom the well HP penetration
571 ft
should only be
overbalanced by the Safety
Factor (and to some 286 ft

degree the PI if gas


migration takes place).

Influx Penetration
The differential between the hydrostatic values can be added as a Safety Factor
prior to starting the stripping operation. This loss of HP due to bubble
penetration is necessary to compensate for this effect. If influx is above the bit
then disregard the HPpenetration.
𝐻𝑃𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = (ℎ 𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑒𝑟 − ℎ 𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑏𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒) × 0.052 × 𝑀𝑊 − 𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑎𝑠
20 20
ℎ𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑏𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒 = = 286 𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑒𝑟 = = 571 𝑓𝑡
0.07 0.035

𝐻𝑃𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 571 − 286 × 0.052 × 12.0 − 1.9 = 150 𝑝𝑠𝑖


4. Strip pipe into the shut-in well (without bleeding mud) until casing pressure
increases by the SF, PI, and HP penetration to CPStrip1 .
𝐶𝑃𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝1 = 𝑆𝐼𝐶𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 +𝑆𝐹 + 𝑃𝐼 + 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥
𝐶𝑃𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝1 = 120 + 100 + 100 + 150 𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 470 𝑝𝑠𝑖
It took 28 ft of 1st stand (93 ft per stand) to increase casing pressure to CPStrip 1.
5. Crack the choke open and bleed mud from the well while holding casing
pressure constant at CP Strip1 until the cumulative mud bled less closed-end pipe
displacement is equal to the mud increment (MI).
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝐵𝑙𝑒𝑑 − 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑑 = 𝑀𝐼
Maintain casing pressure constant at 470 psi for the remaining 65 ft of 1st stand
and additional stands until the total volume bled minus total volume stripped
equals to 8 bbl.
Version 1.3 Chevron Well Control Handbook 7 - 28
© 2014 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Company Confidential. 7 - Well Control Procedures

Stripping with Volumetric Control (continued)


Further, these course materials are not to be copied, distributed, or otherwise used for any internal or external purpose other than their utilization as a learning resource for this particular course.

6. When the target MI is reached, close the choke and continue stripping without
bleeding until the casing pressure (CP) increases by the PI to CPStrip2 (or CPStrip3,
This course material, and the content provided herein, is intended exclusively for internal Chevron use by internal course participants and is not to be shared outside the Company.

etc.).
𝐶𝑃𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝2 = 𝐶𝑃𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝1 + 𝑃𝐼 = 470 + 100 = 570 𝑝𝑠𝑖
7. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 until drill string returned to bottom.

Example Problem (Displayed on a Stripping Worksheet)


# End Vol Total Vol Total Tot Bled
– Tot Strip
Stnds CP Bled Bled Strip Strip
0 120 0 0 0 0 0
0.5 470 0 0 0 0 0
1 470 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 0
2 470 2.2 3.3 2.3 3.4 0
3 470 2.3 5.6 2.3 5.7 0
4 470 2.7 8.3 2.3 8.0 0.3
↓ ↓ 20.0 28.3 13.5 21.5 6.8
11 470 2.8 31.1 2.3 23.8 7.3
11.5 470 1.8 32.9 1.1 24.9 8.0 MI 1
12 570 0 0 0 0 0
13 570 3.1 3.1 2.3 2.3 .8
↓ ↓ 32.0 35.1 27.0 29.3 5.8
26 570 2.8 37.9 2.3 31.6 6.3
26.5 570 2.9 40.8 1.2 32.8 8.0 MI 2
27 670 0 0 0 0 0
28 670 3.7 3.7 2.3 2.3 1.4
29 670 3.8 7.5 2.3 4.6 2.9
30 670 3.7 11.2 Note: On bottom (Well is ~164
psi OB due to SF + 36% of MI
still in well)