Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 168

1

CHAPTER 1

COMPANY PROFILE

1.1 COMPANY LOGO

1.2 BACKGROUND

1.2.1 Origin

Chemicopr Sdn. Bhd. was incorporated June 6, 2000 in Tanjung Langsat, Johor,
Malaysia. The goal of the new business was to invest in setting a chemical plant of
the production of Butyl Glycol Ether Ethyl. This company has designed all the
equipments that related to the processes for the large-scale chemical industry of the
production of Butyl Glycol Ether with high productivity in economic and safer ways
with minimum production rate of 100,000 matrix tonne/year. Ethylene Glycol Butyl
Ether is highly demand by many countries because of its uses such as for both water
and solvent-based coatings and industrial and consumer cleaners. Cleaners made
with Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether can remove oils, fats, waxes, greases and baked-on
or ground-in residues from floors, walls, glass, metal parts, and equipment. Cleaning
products which may contain Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether include general surface
cleaners, floor strippers, window cleaners, spot cleaners, rust removers and ink and
resin removers. Paints and coatings that use Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether range from
lacquers, varnishes and enamels to water-based coatings and inks.
2

1.2.2 Support for the Research Community

Chemicorp is committed to the advancement of scientific research and we focus our


product development on the introduction new and innovative process to increase our
production rate for the market. A key step in the generation of those ideas is our
attendance at meetings and conferences. One of the ways that Chemicorp honours
their ongoing commitment to the research community is via their support of young
engineers. We offer travel funds and support to graduate and post-doctoral students
pending approval of their support request. While we can't guarantee funding of all of
the requests, we have already donated many thousands of money directly to support
the attendance of young engineers at important meetings.

1.2.3 Today

Although Chemicorp has changed over the years, we remain firmly committed to our
original goal of providing high quality, affordable products to our customers worldwide.
In recent years we have expanded upon our core product lines to include Diethylene
Glycol Butyl Ether, Triethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, TetraEthylene Glycol Butyl Ether
and others. However, as we grow to meet the needs of our customers we remain
committed to our origins and vision. To provide our customers the affordable and high-
quality products. Today, Chemicorp employs 247 people, with a significant
international presence. More than 4,298 products are manufactured and exported from
the Tanjung Langsat site.
3

CHAPTER 2

INTRODUCTION

2.1 MANUFACTURING

The principle of monoalkyl ether formation of glycols is called ethoxylation of alcohol


or alcoholysis of ethylene oxide. The manufacturing process is similar to the hydration
of ethylene oxide to produce ethylene glycols. The process involves the reaction of
ethylene oxide with alcohols to form Butyl Glycol Ether and the most frequently used
alcohols are methanol, ethanol and n-butanol (Weissermal and Arpe, 1978).

The present invention provides a method for producing a Butyl Glycol Ether,
which comprises reacting an alkylene oxide with an alcohol in the presence of a
catalyst. In this production, alkylene oxide use is ethylene oxide and the alcohol is n-
Butanol. Presence of catalyst is important because the catalyst is an anion exchange
resin which comprises, as the substrate, a polymer of a vinyl aromatic compound and
which has a structure such that a quaternary ammonium group is bonded to the
aromatic group via a linking group having a chain length of at least 3 and the catalyst
use is Sodium Hydroxide.

The primary product of this process is Butyl Glycol Ether (BGE) while the
secondary products, di-, tri- and higher ethylene glycol. The secondary products are
formed when the primary product and higher Butyl Glycol Ether reacted with the
excess ethylene oxide.
4

2.2 PRODUCT AND BY-PRODUCT

2.2.1 Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (EGBE)

Butyl Glycol Ether (BGE) is a key ingredient in hundreds of products ranging from
industrial and consumer cleaning solutions to water- and solvent-based paints and
coatings. Butyl Glycol Ether‟s popularity stems from several special performance
characteristics that also provide economic value. Butyl Glycol Ether has been tested
extensively to assess health and environmental safety.

There is one reaction that is commercially recommended for today‟s


production. The reactions reactants are ethylene oxide and alcohol in liquid phase
which reacts under suitable temperature, pressure and with the presence of selected
catalysts. The reaction between ethylene oxide and alcohol was first discovered in
German during World War II. When Butyl Glycol Ether is manufactured from ethylene
oxide and n-butanol, other glycol ethers such as the di- and triethylene glycol ethers
are produced. Consequently, commercial Butyl Glycol Ether may contain small
concentrations of other glycol ethers, n-butanol and ethylene glycol. Then, a
stabilizer, 2, 6-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol, can be added at
approximately 0.01% to prevent the formation of peroxides.

a) Chemical Name and Others Name

Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (EGBE) belongs to a group of chemicals known as glycol
ethers, which are compounds formed by reacting an alcohol with an alkyl oxide such
as ethylene or propylene oxide. Butyl Glycol Ether is one of the monoalkyl ethers,
which have the general formula R-O-R‟-OH, where R is an alkyl group, for example,
methyl (CH3), and R‟ is - CH2CH2- for the ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers and -
CH2CH2CH2- for the propylene glycol monoalkyl ethers. The glycol ethers are
liquids which are miscible with water and most organic solvents, so they are widely
used as solvents and in cleaners, paints and inks.

The chemical name and from IUPAC Systematic Name, it is called Butyl
Glycol Ether. Besides that, it also have other names or synonyms name like
Butoxyethanol; β-butoxyethanol; n butoxyethanol; 2-n-butoxyethanol; 2- butoxy-1-
ethanol; 2-n-butoxy-1-ethanol; O-butyl ethylene glycol; butylglycol; butyl monoether
glycol; EGBE; ethylene glycol butyl ether; ethylene glycol n-butyl ether; ethylene
glycol monobutyl ether; ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether; glycol butyl ether; glycol
5

monobutyl ether; monobutyl ether of ethylene glycol; monobutyl glycol ether; 3-oxa-1-
heptanol, 2-Butoxyethanol.

b) Molecular and Structural Formula

The molecular formula is C6H14O2.


The molecular weight is 118.2.
The structural formula is CH3CH2CH2CH2OCH2CH2OH

Figure 2.1: Flat structure of Butyl Glycol Ether

c) Trade Names

Butyl glycol Ether is known commercially under the following trade names:

1. Butyl Cellosolve®
2. Butyl Icinol®
3. Butyl Oxitol®
4. Dowanol EB®
5. Ektasolve EB®
6. Gafcol EB®
7. Glycol ether EB®
8. Jeffersol EB®
9. Poly-Solv EB®.

Glycol ethers can be derived and also as raw material in production of many
chemical compounds. Glycol ethers also can be oxidized to aldehydes and an acid,
dehydrated to vinyl ethers, esterifies with usual reagents to form a further useful
series of solvents, and converted into the usual series of alcohol derivatives. This
compound will react with an aldehyde or ketone will give respective acetal or ketal.
(McKetta and Cunningham, 1984)
6

d) Physical Properties

Butyl Glycol Ether is a colourless liquid with an unpleasant odour. The odour
threshold is 0.10 ppm stated by NIOSH in 1990. Conversion factor which is for
vapour is 1ppm = 4.9 mg/m3 (20°C, 1014 kPa).

e) Hydrolysis:

Butyl Glycol Ether is unlikely to hydrolyse as alcohols and ethers are generally
resistant to hydrolysis (Howard et. al, 1993).

f) Adsorption/Desorption:

A Koc of 67 indicates that Butyl Glycol Ether will not partition into organic matter
contained in sediments and suspended solids, and should be highly mobile in soil
(Howard et. al, 1993).

g) Surface Tension:

Butyl Glycol Ether is surface active, thereby increasing its adsorption potential. Butyl
Glycol Ether is soluble in water and most organic solvents. It undergoes reactions
typical of glycol ethers (Dow Chemical, 1990):
i. Oxidation to 2-butoxyacetic acid.
ii. Acetal formation when reacted with aldehydes under acidic
conditions.
iii. Ester formation when reacted with a carboxylic acid, for
example, acetic acid, in the presence of a strong acid.
iv. Phosphate and sulphate esters when reacted with phosphoric
and sulphuric acids respectively.
v. Dehydrogenation in the presence of copper at high
temperatures.

2.2.2 Diethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether (DEGBE)

a) Chemical Name and Others Name

Diethylene glycol butyl ether (DEGBE) is a type of glycol ether. It is primarily used as
a solvent in coatings, inks, cleaners and specialty fluids, or to produce diethylene
glycol butyl acetate. It evaporates slowly and is completely water soluble. Other
7

names for DEGBE are Diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE), Diglycol monobutyl
ether, 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy) ethanol, Butyl CARBITOL™ solvent, Butoxydiglycol and
Butyl diglycol ether. Diethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether solvent is a clear, liquid with
a mild ether odour. It evaporates slowly and is completely water soluble.

b) Molecular and structural formula

The molecular formula is C8H18O3.


The molecular weight is 162.2.
The structural formula is C4H9OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH

(Boatman, R.J.et.al, 2001)


8

2.2.3 Triethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether (TEGBE)

a) Chemical Name and Others Name

Triethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether have several names such as 2-(2-(2-


butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol, Butoxytriglycol, 3,6,9-trioxatridecan-1-ol, Butyltriglycol,
Triethylene glycol n-butyl ether and Butoxytriethylene glycol. TEGBE is a colourless
liquid with a mild odour that is completely soluble in water. TEGBE has a low volatility
which means it doesn‟t evaporate easily. The major use of TEGBE is in automotive
brake fluid formulations. Other possible uses including as a low-volatility component
in paint stripping formulations, dye carrier for textile dye processes, chemical process
solvent, chemical intermediate, and household and industrial cleaning formulations.

b) Molecular and structural formula

The molecular formula is C10H22O4.


The molecular weight is 206.28.
The structural formula is HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3

(Boatman, R.J.et.al, 2001)


9

2.2.4 Tetraethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether (TetraEGBE)

There is two grades of TetraEGBE which are Tetraethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether
regular grade and Tetraethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether, high-purity grade, which is
designed for high-purity specifications in applications such as polyester resins, UV-
curable resins and plasticizers.

Tetraethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether features a higher boiling point and


lower volatility than the lower ethylene glycols. It is completely miscible with water
and a wide range of organic solvents, but has only a very slight affinity for certain
aliphatic hydrocarbons.
10

Table 2.1 - Typical Glycol Ethers


(Source: Priority Existing Chemical Number, 1996)

Class Name Alkyl Structural. Formula


CAS No
Ethylene 2-Methoxyethanol Methyl CH3-O-CH2-CH2- 109-86-
Glycol 2-Ethoxyethanol Ethyl OH 4
Ethers:
2-Butoxyethanol Butyl C2H5-O-CH2-CH2- 110-80-
Monoalkyl
2-Phenoxyethanol phenyl OH 5
1,2-Dimethoxyethane methyl C4H9-O-CH2-CH2- 111-76-
OH 2
C6H5-O-CH2-CH2- 122-99-
OH 6
CH3-O-CH2-CH2-O- 110-71-
CH3 4
Dialkyl 2,(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol methyl, CH3-(O-CH2-CH2)2- 111-77-
2-(2-n-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol ethyl OH 3
Bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether ethyl, C4H9-(O-CH2- 112-34-
butyl CH2)2-OH 5
methyl, CH3-(O-CH2-CH2)2- 111-96-
ethyl O-CH3 6
Trialkyl 2-[2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol ethyl, C2H5-(O-CH2- 112-50-
2,5,8,11-Tetraoxadodecane ethyl, CH2)3-OH 5
ethyl CH3-(O-CH2-CH2)3- 112-49-
methyl, O-CH3 2

ethyl,
ethyl

Propylene Monoalkyl 1-Ethoxy-2-propanol Ethyl CH3-CH(OH)-CH2- 1569-


Glycol 1-Butoxy-2-propanol Butyl O-C2H5 02-4
Ethers:
2-Methoxypropanol-1 Methyl CH3-CH(OH)-CH2- 5131-
O-(CH2)3-CH3 66-8
CH3-CH(O-CH3)- 1589-
CH2-OH 47-5
Dialkyl (2-Methoxymethylethoxy)-propano methyl, CH3-(O-C3H6)2-OH 34590-
(2-Ethoxy-methylethoxy)-propanol l propyl C2H5-(O-C3H6)2-OH 94-8
11

ethyl, 300025-
propyl 38-8

Trialkyl [2-(2- methyl, CH3-(O-C3H6)3-OH 25498-


Methoxymethylethoxy)methylethoxy]- propyl, 49-1
propanol propyl
12

Table 2.2: Physical Properties of EGME, DEGME, TEGME, and TetraEGME


(Source: McKetta and Cunningham, 1984)

Property Butyl Glycol Diethylene Triethylene Tetraethylene


Ether Glycol Glycol Glycol
MonoButyl MonoButyl MonoButyl
Ether Ether Ether
Molecular Weight 118.2 162.2 206.28 250.3
o b
Boiling point ( C at 1 atm) 171.2 230.4 276 304
Flash point (Tag closed cup, oF) 141 230e 250d.e 166
o
Freezing Point ( C at 1 atm) - -68.1 -47.6 -
o
Specific Gravity (20/20 C) 0.9019 0.9536 1.0021 1.008
o
Pounds/U.S. gal (20 C) 7.50 7.95 8.26 -
Refractive Index (ηD at 20 oC) 1.4193 1.4316 - 1.443
o
Viscosity (cP, 20 C) 6.4 6.49 10.9 14
o o
Specific Heat (cal/g C, 20 C) 0.583 0.546 - -
Heat of vaporization (Btu/lb at 1 atm) 171 111 - -
Vapour pressure (mmHg, 20oC) 0.6 0.01 <0.01 -
o
Surface Tension (dyn/cm, 25 C) 31.5 33.6 - 3.9x10-4

a
Decomposers
b
Decomposers if held at this temperature
c
Pensky-Martens closed cup
d
Test method not given, but shoul be Pensky-Martens closed cup
e
Cleveland open cup, 290oF
13

2.3 RAW MATERIALS

2.3.1 Ethylene Oxide

Ethylene oxide was first reported in 1859 by the French chemist Charles-Adolphe
Wurtz, who prepared it by treating 2-chloroethanol with potassium hydroxide:

Cl–CH2CH2–OH + KOH → (CH2CH2) O + KCl + H2O

Ethylene oxide has a simple molecular structure with the chemical formula of
C2H4O. Ethylene oxide can also known as dimethylene oxide, oxirane, ethane oxide
and 1, 2-epoxyethane. Ethylene oxide is a colorless gas with sweet ether like odor in
room condition. Because of its special molecular structure, ethylene oxide easily
participates in the addition reaction, opening its cycle, and thus easily polymerizes.
Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde. It is miscible in water. Ethylene oxide
reacts with water, strong acids, alkalis, and oxidizers; chlorides of iron, tin, and
aluminum; and oxides of iron and aluminum. (Agency for Toxic Substances and
Disease Registry, 2007)

The major application of ethylene oxide is for producing many chemicals and
intermediates, such as ethylene glycol, ethanol amines, simple and complex glycols,
polyglycol ethers and other compounds. It is also a common gas-phase disinfectant
which is widely used in hospitals to sterilize heat-sensitive tools and equipment.
Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by direct oxidation of ethylene in the presence
of silver catalyst. It is extremely flammable and explosive and is used as a main
component of thermo baric weapons, therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped
as a refrigerated liquid. Ethylene oxide, also called oxirane, is the organic compound
with the formula C2H4O. This colourless flammable gas with a faintly sweet odour is
the simplest epoxide, a three-membered ring consisting of two carbons and one
oxygen atom.
14

2.3.2 n-Butanol

n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol also called as biobutanol when being produced


biologically is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the molecular formula
C4H10O. It is one of the groups of "fusel alcohols" which means “bad liquor” from the
German, which have more than two carbon atoms and have significant solubility in
water.

n-Butanol is an intermediate in the production of butyl acrylate, butyl acetate,


dibutyl phthalate, dibutyl sebacate and other butyl esters, butyl ethers such as
ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, di- and triethylene glycol monobutyl ether and the
corresponding butyl ether acetates. Other industrial uses include the manufacture of
pharmaceuticals, polymers, pyroxylin plastics, herbicide esters and butyl xanthate. It
is also used as diluents or as reactant in the manufacture of urea to formaldehyde
and melamine to formaldehyde resins.

n-Butanol is used as an ingredient in perfumes and as a solvent for the


extraction of essential oils. n-Butanol is also used as an extractant in the
manufacture of antibiotics, hormones, and vitamins, a solvent for paints, coatings,
natural resins, gums, synthetic resins, dyes, alkaloids, and camphor. Other
miscellaneous applications of n-butanol are as a swelling agent in textiles, as a
component of brake fluids, cleaning formulations, degreasers, and repellents, and as
a component of ore floatation agents, and of wood-treating systems.

The production or, in some cases, use of the following substances may result
in exposure to n-butanol: artificial leather, butyl esters, rubber cement, dyes, fruit
essences, lacquers, motion picture and photographic films, raincoats, perfumes,
pyroxylin plastics, rayon, safety glass, shellac varnish, and waterproofed cloth.
15

a) Chemical Name and Others Name

Butanol or butyl alcohol can refer to any of the four isomeric alcohols of formula
C4H9OH such as n-Butanol, butan-1-ol, 1-butanol, n-butyl alcohol; Isobutanol, 2-
methylpropan-1-ol, isobutyl alcohol; sec-Butanol, butan-2-ol, 2-butanol, sec-butyl
alcohol, tert-Butanol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, tert-butyl alcohol. It can also refer to
butanol fuel, a proposed alternative to gasoline.

b) Molecular and structural formula

The molecular formula is C4H10O.


The structural formula is CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

Figure 2.2: n-butanol, skeletal structure

Figure 2.3: n-butanol, flat structure


16

Table 2.3: Physical Properties of Ethylene Oxide and n-Butanol


(Source: McKetta and Cunningham, 1984)

Property Ethylene Oxide n-Butanol

Molecular formula C2H4O C4H10O


Molar mass 44.05 g mol−1 74.122 g/mol
Appearance colorless gas colourless liquid
Density 0.882 g/mL, 7.360lbs/gallon 0.8098 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point −111.3 °C −89.5 °C, 184 K, -129 °F
Boiling point 10.7 °C 117.7 °C, 391 K, 244 °F
Solubility in water miscible 7.7 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Refractive index(nD) - 1.399 (20 °C)
Viscosity - 3 cP (25 °C)
Dipole moment - 1.52 D
17

2.4 IMPURITIES

2.4.1 Monoethylene Glycol (MEG)

Monoethylene Glycol is an organic compound widely used as an automotive anti


freeze and a precursor to polymers. In its pure form, it is an odourless, colourless,
syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and ingestion can result in
death. Ethylene glycol is produced from ethylene (ethene), via the intermediate
ethylene oxide. Ethylene oxide reacts with water to produce ethylene glycol
according to the chemical equation-

C2H4O + H2O → HOCH2CH2OH (Monoethylene Glycol) Reaction 1

This reaction can be catalyzed by either acids or bases, or can occur at


neutral pH under elevated temperatures. The highest yields of ethylene glycol occur
at acidic or neutral pH with a large excess of water. Under these conditions, ethylene
glycol yields of 90% can be achieved. The major byproducts are the ethylene glycol
oligomers diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, and tetraethylene glycol. About 6.7
billion kilograms are produced annually.

2.4.2 Diethylene Glycol (DEG)

Diethylene Glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2CH2)2O. It


is a colourless, practically odourless, poisonous, viscous, and hygroscopic liquid with
a sweetish taste. It is miscible in water, alcohol, ether, acetone and ethylene glycol.
DEG is a widely used solvent.DEG is produced by the partial hydrolysis of ethylene
oxide. The resulting product is two ethylene glycol molecules joined by an ether
bond. Diethylene glycol is derived as a co-product with ethylene glycol and
Triethylene glycol.

C2H4O + HOCH2CH2OH → C4H10O3 (Diethylene Glycol) Reaction 2


18

2.4.3 Triethylene Glycol (TEG)

Triethylene glycol, TEG, or triglycol is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid with


molecular formula HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH. It is used as a plasticizer for
vinyl. It is also used in air sanitizer products, such as "Oust" or "Clean and Pure."
When aerosolized it acts as a disinfectant. Glycols are also used as liquid desiccants
for natural gas and in air conditioning systems. It is an additive for hydraulic fluids
and brake fluids and is used as a base for "smoke machine" fluid in the entertainment
industry. TEG is prepared commercially as a co-product of the oxidation of ethylene
at high temperature in the presence of silver oxide catalyst, followed by hydration of
ethylene oxide to yield mono-, di-, tri- and tetraethylene glycols.

C2H4O + C4H10O3 → C6H14O4 (Triethylene Glycol) Reaction 3

2.4.4 Tetraethylene Glycol (TetraEG)

A combustible, hygroscopic, colorless, water-soluble liquid, boils at 327°C; used as a


nitrocellulose solvent and plasticizer and in lacquers and coatings.

C2H4O + C6H14O4 → C8H18O5 (Tetraethylene Glycol) Reaction 4

(“CEH Marketing Research Report: Glycol


Ethers,” Chemical Economics Handbook, SRI
Consulting, July 2004, pages 44 and 48.)
19

Table 2.4: Physical Properties of MEG, DEG, TEG, and TetraEG


(Source: McKetta and Cunningham, 1984)

Property Monoethylene Diethylene Triethylene Tetraethylene


Glycol Glycol Glycol Glycol
Molecular formula C2H6O2 C4H10O3 C6H14O4 C8H18O5
Molar mass 62.07 g mol−1 106.12 g/mol 150.17 g mol−1 194.22 g/mol-1
Appearance - colourless liquid Colorless liquid Liquid
Density 1.1132 g/cm³ 1.118 g/mL 1.1 g/mL 1.12 g/mL
Melting point −12.9°C –10.45 °C -7°C -4.1oC
Boiling point 197.3°C 244–245 °C 285°C 324oC
-
Solubility in water Miscible miscible -
-
Refractive index(nD) - - -
-
Viscosity 1.61 × 10−2 N*s / - -
-
Dipole moment m2 - -
-
20

2.5 APPLICATION AND USAGE

Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether, di-Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether, Triethylene


Glycol MonoButyl Ether and TetraEthylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether have many
applications in various areas in current global industries. These products are
intermediate products because these products will be used later on to produce the
end products.

2.5.1 Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether (EGBE)

Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether has been used for more than half a century. Today
it is used extensively in both water- and solvent-based coatings and industrial and
consumer cleaners. Cleaners made with Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether can
remove oils, fats, waxes, greases and baked-on or ground-in residues from floors,
walls, glass, metal parts, and equipment. Cleaning products which may contain
Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether include general surface cleaners, floor strippers,
window cleaners, spot cleaners, rust removers and ink and resin removers. The use
of cleaning products containing Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether has caused
concern due to the high potential for occupational and public exposure, reports of
adverse health effects in some workers such as irritation of the eyes, nose and throat
and the established toxicity of related glycol ethers, like the reproductive toxicity of 2-
methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol. Paints and coatings that use Ethylene Glycol
MonoButyl Ether range from lacquers, varnishes and enamels to water-based
coatings and inks.

When added to cleaners, Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether helps lift soil and
keeps it suspended until it can be rinsed or wiped away. Because Ethylene Glycol
MonoButyl Ether‟s chemical structure includes ether and an alcohol, it can attack
water-insoluble oils and greases and water-soluble stains. Ethylene Glycol
MonoButyl Ether thus offers manufacturers a variety of cleaning capabilities, from
heavy-duty industrial jobs to milder janitorial and household uses. Because Ethylene
Glycol MonoButyl Ether is compatible with both petroleum solvents and water, it is
found in a wide-range of coatings from automotive and packaging coatings to wood
furniture finishes. It is used widely in water-based industrial paints and coatings.

In household products, Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether uses include glass


and tile cleaners, waxes, rust removers and metal polishes. The same properties that
allow Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether to dissolve and hold soils and stains in
21

suspension make the compound an effective ingredient in water-based protective


paints and coatings. Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether also acts to dissolve or
suspend pigments and resins until the coating is applied to surfaces. Once the
coating is applied, Ethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether is designed to evaporate,
leaving a uniform, dry finish.
22

2.5.2 Diethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether (DEGBE)

DEGBE belongs to the group of glycol ethers, which are mainly used as solvents.
During 1991 – 1993, the production of DEGBE in the European Union ranged from
20,000 to 80,000 tonnes. DEGBE is produced by the reaction of ethylene oxide and
n-butanol with an alkalic catalyst. DEGBE has a wide range of uses as a solvent in
paints, dyes, inks, detergents and cleaners. The major function is to dissolve various
components of mixtures in both aqueous and non aqueous systems. Nearly 60% of
DEGBE in Europe is used in cleaning agents and about 35% in paints and surface
coatings. DEGBE is used in cosmetic products in France at a maximum
concentration of 9%. DEGBE is not used in food and medicine products. According to
the notification to the Commission, DEGBE is used in cosmetic products only as a
solvent in hair dyes (Johnson KA et.al, 2002).

2.5.3 Triethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether (TEGBE)

TEGBE is a colourless liquid with a mild odour and very low volatility. This material is
completely soluble in water. Butoxytriglycol contains greater than 85% TEGBE. Minor
chemical components are: polyethylene glycol monobutyl ether, diethylene glycol
monobutyl ether, diethylene glycol, and Triethylene glycol.

Triethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, oils, gums,
dyes, soaps, grease, paint removers, metal cleaners, and polymers. It is a coalescent
for coatings. It is used in manufacturing plasticizers, cutting and hydraulic oils
(particularly brake fluids), pesticide formulations, metal cleaning agents, stabilizers
and wood preservation (Boatman, R.J et.al, 2001).

2.5.4 Tetraethylene Glycol MonoButyl Ether (TetraEGBE)

TetraEGBE are used as a reactant in the manufacture of polyester resins. tetraEGBE


are produced for use in polyester fiber, films and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
resin production, as well as alkyd resins used in paints. The uses for polyester resins
are extremely varied, and include boat and marine, construction materials,
automotive and aircraft bodies, luggage, furnishings, appliances, textiles and
packaging. Polyester fibers are commonly found in textile applications including
clothing and carpets. Polyester films are frequently used in packaging and wraps for
consumer goods, as well as video, audio and computer tapes. PET is widely used in
the manufacturing of beverage bottles and containers, and other consumer goods
packaging. TetraEGBE are commonly used in natural gas hydration and treating
23

applications to remove water and impurities. TetraEGBE have excellent


hygroscopicity and low volatility. Because of these characteristics, TetraEGBE may
be used directly as a plasticizer or modified by esterification. As a plasticizer,
TetraEGBE are used in the manufacture of:

i. Safety glass
ii. Separation membranes (silicone rubber, polyvinyl acetate, cellulose
triacetate)
iii. Ceramic materials (resistant refractory plastics, molded ceramics)
24

2.6 PROCESS SELECTION


Figure 2.1: Description Flow of Process Selection

Process Selection Site Selection Thermodynamic


Analysis
Process 2 Process 1 Process 3 Selangor Johor Negeri Sembilan
 Location respect to marketing area Physical Properties
 Raw material supply
LDH catalyst  Transport facilities
Zeolite Anion Exchange
 Availability of labours Hazard Study / MSDS
Resin  Availability of utilities: Water, fuel, power.
 Availability of sustainable land
 Environmental impact and Effluent Disposal
 Local community consideration
 Climate
 Political strategic consideration

Market Analysis

 Raw Material
 Supplier
 Buyer / Market Demand
 Competitor
Preliminary process
Flow PFD

Material Balance
Hysis
Energy Balance
25

Process Selection

Route Selection Stage Process 2 Process 1 Process 3

Catalyst Selection Stage Zeolite Anion Exchange LDH catalyst


Resin

Figure 2.5: Route Selection Stage and Catalyst Selection Stage

There are few methods available to produce 100 000 ton/year of EGBE. In this section,
there are few aspects that we need to consider. The most economical process is usually
the most favorable process. The following processes are the available manufacturing
process to produce the product which is Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether.

2.6.1 First Process

The reactions with the simultaneously production of higher molecular weight ethylene
glycol ether derivatives are analogous to those occurring during the hydration of
ethylene oxide. The corresponding reactions for the concurrent production of the mono-,
di-, triethylene glycol butyl ethers:

There is a large quantity of data available on the German process for the
manufacture of the glycol ethers. The monobutyl, ethyl, and n-propyl ethers of ethylene
glycol are manufactured by the continuous reaction of ethylene glycol are manufactured
by the continuous reaction of ethylene oxide with the anhydrous alcohol at about 2000C
and at 25-45 atm pressure.
26

Reaction 1
Ethylene Oxide Butanol Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, EGBE

Reaction 2
Ethylene Oxide EGBE Diethylene Glycol Butyl Ether. DEGBE

Reaction 3
Ethylene Oxide DEGBE Triethylene Glycol Butyl Ether. TEGBE

Reaction 4
Ethylene Oxide DEGBE Tetraethylene Glycol Butyl Ether. TetraEGBE

Figure 2.6: Reaction of EGBE, DEGBE, TEGBE and TetraEGBE

One volume of ethylene oxide and 6 volume of alcohol are fed to a pressure
tower packed with iron raschig rings. Excess of alcohol is used to give the required high
ratio of glycol ether: diglycol ether, to control the heat librated in the reactor, and to avoid
high concentrations of the ethylene oxide and alcohol is exothermic, about 20-25 kg-cal
per g mole of ethylene oxide reacted. The reaction product emerges from the base of the
pressure tower and is distilled semi continuously. The alcohol is recycled; the pure glycol
and diglycol ethers are isolated by batch fractionation. After removal of excess alcohol,
the crude product contains about 85 percent glycol ether, 10 percent diglycol ether, and
2-3 percent polygylcol ethers. The yield of ethers is about 90-95 percent on ethylene
oxide and alcohol consumed. The reaction is controlled to give complete conversion of
ethylene oxide. The contact time has been calculated on the assumption that the reactor
capacity is 3.5 cubic m.

Either acids or bases may be used as catalysts in the reaction between ethylene
oxide and alcohol. However, acids are corrosive and must be neutralized before treating
the crude reaction product, and alkalies lead to the formation of resins with the
acetaldehyde present in the ethylene oxide. Because of the above reasons a
noncatalytic process was developed. The Germans also developed a process using
aqueous ethyl alcohol, but as this involves a difficult products separation, it is not
preferred.
27

2.6.2 Second Process

Production of glycol monobutyl ether by reaction of formaldehyde is an n-butanol with


carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of catalyst system. In this production of
glycol butyl ether are prepared by reaction of an aldehyde, a monohydric alcohol and
synthesis gas in the presence of the catalyst. The processes are as follow:

Reaction 1

Reaction 2

Figure 2.7: Reaction for Second Process

A wide variety of alcohol and aldehydes may also be employed in the process
instead of n-butanol and formaldehydes. This process provide high degree of selectivity
by yields of ethylene glycol butyl ether and ethyelene dibutyl ether as high as 64 percent
based on the formaldehyde charged to the reactor have been obtained. Pressure reactor
was charged in this process for mixture of catalyst, formaldehyde in n-butanol. After
flushing with nitrogen, the reactor then was sealed and flushed a with a gaseous mixture
containing equal molar amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen following which it
was pressured range 1000 psi to 5000 psi with. This pressure represents the total
pressure generated by all the reactants although they are substantially due to the carbon
monoxide and hydrogen fraction. The relative amounts of carbon monoxide and
hydrogen which may initially present in the syngas mixture are variable and these
amounts can be varied over the wide range. The mole ration of CO: H2 range from 20:1
up to about 1:20 but preferably from 5: 1 to 1:5. The mixture then finally heated about
1600C with agitation. The range operability can be varied from about 500C to about
3000C when super atmospheric syngas are employed. A narrower range of operability
temperature preferred was about 1000C to about 2500C. After 4 hours reaction, the
reactor was allowed to cool and the excess gaseous vented while the deep brown liquid
product was recovered. The desired product then can be recovered by conventional
distillation process. The unreacted n-butanol and catalyst can be recycled to improve the
process yield. By product found such as water and some dibutoxymethane .
28

2.6.3 Third Process

By contacting a glycol with a monohydric alcohol in the presence of a


polyperfluorosulfonic acid resin catalyst under conditions is effective to produce the
glymes. This method can be used to produce monoglyme , ethyl glyme, diglyme, ethyl
diglyme,triglyme, butyl diglyme, tetraglyme and producing 1,4-dioxane, water as by
product.

Figure 2.8: Reaction for Third Process

A feed solution consisting of 3 moles ethylene glycol, 12 moles n-butanol and


about 0.0015 of NAFION 1100 EW Polymer (H+ form) were charged to the autoclave
reactor (high pressure reactor). After sealing and pressure testing, all the mixture were
agitated at 1900 rpm and pressurized to 700 psi to 1000 psi with nitrogen due to high
vapour pressure of the reactants and the products formed during the reaction. Along the
reaction process, the autoclave was depressurized and being repeated 2 or 3 times to
ensure complete deoxygenation. As continuous process, a recycle feed nominally by
weight of 2.4% of NAFION 1100 EW Polymer (H+ form), 12.7% ethylene glycol
monobutyl ether, 20.7% ethylene glycol and 64.2% n- butanol was continuously added
to the reactor. As for using high preesure pump, the feed solution was added at rate
equivalent to 0.2 of the reactor working volume per hour. into the autoclave mixture An
elevated reaction temperature allows the catalyst to partially dissolve in the reaction
mixture, thus it provides semi homogeneous catalyst condition. Production of the glymes
occurs at the reaction temperature in range of 1000C to 3000C but in this case preferably
1600C to 2200C to kept the mixture 2000C. For the monoglymes and diglymes selected
operation temperature is 1900C to 2100C and about 4 to 5 hours reaction.
29

Once the reaction has been completed, the reactor contents are cooled to
ambient temperatures and the reactor contents are separated by conventional distillation
column and the 1,4- dioxane is formed as co-product while the water and the dialkyl
ether produces as by product. As for result found about 75.7% of the ethylene glycol was
converted in the reaction with 71.4% of yield and with 94.3% selectivity.
30

2.6.4 Justification of Process Selection

Table 2.5: Comparison of the Process

Criteria Factor Weight Score Index Total Score

(%) P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3
0.13 x 65 0.13 x 85 0.13 x 80
Raw material (Price, Supplier) 13 65 85 80 = 8.45 = 11.05 = 10.4

Product Selectivity 13 72 65 94 9.36 8.45 12.2

Product Yield 13 85 61 72 11.05 7.93 9.36

Reactant Conversion 8 99 90 75 7.92 7.2 6

Safety Factor 12 80 70 75 9.6 8.4 9

Environment Study 8 80 65 70 6.4 5.2 5.6

By Product 5 85 65 65 4.25 3.25 3.25

Operating Condition 3 85 65 80 2.55 1.95 2.4

Energy Involve 5 85 65 80 4.25 3.25 4

Maintenance 4 85 85 85 3.4 3.4 3.4

Catalyst 4 80 80 80 3.2 3.2 3.2

Separation / Purification 7 80 75 75 5.6 5.25 5.25

Reaction 5 90 70 70 4.5 3.5 3.5

Total Credit 100 80.53 66.83 77.56


31

2.6.4.1 Raw Material

The basic raw material for all three processes is n-butanol. Hence the comparison on the
price only can be made on the other raw material required. For the process 1 (P1),
ethylene oxide is the other raw material which have a prices about £850 per ton
worldwide. While for the Process 2 (P2) using ethylene glycol £550 and for the process 3
(P3) carbon monoxide, hydrogen and formaldehyde which have total price more
affordable which more cheap to operate for a long time process. So, P3 provide better
advantage in term of pricing. For the supplier of the raw material, all three processes
categorized almost the same as the supplier in around Malaysia itself.

2.6.4.2 Product Selectivity & Yield

Table 2.6: Process 1


Composition effluent wt% Conversion Selectivity Yield
Process EO BuOH EGBE DEGEBE TEGBE % % %
P1 0.2 57.5 30.5 9.8 22 99 72 85

Table 2.7: Process 2


Composition effluent wt% Conversion Selectivity Yield
Process H20 BuOH EGBE EGDBE BuOCH % % %
P2 4.5 75.2 17.8 2 0.5 90 65 61

Table 2.8: Process 3


Composition effluent wt% Conversion Selectivity Yield
Process EG BuOH EGBE EGDBE % % %
P2 0.5 68.5 24 7 75 94 72
32

Base on the product yield and selectivity clear enough that route process 1
indicate higher yield and conversion by 85% and 99% respectively. But the P3 gave
higher selectivity up to 94%. Hence, the P1 have advantages in term of the product
specification or condition when operating.

2.6.4.3 Safety Factor

Safety process is very looking forward nowadays in chemical plant. It is important to


ensure the hazard of the process can be avoided as much as can be done. In order to
accomplish the mission the best route lead to safe operation and environment must be
take an account. As for all the three process available, all have advantages and
disadvantages itself but the P2 provide more safe raw material to be handle

2.6.4.4 Environment Study

The effluent is must to treat first before the waste is discharge at final discharge point.
The P1 shows the last product with higher ethers needs to be treating because it
consider as waste. P1 and P3 environmentally are better compare than the P2 in term
of the air pollution. P2 is release more CO2 during the process.

2.6.4.5 Reactant Conversion & by-Product

As mentioned in the product evaluation, the reactant conversion is another important


thing to be considered to ensure full conversion occurs during the process. P1 indicated
higher reactant conversion compared than others. For the by- product criteria, P1
produces about another 2-3 other higher ether which are di, tri and tetra ethylene glycol
butyl ether. And all of this by-product have their own market demand and suitable to be
sell in the world market. P2 and P3 on the other hand, produced only 1 by-product. In
term of the profitability study, P1 route are most preferable for a long term process.
33

2.6.4.6 Operating Condition & Energy Consumption

i. P1 operating conditions are about 2000C and at 25-45 atm,


ii. P2 operating conditions are about 100 – 2500C and at almost 100 atm
iii. P3 operating conditions are about 2000C and at 70 atm.

As comparisons, the P2 conditions are needs more energy to operate compare to other
2 process because the reaction for P2 requires high pressure and temperature. The
amount of energy must be consistent to handle and control the process.

2.6.4.7 Maintenance

Since all the three processes are in continuous process, the maintenance is almost the
same as comparison. The continuous process seems more complicated in term of
maintenance over that batch process.

2.6.4.8 Separation and Purification

Separation and purification is another heavy important thing to be considered in


processing plant. Higher purity during reaction is important to ensure the energy
consumption during the purification can be reduced. As can be seen roughly, the P1
indicated higher yield product with a good conversion which lead to easy purification
compared to the others route. Other than that, the catalyst separation also needs to be
emphasized. The heterogeneous catalysts are considered better separation instead of
homogeneous catalyst.

2.6.4.9 Catalyst

All the three process represent different catalyst requirement to enhance the process. All
three processes P1, P2 and P3 provide heterogeneous catalyst by fix type of catalyst
use for the process. In the production of EGBE, heterogeneous seems has advantages
due to the further separation whereby easy to be done. Homogeneous base catalyst
may have drawback that adduct having at least 2 mole of olefin oxide added. It is also
generally difficult to remove the homogeneous catalyst from the system purification
processes and automatically resultant toxicity to the product or waste. Besides, it difficult
controls the positioned selectivity of reaction.
34

2.6.5 Catalyst Selection

Since the Process 1 is become the main route selected for this production of EGBE. The
catalyst is important to determine since the catalyst involve are heterogeneous. Three
type of catalyst which is Zeolite, Anion Exchnage Resin and Leyered Double Hydroxide
(LDH) for this process must be analyzing in order to optimize the processto be high
catalyst activity, procudtivity, and selectivity but low in term of cost.

2.6.5.1 Zeolite Catalyst

One of the widely use inorganic materials for the catalytic activity are cationic clays.
These clays comprise negatively charge metal silicate clays. For this process, the
catalyst present is a metallosillicate catalyst. The metellosilicate use has generic
composition which relative mole ratios of various oxides. The sodium exchange USY
zeolite (Si/Al =80) which is the crystalline metallosilicate used are weakened acidity and
basic in character. However, it is necessary to replace sufficient number of hydrogen
inos present in metallosilicate with alkali metal ions for resultant is basic in character.
This catalyst used suitability for a large pore type.

The preparation of the catalyst to be activate is by heating it in air flow at


elevated temperature from 2500C – 6500C for about 5- 30 hours before can be use. The
operating temperature for the catalyst to operate in optimize condition are form ambient
up to 3500C at 50 bar. A particular advantage of the zeolite catalysts is that they are
regenerable and can be used for several cycles. Besides, the lifetime of the zeolite
catalyst will up to 2 years.

Table 2.9: Zeolite Catalyst


Selectivity of product % w/w Conversion EO byproduct
Catalyst EGBE Higher ethers % % w/w
Zeolite 92.8 4.9 40 2.3
35

2.6.5.2 Anion Exchange Resin Catalyst

Solid base catalyst that comprises as the substrate a polymer vinyl aromatic compound
which has a structure a quaternary ammonium group is bonded to aromatic group via a
linking group having chain length of at least 3. The advantages is that having certain
specific structure as the catalyst with a good performance respect to durability and
consequently will produce terminal adduct type structure high reactivity and selectivity.
This type of catalyst provide low price and better lifetime which about 3-5 years and can
be regenerate several cycle. The operating temperature for the catalyst is about 50 0C to
2000C. The regeneration process can be simple as by shifting the equilibrium to the left.
And it can be accomplished by increasing concentration of X-.

Table 2.10: Anion Exchange Resin Catalyst

Selectivity of product % w/w Conversion EO byproduct


Catalyst EGBE Higher ethers % % w/w
AER 80 19.8 99 0.2
36

2.6.5.3 Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Catalyst

LDH comprises layer double hydroxide clay with its layered structure intact and having
interlamellar anions at least some of which are metal ions. LDH is type of anion clays
which intercalated metal oxides or hydroxide. On the performance part, LDH clays
contain mainly carbonate which normally has low activity as catalyst for the preparation
of glycol ethers. The operating temperature for the catalyst to operate in optimize
condition are form ambient up to 2500C at 50 bar. The lifetime more less same as zeolite
catalyst even the regeneration process also similar to the zeolite catalyst procedure but
the catalyst easily recovered post reaction and could be recycled with no loss in
selectivity.

Table 2.11: Catalyst for the Preparation of Glycol Ether

Selectivity of product % w/w Conversion EO byproduct


Catalyst EGBE Higher ethers % % w/w
LDH 95 5 80 0.3
37

2.6.5.4 Justification on Catalyst Selection Stage

Table 2.12: Catalyst Selection Stage

Criteria Factor Weight Score Index Total Score

(%) Zeolite AER LDH Zeolite AER LDH


0.25 x 65 0.25 x 85 0.25 x 70
Price, Operating Cost 25 65 85 70 = 16.25 = 21.25 = 17.5

Performance 25 60 75 85 15 18.75 21.25

Lifetime 20 75 80 75 15 16 15

Regeneration process 15 75 80 85 11.25 12 12.75

Separation Process 15 80 80 85 12 12 12.75

Total Credit 100 69.5 80 79.25


38

2.6.5.5 PFD of the Selected Process


39

CHAPTER 3

MARKET ANALYSIS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Market analysis can be defined as a survey of the demand and supply of a particular
product including main product and by- product that an industry intends to produce for
sale locally, regionally or globally. It is important to determine the profitability of a product
in the market. Besides that, it will enable a company to determine related parties such as
competitors, suppliers and buyers of the product.

The largest volume of Glycol produced in the market is Ethylene Glycol because
of its wide variety of applications and uses. Other Glycols include Butyl Cellusolve, Butyl
Glycol, Butyl Oxitol, Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether, 2-butoxyethanol, and Ethanol 2-
butoxy.

Glycol products can be used as solvents or plasticizer for plastic and varnish,
dehydrating and textile conditioning agents, general purpose cleaners, water-based
coating and paint and also preservatives. Because of their chemical and physical
properties, Glycol that having a high boiling point is used as liquid desiccant for the
dehydration of natural gas
.
Specifically, this section is all about the market and the production of Butyl
Glycol Ether as well as the raw materials (Ethylene Oxide and n- Butanol) where by
Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Butyl Cellosolve) is taken as the main product while
Diethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Butyl CARBITOLTM), Triethylene Glycol Butyl Ether
(Butoxytriglycol) and Tetraethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Butoxytetraglycol) as the by-
products.

Furthermore, this section will include the break-even analysis which is the
analysis of income, cost and profit structures with particular reference to the break-even
point. The break-even point is that level of sales at which neither profit nor loss is made,
40

it is the lowest point at which fixed costs are fully recovered. All information and
dataquoted in this market analysis were sourced from various websites in the internet,
other journals, World Trade Atlas and Department of Statistics Malaysia.

3.2 SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF BUTYL GLYCOL ETHER

3.2.1 World’s Demand and Supply of Butyl Glycol Ether

Table 3.1: World demand of Butyl Glycol Ether

Year Demand (Tonnes metric / year)

1972 58500

1975 58500

1983 103500

1984 121950

1986 135000

1995 183800
(Source: World Chemical Report, 1996)
41

WORLD DEMAND OF BUTYL GLYCOL ETHER


200000
180000
160000

Tonnes Metric
140000
120000
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
1972 1975 1983 1984 1986 1995

Years

Figure 3.1: The trend line for world demand of Butyl Glycol Ether from 1972 –
1995 (Source: World Chemical Report, 1996)

The business in these solvent is changing around the world and more changes
are expected. Therefore Butyl Glycol Ether market has being rapidly growth, especially
in the regions of economic development. Figure 3.1 above illustrated a graph with an
approximately 58500 tonnes metric per year of Butyl Glycol Ether were produced in the
United States in the 1970s. However, there was a significant overall increase in
production during the early eighties which was reported to be more than 103500 tonnes
metric per year. Production of Butyl Glycol Ether reached 121950 tonnes metric year in
1984 and increased to over 135000 tonnes metric per year in 1986. A production volume
of 183800 tonnes metric year of Butyl Glycol Ether has been estimated for 1995. It is
predicted that the pattern will continue for further years because demand of the Butyl
Glycol Ether in the world are predicted increasing about 30%.

Major producers of Butyl Glycol Ether in United States are Dow Chemical,
(Midland Michigan), Eastman Chemical Co., Texas Eastman Co. Division (Longview,
Texas), Occidental Petroleum Corporation, Oxy Petrochemicals, Inc. (Dallas, Texas),
Shell Chemical Co. (Geismar, Lousiana) and Union Carbide Corporation, Solvents and
Intermediates (Seadrift, Texas).
42

Table 3.2: World solvent-based coatings demand by region (tonnes metric)


Region
Year 2000 2005 2010
North America 13580 13550 13325
Western Europe 12950 12930 12845
Japan 11452 11587 11715
Other Asia-Pacific 13681 14774 20580
Rest of World 13470 14229 15095
(Source: Dow Chemical Company)

World solvent-based coatings demand by region

24000

22000

20000
Tonnes Metric

North America
18000 Western Europe
Japan
16000
Other Asia-Pacific
Rest of World
14000

12000

10000
2000 2005 2010

Figure 3.2: World solvent-based coatings demand by region (tonnes metric)


(Source: Dow Chemical Company)

From Table 3.2 and Figure 3.2 above, it is predicted that uses of Butyl Glycol
Ether in paints and coatings for both North America and Western Europe will decline by
over 8% and 4% respectively between year 2000 and 2010. However it will increase by
over 18% in Japan, more than 66% in other Asia Pacific countries and 47% for the rest
of the world. Furthermore, the global demand for Butyl Glycol Ether is projected to
43

increase in the future mainly due to higher demands from Asia, which is the target region
demand for our product. The United States and Western Europe are the major
producers. However, the use of this product as solvents for paints is decreasing in the
developed world because of environmental concerns.

Since, United States and Western Europe regions slowly to stop produce the
Butyl Glycol Ether because of environment concerns; it will give high opportunity to the
Asia Pacific region to become the main producer and supplier of the Butyl Glycol Ether.
Furthermore, Asia Pacific regions are the main demander of Butyl Glycol Ether in the
solvent- based coatings industries. From Figure 3.3 below, it is showed that the
demands of the Butyl Glycol Ether are higher than the supply in Asia Pacific regions
from year 2008 to 2010. This pattern will continue for further years because demand of
the Butyl Glycol Ether are predicted increasing about 30%.

Asia Demand and Supply of Butyl Glycol


Ether
40000
35000
30000
Tonnes Metric

25000
20000 Demand
15000 Supply
10000
5000
0
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Figure 3.3: Asia demand and supply of Butyl Glycol Ether from 2008 to 2013
(Source: Dow Chemical Company & MATRADE)

Since, the supply are increasing too but it is not sufficient to fulfill the market
demand because of United States and Western Europe regions are slowly to stop
produce the Butyl Glycol Ether because of environment concerns.
44

As the conclusion, the production of 100,000 tonnes of Butyl Glycol Ether can be
profitable because of the potential high demand particularly in Asia especially in Asia
Pacific regions.

3.2.2 Malaysia’s Demand and Supply of Butyl Glycol Ether

The OPTIMAL group of companies (OPTIMAL) is one of the largest company that
involve in producing chemical compounds from petroleum derivatives. Established in
July 1998, OPTIMAL comprises three companies which are OPTIMAL Olefins (Malaysia)
SDN BHD, OPTIMAL Glycols (Malaysia) SDN BHD and OPTIMAL Chemicals (Malaysia)
SDN BHD. OPTIMAL manufactures more than 75 products that are supplied to its
customers locally and exported to the Asia Pacific markets.

Therefore, OPTIMAL Chemical (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd produces and exports Butyl
Glycol Ether to various countries across Asia. Based in Kerteh, Terengganu, OPTIMAL
Company is the one of largest producer of exports Butyl Glycol Ether in a single location,
producing 60000 tonnes metric per year. OPTIMAL's key markets include South East
Asia, Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan. About 60 percent of the Group's products
are utilized to meet local demands with the remaining 40 percent for the export market.

According to the World Chemical Report, 2010, the price of Butyl Glycol Ether
increased from RM 15.83 per kg or per 0.001 tonnes metric in October 2009 to RM
16.52 per kg or per 0.001 tonnes metric in April 2010. Refer to the Table 3 below, it
illustrated that the export of Butyl Glycol Ether by other country from the Malaysia was
increase from year 2008 to 2010. It was proved that Malaysia is the one of the
successful producer of Butyl Glycol Ether in the world and has a good opportunity in the
market global to become a major producer in Asia and world. While in Table 4 below
showed that the Malaysia was slowly to stop to export of Butyl Glycol Ether from other
country because Malaysia believe that it can become the producer of Butyl Glycol Ether
and depend all into their own productions.

Table 3.3: The Malaysia‟s export of Butyl Glycol Ether by country


2008 2009 2010
Country Value (RM / Millions Value (RM / Millions Value (RM / Millions
kg) Kg kg) Kg kg) Kg
45

China 15.23 5.540 12.98 10.84 14.30 11.89


Indonesia 15.40 1.691 13.11 0.9592 14.30 1.858
Japan 14.92 1.482 13.47 0.3764 14.31 1.185
Thailand 15.24 0.7889 13.02 2.264 14.26 1.130
Philippines 14.75 1.377 12.47 1.196 14.12 1.116
Taiwan 15.02 1.136 12.96 2.103 14.24 0.7845
Singapore 16.03 0.1756 13.76 0.4127 15.21 0.7166
Vietnam 16.48 0.2666 14.22 0.5518 15.12 0.3064
Australia 15.20 0.6518 12.83 1.121 13.86 0.3064
India - - 13.49 0.2889 15.04 0.09216
New 14.99 0.3024 12.98 0.06218 14.29 0.06133
Zealand
Sri Lanka - - 14.29 0.09000 14.70 0.05040
South Korea - - 12.82 0.6520 14.14 0.01150
Brunei - - - - 16.45 0.02160
Darussalam
Source: MATRADE, April 2010

Table 3.4: The Malaysia‟s import of Butyl Glycol Ether by country


2008 2009 2010
Country Value (RM / Millions Value (RM / Millions Value (RM / Millions
kg) Kg kg) Kg kg) Kg
United 20.94 0.2713 14.89 0.3535 15.35 0.1269
States
India 15.29 0.0156 14.79 0.6670 15.30 0.09204
Taiwan 18.03 0.1704 15.01 0.02302 14.85 0.1010
United 113.96 0.02811 21.54 0.02385 18.69 0.04254
Kingdom
Singapore 11.82 0.01138 13.03 0.03865 11.59 0.02598
Germany 30.06 0.02876 14.17 0.1000 15.65 0.0060
United Arab 18.55 0.0250 - - - -
Emirates
46

Brazil 15.37 0.01255 - - - -


China 50.18 0.00260 - - - -
France 17.17 0.08134 14.35 0.03781 - -
Japan 45.75 0.0006 - - - -
South Korea - - 25.29 0.00882 - -
Netherlands 20.23 0.04588 - - - -
Panama 20.39 0.01093 - - - -
Source: MATRADE, April 2010

3.3 AN OVERVIEW ON RAW MATERIALS


The production of Butyl Glycol Ether is dependent on raw materials which are Butyl
Alcohol (n- Butanol) and Olefin Oxide (Ethylene Oxide) as the excess reagent and
limiting reactant respectively. The reaction between Ethylene Oxide and n- Butanol in
the presence of Anion Exchange Resin as a catalyst will result in the production of Butyl
Glycol Ether.

3.3.1 SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF ETHYLENE OXIDE

3.3.1.1 World’s Demand and Supply of Ethylene Oxide

Table 3.5: World Demand and Price of Ethylene Oxide

Year Demand Price (RM / 0.001 tonnes


(Tonnes metric / year) metric)

1996 357000 4.39

1997 360000 4.39

1998 364000 4.39


47

1999 371000 4.90

2000 377000 4.90

2001 404000 4.90

2002 - -

2003 - -

2004 - 5.41

2005 - 5.83

2006 - -

2007 - -

2008 649000 6.34

2009 759000 6.42

2010 706000 6.62

(Source: World Chemical Report, 2005 and MATRADE, May 2010)


48

WORLD DEMAND OF ETHYLENE OXIDE


410000

400000

390000
Tonnes Metric

380000

370000

360000

350000

340000

330000
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Year

Figure 3.4: The trend line for world demand of Ethylene Oxide from 1996 – 2001
(Source: World Chemical Report, 2005)

WORLD PRICE OF ETHYLENE OXIDE


5
RM / 0.001 tonnes metric

4.9
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Years

Figure 3.5: The trend line for world price of Ethylene Oxide from 1996 – 2001 (Source:
World Chemical Report, 2005)

Figure 3.4 above illustrated a graph with a gradual increase of demand on


Ethylene Oxide from 357000 tonnes metric per year in 1996 to 404000 tonnes metric per
year in 2001. The increasing demand is the highest in year 2000 to year 2001 which is
7% compared to the other years which is only increased by 1%. The demand of
49

Ethylene Oxide is continually increasing in year 2008 to 2010 which are from 649000 to
706000 tonnes metric per year respectively.

Furthermore, the price per 0.001 tonnes metric remains stable at around RM
4.39 from year 1996 to 1998. The price increased to RM 4.90 per tonnes metric started
from year 1999 and remains the same up to year 2001(World Chemical Report, 2005).
The price of Ethylene Oxide in year 2004 per 0.001 tonnes metric is RM 5.41 and
increased to RM 5.83 per 0.001 tonnes metric in year 2005 (Dow Chemical Company).
Based on the demand of Ethylene Oxide from year 1996 to 2001, it is predicted that this
trend of the price will continue and keep increasing until year 2010 or 2011. The
assumption was proved by the increasing of Ethylene Oxide‟s price in year 2008 to 2010
which are RM 6.34, RM 6.42 and RM 6.62 per 0.001 tonnes metric respectively (World
Chemical Report, 2005 and MATRADE, May 2010).

Producer of Ethylene Oxide

700000
600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
0
Production (Tonnes Metric / year)
BASF, Geismar, Los Angeles 204000
Dow, Seadrift, Texas 410000
Dow, Taft, Texas 667000
Dow, Plaquemine, Los Angeles 279000
Eastman, Longview, Texas 104000
Equistar, Bayport, Texas 338000
Formosa, Point Comfort, Texas 248000
Huntsman, Port Neches, Texas 510000
Old World Industries, Clear
315000
Lake, Texas

Figure 3.6: Producer of Ethylene Oxide in the United States in 2006


(Source: World Chemical Report, 2005)
50

Since the United States is the major producer of Ethylene Oxide in the world,
according to the Figure 3.6 above lists the major producers of Ethylene Oxide in the
United States in year 2006. The Dow Chemicals accounted for more than 50% of the
producer (World Chemical Report, 2005). One of the producers of Ethylene oxide in Asia
is Singapore which is located at Jurong Island (Merbau). Ethylene Glycols (Singapore)
Pte Ltd (EGS) is one of the companies operating as part of the petrochemicals complex
on Jurong Island, Singapore.

3.3.1.2 Malaysia’s Demand and Supply of Ethylene Oxide

Optimal (Chemicals) Sdn.Bhd. in Kerteh, Terengganu is the one of the company in


Malaysia which produces Ethylene Oxide with an annual production of 385000 tonnes
metric. The Ethylene Oxide which produces by this company is consumed locally and
exported to the Asia Pacific markets. Other than that, this company also produces
Ethylene, Ethylene Glycol and Ethoxylates with an annual production of 600000,
360000, and 85000 tonnes metric respectively. (Source: Chemicals- Technology.com.
OPTIMAL's key markets include South East Asia, Japan, South Korea, China and
Taiwan. About 60 percent of the products are utilized to meet local demands with the
remaining 40 percent for the export market.

Table 3.6: The specification of Ethylene Oxide plant in Kerteh


Key Data
Order year 2001
Plant type Integrated Petrochemicals site
Location Kerteh
Estimated investment $300 million
Completion 2001
Key Players
Sponsor Petronas, Union Carbide
Lead Contractor Linde AG
Output chemicals Tonnes per year
Ethylene 600,000
Ethylene Glycol 360,000
Ethylene Oxide 385,000
51

Ethoxylates (TRITON and TERGITOL surfactant, 85,000


CARBOWAX polyethylene glycols and UCON
polyalkylene glycols)
Isobutanol 140,000
Isobutanol Derivatives (isobutyl acetate, and 160,000
isobutyl acrylate
Ethanolamines 75,000
UCARSOL gas-treating solvents 10,000
(Source: Chemicals- Technology.com)

3.3.2 SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF N- BUTANOL

3.3.2.1 World’s Demand and Supply of n- Butanol

Table 3.7: World demand and price of n- Butanol

Year Demand Price (RM / Kg)


(Tonnes metric / year)

1996 650000 4.22

1997 695000 4.22

1998 740000 4.22

1999 790000 4.22

2000 792000 4.64


52

2001 810000 4.64

2002 - -

2003 - -

2004 - 5.40

2005 - 7.94

2006 - -

2007 - -

2008 850000 8.50

2009 890000 8.70

2010 900000 9.00

(Source: World Chemical Report, 2005, Dow Chemical Company and MATRADE, Apr
2010)
53

WORLD DEMAND OF N- BUTANOL


850000

Tonnes Metric 800000

750000

700000

650000

600000
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Year

Figure 3.7: The trend line for world demand of n- Butanol from 1996 – 2001 (Source:
World Chemical Report, 2005 & Dow Chemical Company)

WORLD PRICE OF N-- BUTANOL


4.7
4.6
RM / Tonnes metric

4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Years

Figure 3.8: The trend line for world price of n- Butanol from 1996 – 2001
(Source: World Chemical Report, 2005 & Dow Chemical Company)

Figure 3.7 above illustrated a graph with a gradual increase of demand on n-


Butanol from 650000 tonnes metric per year at RM 4.22 per 0.001 tonnes metric in 1996
to 810000 tonnes metric per year at RM 4.64 per 0.001 tonnes metric in 2001. This
54

reflected a 25% increase in the demand with only a corresponding increase of 10% in
the price per kg (Table 3.7). The price per kg or per 0.001 tonnes metric remains static
at RM 4.22 from year 1996 to 1999 despite an increase in demand by 20% from 650000
to 760000 tonnes metric per year. The price increased to RM 4.64 per 0.001 tonnes
metric started from year 2000 and remains constant in year 2001 (World Chemical
Report, 2005).

In year 2004, the price of n- Butanol is RM 5.40 per 0.001 tonnes metric and
started to increase to RM 7.94 per 0.001 tonnes metric in year 2005. (Source: Dow
Chemical Company). Based on the demand and prices of n- Butanol from year 1996 to
2005, it is predicted that the price and demand of n- Butanol will keep increasing until
year 2010 or 2011. The assumption was proved by the increasing of n- Butanol‟s price in
year 2008 to 2010 which are RM 8.50, RM 8.70 and RM 9.00 per 0.001 tonnes metric
respectively (World Chemical Report, 2005 and MATRADE, Apr 2010).

Table 3.8: Producer of n- Butanol in 2008


Country Production (Tonnes metric / year)
United States 1295000
Western Europe 1068000
China 881000
(Source: Dow Chemical Company)

Table 3.8 above shows the world producer of n- Butanol. The world production of
n- Butanol is 3237000 tonnes metric per year. It is mainly focused in the United States,
Western Europe and China, which account for 40%, 33% and 9% respectively of the
world‟s total. The United States is the largest n- Butanol producer in the world.
55

Producer of n- Butanol

300000

250000

200000

150000

100000

50000

0
Production (Tonnes metric /
year)
BASF, Freeport, Texas 207000
Celanese, Bay City, Texas 223000
Dow, Taft, Los Angeles 270000
Dow, Texas City, Texas 262000
Eastman, Longview, Texas 131000

Figure 3.9: Producer of n- Butanol in the United States in 2008 (Source: World
Chemical Report, 2009)

Figure 3.9 above shows the current major producers of n- Butanol in the United
States in year 2008 since United States is the major producer of the n- Butanol. Dow
Chemicals in Los Angeles and Texas together produced nearly 50% of the total n-
Butanol (World Chemical Report, 2009).

In Asia, China is the major n- Butanol producer with an annual production of


881000 tonnes metric. The companies that produce n- Butanol are BASF-YPC Company
Ltd Beijing Dongfang, Petrochemical Co. CNPC Jilin, Petrochemical Co. PetroChina
Daqing, Petorchemical Co. Ltd Sinopec Qilu and Petrochemical Corp. (China Chemical
Reporter, 2007)

3.3.2.2 Malaysia’s Demand and Supply of n- Butanol

Optimal Chemicals Sdn.Bhd. in Kerteh, Terengganu is the only company in Malaysia


which produces n- Butanol with an annual production of 140000 tonnes metric. The n-
Butanol which produces by this company is consumed locally and exported to the Asia
56

Pacific markets (Chemicals- Technology.com). OPTIMAL's key markets include South


East Asia, Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan. About 60 percent of the products are
utilized to meet local demands with the remaining 40 percent for the export market.

Table 3.9: The specification of Ethylene Oxide plant in Kerteh


Key Data
Order year 2001
Plant type Integrated Petrochemicals site
Location Kerteh
Estimated investment $300 million
Completion 2001
Key Players
Sponsor Petronas, Union Carbide
Lead Contractor Linde AG
Output chemicals Tonnes per year
Ethylene 600,000
Ethylene Glycol 360,000
Ethylene Oxide 385,000
Ethoxylates (TRITON and TERGITOL surfactant, 85,000
CARBOWAX polyethylene glycols and UCON
polyalkylene glycols)
n- Butanol 140,000
Isobutanol Derivatives (isobutyl acetate, and 160,000
isobutyl acrylate
Ethanolamines 75,000
UCARSOL gas-treating solvents 10,000
(Source: Chemicals- Technology.com)
57

3.4 CONCLUSION

The price per kg of the raw materials for Ethylene Oxide is the remains stable at around
RM 4.39 per 0.001 tonnes metric from year 1996 to 1998. The price increased to RM
4.90 per 0.001 tonnes metric started from year 1999 and remains the same up to year
2001 (World Chemical Report, 2005). The price of Ethylene Oxide in year 2004 per
0.001 tonnes metric is RM 5.41 and increased to RM 5.83 per 0.001 tonnes metric in
year 2005 (Dow Chemical Company). Based on the demand of Ethylene Oxide from
year 1996 to 2001, it is predicted that this trend of the price will continue and keep
increasing until year 2010 or 2011. The assumption was proved by the increasing of
Ethylene Oxide‟s price in year 2008 to 2010 which are RM 6.34, RM 6.42 and RM 6.62
per 0.001 tonnes metric respectively (World Chemical Report, 2005 and MATRADE,
May 2010). Whereas, the price of n- Butanol is RM 5.40 per 0.001 tonnes metric and
started to increase to RM 7.94 per 0.001 tonnes metric in year 2005. (Dow Chemical
Company). Based on the demand and prices of n- Butanol from year 1996 to 2005, it is
predicted that the price and demand of n- Butanol will keep increasing until year 2010 or
2011. The assumption was proved by the increasing of n- Butanol‟s price in year 2008 to
2010 which are RM 8.50, RM 8.70 and RM 9.00 per 0.001 tonnes metric respectively.
(World Chemical Report, 2005 and MATRADE, May 2010).

For the both raw materials, Optimal Chemicals Sdn.Bhd. in Kerteh, Terengganu
is the only company in Malaysia which produces Ethylene Oxide and n- Butanol with an
annual production of 385000 and 140000 tonnes metric respectively.

For the product, the price of Butyl Glycol Ether increased from RM 15.83 per
0.001 tonnes metric in October 2009 to RM 16.52 per 0.001 tonnes metric in April 2010.
The global demand for Butyl Glycol Ether is projected to increase in the future mainly
due to higher demands from Asia, which is the target region demand for our product.
The United States and Western Europe are the major producers. However, the use of
this product as solvents for paints is decreasing in the developed world because of
environmental concerns.

The production of 100,000 tonnes of Butyl Glycol Ether can be profitable


because of the potential high demand particularly in Asia. Because of that, the export of
58

Butyl Glycol Ether by other country from the Malaysia was increase from year 2008 to
2010 especially from Asia region country. It was proved that Malaysia is the one of the
successful producer of Butyl Glycol Ether in the world and has a good opportunity in the
market global to become a major producer in Asia and world. Furthermore, Malaysia
was slowly to stop to export of Butyl Glycol Ether from other country because Malaysia
believe that it can become the producer of Butyl Glycol Ether and depend all into their
own productions.

3.5 BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS

3.5.1 Introduction

Break even analysis is a technique used to analyze income, cost and profit structures
with particular references to the break even point which is the point at which the product
stops costing money to produce and sell, and starts to generate a profit for company. In
order for that purpose, the break even analysis requires an estimation of fixed costs,
variable cost and total revenues.

3.5.2 Total Cost

According to Coulson and Richardson‟s (2001), total cost is also known as a operating
costs and can be divided into two groups which are fixed cost and variable cost.

3.5.2.1 Fixed Cost (FC)

Fixed costs are the costs that do not vary with production rate. These are the type of bills
that have to be paid whatever the quantity produced in the process production. It
includes;

1) Maintenance (labor and materials)


2) Operating labor
3) Laboratory cost
4) Supervision
5) Plant overheads
6) Capital charges
59

7) Rates (and any other local taxes and tariff)


8) Insurance
9) License fees and royalty payments
10) Administrative and management cost
Fixed cost can be calculated by using this equation:
FC = QT x f (3.1)
where;
QT = total plant capacity per year and
f = fixed cost per tone

3.5.2.2 Variable Cost (VC)

Variable costs are the costs that are dependent on the amount of product produced in
the process production. It includes;

1) Raw materials
2) Miscellaneous operating materials
3) Utilities
4) Shipping and packaging

Variable cost can be calculated by using this equation:


VC = V x Q (3.2)
where;
V = Variable cost per tone
Q = Capacity

Total cost can be calculated by using this equation:


TC = FC + VC (3.3)
where;
FC = Fixed cost
VC = Variable cost

3.5.3 Total Revenue

Total revenue is the total amount of money generated from the sale of output. It can be
calculated by using this equation:
60

TR = PQ (3.4)
where;
P = Price per unit Butyl Glycol Ether
Q = Quantity (tonnes)

3.5.4 Break Even Point

The objective of the break even analysis is to determine the quantity at which the
product at a price will generate enough revenue to start earning a profit. The break even
point is to estimate and illustrated the volume or capacity for the company to reach the
total cost equal to the total revenue and no profit was earned yet. So, it can conclude
that;

Total Revenue = Total Cost (3.5)


TR = TC

According to Coulson and Richardson‟s (2001), the breakeven point QBE is determined
by using relations for revenue and cost at different values of the variable, Q. The Q may
be expressed in units per year, percentage of capacity, hour per month, etc. For
example, at some value of variable the revenue and the total cost relations will intersect
to identify the break even point, QBE.

If Q > QBE, there is a predictable profit. But if Q < QBE, there is a loss. Profit is defined as;

Profit = Total Revenue - Total Cost (3.6)

Break even point, BEP can be calculated by using this equation:

(3.7)

Where;

FC = Fixed cost
VC = Variable cost
P = Profit
61

3.5.5 Calculation of Break Even Analysis

3.5.5.1 Price of Raw Material and Product

Ethylene Oxide = RM 6.62 / kg or 0.001 tonnes metric

Butanol = RM 9.00 / kg or 0.001 tonnes metric

Butyl Cellosolve = RM 16.52 / kg or 0.001 tonnes metric

Butyl Carbitol = RM 16.52 / kg or 0.001 tonnes metric (approximate similar with Butyl
Cellosolve)

(Source: World Chemical Report and MATRADE, 2010)

3.5.5.2 Utilities

Electricity = RM 0.2810 / kWh (peak period) or RM 0.1730 / kWh (off- peak period)

(Source: MIDA)

3.5.5.3 Rate

Ethylene Oxide = 8502 kg / hr

Butanol = 9241 kg / hr

Butyl Cellosolve = 1.258 x 104 kg / hr

Butyl Carbitol = 4775 kg / hr

(Source: Mass Balance and Energy Balance)

3.5.5.4 Estimation of Capital Investment

From the information from the Shell Chemicals Canada Ltd of Calgary, in order to run an
Ethylene Glycol plant near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada in partnership with
Mitsubishi Chemicals of Japan, the company spent approximately RM 700 millions to
RM 800 millions which produce 400,000 tonnes annually of Ethylene Glycol in year
2000. So, the fixed cost investment is RM 800 millions. (Source: World Chemical Report)
62

By considering the changes in economic conditions, some modifications have been


made by using the following expression:

(3.8)

Where;

C2 = New capital investment

C1 = Existing capital investment

I1 = Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index for 2010 = 527.9

I2 = Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index for 2000 = 395

Source: Chemical Engineering Cost Estimation

New capital investment for 100,000 tonnes metric per year of Butyl Cellosolve for 2000,
C1

= RM 200 millions

To evaluate fixed cost investment in 2010, C2

= RM 200 millions x

= RM 267.29 millions
63

3.5.5.5 Estimation of Total Fixed Cost

Total fixed cost = Operating labor + Maintenance and Repair cost + Insurance cost +
Overhead cost + Operation supplies + Direct supervising and clerical labor + Laboratory
charges + Local taxes

(Source: Coulson and Richardson’s, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, 2001)

2.5.5.5.1 Operating Labor

(3.9)

Where;

NOL = number of operators required to run the process unit per shift

NON = number of operators needed to provide the shifts

P = number of processing steps involving the handling of particulate solids

NNP = number of non-particulate processing step handling

Type of Equipment Number of Equipment NNP

Reactor 1 1

Mixer 2 -

Heater 1 1

Distillation Column 4 4

Total 6
64

NOL = [6.29 + 31.7(0)2 + 0.23(6)]0.5 = 2.77 operators per shift = approximately 3 operators

Pay for 1 operator per month = RM 1,500

Pay for 1 operator per year, PO = RM 18,000 (After considering bonus and allowance)

(Source: MIDA)

Assumptions:

Plant performed 3 shifts per day and running 24 hours per day
Operation days per year = 351 days
1 year = 52 weeks
Minimum 1 operator rest for 2 weeks per year
Weeks can be obtained by one operator per year = 50 weeks

So, shifts needed for plant in a year = x = 1053 shifts / year

So, 1 operator can obtain shifts = x x = 250 shifts / year

Operators needed in a plant by considering the working shift, NON:

= x = 4.212 operators or approximately 5 operators

3.5.5.5.2 Operating Labor Cost, COL

COL = NOL x NON x PO = 3 x 5 x RM 18,000 = RM 270,000

3.5.5.5.3 Direct Supervisory, DS and Clerical Labor, CL (10 to 25% of COL)

CDS & CL = x COL = 0.25 x RM 270,000 = RM 67,500

3.5.5.5.4 Maintenance and repairs, MNR (2 to 10% of fixed capital investment)

CMNR = x C2 = 0.1 x RM 267.29 x 106 = RM 26,729,000


65

3.5.5.5.5 Operation Supplies, OS (10 to 20% of MNR)

COS = x CMNR = 0.2 x RM 26.729 x 106 = RM 5,345,800

3.5.5.5.6 Laboratory Charges, LC (10 to 20% of OL)

CLC = x COL = 0.2 x RM 270,000 = RM 54,000

3.5.5.5.7 Pattern & Royalties, PR (0 to 6% of total product cost, Y)

CPR = x Y = 0.06 Y

3.5.5.5.8 Overhead cost, OVH (50-70% of OL, DS&CL and MNR)

COVH = x (COL + CDS & CL + CMNR) = 0.7 x RM (270,000 + 67,500 + 26,729,000)

= RM 18,946,550

3.5.5.5.9 Local Taxes and insurance, LTI (1.4 - 5% of C2)

CLTI = x C2 = 0.05 x RM 267.29 x 106 = RM 13,364,500

Type of Cost Value (RM)

Direct

Labor 270,000

Maintenance and repair 26,729,000

Operation supplies 5,345,800

Direct supervising and clerical labor 67,500


66

Laboratory charges 54,000

Indirect

Local and Insurance taxes 13,364,500

Overhead 18,946,550

Pattern and Royalties 0.06 Y

TOTAL FIXED COST 64,777,350 + 0.06Y

3.5.5.6 Estimation of Total Variable Cost

3.5.5.6.1 Cost of raw materials, CRW

Assume 2 weeks shut down for plant maintenance

Butanol
From material balance, the cost of Butanol for a production is:

x x x = RM 700,615,656 / year

Ethylene Oxide
From material balance, cost of Ethylene Oxide for a production is:

x x x = RM 474,130,013 / year

Total cost of raw material


= Cost (Butanol + Ethylene Oxide) =RM (700,615,656 + 474,130,013) / yr
= RM 1,174,745,669 / yr
67

3.5.5.6.2 Utilities

The cost of utilities can be estimates as CUT:

Electricity
Price: RM 0.2810 / kWh
(Source: Tenaga Nasional Berhad, MIDA)
Total energy requirement = 296,938.2 kW
From energy balance, the cost of electricity for a production is:

Yearly Cost = 15,000 kWh x x x = RM 35,507,160 / yr

3.5.5.6.3 Total of Variable Costs, CVR


Variables cost = Raw materials + Utilities
CVR = CRW x CUT

Subject Value (RM / yr)


Raw Material
Butanol 700,615,656
Ethylene oxide 474,130,013
Utilities
Electricity 35,507,160
TOTAL VARIABLE COST 1,210,252,829

3.5.5.7 Estimation of General Expenses


General expenses = Cost (Administrative + Distribution And Selling + Research and
Development)

3.5.5.7.1 Administrative Cost, AD (40 to 60 % of operating labor)


CAD = x COL = 0.6 x RM 270,000 = RM 162,000

3.5.5.7.2 Distribution and Selling costs, D&S (2 to 20% of total product cost, Y)
CD&S = x Y = 0.2 x Y = 0.2Y
68

3.5.5.7.3 Research and Development cost, R&D (3% of total product cost, Y)
CR&D = x Y = 0.03 x Y = 0.03Y

So, General Expenses, GE = RM (162,000 + 0.2Y + 0.03Y) = RM 162,000 + 0.23Y

3.5.5.8 Total Product Cost

Total Product Cost, Y = Total Fixed cost + Total Variable cost + General Expenses

Y = RM [(64,777,350 + 0.06Y) + 1,210,252,829 + (162,000 + 0.23Y)]

Y = RM 1,275,192,179 + 0.29Y

Y = RM 1,796,045,323

Type of cost Value (RM)


Direct
Labor 270,000
Maintenance and repair 26,729,000
Operation supplies 5,345,800
Direct supervising and clerical 67,500
labor
Laboratory charges 54,000
Indirect
Local and Insurance taxes 13,364,500
Overhead 18,946,550
Pattern and Royalties 107,762,719
TOTAL FIXED COST 172,540,069

Subject Value (RM / yr)


Raw Material
Butanol 700,615,656
Ethylene oxide 474,130,013
Utilities
69

Electricity 35,507,160
TOTAL VARIABLE COST 1,210,252,829

General Expenses, GE = RM (162,000 + 0.2Y + 0.03Y)

= RM 162,000 + 0.23Y

= RM 162,000 + 0.23 (RM 1,796,045,323)

= RM 413,252,424.30

3.5.5.9 Cost of Manufacturing

Cost of manufacturing, COM = Total Variable Cost + General Expenses

= RM 1,210,252,829 + RM 413,252,424.30

= RM 1,623,505,253

3.5.5.10 Break Even Point

Variable cost per metric tonnes Butyl Cellosolve, VC

= x
= RM 12,102.53 / tone

Selling Price, SP for Butyl Cellosolve, SP

= x x
= RM 1.652 x 109 / year

Butyl Cellosolve price per tonne, P

= RM 1.652 x 109 x
= RM 16520 / tone
70

Break even point can be calculated as follows:

Break even point,

=

= 39,058.57
= Approximate 39,059 tonnes per annum Butyl Cellosolve

Sample calculations for break even analysis


For capacity = 10,000 tonnes of Butyl Cellosolve

1) Calculation for Total Revenue (TR)


Q = 10,000 tonnes
P = RM 16,520 / tonne
TR = Q x P = 10,000 tonnes x RM 16520 / tonne = RM 165,200,000 = RM 1.652 x 108

2) Calculation for Variable Cost (VC)


Q = 10,000 tonnes
V = RM 12,102.53 / tonne
VC = V x Q = RM 12,102.53 / tonne x 10,000 tonnes = RM 121,025,300

3) Calculation for Fixed Cost (FC)


FC = RM 172,540,069

4) Calculation for Total Cost (TC)


FC = RM 112,398,655
VC = RM 68,408,380
TC = FC + VC = RM 172,540,069 + RM 121,025,300 = RM 293,565,369

* Calculations is shown in Appendix C


71

Table 3.9: Break Even Analysis


Capacity, Fixed Cost, Variable Total Revenue, Total Cost, FC +
tonnes FC Cost, VC TR VC
0 172,540,069 0 0 172,540,069
10000 172,540,069 121025300 165200000 293,565,369
20000 172,540,069 242050600 330400000 414,590,669
30000 172,540,069 363075900 495600000 535,615,969
40000 172,540,069 484101200 660800000 656,641,269
50000 172,540,069 605126500 826000000 777,666,569
60000 172,540,069 726151800 991200000 898,691,869
70000 172,540,069 847177100 1156400000 1,019,717,169
80000 172,540,069 968202400 1321600000 1,140,742,469
90000 172,540,069 1089227700 1486800000 1,261,767,769
100000 172,540,069 1210253000 1652000000 1,382,793,069

Break Even Graph


1,800,000,000
1,600,000,000
1,400,000,000
1,200,000,000
Cost, RM

1,000,000,000
800,000,000
Fixed Cost
600,000,000
400,000,000 Total Cost
200,000,000 Total Revenue
0

Capacity, tonnes

Figure 3.10: Break Even Graph


72

3.5.5.11 Payback Period Analysis

In order to estimate the payback period of profit from the total investment of the plant,
the discounted cash flow needs to be calculated respectively. It is important to know
when the plant profit will be getting back after a few year operations.
73

End Investment, Depreciatio FCI – Σdk Revenue, R Cost of (R- COM- Cash Flow Cumulative
of n, dk Manufacturing, dk) x (1-t) + Cash Flow
year, COM dk
k

0 (2,091,000,00 - 1,917,524,2 - - - (2,091,000,00 (2,091,000,0


0) 53 0) 00)

1 (267,290,000) - 1,917,524,2 - 1,623,505,253 - (267,290,000) (2,358,290,0


53 00)

2 (270,000) - 1,917,524,2 - 1,623,505,253 - (270,000) (2,358,560,0


53 00)

3 - 3,853,504,85 1,534,019,4 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 817,304,911 817,304,911 (1,541,255,0


0.50 02 00 89)

4 - 613,607,761 920,411,641 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 1,012892,38 1,012,892,38 (528,362,70


00 5 5 4)

5 - 368,164,656. 552,246,985 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 804,265,746. 804,265,746. 275,903,042


60 00 1 1

6 - 220,898,793. 331,348,191 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 679,089,762. 679,089,762. 954,992,805


90 00 8 8
74

7 - 110,449,397 220,898,794 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 585,207,775. 585,207,775. 1,540,200,5


00 4 4 80

8 - 176,719,035. 44,179,759 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 641536967.9 641,536,967. 2,181,737,5


20 00 9 48

9 - 114,867,372 0 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 588,963,054. 588,963,054. 2,770,700,6


00 2 2 02

10 - - 0 1,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 2,327,313,88 2,327,313,88 5,098,014,4


00 9 9 91

11 - - 0 2,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 2,327,313,88 2,327,313,88 7,425,328,3


00 9 9 80

12 2,091,270,00 - 0 2,652,000,0 1,623,505,253 154,274,212. 2,245,544,21 9,670,872,5


0 00 1 2 92

* Calculations is shown in Appendix C


75

Payback Period Graph


11,000,000,000
10,000,000,000
9,000,000,000
8,000,000,000
7,000,000,000
6,000,000,000
Cost, RM

5,000,000,000
4,000,000,000
3,000,000,000
2,000,000,000
1,000,000,000
0
-1,000,000,000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
-2,000,000,000
-3,000,000,000
Year

Figure 3.11: Payback Period Graph

3.6 SUMMARY

The selling price of Butyl Cellosolve is RM 16.52 / kg. Therefore, for one metric tonne
the amount is RM 16,520 and the variable cost was found to be RM 12,102.53 per
metric tonne. The fixed cost investment is RM 267.29 millions. From the calculated
break even point, the desirable capacity needed for this plant to recover all the costs of
operation is 39,059 metric tonnes of Butyl Cellosolve per year and will get the profit at
around 5 to 6 years.
76

CHAPTER 4

SITE SELECTION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The approach to the site selection study was developed to identify site opportunities
with the least overall land use and environmental impacts. This approach was taken in
order to minimize the cost of implementation and construction of the new power plant
and associated infrastructure.

Site selection is the most important in considering a land to build Butyl Glycol
Ethers Plant. Site selection should be based on the principle that the purpose of a good
site is to provide safe and economical flow of materials and people. This selection is
also need to make in order to choose the best site in industrial area which can
contribute more profit and convenient. It also will consider for short and long term period
and it will show the lifespan for the land usually. Lifespan of the land usually depends
on natural setting, land size, effluent discharge and plant design.
77

4.2 FACTOR EFFECTING THE SITE SELECTION

4.2.1 Raw Material Supply

The main point to select a good site is to make sure that the raw material that can be
supplied is nearby with the main plant either raw material from the plant itself or the
outside of the plant. It is because more economical and the availability of raw material
can be guaranteed.

4.2.2 Transport Facilities

The transportation should be considered in selecting the land because it will affect the
transportation of materials and products to and from plant. If practicable, a site should
be selected that is closed at least two major forms of transport which are road, rail,
waterway or a seaport and roadways. Air transport also usually considered in terms of
convenient and efficient for the movement of personnel and essential of raw material.

The pipeline also considered as transportation. A good site will minimize the
distance materials have to flow either to or from store or during processing. It separates
the raw material unloading facilities from the product loading areas. Pipeline should be
run parallel to the road system in the site plant.

4.2.3 Availability of Labour

Labour is needed to construct and operate the plant. Because of that, there is a need to
have skilled and experienced worker brought in from outside the site. Local trade union
customs and restrictive practices will have to be considered when assessing the
availability and suitability of the labour for recruitment and training. This thing will be
managed by a manager from Human Resource.
78

4.2.4 Availability of Utilities

There is a need to consider the cost of three major sources of utilities which are
electricity or power plant, water supply and fuel. In Malaysia, the cost of fuel is same for
all country but the cost of electricity and water supply are depends on the country tariff
price itself. The electricity is used commonly for electrochemical processes, motors,
lightings, and general uses. Water is very important when producing any chemical
production and it usually uses at excessive rate. The water is required for the plant for
general purpose and that will be a concrete reason why the plant should be located
nearby banks of river.

4.2.5 Availability of Suitable Land

This consideration also needs to reflect on in order to make sure an emergency


situation can be mitigate immediately. The distance between the site or location of plant
and emergency unit such as police station, fire station and hospital are not very far
because if any emergency call is made, any accident can be prevented on the time.

4.2.6 Environment Impact and Effluent Disposal

A waste is the thing that any industrial company need to consider by treat the waste
either biological or mechanical method. All industrial processes have a possibility to
produce waste products, and full consideration must be given to the difficulties and coat
of their disposal. The disposal of toxic and harmful effluents need to follow the standard
and quality that permitted by law or local regulations.

4.2.7 Local Community Consideration

The proposed plant must locate far away from residential area and acceptable to the
local community. Full consideration must be taken so that the residence do not expose
to the risk and dangerous impact. For heavy industry, Department of Environmental
(DOE) Malaysia stated that it should be built 500 meter far from residential and three (3)
kilometers also takes as consideration.
79

4.2.8 Climate

There is a need to think about adverse climatic conditions at site since it will increase
costs, and stronger locations and base of plant will be needed at location subject to
high wind loads and earthquake.
80

Table 4.1: Analysis of Selection Site in Malaysia

NO COUNTRY SELANGOR JOHOR NEGERI SEMBILAN

1 LOCATION Klang Tanjung Langsat Sg. Gadut Industrial Park

2 WIDTH OF LAND 1-60 Acres 1,709.93 Acres 99.41 Acres

WIDTH FOR BUTYL


3 ~40 Acres ~40 Acres ~40 Acres
GLYCOL ETHERS PLANT

Light, Medium and Heavy


4 TYPE OF LAND Industry and Agricultural Light and medium industry only
industry
81

SELLING PRICE PER


5 SQ.FEET 33.00 14.00 – 16.00 6.00
(RM)

6 LEASEHOLD/FREEHOLD Freehold Leasehold/Freehold Freehold

Optimal Chemical (M) Sdn Optimal Chemical (M) Sdn Optimal Chemical (M) Sdn
Bhd Bhd Bhd
RAW MATERIAL
Km 106 Jalan Kuantan Kuala Km 106 Jalan Kuantan Kuala Km 106 Jalan Kuantan Kuala
SUPPLY
Terengganu 24300 Kerteh, Terengganu 24300 Kerteh, Terengganu 24300 Kerteh,
Terengganu, Malaysia. Terengganu, Malaysia. Terengganu, Malaysia.
7
Tel: +609 830 7700/7200 Tel: +609 830 7700/7200 Tel: +609 830 7700/7200
Fax: +609 830 7797 Fax: +609 830 7797 Fax: +609 830 7797

1. Port Klang (~18.7km 1. Johor Port Authority 1. Port Klang (~120km


from site) (~12.8 km from site) from site)
2. Shah Alam Highway 2. International Airport 2. North – South Highway
(~ 23.5km from site) Senai (~43km from (~102km from site)
8 TRANSPORT FACILITIES 3. About RM60 will be site) 3. About RM70 will be
charged for each lorry 3. About RM120 will be charged for each lorry to
to bring the raw charged for each lorry bring the raw material
material from Kerteh to bring the raw from Kerteh to Negeri
to Klang. material from Kerteh Sembilan.
82

to Tanjung Langsat

5.4km from Pekan Meru 6km from Taman Tuanku


24.6 km from Kg. Kong Kong
AVAILABILITY OF 4.2 km from Kg. Batu Empat Jaafar
8.8 km from Taman Pasir
9 LABOUR 3.0 km from Taman Klang 4 km from Taman Pinggiran
Putih
Utama Senawang
7.7 km from Jalan Pasir Putih
3.2 km from Seremban Jaya

AVAILABILITY OF
UTILITIES

35m3 = RM 2.07/m3 0 – 20m3 =RM 2.22/m3 RM 1.00/m3


>35m3 = RM 2.28/m3 21 – 40m3=RM 2.96m3
1. WATER (minimum payment = RM36) >41m3= RM 2.96m3
10 Petrol RON95: RM 1.75/L
RON95 Fuel: RM 1.85/L
Petrol RON95: RM 1.75/L Petrol RON95: RM 1.75/L RON97 : RM 2.05/L
2. FUEL RON95 Fuel: RM 1.85/L RON95 Fuel: RM 1.85/L Diesel : RM 1.70/L
RON97 : RM 2.05/L RON97 : RM 2.05/L
Diesel : RM 1.70/L Diesel : RM 1.70/L
83

3. POWER Tariff E2 Medium Voltage RM/kW 29.30


Peak/Off-Peak Industrial
Tariff
28.1
For each kilowatt of maximum sen/kWh
demand per month during the
peak period 17.3
For all kWh during the peak sen/kWh
period
For all kWh during the off-
peak period
The minimum monthly charge
is RM600.00
Tariff E2s - Special 25.2
Industrial Tariff RM/kW
(for consumers who qualify 25.8
only)
For each kilowatt of maximum sen/kWh
demand per month during the 14.7
peak period
For all kWh during the peak sen/kWh
period >900kWJ/Month =RM 44.60
For all kWh during the off-
peak period
The minimum monthly charge
is RM600.00
84

AVAILABILITY OF 1. Police Station Kapar 1. Police Station Paroi


(~4.2 km) 1. Police Station Taman (~5.5km)
SUITABLE LAND
2. Balai Bomba dan Pasir Putih (~9.3km) 2. Hospital Tuanku Jaafar
Penyelamat 2. Police Station Masai (~7.4 km)
11 (~15km)
Pelabuhan Klang (~ 3. Balai Bomba Senawang
11 km) 3. Balai Bomba dan (~3.6 km)
3. Tengku Ampuan Penyelamat Johor 4. Balai Bomba dan
Rahimah Hospital Jaya (~26km) Penyelamat Seremban
(~11km) 4. Sultanah Aminah (~7.2 km)
Hospital (~30km)

The effluent is must to treat The effluent is must to treat The effluent is must to treat first
ENVIRONMENTAL
first either by using biological first either by using biological either by using biological
IMPACT AND EFFLUENT
(aerobic and anaerobic pond (aerobic and anaerobic pond (aerobic and anaerobic pond
12 DISPOSAL
treatment) or by using treatment) or by using treatment) or by using
mechanical type (example is mechanical type (example is mechanical type (example is
activated carbon). activated carbon). activated carbon). Sometimes,
Sometimes, the effluent can Sometimes, the effluent can the effluent can become sludge
become sludge and can become sludge and can and can discharge the some
discharge the some amount discharge the some amount amount of water after
of water after treatment. But of water after treatment. But treatment. But usually, the
85

usually, the water is used usually, the water is used water is used through
through circulation mode through circulation mode circulation mode which means
which means the plant is which means the plant is the plant is operate in recycle
operate in recycle mode by operate in recycle mode by mode by using that water to
using that water to operate using that water to operate operate the processes involved.
the processes involved. the processes involved. Before the water is discharge at
Before the water is discharge Before the water is discharge final discharge point, the
at final discharge point, the at final discharge point, the sample of water is always taken
sample of water is always sample of water is always by an officer of DOE and
taken by an officer of DOE taken by an officer of DOE examines the sampling at
and examines the sampling at and examines the sampling at Jabatan Kimia Negeri. Usually,
Jabatan Kimia Negeri. Jabatan Kimia Negeri. many of industry always must
Usually, many of industry Usually, many of industry comply with Standard B which
always must comply with always must comply with means the water will be
Standard B which means the Standard B which means the discharge far from the
water will be discharge far water will be discharge far residence water source.
from the residence water from the residence water
source. source. For the plant, usually the
scheduled waste includes many
For the plant, usually the For the plant, usually the things and the disposal of this
scheduled waste includes scheduled waste includes need to follow Environmental
many things and the disposal many things and the disposal Quality (Scheduled Wastes)
of this need to follow of this need to follow Regulations 2005. The
Environmental Quality Environmental Quality company need to follow
(Scheduled Wastes) (Scheduled Wastes) standard of disposal based on
Regulations 2005. The Regulations 2005. The
company need to follow company need to follow SW1 (Metal and Metal-
standard of disposal based standard of disposal based Bearing Wastes), SW2
on on (Wastes containing
86

principally Inorganic
SW1 (Metal and Metal- SW1 (Metal and Metal- Constituents which may
Bearing Wastes), SW2 Bearing Wastes), SW2 contain metal and Organic
(Wastes containing (Wastes containing Materials),SW3(Wastes
principally Inorganic principally Inorganic containing principally
Constituents which may Constituents which may Organic Constituents which
contain metal and Organic contain metal and Organic may contain metal and
Materials),SW3(Wastes Materials),SW3(Wastes Inorganic Materials), SW4
containing principally containing principally (Waste which
Organic Constituents which Organic Constituents which may contain both Inorganic
may contain metal and may contain metal and and Organic constituents)
Inorganic Materials), SW4 Inorganic Materials), SW4 and SW5 ( Other wastes).
(Waste which may contain (Waste which may contain
both Inorganic both Inorganic and Organic
and Organic constituents) constituents) and SW5
and (Other wastes).
SW5 (Other wastes).
The nearby rivers are as
follows:
The nearby river is as follows: The nearby river is as follows:
~60km from site plant ~36 km from the site (Sungai
~5.5km from the site plant (Sungai Johor) Timun Linggi)
(Sungai Kelang) ~34.7 km from the site (Port
Dickson Beach)
87

6km from Taman Tuanku


LOCAL COMMUNITY 24.6 km from Kg. Kong Kong
Jaafar
CONSIDERATION 5.4km from Pekan Meru 8.8 km from Taman Pasir
13 4 km from Taman Pinggiran
4.2 km from Kg. Batu Empat Putih
Senawang
3.0 km from Taman Klang 7.7 km from Jalan Pasir Putih
3.2 km from Seremban Jaya
Utama

CLIMATE
June „10: 160 – 200 mm
i. RAINFALL June „10: 170 – 200 mm June „10: 130 – 190 mm
July ‟10 : 110 – 210 mm
July ‟10 : 200 – 240 mm July ‟10 : 140 – 230 mm
August ‟10: 110 – 200mm
14 August ‟10: 200 – 240mm August ‟10: 110 – 230mm
September ‟10: 160 – 260mm
September ‟10: 140 – 200mm September ‟10: 150 – 240mm

49 Times (Modified Mercalli


ii. EARTHQUAKE 32 Times ( Modified Mercalli 14 Times ( Modified Mercalli
(1909 – May 2010) Scale is VI)
Scale is VI) Scale is V)

TPM Technopark Sdn Bhd Negeri Sembilan Investment


Mohd Khair Parlan Tel: 07 – 2226922 Centre (NSIC)
15 CONTACT PERSON 019 – 641 5815 Fax: 07 – 224 2221 Tel: + 606 7659570/5981
kparlan@yahoo.com Email: techno@tpm Fax: +606 765 5982
technopark.com.my Email: ceonsic @ns.gov.my
88

4.3 JUSTIFICATION ON SELECTION SITE FOR BUTYL GLYCOL ETHERS


PLANT

4.3.1 Site Evaluation


4.3.1.1 Klang, Selangor(Malaysia)

Klang is the royal capital of state of Selangor and it is located within 32 km to the west
of Kuala Lumpur and 6 km east of Port Klang. It has a big potential in industry light,
medium or heavy industry because of its land characteristics and strategic location to
get easiest supplies from outside.

a) Marketing Area

In producing a large amount of product of Butyl Glycol Ethers of 100,000 Metric Tonne
Per Annum (MTA), there is a need to consider that location should be close enough in
order to minimize the costs on transportation of material. Klang has a potential in
developing the development of industrial sectors.

b) Raw Material Supply

The availability of raw material is the most important factor to select the site location for
the plant. The raw material suppliers should be close enough in order to acquire raw
material rapidly and easily. But unfortunately, both raw material needed by the process
which are butanol and ethylene oxide only is produced by Optimal Chemical (M) Sdn.
Bhd which located in Kerteh, Terengganu. The distance between Kerteh and Klang will
be about 360 km (4 hours 34 minutes).

c) Transport Facilities

Transportation should be practicable. Since the cost of transportation on land is


inexpensive, it is always prefer this type of transportation to bring the raw material to the
site. About RM70.00 is charged per lorry for each trip. But this value can still negotiable.
Air transport should be avoided because both raw materials are dangerous and
explosive.
89

d) Availability of Labour

Klang has higher population and this will be an advantage to find the labor and skills
labors easily because of Klang are well-known as developing area nowadays.

e) Utilities

Water supply will be important utility and the plant usually uses a huge volume of water.
In that sense, Klang area should be a good site since water supply can get from
SYABAS Sdn. Bhd. While electricity source can obtain from TNB Malaysia.

f) Environmental Impact and Effluent Disposal

The proposed site is far from residential area and any disposal of effluent should be
monitored and managed always in order to follow the regulation properly. For this case,
Department of Environmental (DOE) Shah Alam has a power to monitor and administer
that regulation of scheduled waste and effluent.

g) Local Community Consideration

Based on „Penilaian Awal Tapak (PAT)‟ which conducted by DOE, the heavy industry
like this should be built on the land that far from residential area by 500 meter and
sometimes 3 kilometers also take as consideration.

h) Type of Land

The land for built the plant should be flat and stable. Because of the land is suitable for
agricultural and industry, it is not recommended to built the plant on it because ability to
withstand of land will be lower and lifespan of land is shorter.

i) Climate

Based of Malaysia Meteorological Department Report 2010, the intensity of earthquake


in Malaysia has about 49 of frequency that happen in Selangor from 1909 to May 2010.
Any special features for plant construction due to the change of excessive weather
change are not necessary.
90

4.3.1.2 Tanjung Langsat, Johor (Malaysia)

a) Marketing Area

Since this land is still new for industrial purposes, it is suitable to grab this opportunity to
get this fine land. Although the raw material supplier which is Optimal Chemical (M)
Sdn. Bhd. is quite far from the site, it still the best choice to choose this land.

b) Raw Material Supply

Both raw material needed by the process which are butanol and ethylene oxide only is
produced by Optimal Chemical (M) Sdn. Bhd which located in Kerteh, Terengganu. The
distance between Kerteh and Tanjung Langsat will be about 442 km (6 hours 8
minutes).

c) Transport Facilities

There should be at least two type of transportation is needed to bring in or out the plant.
Johor Port Authority only about 18.7 kilometers from the site and this Port can be used
to export the product from the plant and but still the land transportation is the best
choice to minimize the costs compared to air or water route.

d) Availability of Labor

Either outside or the resident nearby is capable to become a labor. Skills or unskilled
labor can get from residential area and can train them properly for build-up the chemical
plant and operate it.

e) Utilities

Utility of water supply can get from Syarikat Air Johor Sdn Bhd at lower tariff. For
electricity, this plant need high power source to operate some equipment and this
electricity can obtain from TNB Malaysia.
91

f) Environmental Impact and Effluent Disposal

The proposed site is far from residential area (over 500 meters) and any disposal of
effluent should be monitored and managed always in order to follow the regulation
properly. For this case, Department of Environmental (DOE) Johor has power to
monitor and administer that regulation of scheduled waste and effluent.

g) Local Community Consideration

Based on „Penilaian Awal Tapak (PAT)‟ which conducted by DOE, the heavy industry
like this should be built on the land that far from residential area by 500 meter and
sometimes 3 kilometers also take as consideration.

h) Type of Land

This land has width about 1,709.93 acres .This show that there is enough space to built
this plant that only need about 40 acres. This land is the best choice for industrial
purposes.

i) Climate

Stronger location and base of plant should be consider very carefully and Tanjung
Langsat has medium level of rainfall reading and the frequency of earthquake in Johor
from 1909 to May 2010 shows 32 with intensity maximum of VI.
92

4.3.1.3 Sungai Gadut Industrial Park, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia)

a) Marketing Area

For the primary product Butyl Glycol Ethers is produced in bulk quantities per day, the
location of site should be closed with marketing area to minimize the costs.

b) Raw Material Supply

The availability of raw material is the most important factor to select the site location for
the plant. Both raw materials (Ethylene Oxide and Butanol) can only obtained from
Optimal Chemical (M) Sdn. Bhd which located in Kerteh, Terengganu. The distance
between Kerteh and Sungai Gadut Industrial Park will be about 398 km (5 hours 6
minutes).

c) Transport Facilities

For land transportation, normally charged for RM70 from Kerteh to Sungai Gadut
Industrial Park, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. It is takes about 5 hours and 6 minutes
(398 km) to reach at destination via East Cost Expressway.

d) Availability of Labor

The residential area nearby can be potential labor to work at the plant for operate and
build-up purpose. The examples close residential areas are Taman Tuanku Jaafar
(about 6 km), Kampung Sungai Gadut (about 1.5 km) , Kampung Ulu Rantau Sungai
Gadut (about 4 km) and so on.

e) Utilities

Huge volume of water source may be needed to over run the process. Jabatan Air
Negeri Sembilan has responsible to supply the water to all needs at prescribed tariff.
Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) Malaysia is responsible to supply the electricity.
93

f) Environmental Impact and Effluent Disposal

The proposed site is far from residential area (over 500 meters) and any disposal of
effluent should be monitored and managed always in order to follow the regulation
properly. For this case, Department of Environmental (DOE) Johor has power to
monitor and administer that regulation of scheduled waste and effluent. Before
discharge any waste, it should be comply with the standard that stated by DOE.

g) Local Community Consideration

Based on „Penilaian Awal Tapak (PAT)‟ which conducted by DOE, the heavy industry
like this should be built on the land that far from residential area by 500 meter and
sometimes 3 kilometers also take as consideration.

h) Type of Land

This type of land is not the best choice because the geographical condition of land only
suitable for light and medium industry only.

i) Climate

Malaysia lies on the equatorial lines, which made weather hot and sometimes humid.
Naturally, tornado or earthquake does not occur in Malaysia. There is not necessary to
provide any special facilities and construction to withstand with excessive climate.
Negeri Sembilan has a maximum intensity of earthquake of V and frequency of 14.
94

Figure 4.1: Development of Tanjung Langsat Industrial Complex, Johor (MIDA, 2008)
95

Table 4.2: Factor rating method for determination of the best suitable location for a new plant

Critical Success
Weight (%) Scores (out of 100) Weighted Score
Factor
Sg.Gadut
Tanjung Tanjung Sg.Gadut
Klang Industrial Klang
Langsat Langsat Industrial Park
Park
Strategic Location 35 75 90 80 (0.35x75)=26.25 (0.35x90)=31.5 (0.35x80)=28
Price of Land 10 75 80 85 (0.10x75)=7.5 (0.10x80)=8.0 (0.10x85)=8.5
Marketing Area 10 80 70 75 (0.10x80)=8.0 (0.10x70)=7.0 (0.10x75)=7.5
Land Available 8 55 90 80 (0.08x55)=4.4 (0.08x90)=7.2 (0.08x80)=6.4
Raw Material
12 80 70 70 (0.12x80)=9.6 (0.12x70)=8.4 (0.12x70)=8.4
Supply
Transportation 11 80 85 80 (0.11x80)=8.8 (0.11x85)=9.35 (0.11x80)=8.8
Availability of Labor 6 80 80 85 (0.06x80)=4.8 (0.06x80)=4.8 (0.06x85)=5.1
Community
5 75 70 80 (0.05x75)=3.75 (0.05x70)=3.5 (0.05x80)=4.0
Considerations
Type of Land 3 55 90 75 (0.03x55)=1.65 (0.03x90)=2.7 (0.03x75)=2.25
Total Score 100% 74.75 82.45 78.95
96

4.4 CONCLUSION

This project entitled production of Butyl Glycol Ethers 100 000 matrix tone/year. The
capacity of the product produced is huge. The product is in bulk. The location has to be
close to the primary market in order to cut cost in transportation of the product. Butyl
Glycol Ether has been used for more than half a century. Today it is used extensively in
both water- and solvent-based coatings and industrial and consumer cleaners. Cleaners
made with Butyl Glycol Ether can remove oils, fats, waxes, greases and baked-on or
ground-in residues from floors, walls, glass, metal parts, and equipment. Cleaning
products which may contain Butyl Glycol Ether include general surface cleaners, floor
strippers, window cleaners, spot cleaners, rust removers and ink and resin removers.
Paints and coatings that use Butyl Glycol Ether range from lacquers, varnishes and
enamels to water-based coatings and inks.

Since the end product is the raw material for various industries, it will be best to
place the plant in an industrial area near to these industries. For marketing wise area,
Port Klang is suggested since there are various industries there.

The location also has to be near to the raw material supply. Closeness to raw
material supply is important to have the ability to obtain the raw material in reasonable
and best price and to cut cost on transportation. Butyl Glycol Ether main raw material is
basically hydrocarbons group. The available site locations to obtain the raw materials
are most definitely at Tanjung Langsat, Johor. The transport facilities are important since
the plant needs accessibility to get raw materials supplies, to transport end products,
to get cheap labor, experts‟ accessibility and so much more. Malaysia‟s transportation
facilities are one of the most advanced in South East Asia. The three major
transportation links are by air, by land and by ports. Usually by air is not a wise choice to
transport raw material and products since it is very costly and dangerous. By land and by
port is the most popular and wise choice since it is economics. There few places that are
suitable Klang and Tanjung Langsat because it is near to the Port, have railway tracks
and have easy access to the highway.
Availability of labor can be measured by the number of population in that area.
Labors are required to construct the plant and also to operate it later on .The local labors
97

usually being hired to do medium-skilled or low-skilled job requirements. For high skilled
jobs, outsiders will be recruited. This will come back to the importance of transport
facilities. Place like Klang are suitable since this place has high number of population
and it‟s easy to get experts there. Because of Tanjung Langsat is well established in
chemical and petrochemical based industries, there is a lot of experts there.

Availability of utilities included the availability of water, electricity, fuel and so


much more. Utilities are important to run the processes in the plant. Usually, a plant
owned electricity generators to generate electricity for their own usage. This will save
their cost in long term. The plant has to be located somewhere there is easy to get water
supplies. Anywhere in Malaysia with water pipeline are suitable to be the location of the
plant. Water is important for cooling processes, general process use and so much more.
And usually, industrial park will provide the required utilities. While reasonable priced
fuel needed to generate steam and power. There is no doubt that Tanjung Langsat is
suitable since it has sufficient water supply and fuel with reasonable price.

Availability of suitable land means the availability of land for the proposed plant
and future expansion. The land also has to be well drained, flat and have suitable load
bearing characteristics. The site need to be evaluated carefully to make sure that there
is ample space for the plant and future expansion. Environmental impact and effluent
disposal on a location basically involves on the local regulations on managing the
industrial waste and the process by-product. Full consideration must be made on the
costs and difficulties to dispose the wastes. From this point of view, a place with similar
industries should be chosen assuming that in that particular area, a proper waste and
by-product managements were developed. Tanjung Langsat have efficient and
established waste management company.

Local community considerations involve the acceptation from the local


community. The plant should be in a location where it doesn‟t give any threat to the local
community. And to develop a new plant, the facilities available in the local community
should be evaluated. These facilities are to take care of the labours welfare. The
facilities include the banks, schools, housing areas, mosques, hospitals and so much
more. The location of the plant must at least around 30 minutes from the nearest town.
98

Tanjung Langsat has main advantage for this factor since Tanjung Langsat is quite near
to Singapore and Johor Bahru.

Malaysia can be said a harmony and peaceful country with strong political
stability. And looking at this factor, the all the proposed sites considered as suitable. But
when it comes to taxes, Tanjung Langsat is one of the cheapest taxes and building or
development of a new plant is most welcome by Johor government.

By evaluating from factor to factor, Tanjung Langsat has a lot of advantages


compared to others. Tanjung Langsat is still developing and have around 4000 acre of
land still available. It is obvious that the most suitable site location for this plant is in
Tanjung Langsat. This can be proven by using the factor rating method to evaluate and
assess the sites.
99

CHAPTER 5

PROCESS SAFETY AND PLANT LAYOUT

5.1 Introduction

The production of this plant is to produce Ethylene Butyl Glycol Ether where it can be
produce by n-butanol and ethylene oxide. The co-products are diethylene butyl glycol
ether, triethylene butyl glycol ether and tetraethylene butyl glycol ether.

Organizations have their own legal and moral responsibility to concern about
the health and welfare of their employees and public. All manufacturing processes are
hazardous, but in chemical processes there are additional, special, hazards associated
with the chemicals used and the application of sound engineering practices that the
risks are reduced to acceptable levels. Safety and loss prevention in process design
can be considered through identification and assessment of the hazards, control of the
hazard and process and limitation of the loss (Crowl, 2002).
100

5.2 Plant safety

Safety cannot be successfully implemented unless with certain serious consideration


by both plant management and workers at the plant. Most successful accident
prevention programs have been resulted from management„s demonstrated interest
and active participation. Thus, the management„s point of view at safety significantly
influences the employee„s attitude towards safety. In fact, the ultimate success of any
safety program depends upon the awareness of the plant workers.

Safety and loss prevention in process design can be considered under the
following broad headings which are identification and assessment of the hazards,
control of the hazards materials, and control of the process. Prevention of hazardous
deviation in process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow by provision of
automatic control system interlocks, alarm system, trips, together with good operating
practices and management also limitation of the loss. The damage and injury caused in
an incident occurs, pressure relief, plant layout, provision of fire fighting equipments.
(Sinnott, 2003)
101

5.2.1 Chemical storage

Proper chemical storage controls health and physical hazards posed by chemical
compounds during storage in the laboratory and also in plant especially when handling
the ethylene oxide which is hard to handle. Proper design is needed to protect
flammables from ignition, minimize the potential of exposure to poisons and segregate
incompatible compounds to prevent their accidental mixing via spills, residues,
earthquakes, fires or human errors.

N-butanol is being transferred by pipeline from Kerteh to our plant at Tanjung


Langsat, Johor. For n-butanol storage tank, the n-butanol is located at tank farm. Tank
farms are provided facilities such as refineries and chemical plants for n-butanol
storage and handling systems.

Typically, tanks and pipeline are above ground. In general, fire protection for
gasoline tanks is sufficient enough. Furthermore, n-butanol tanks provided extra
precaution is made for leaking detection and toxic hazard.

For the time being, ethylene oxide is being transported by road tankers. The road
tankers must meet the requirement on design for the road tankers such as earthing
connections shall be provided to prevent dangerous differences in electrical potential
arising between the carrying tank, body of the vehicle, the piping and ground during
the filling or discharging of the chemicals. It must also include the insulating material
that will demonstrate minimum reactivity when in contact with ethylene oxide and be
suitable for operating at the lowest ambient temperatures to be met in service.
102

5.3 Safety of workers

A safe and healthier work environment is one of the minimum requirements which are
both legally and ethically desirable. However, this will not happen by chance but
concerted effort should be made on the part of everyone in the company to work
towards this end. A safer and healthier work place is not only desirable but it also
minimizes cost and improves productivity. By making the work environment safe, the
job and the people safe, an organization can achieve its ethical, legal and financial
goals. Workplace safety is a category of management responsibility in places of
employment.

The management has responsibilities for the health and safety of their workers.
They are also responsible for any visitors entering their premises such as customers,
suppliers and the general public. The responsible are in those following:

Ensure that plant and machinery is safe to use, and standard operation
procedures are always followed.
Take precautions against the risks caused by flammable or explosive hazards,
electrical equipment, noise and radiation.
Ensure safe workplace.
Make sure that ventilation, temperature, lighting, and toilet, washing and rest
facilities all meet health, safety and welfare requirements.
Prevent risks to health.
Prevent or control exposure to substances that may damage health.
Make sure all materials are stored in safe conditions and handle with care.
Provide adequate first aid facilities.
Tell the workers about any potential hazards from the work do, chemicals and
other substances used by the firm, and give information, instructions, training and
supervision as needed in setting up emergency plans.
Avoid potentially dangerous work involving manual handling and if it cannot be
avoided, take precautions to reduce the risk of injury.
Provide health supervision as needed.
Provide protective clothing or equipment free of charge if risks cannot be
removed or adequately controlled by any other means.
103

Ensure that the right warning signs are provided and looked after at all time.
Report any accidents, injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to either the
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or the local authority, depending on the type
of business.( Flynn, 2002)
104

5.4 Emergency Response Plan

5.4.1 Introduction

An emergency at plant may occur without warning. Proper planning for emergencies is
necessary to minimize the impact on plant operations. This plan is designed to ensure
preparation of the plant is proper handled when emergencies occur. When an
emergency occurs, the production will be interrupted. Therefore, it is essential to have
appropriate plans and trained personal to overcome the situation in an effective and
proper way. The plan must contain procedures for notifying appropriate personnel,
defines responsibilities, and provides guidelines for handling emergencies (Backhurst,
1973).

5.4.2 Objectives

The on-site emergency plan prepared the procedures for dealing with emergency
situations involving loss of containment in general terms. In brief, the main points for
inclusion are:

Arrangements for training staff in duties they will be expected to perform;


arrangements for informing local authorities and emergency services; and
arrangements for providing assistance with off-site mediatory action.
Containing and controlling incidents to minimize the effects and limit
danger to person, environment and property;
Communication is a crucial factor in handling an emergency. When an
incident occurs, it is necessary to immediately raise the alarm, to declare
an emergency and call the fire brigade, tackle a fire or control spills and
leaks when it is safe to do so.
Implementing the measures necessary to protect person and
environment;
Description of actions should be taken to control the conditions at events
and to limit their consequences, including description of equipments and
resources available;
105

Evacuate the site, and if necessary nearby premises, to inform the works
emergency services and threatened areas within the works and the
neighboring areas. The emergency procedures include instructions for
dealing with fires, leaks and spills (Backhurst, 1973).
106

5.4.3 Items for consideration in an emergency action plan

When dealing with emergency, there are several items need to be considered to ensure
the emergency response plan will achieve their goals. At this plant, there are several
essential points that need to be highlighted and reminded for every worker.
Shut down and start-up procedures.
Map of the facility layout. Every land area in this plant is equipped with
facility that used for emergency cases. Thus, the workers must ensure
that they know what to do when handling any emergencies.
Emergency organization chart with phone numbers and addresses. Every
plant has their safety officers that will monitor the whole plant. But for any
types of emergency, it is advisable to call the fire station.
Risk assessment of expected emergencies.
List of outside agencies with phone numbers and addresses.
Identification and location of alarm systems. Every section of equipment
is equipped with alarm. If the workers are suspect unusual with the
process, the workers must use the alarm and next procedures will
proceed.
Identification of the location of key emergency equipment, supplies,
shelters, assembly areas, evacuation routes and communication also
command center. It is advisable to assemble at the assembly point to
avoid any injuries. Safety is priority ( Backhurst, 1973).

5.5 n-Butanol

As n-Butanol is main reactant in EGBE production, it is important to handle this


material with safer way. n-Butanol is flammable liquid and vapor. Emergency response
plan are designed in event of prevention of chemical spill and in event of fire caused by
n-Butanol.

Effective spill prevention programs involve process engineering controls,


standard operating procedures, spill response planning, and periodic training geared to
each employee‟s degree of involvement in the response actions. Engineering controls
associated with n-Butanol storage tanks include overfill protection by means of visible
107

and audible high-level alarms; secondary containment systems, such as dikes, bunds,
vapor detectors and alarms; and explosive gas detectors to detect and warn of fire and
explosion hazards in the event of a release.

n-Butanol is stored in a dikes, well-ventilated containers that shall be tightly


closed when not in use. The containers must also store out of direct sunlight and on an
impermeable floor. Always open containers slowly in order to allow any excess
pressure to vent. Try to avoid breathing the hazardous vapor and contacting with eyes,
skin or clothing. After handling such this chemical, wash thoroughly with soap and
water. Any contaminated leather clothing need to be destroyed to avoid any reaction
and make sure to decontaminated soiled clothing thoroughly before re-use.

5.5.1 Emergency response plan in event of spill occurs

Several steps to take if a spill occurs are:


Evacuate all persons who not wearing protective equipment from the area of the
spill or leak until clean up is complete.
Stop or reduce the release of material, if it can be done safely. Eliminate all
sources of ignition.
Notify and evacuate supervisor or emergency coordinator of any spill of harmful
vapors. For large spills and fires, immediately call the fire department.
Do not walk through spilled product. Avoid skin contact and inhalation.
Stay upwind and keep out of low-lying areas.
Key elements of essential protection are immediate and appropriate response
and maintaining control of the fire.

Fire events, though undesirable, are preferable to explosion events.


Process hazard analysis must consider which is more likely in each
circumstance: a fire or an explosion. If the judgment is explosion, then
consideration should be given to changing circumstances, process conditions, or
process configuration, so that fire is the most likely consequence of ignition.

If this is not an option, then it is essential that all potential ignition sources
be eliminated and that no mobile ignition sources are allowed to enter the area.
108

Extinguishing media to be use for small fires are carbon dioxide (CO 2) or dry
chemical. For large fires occurs, aqueous film forming foam is used. Users must
thoroughly decontaminated bunker gear and other fire-fighting equipment before
re-use.

Water may be ineffective but should be used to cool fire-exposed


structures and vessels. Water spray is use for large fires. If potential for exposure
to vapors or products of combustion exists, must wearing full fire fighting turn out
gear and NIOSH approved self-contained breathing apparatus. Oxidizing
chemicals may accelerate the burning rate in fire situation. Vapor is heavier than
air and can travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flashback
(Celanese, 2004).

For disposal considerations, dispose of spilled material in accordance


with state and local regulations for hazardous waste. For n-Butanol, the
recommended methods for disposal are by incineration process or biological
treatment at a federally or state permitted disposal facility (Celanese, 2004).

5.6 Ethylene Oxide

Ethylene oxide is another raw material in this plant to produce Ethylene Glycol Butyl
Ether. Emergency response plan are designed in release of ethylene oxide as this
chemical having high toxicity. Thus, in the event of release the steps should be taken
are:

Notify the safety department.


Employees engaged in correcting emergency conditions will wear respirators
until the emergency is controlled.
Evacuate the area.
Do not re-enter the area until re-entry is cleared by the safety department.
109

5.8.1 Hazard identification

Ethylene oxide may cause cancer and has high toxicity by breathing. It is also
extremely flammable and may cause genetic damage. Ethylene oxide may irritating to
eyes, respiratory system and skin because of liquefied gas and will cause cold burns
and frost bite if contact with liquid

5.6.2 First aid measures

5.6.2.1 Inhalation
Inhalation of ethylene oxide may cause toxicity in bodies. In low concentration, it may
cause narcotic effects. Symptoms may include faintness, headache, vomiting and loss
of co-ordination. Take victim to uncontaminated area and wearing self contained
breathing apparatus. Keep the victim warm and rested. Call a doctor and apply artificial
respiration if breathing stopped.

5.6.2.2 Skin and eye contact


May cause chemical burns to skin and cornea (with temporary disturbance to vision).
Remove contaminated clothing. Soak affected area with water for at least 15 minutes.
Wash out eyes thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes. Obtain medical
assistance.
5.6.3 Fire fighting measures
Exposure to fire may cause containers to rupture or explode. Incomplete combustion
may form carbon monoxide. All known extinguishes can be used.

5.6.3.1 Specific methods


Stop the product‟s flow if possible and continue water spray from protected position
until container stays cool. Do not extinguish a leaking gas flame unless absolutely
necessary. Spontaneous or explosive may occur within the time. Extinguish any other
fire and move the container away and cool with water from a protected position.

5.6.3.2 Special protective equipment for fire fighters


Use self contained breathing apparatus and chemically protective clothing.
110

5.6.4 Accidental release measures

5.6.4.1 Personal precautions


Evacuate area and eliminate ignition sources to ensure adequate air ventilation. Use
self-contained breathing apparatus and chemically protective clothing. Do not smoke
while handling product. Always keep self contained breathing apparatus in case of
emergency and always wearing working gloves and safety shoes while handling gas
cylinders.

5.6.4.2 Environmental precautions


Try to stop the chemical release. Prevent from entering sewers, basements and
workpits or any place where its accumulation can be dangerous to environment.

5.6.4.3 Clean-up methods


Ventilate and keep the area evacuated and free from ignition sources until any spilled
liquid has evaporated.

5.6.5 Handling and storage


Make sure the equipment is an adequately earthed. Prevent suck back of water into
the container. Air from the system must be purged before introducing the gas. Do not
allow backfeed into the container. Only use properly specified equipment which is
suitable for ethylene oxide supply pressure and temperature. Prevent bottles from
falling down and segregate from oxidant gases and other oxidants in store. Make sure
the containers always been kept below 50°C in well ventilated place.

5.7 Standard Operating Procedures

As both of the raw materials are flammable and combustible liquid, safety operating
procedures must always be followed in handling both chemicals.

Safety shielding is required at any time in a risk of explosion, splash hazard or


highly exothermic reaction. Portable shields, which provide protection to all laboratory
111

occupants, are acceptable. Manipulation of flammable liquids outside of a fume hood


may require special ventilation controls in order to minimize exposure to the material.

Avoid discharge this chemical to atmosphere and do not discharge into any place
where its accumulation could be dangerous. Toxic and corrosive gases may be formed
during combustion should be scrubbed before discharge to atmosphere. Do not
discharged ethylene oxide into areas where there is a risk of forming an explosive
mixture with air. Waste gas should be burst through a suitable burner with flash back
arrestor.

In charger should ensure to follow all national and local regulations and need to
ensure their operators understand about the flammability and toxicity hazard disposal.
Users of breathing apparatus must be always trained and before handling or using this
chemical they must have thorough safety study even as proper care has been taken in
the preparation.

5.8 Hazards and operability study (HAZOP)

A systematic qualitative procedure to identify process hazards and potential operating


problems using a series of guide words to study process deviations. HAZOP is used to
question every part of the process to discover what deviations from the objective of the
design may occur and what type of causes lead to the problem and consequences.

This is done systematically by applying suitable guide words and technique for
either batch or continuous plants which can be applied to new or existing processes to
identify hazards. This is a set of formal hazard identification and elimination
procedures designed to identify hazards to people, process plants and the
environment.

Therefore, the potential hazard can be determined. In effect, HAZOP studies


assume that a hazard can arise where there is a deviation from the design or operating
intention. Corrective action can then be made before a real accident occurs.
112

The prime objective of HAZOP study was to examine the proposed design and
identify the safer process before design is hardened by physical construction, hazards
or potential operational problems which can be avoided by redesign or suitable
operating procedures. Selected lines and plant items in the P&ID were examined in
turn by applying appropriate guide terms.

The potentially hazardous situations and consequences were evaluated.


Measures to eliminate or minimize the undesirable consequences are recommended.
The results of step by step procedure and the recommendations were entered in the
HAZOP minute sheets.

5.8.1 Main recommendations of the HAZOP


Install alarm (temperature, pressure, level, flow, composition) on each
product line to column to ensure higher operating efficiency is maintaining
the product specification.
Do regular maintenance and inspection to all equipment to avoid any
equipment breakdown.

5.8.2 Advantages of HAZOP study to design application


Identifies need for emergency procedures to mitigate.
Early identification of problems areas when conceptual design stage.
Identified and effectiveness of safety systems.
Provide essential information for safety case, such as on the hazards
Identifies need for commissioning, operating and maintenance
procedures for safe and reliable operations.
Through examination of hazard and operability problems when applied at
detailed stage.
Meets governmental requirements.
113

5.9 Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether

5.9.1 Other names:


CAS No. 111-76-2
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether
Ethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE)
Butyl glycol ether
2-Butoxy-1-ethanol
2-Butoxyethanol
Butyl CELLOSOLVE solvent

5.9.2 Hazard Identification

Ethylene glycol butyl ether is clear colourless liquid and its primary routes of entry to
skin contact, eyes, inhalation, and accidental ingestion. There are several effects of
exposure if contacted to skin whereby it may cause irritation. Prolonged exposure may
result in the material being absorbed through the skin with possible systemic effects. If
contacted to eyes, it may cause irritation, stinging, tearing, redness, and swelling. It also
may cause irritation to the respiratory tract, coughing, dizziness, nausea if contacted to
inhalation. For chemical contacted to ingestion, it may cause irritation to the
gastrointestinal tract and may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Persons who are
involving with pre-existing skin disorders, eye problems, respiratory or lymphoid system
function may be more susceptible to effects of overexposure.

5.9.3 First Aid Measures

If this chemical is contacted to skin, rinse affected area with plenty of water. Remove
and wash clothing before wearing again and seek for medical attention if irritation
continues. If it is splashed into or surround the eyes, immediately flush eyes gently with
running water for 15 minutes or until material is gone. After 5 minutes remove contact
lens, if present, and then continue washing. Seek medical attention if irritation persists.
In case of contacted with inhalation, remove to fresh air. Seek for medical attention if
irritation persists. If chemical contacted with ingestion, please rinse mouth with water,
114

give several glasses of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.
Do not persuade vomiting. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to
decrease risk of aspiration. Seek for medical attention if stomach upset continued
occurs. All the general precautions need to be monitored and looking for the protection
advices from the First Aid Providers.

5.9.4 Fire Fighting Measures

Flash Point and method for Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether is almost more than 180°F
PMCC. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) for EGBE is 10.6% and Upper Explosive Limit
(UEL) for EGBE is 1.1%. Autoignition temperature for EGBE is commonly 472°F. The
extinguishing media that will give the reaction with EGBE are water fog, carbon
dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam and dry powder.

Above 142°F, an explosive vapor/air mixture may form in poorly ventilated areas.
Under fire conditions that can develop explosive pressures, the containers need to be
sealed and cool the containers with water spray. NFPA ratings for EGBE are Health: 1,
Flammability: 0 and Reactivity 0

5.9.5 Accidental Release Measures

Spill or leak procedures of controlling EGBE are firstly, remove the chemical‟s spill by
using commercial absorbent material, such as STARDUST Super Absorbent, wet dry
vacuum, or mop. Dispose in compliance with applicable governmental regulations. For
large spills, form a dike, as with sorbent socks, to limit spreading. Pump into salvage
tank for treatment or disposal. Recover usable material by any practical method. As a
precaution, dilute the spill residue with plenty of water.

5.9.6 Handling and Storage

Use good industrial practice in storage for storage precautions of EGBE. EGBE itself
need to be store in a closed container at room temperature. As a general safety
precaution, store away from heat sources, sparks or open flames.
115

5.9.7 Exposure Controls and Personal Protection

Personal Protective Equipment used to protect spillage of EGBE is including for


respiratory, hands, eyes, skin and also for industrial hygiene as well. For respiratory
protection, if to be used for a prolonged period in a confined area, use NIOSH/MSHA
approved respiratory protection. For hands, use rubber or plastic gloves. For eyes
prevention, chemical goggles in compliance with OSHA need to be used. And for skin,
wear suitable protective clothing. Wash clothing separately before wearing again. The
important prevention need to be care of is wash after handling, especially before
eating, drinking or smoking.

5.9.8 Stability and Reactivity

For stability and reactivity of these EGBE, it can be concluded that EGBE is stable, but
above 142°F, an explosive vapor or air mixture may form in poorly ventilated areas
and this conditions might resulted in a hazardous situation and strong oxidizing agents.
Fire conditions or extremely high temperatures could result in the production of such
toxic oxides as those of carbon, phosphorous, and sodium but hazardous
polymerization will not occur in this reaction. EGBE is not carcinogenic chemical and
having LC50>750mg/L.

5.9.9 Waste Disposal

Throughout this part, there are two types of waste disposal need to be follow by EGBE
user or producer. There are product disposal and packaging disposal. For both product
and packaging disposal, it needs to be disposing in accordance with federal, state, and
local regulations.
116

5.10 Diethylene Glycol Butyl Ether

5.10.1 Other names


• CAS No. 112-34-5
• 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy) ethanol
• Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether
• Butyl CARBITOL™ solvent
• Diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE)
• Butoxydiglycol
• Diglycol monobutyl ether
• Butyl diglycol ether

5.10.2 Product Description

Diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE) is a sort of glycol ether. It is mainly used as a
solvent in coatings, inks, cleaners and specialty fluids, or to fabricate diethylene glycol
butyl acetate. It is clear, liquid with a mild ether odour and evaporates slowly and
completely water soluble. Although some glycol ethers have been shown to cause bad
reproductive effects and birth defects in laboratory animals, DGBE does not show the
same model of toxicity as these other glycol ethers. DGBE has low oral, dermal and
inhalation toxicity. At a standstill, DGBE can cause severe eye irritation and slight
corneal injury when improperly used. Occupational and consumer exposure is possible
because DGBE is used in a extensive range of industrial and consumer products like
cleaning products, paints, and inks. Skin exposure is the mainly way for human
exposure. DGBE studies show it is unlikely to cause unpleasant environmental impact
because it readily biodegrades, does not bioaccumulate and has low acute toxicity to
aquatic organisms.
117

5.10.3 Manufacture of Product

DGBE is produced by reacting two ethylene oxide molecules with normal butanol (n-
butanol) using a catalyst. If the ratio of ethylene oxide to n-butanol is greater than two,
tri-ethylene glycol monoethers are produced along with the DGBE.

5.10.4 Product Uses

DGBE is used as a solvent in coatings and cleaner applications for industrial and
consumer markets. It is also used as a chemical intermediate to produce diethylene
glycol monobutyl ether acetate (DBA) and some herbicides, insecticides and
plasticizers. DGBE is also used in hydraulic brake fluid applications. Particularly, Butyl
CARBITOL solvent is used as:

Deactivator and stabilizer for agricultural pesticides.


Latex coalescent in water-based architectural and industrial coatings.
Primary solvent in solvent-based silk screen printing inks.
Coalescent for latex adhesives.
Coupling solvent for resins and dyes in water-based printing inks.
Diluents in hydraulic brake fluid applications.
Solvent for ball point and felt tip pen inks, and textile dyeing and printing.
Coupling agent and solvent in household and industrial cleaners, rust
removers, hard surface cleaners and disinfectants.
118

5.10.5 Exposure Potential

DGBE is used in the production of industrial and consumer products. Based on the uses
for
DGBE, the public could be exposed in the course of:

Workplace exposure
Exposure can arise either in DGBE manufacturing facility or in the different industrial
or consumer product manufacturing amenities that use DGBE. Each manufacturing
or application facility should have suitable work processes and safety equipment
guiding principles in place in order to limit unnecessary DGBE exposure.

Consumer exposure to products containing DGBE


DGBE is not selling for direct consumer use, but it is used as a constituent in
coatings, paints, cleaners, adhesives, pesticides, etc. Consumers will have got in
touch with with DGBE. The most likely route for human exposure is skin exposure. In
order to help avoid from unnecessary exposure, product labels need to be reviewed
and all instructions and guidelines for proper use must always be followed.

Environmental releases
In the incident of a spill, the focal point is on containing the spill to prevent
contamination of soil, surface or ground water. For tiny range of spills, DGBE should
be absorbed with materials such as sand or vermiculite. This stuff is considered
conveniently non-toxic to aquatic organisms on an acute basis. Low vapor pressure
helps in reducing inhalation risk. Conversely, adequate ventilation is recommended
to control airborne levels below any exposure guidelines. Keep away the chemical
from heat, sparks and flame. Consult the relevant SDS for more information about
protective equipment and procedures.

Large release
Industrial spills or releases are irregular and are generally contained. If large spills
occur, the material should be captured, collected and re-processed, or disposed of
according to applicable governmental requirements. If DGBE is present in a fire
119

situation, it can produce carbon monoxide (highly toxic) and carbon dioxide (an
asphyxiant at sufficient concentrations). Containers may burst from gas generation in
a fire situation. Fire-exposed containers are cooled by using water spray until danger
of re-ignition has passed.

Violent steam generation may occur upon application of direct water stream to hot
liquids. Deny any unnecessary entry into the area and consider the use of unmanned
hose holders. Use of a direct water stream may spread fire. Immediately withdraw all
personnel from the area in case of rising sounds from venting safety device or
discolorations of the container. Emergency personnel should wear proper protective
equipment, including self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), and always follow
the emergency procedures carefully. The community should be notified of the
hazards associated with the specific release event when it is relevant in scale or risk.

Health Information
DGBE has low acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity, and it is also not a skin
sensitizer. DGBE can cause harsh eye irritation and minor corneal injury when
improperly used. Prolonged contact may cause slight skin irritation with local
redness, but is unlikely to result in absorption of harmful amounts. High oral repeated
doses in rats caused red blood cell damage as well as changes in the liver, kidneys
and stomach. DGBE has not been found to be mutagenic, teratogenic, fetotoxic or
neurotoxic. It did not cause birth defects, interfere with reproduction or show toxicity
to fetuses. However, body weights of newborn animals were decreased. The major
metabolite of DGBE is 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) acetic acid (BEAA). Both DGBE and
BEAA are excreted primarily in the urine following DGBE oral, dermal and
intravenous exposure in rats.
Environmental Information
DGBE is non-toxic to aquatic organisms on an acute basis. It is readily
biodegradable and does not bioaccumulate meaning that does not build up in the
food chain. DGBE moves to water when it is released because of its high solubility,
low volatility and high soil mobility. It degrades quickly in water. Because of these
properties, DGBE poses a low risk to the environment. Ethylene glycol ethers have
only uncommonly been measured in the environment, and when found, their
concentrations are generally in the low part-per-billion (ppb) range.
120

Physical Hazard Information


DGBE is stored in carbon steel, stainless steel or phenolic-lined steel drums. It
cannot be stored in aluminum, copper, galvanized iron or galvanized steel. Avoid
contact the chemical with strong acids, strong bases and strong oxidizers. DGBE can
oxidize at elevated temperatures and thermally stable at typical use temperatures,
but can oxidize at elevated temperatures. It should not be distilled to dryness, as it
may form peroxides. Decomposition can cause gas generation and pressure in
closed systems. Thermal decomposition products can include and are not limited to
aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Spills of DGBE on hot, fibrous insulations
may result in spontaneous combustion by lowering the auto-ignition temperatures.
.
Regulatory Information
Governmental requirements may exist that govern the manufacture, sale,
transportation, use and/or disposal of DGBE. These requirements may vary by city,
state, country or geographic region. Information may be found by consulting the
relevant Safety Data Sheet.
121

5.11 Triethylene Glycol Butyl Ether

5.11.1 Other information


CAS NO: 143-22-6
FORMULA: C4H9(OCH2CH2)3OH
MOL WT: 206.28
SYNONYMS: Triglycol Monobutyl Ether; Butoxytriglycol; BTG;2-(2-(2-
Butoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol;3,6,9-rioxatridecan-1-ol; Butyl Triglycol Ether;
PHYSICAL STATE: clear liquid
MELTING POINT: -48°C
BOILING POINT: 265°C (Decomposes)
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 0.985-1.000
SOLUBILITY IN WATER: miscible
FLASH POINT: 156°C
STABILITY: stable under ordinary conditions

5.11.2 Applications of Triethylene Glycol Butyl Ether

Glycol ethers, with the arrangement of ether, alcohol and hydrocarbon chain in one
molecule, offer versatile solvency characteristics with both polar and non-polar properties.
The chemical structure of long hydrocarbon chain resist to solubility in water, whereas ether
or alcohol groups introduce the promoted hydrophilic solubility performance. This
surfactant-like structure provides the compatibility between water and a number of organic
solvents, also ability to couple unlike phases. Glycol ethers are characterized by their wide
range of hydrophilic or hydrophobic balances. Glycol ethers are used as diluents and
leveling agents in the manufacture of paints and baking finishes.

Triethylene glycol butyl ether is used in the manufacture of nitrocellulose, oils, gums, dyes,
soaps, grease, paint removers, metal cleaners,polymers and combination lacquers. They
are used as an additive in brake fluid and formulated for dying textiles, leathers also for
insecticides and herbicides. They provide performance in cleaners products with oil-water
dispersions. They are also used in printing industries and having slow evaporation rate,
used as an adhesive for perfumes, germicides, bactericides, insect repellents, and
antiseptic, also used as an additive for jet fuel to prevent ice buildup.
122

5.12 Ethylene Glycol

5.12.1 Hazard Identification

5.12.1.1 Potential Acute Health Effects


Ethylene glycol is a hazardous material in case of ingestion. It is slightly hazardous in case
of skin contact such as irritant, permeator of eye contact and inhalation. Severe over-
exposure to this type of chemical can result in death.

5.12.1.2 Potential Chronic Health Effects


The carcinogenic effect for ethylene glycol is fall under A4 category which is not classifiable
for human or animal by ACGIH. It is mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells but non-
mutagenic for bacteria or yeast. For developmental toxicity of this chemical is the
substance may be toxic to kidneys, liver, central nervous system (CNS). Repeated or
prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs harm. Repeated exposure
to a highly toxic material may produce general deterioration of health by an accumulation in
one or many human organs.

5.12.2 First Aid Measures

5.12.2.1 Eye Contact


Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, flush eyes with plenty of cold
water for at least 15 minutes immediately. Get medical attention if irritation occurs.

5.12.2.2 Skin Contact


Wash the infected skin with soap and cold water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient.
Get medical attention if irritation expands.

5.12.2.3 Inhalation
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is
difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately.
123

5.12.2.4 Ingestion
Do not persuade vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If large quantities of this material are
swallowed, call a physician immediately. Loosen all tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt
or waistband to make the victim easy to breathe.

5.12.2.5 Serious Ingestion


Persons with pre-existing kidney, respiratory, eye, or neurological problems might be more
sensitive to Ethylene Glycol. Elimination of Ethylene Glycol may be achieved by the
following methods:
Emptying the stomach by gastric ravage. It is useful if initiated within < 1 of
ingestion.
Correct metabolic acidosis with intravenous administration of sodium
bicarbonate, regulating the administration rate according to repeated and
frequent measurement of acid or base status.
Administer ethanol (orally or by IV (intravenously)) or fomepizole (4-
methylpyrazole or Antizol)) therapy by IV as an antidote to inhibit the formation
of toxic metabolites.
If patients are still diagnosed and treated early in the course with the above
methods, hemodialysis may be avoided if fomepizole or ethanol therapy is
efficient and has corrected the metabolic acidosis, and no renal failure is
present.

However, once severe acidosis and renal failure occurred, hemodialysis is


necessary. It is effective in removing Ethylene Glycol and toxic metabolites, and
correcting metabolic acidosis.
124

5.12.3 Accidental Release Measures

5.12.3.1 Small Spill:


Dilute the chemical spill with water and mop up, or absorb with an inert dry material and
place in an appropriate waste disposal container. Finish cleaning the spill by spreading
water on the contaminated surface and dispose to local and regional authority
requirements.

5.12.3.2 Large Spill:


Stop leak if without risk. Do not get water inside container. Do not touch spilled material.
Use water spray to reduce vapors. Avoid entry into sewers, basements or confined areas;
dike if needed. Remove all ignition sources. Call for assistance if any problem regarding
on disposal. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and allow
evacuating through the sanitary system. Be careful that the product is not present at a
concentration level above TLV. Check TLV on the MSDS and with local authorities.

5.12.4 Handling and Storage

5.12.4.1 Precautions
Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Empty containers pose a fire
risk; evaporate the residue under a fume hood. Ground all equipment containing material.
Do not ingest or breathe gas, fumes, vapor or spray. Wearing suitable protective clothing
is compulsory. If ingested, seek for medical advice immediately and show the container or
the label. Keep away from incompatibles such as oxidizing agents, acids, alkalis.

5.12.4.2 Storage
Keep container tightly closed and place container in a cool, well-ventilated area.
125

5.12.5 Exposure Controls/Personal Protection

5.12.5.1 Engineering Controls


Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne
concentrations of vapors below their respective threshold limit value. Ensure that eyewash
stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station location.

5.12.5.2 Personal Protection


Personal protective equipment need to be wear such as safety glasses, synthetic apron
and impervious gloves. For most conditions, no respiratory protection should be needed.
However, if material is heated or sprayed and if atmospheric levels exceed exposure
guidelines, an approved vapor (air purifying) respirator need to be used.

5.12.5.3 Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill


For large spill of chemical, personal protective equipment is much more important. Splash
goggles, full suit, boots, and gloves are needed. Suggested protective clothing might not
be sufficient; consult a specialist before handling this product.

5.12.5.4 Solubility
Ethylene glycol is soluble in cold water, hot water and acetone but slightly soluble in
diethyl ether. It is miscible with lower aliphatic alcohols, glycerol, acetic acid, acetone and
similar ketones, aldehydes, pyridine, similar coal tar bases.

5.12.5.5 Chronic Effects on Humans


May cause bad reproductive effects and birth defects (teratogenic) based on animal test
data. No human data has been reported at this time. It may affect genetic material
(mutagenic). There are several acute potential health effects regarding to this type of
chemical itself. If spill at skin, it may cause skin irritation and also may cause more severe
response if skin is abraded.
A single prolonged exposure is not likely to result in material being absorbed through skin
in harmful amounts. Immense contact with damaged skin may result in absorption of
potentially harmful amounts. If contacted to eyes, vapors or mist may cause temporary
eye irritation (mild temporary conjunctival inflammation) and lacrimation.
126

Corneal injury is unlikely or insignificant. It is rapidly absorbed from the


gastrointestinal tract. Oral toxicity is expected to be moderate in humans due to Ethylene
Glycol even though tests with animals show a lower degree of toxicity. Excessive
exposure such as swallowing large amounts may cause gastrointestinal tract irritation
with nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. It can affect behavior and
central nervous system within 0.5 to 12 hours after ingestion.

A temporary inebriation with excitement, daze, headache, slurred speech, ataxia,


somnolence, and euphoria, similar to ethanol intoxication, can occur within the first
several hours. As the Ethylene Glycol is metabolized, metabolic acidosis and further
central nervous system depression such as convulsions and muscle weakness develop.
Serious intoxication may develop to coma associated with hypotonia, hyporeflexia, and
less commonly seizures, and meningismus within 12 to 24 hours.
127

5.13 Diethylene Glycol

Diethylene Glycol (DEG) is a straight-chain dihydric alcohol aliphatic compound


terminated on both ends by a hydroxyl group. It is a clear, water-white, practically
odorless, hygroscopic liquid at room temperature.

5.13.1 Application

• Unsaturated polyester resins


• Polyester polyols
• Lubricant and coupling agents
• Plasticizers
• Humectants and dehydrating agents
• Solvents

Diethylene glycol used as dehydrating agent for natural gas, raw material for production
of plasticizers and polyester resins, humectants, textile lubricant and coupling agent,
solvent in textile dyeing and printing, constituent of hydraulic fluids, plasticizer for paper,
cork and synthetic sponges, solvent in printing inks, raw material for the production of
esters used as emulsifiers, demulsifiers, and lubricants, selective solvent for aromatics in
petroleum refining.

5.13.2 Product Safety Policy

The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should always be read and understood
thoroughly before handling the product and adequate safety procedures should be
followed. Information on toxicity, environmental and industrial hygiene aspects of the
products may be found in the MSDS. Precautionary measures also included only use
with adequate ventilation, avoid breathing vapor, mist or gas, avoid contact with eyes,
skin and clothing, keep container closed and the important thing is wash thoroughly after
handling.
128

5.13.3 Handling and storage

Diethylene glycol (DEG) is stable, non-corrosive chemical with high flash point. It has a
tendency to increase in color and acidity, accompanied by drop in pH upon long-term
storage. Peroxides may also form causing difficulties when DEG is used as a chemical
intermediate. To minimize this quality deterioration, DEG need to be stored in stainless
steel, aluminum or suitably lined such as vinyl type lining like Amercoat 23 or equivalent,
tank under an inert gas pad which is preferably nitrogen. For temperatures below +40°F,
low-pressure stainless steel steam coils need to be provided in storage tanks and steam
or electrical tracing of insulated transfer lines to form ease pumping. Temperatures
above 120°F must avoid in preventing product towards degradation. Flushing with water
and steam can readily clean transfer or storage tanks.

Pumps should be constructed of stainless steel where very low iron content is
compulsory. Pressed asbestos gaskets are recommended for pumps. Cast-iron or
centrifugal pumps with stainless shafts and impellers are satisfactory while rubber-lined
or rubber-bound gaskets should be avoided. Flexible graphite filled or stainless steel
double-jacketed gaskets are usually efficient in handling larger gaskets. Stainless steel
winding with flexible graphite filler piping gaskets performs well. Pipe thread lubricants
based on corrosion inhibiting zinc compounds or graphite based lubricant with aluminum
are generally satisfactory, but, glycols are excellent penetrants and leaks may be
present where hydrostatic testing has indicated a tight system. Therefore, the system
should be rechecked after the glycol has been added. Using of white lead, glycerin, and
Teflon tape pipe dopes are suitable.
129

5.14 Triethylene glycol

5.14.1 First Aid Measures

For eye contact, check for and remove any contact lenses. Flush infected eyes
immediately with running water for at least 15 minutes by keeping eyelids open and cold
water may used. Do not use an eye cream. If affected area become worst, seek for
medical attention immediately. If spillage contacted to inhalation, allow the victim to rest
in a well ventilated area and seek immediate for medical attention if infection continued.
Do not induce vomiting if the chemical contacted with ingestion. Loosen the tight clothing
such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-
mouth resuscitation. Seek for immediate medical attention immediately.

5.14.2 Accidental Release Measures

In accidental release measures, it is covered two types of spills which are small spill and
large spill. For small spill, the chemical were diluted with water and moped up, or absorb
with an inert dry material and place it in an appropriate waste disposal container. Finish
cleaning the spillage by spreading water on the contaminated surface and dispose the
waste according to local and regional authority requirements.

For large spill, absorb with an inert material and put the spilled material in an appropriate
waste disposal. Finish cleaning the spillage by spreading enough water on the
contaminated surface and allow it to evacuate through the sanitary system.

5.14.3 Handling and storage

There are several precautions in handling and storage the chemicals. In order to avoid
from accident, keep away the chemical from heat and also from ignition sources. Empty
containers cause a fire risk; evaporate the residue under a fume hood. Ground all
equipment containing material. Do not swallow or breathe the gas, fumes, vapour or
spray. Avoid chemical contact with eyes. If ingested, seek for medical advice immediately
and show the container or the label.
130

For storage of the chemical, keep the container in dry and cool place. Ground all
equipment containing material. Keep container tightly closed and in a cool, well-ventilated
place. Combustible materials should be stored away from extreme heat and away from
strong oxidizing agents.

5.14.4 Exposure control and personal protection

For engineering controls, provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to


keep the airborne concentrations of vapors below their respective in threshold limit
value. Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station
location. Use splash goggles and lab coat as common laboratory rules. While handling
chemical in case of a large spill, it is compulsory to wear splash goggles, full suit, boots,
and gloves. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient, consult a specialist
before handling this product.
131

5.15 Tetraethylene Glycol

5.15.1 First Aid Measures

There is a lot of possibility towards an accident while handling this type of chemical. If the
chemical splashed to the skin, wash the infected area with plenty of water. Remove
contaminated clothing and do not reuse until thoroughly laundered. If it is splashed to the
eyes, wash eyes with plenty of water, holding eyelids open and seeking for medical
assistance promptly if there is irritation. Remove the victim from contaminated area
promptly to avoid chemical contacted with inhalation but please remember that the
rescuer must not endanger himself. If breathing stops, administer artificial respiration and
seek medical aid promptly.

If contacted with ingestion, give plenty of water to dilute product. Do not induce vomiting
because inadvertent inhalation of vomited material may seriously damage the lungs. The
danger of this is greater than the risk of poisoning through absorption of this relatively low
toxicity substance. The stomach should only be emptied under medical supervision, and
after the installation of an airway to protect the lungs. Keep victim quiet. If vomiting
occurs, lower victim‟s head below hips to prevent inhalation of vomited material and seek
for medical help promptly.

5.15.2 Protective equipment and personal measures

There is no special mechanical ventilation, hand protection and clothing required while
handling this chemical but safety glasses with side shields must always wear to protect
the eyes.

5.15.3 Handling and storage

Tetraethylene Glycol is hygroscopic and need to be store in a dry environment and away
from oxidizing agents. Always ensure that the containers, whether empty or full, or part
full, are tightly sealed unless in use. Avoid breathing product mist. Never cut, drill, weld or
grind on or near this container. Avoid contact with skin and wash work clothes frequently.
An eye bath and safety shower should be available near the workplace.
132

5.15.4 Spill procedures


When there is a leaking of chemical, some precautions need to be considered which is
dyke to control spillage and prevent environmental contamination. In handling the spill in
ventilate contaminated area; recover free liquid with suitable pumps, absorb residue on
an inert sorbent, sweep and pick up using plastic or aluminum shovel. It is also need to
be stored in closed containers for recycling or disposal.

5.15.5 Disposal
For waste disposal, do not flush to sewer; recycle solvent if possible, if local regulations
permit may be put in sanitary landfill, may be incinerated in approved facility after mixing
with a suitable flammable waste. For waste in containers, drums should be reused.
Recondition and pressure test by a licensed reconditioner prior to reuse. Pails must be
vented and thoroughly dried prior to crushing and recycling. For chemical dispose in IBCs
(intermediate bulk containers), polyethylene bottle must be pressure tested & recertified
at 30 months. It should be replaced at 60 months (5yrs) and steel containers must be
inspected, pressure tested and recertified every 5 years. Never cut, drill, weld or grind on
or near this container, even if empty.

5.15.6 Environmental information

This product is highly water soluble and cannot be bioaccumulate. This product degrades
readily in the presence of oxygen which is 23% degradation in 20 days without bacterial
“acclimation” 88% in 20 days after ~50 days “acclimation”. Degradation this product
reacts with atmospheric hydroxyl radicals and estimated half life in air is 8 hours. It is also
extremely low vapour pressure suggests that this will be a minor route for degradation.
This product is also water soluble and moves readily in soil and water.
133

CHAPTER 6

MASS BALANCE

6.1 Introduction

The wanted production of Ethyelene Glycol Butyl Ether is known to be 300 metric ton per
day. The raw materials used are ethylene oxide and butanol. Butanol purity is around
99.7wt% while ethylene oxide is assumed to be 100wt% pure and the compositions of
product in the crude product is known 75wt% EGBE, 20wt % of DEGBE, 4.75wt% of
TEGBE and the rest is the residues (McKetta & John J, 1984). Ethylene oxide is
assumed to be fully consumed with the presence of excess butanol.

Besides glycol ethers, this process also produces glycol as by-product. Glycols
are produced by reaction of ethylene oxide and water. Water was present in butanol.
Glycol will be distilled along with the product. The compositions of MEG, DEG and TEG
is assumed to be 85wt% MEG, 10wt % of DEG, 3wt% TEG and 2wt% of higher glycols
since the process and details to produce glycol ethers and glycols is considered to be
similar (Weissermel & Arpe, 1978). For complete reaction and to ensure the products
are still in liquid form, the mass of butanol feed must be large enough than the mass of
ethylene oxide.
134

6.2 Main Reaction

Reaction 1
Ethylene Oxide Butanol Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, EGBE

Reaction 2
Ethylene Oxide EGBE Diethylene Glycol Butyl Ether. DEGBE

Reaction 3
Ethylene Oxide DEGBE Triethylene Glycol Butyl Ether. TEGBE

Reaction 4
Ethylene Oxide DEGBE Tetraethylene Glycol Butyl Ether. TetraEGBE
135

6.3 Side Reaction

Reaction 5
Ethylene Oxide Water Monoethylene Glycol MEG

Reaction 6
Ethylene Oxide MEG Diethylene Glycol DEG

Reaction 7
Ethylene Oxide DEG Triethylene Glycol TEG

Reaction 8
Ethylene Oxide TEG Tetraethylene Glycol TetraEG

Assumptions:

Ethylene oxide fully react to produce products


Purity of butanol is 99.7wt%
Ethylene oxide is pure.
Steady state condition.
136

Production amount of EGBE

6.4 Sample calculation

6.4.1 Mass balance on reactor

Mass Flow 5118.4


kmol/hr
Temp 120 oC
Pressure 40 bar Conversion
Reactor

Mole Flow, kmol/hr

Butanol 4783
Water 136.52
Mass Flow 4925.4 kmol/hr
EO 193
Temp 137.13 oC
EGBE 5.8814
Pressure 39.8 bar

Mole Flow, kmol/hr

Butanol 4638.3
Water 136.52
EO 193
EGBE 112.03
DEGBE 29.433
TEGBE 8.6850
TetraEGBE 0.4319
Impurities very small = 0
137

i) By using extent of reaction

a) Balance on ethylene oxide (limiting reactant)

Equation I

Since, is 193 kmol/hr and the conversion of the reaction 1 is 75%


So, is 193 – 193(0.75) = 48.25 kmol/hr
b) Balance on butanol

Equation II

Since, is 4783 kmol/hr and the conversion of the limiting reactant in this reaction is
75%
So, is 4783 – 193(0.75) = 4638.25

From Eqn II, = 144.75

c) Balance on EGBE

Equation III

Since, is 5.881 kmol/hr and the conversion of the limiting reactant in this reaction
1 and 2 are 75% and 80% respectively. Base on the stoichiometry of the reaction
So, from eqn III is 5.881 + 144.75 – 38.6 = 112 kmol/hr
138

All the calculation repeats same method as above to get

Table 6.1: Summary of the reaction process

conversion
Inlet reactor Outlet of limiting
reactor reactant

EO + Butanol → EGBE EGBE


193 193 144.75 106.2 75%

EO + EGBE → DEGBE DEGBE


48.2 48.2 38.6 29.43 20%

EO + DEGBE → TEGBE TEGBE


9.6 9.6 9.168 8.686 4.75%

EO + TEGBE → TetraEGBE TetraEGBE

0.432 0.432 0.4316 0.431 0.25%


139

6.5 Sample Calculation


Mass Flow 345401.44 kg/hr
6.5.1 Mass balance on Distillation Column 1
Temp 121.79oC
Pressure 1.3 bar

Mass Fraction

Butanol 0.991
Water 0.0072
EGBE 0.0018

Mass Flow 366190.34


kg/hr
Temp 137.13oC
Pressure 39.8 bar

Mass Fraction

Butanol 0.9386
Water 0.068
EGBE 0.0362
DEGBE 0.0131
TEGBE 0.0049 Mass Flow 19266.384 kg/hr
TetraEGBE 0.00033 Temp 195.25oC
Pressure 1.5 bar

Mass Fraction

EGBE 0.6528
DEGBE 0.2478
TEGBE 0.093
TetraEGBE 0.0062
140

Equation 1
Equation 2

We have all the value of total mass flow rate and mass fraction of Feed stream. So, we
can determine unknowns by doing some calculation on component balance and total
balance.

a) Balance on Butanol

From eqn 2, with =0

D = 345401 kg/hr
From eqn 1 we got B = 19266 kg/hr

b) Balance on EGBE

From eqn 2, with =0


We got
= 0.653

Same calculation for other component

For impurities is very small to be consider and calculate but value can be seen in
Preliminary flow diagram PFD attached.
141

CHAPTER 7

ENERGY BALANCES

7.0 Energy Balances

The values of heat capacities of the components are as following:


(Obtained from McGraw-Hill Chemical Properties Handbook, Carl L.Yaws)

Table 7.1: Values of heat capacities of the components


Cp
Component
Formula JMR Cp A Cp B Cp C Cp D @25o C
Ethylene 4.29 -1.55E- 2.41 8.88
Oxide C2H4O 44.05 34.57 E-01 03 E-06 E+01
5.23 -1.54E- 2.22 2.05
Butanol C4H10O 74.122 127.21 E-01 03 E-06 E+02
-4.00 -2.11E- 5.35 7.53
Water H2O 18.015 92.053 E-02 04 E-07 E+01
1.04 -2.96E- 3.62 2.71
EGBE C6H14O2 118.2 126.347 E+00 03 E-06 E+02
1.21 -3.18E- 3.72 3.56
DEGBE C8H18O3 162.2 178.607 E+00 03 E-06 E+02
5.92
TEGBE C10H22O4 206.28 E+02
7.07
TetraEGBE C12H26O5 250.3 E+02

- 1.65 1.66
C2H6O2 62.07 75.878 6.42 E-03 1.69 E+02
MEG E-01 E-06
142

8.56 -1.95 1.87 2.58


DEG C4H10O3 106.12 126.618 E-01 E-03 E-06 E+02
1.21 -3.06 3.24 3.34
TEG C6H14O4 150.17 160.25 E+00 E-03 E-06 E+02
1.99 -4.96 5.09 4.29
TetraEG C8H18O5 194.22 142.47 E+00 E-03 E-06 E+02

Table 7.2: Boiling Point Temperature, Tb, Heat of Vaporization, Hv, Heat of Formation, Hf,
SG and volume, V
Component Tb (K) ∆Hv (J/mol) ∆Hf (J/mol) SG V (m3/mol)
Ethylene Oxide 1.09E+01 2.57E+04 -5.26E+04 1.52E+00 2.90E-02
Butanol 1.18E+02 4.32E+04 -2.75E+05 8.11E-01 9.14E-02
Water 1.00E+02 4.07E+04 -2.85E+05 1.00E+00 1.80E-02
EGBE 1.71E+02 4.62E+04 -4.41E+05 9.00E-01 1.31E-01
DEGBE 2.31E+02 5.41E+04 -6.06E+05 9.55E-01 1.70E-01
TEGBE 2.83E+02 2.31E+04 -7.00E+05 9.89E-01 2.09E-01
TetraEGBE 3.04E+02 2.45E+05 -7.00E+05 9.95E-01 2.52E-01
MEG 1.97E+02 5.25E+04 -3.88E+05 1.12E+00 5.57E-02
DEG 2.45E+02 5.67E+04 -5.71E+05 1.12E+00 9.49E-02
TEG 2.78E+02 6.42E+04 -7.25E+05 1.13E+00 1.33E-01
TetraEG 3.08E+02 7.83E+04 -8.82E+05 1.12E+00 1.73E-01
143

Meanwhile, due to limited sources and information on time for TEGBE and
TetraEGBE properties, the Cp values of these components are determined by its
molecular formula by using Kopp‟s rule that were sourced from Third Edition Richard M.
Selder & Ronald W.Rousseau published by John Wiley & Sons, inc. Kopp‟s rule is a
simple empirical method for estimating the heat capacity of a liquid at or near 20 oC.
According to this rule, Cp for a molecular compound is the sum contribution for each
element in the compound.
Thus, the heat capacities of triethylene glycol butyl ether (TEGBE) and tetraethylene
glycol butyl ether (TetraEGBE) are as following:

Table 7. 3: Atomic Capacities for Kopp’s Rule


Element Liquids [J/(g-atom.oC)]
C 12
H 18
O 25

For TEGBE, the molecular formula is C10H22O4. So the value of Cp,


= (10 x 12) + (22 x 18) + (4 x 25)
= 616 J/mol.0C
For TetraEGBE, the molecular formula is C12H26O5. So the value of Cp,
= (12 x 12) + (26 x 18) + (5 x 25)
= 737 J/mol.0C
Table 7.4: Cp values for TEGBE and TetraEGBE
Component Cp (J/mol.oC)
TEGBE 616
TetraEGBE 737
144

7.1 ENERGY BALANCE FOR HEATER

Figure 7.1: Diagram of Heater

Table 7.5: Temperatures and Pressures involved at the Heater


Reference Temperature, TR 25oC or 298 K
Temperature Inlet, Tin 111.4oC or 384.55 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout 120oC or 393.15 K
Reference Pressure, PR 101.325 kpa
Pressure Inlet, Pin 130 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout 4000 kpa

7.1.1 Inlet of Heater (stream 5):


From previous mass balance, the molar flow rate, (kmol/hr) values are obtained.
Total enthalpy, ∑Q = ∑ΔH x (kmol/hr)

Table 7.6: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the inlet of
stream 5 of heater
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
5
Water 136.52 -2.37 x 10 -3.24 x 107
Ethylene
Oxide 193 -1.92 x 104 -3.71 x 106
-
EGBE 5.8814 417616.3919 -2456169
-
Butanol 4783 257162.0512 -1.23 x 109
TOTAL -1.27 x 109
145

7.1.2 Outlet of Heater (stream 6):


Table 7.7: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 6 of heater
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
Water 136.52 -2.37 x 105 -3.23 x 107
Ethylene
Oxide 193 -1.84 x 104 -3.54 x 106
-
EGBE 5.8814 414780.6894 -2439491.1
5
Butanol 4783 -2.12 x 10 -1.013 x 109
TOTAL -1.05 x 109

By energy balance:
Q = ΣQ (outlet) - ΣQ (inlet)
= -1.27 x 109 – (-1.05 x 109)
= -2.2 x 108 kJ/hr (heat been supplied to the system)
146

1. Sample calculations are as follows:


The values of ΔH are calculated by using this formula:
a. Cp = aT² + (b/2) T² + (c/3) T³ + (d/4) T4
b. Cp = Cp (only applied for TEGBE and TetraEGBE)

c. ΔH (J/mol) = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +


Where, Hf = Heat of Formation
V = Specific Volume
Cp = Heat Capacity
∆P = Pressure Drop
∆Hv = Heat of Vaporization
TR = Reference Temperature
Tb = Boiling Temperature
Ts = Source Temperature

2. For Ethylene Oxide at Inlet of Heater (stream 5),

∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +
(-5.26E4) + [(2.90E-2) x (130-101.325)] + [((8.88E1) x
(1.09E1-25)) + 2.57E4] + [(8.88E1) x (111.4-1.09E1)]
= -1.92E4 J/mol
147

3. For Ethylene Oxide at Outlet of Heater (stream 6),

∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +
(-5.26E4) + [(2.90E-2) x (4000-101.325)] + [((8.88E1) x
(1.09E1-25)) + 2.57E4] + [(8.88E1) x (120-1.09E1)]
= -1.84E4 J/mol
4. Enthalpy, Q of Ethylene Oxide at Inlet of Heater (stream 5),
Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -1.92E4 x 193
= -3.71E6 kJ/hr
5. Enthalpy, Q of Ethylene Oxide at Outlet of Heater (stream 6),
Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -1.84E4 x 193
= -3.54E6 kJ/hr
148

7.2 Conversion Reactor

Figure 7.2: Diagram of Conversion Reactor

Table 7.8: Temperatures and Pressures involved at the Conversion Reactor


Reference Temperature, TR 25oC or 298 K
Temperature Inlet, Tin 120oC or 393.15 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout 137.1oC or 410.25 K
Reference Pressure, PR 101.325 kpa
Pressure Inlet, Pin 4000 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout 3980 kpa
149

7.2.1 Inlet of conversion reactor (stream 6):


From previous mass balance, the molar flow rate, (kmol/hr) values are obtained.
Total enthalpy, ∑Q = ∑ΔH x (kmol/hr)

Table 7.9: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the inlet of
stream 6 of conversion reactor
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
5
Water 136.52 -2.37 x 10 -3.23 x 107
Ethylene
Oxide 193 -1.84 x 104 -3.54 x 106
EGBE 5.8814 -414780.6894 -2439491.1
Butanol 4783 -2.12 x 105 -1.013 x 109
TOTAL -1.05 x 109

7.2.2 Outlet of conversion reactor (stream 8):

Table 7.10: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 8 of conversion reactors

n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)


B 5
Water 136.52 -2.35 x 10 -3.21 x 107
DEGBE 29.433 -5.65 x 105 -1.66 x 107
EGBE 112.03 -410156.0575 -45949783.12
Butanol 117.81 -2.08 x 105 -2.45 x 107
TEGBE 8.685 -632850.228 -5.50 x 106
TetraE
GBE 0.4825 -619780.7991 -299044.2356
TOTAL -1.25 x 108

By energy balance:
Q = ΣQ (outlet) - ΣQ (inlet)
= -1.05 x 109 – (-1.25 x 108)
= -9.25 x 108 kJ/hr (heat been supplied to the system)
150

1. Sample calculations are as follows:


The values of ΔH are calculated by using this formula:

a. Cp = aT² + (b/2) T² + (c/3) T³ + (d/4) T4


b. Cp = Cp (only applied for TEGBE and TetraEGBE)

c. ΔH (J/mol) = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +

Where, ∆Hf = Heat of Formation


V = Specific Volume
Cp = Heat Capacity
∆P = Pressure Drop
∆Hv = Heat of Vaporization
TR = Reference Temperature
Tb = Boiling Temperature
Ts = Source Temperature

2. For EGBE at Inlet of Conversion Reactor (stream 6),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-4.41E5) + [(1.31E-1) x (4000-101.325)] + [(2.71E2) x
(120-25]
= -414780.6894 J/mol

3. For EGBE at Outlet of Conversion Reactor (stream 8),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-4.41E5) + [(1.31E-1) x (3980-101.325)] + [(2.71E2) x
(137.1-25]
= -410156.0575 J/mol
151

4. Enthalpy, Q of EGBE at Inlet of Conversion Reactor (stream 6),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -414780.6894 x 5.8814
= -2.44E6 kJ/hr

5. Enthalpy, Q of EGBE at Outlet of Conversion Reactor (stream 8),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -410156.0575 x 112.03
= -4.59E7 kJ/hr
152

7.3 Distillation Column 1

Figure 7.3: Distillation Column

Table 7.11: Temperatures and pressures involved at the Distillation Column 1


Reference Temperature, TR 25oC or 298 K
Temperature Inlet, Tin 137.1oC or 410.25 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout1 121.8oC or 394.95 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout2 195.3 oC or 468.45 K
Reference Pressure, PR 101.325 kpa
Pressure Inlet, Pin 3980 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout1 130 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout2 150 kpa
153

7.3.1 Inlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 8):

From previous mass balance, the molar flow rate, (kmol/hr) values are obtained.
Total enthalpy, ∑Q = ∑ΔH x (kmol/hr)

Table 7.12: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the inlet
of stream 8 of distillation column 1

n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)


Water 136.52 -2.35 x 105 -3.21 x 107
DEGBE 29.433 -5.65 x 105 -1.66 x 107
EGBE 112.03 -410156.0575 -45949783.12
Butanol 117.81 -2.08 x 105 -2.45 x 107
TEGBE 8.685 -632850.228 -5.50 x 106
TetraEGBE 0.4825 -619780.7991 -299044.2356
.
TOTAL -1.25 x 108

7.3.2 Outlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 9):

Table 7.13: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 9 of distillation column 1
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
Water 136.52 -2.37 x 105 -3.23 x 107
EGBE 5.6087 -414802.1519 -2326500.8
5
Butanol 4638.3 -2.12 x 10 -9.82 x 108
TOTAL -1.02 x 109
154

7.3.3 Outlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 10):

Table 7.14: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 10 of distillation column 1
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
EGBE 106.42 -3.49 x 105 -3.71 x 107
DEGBE 29.433 -545383.6659 -16052277
TEGBE 8.685 -595085.0476 -5168313.6
TetraEGBE 0.4825 -574476.6554 -277184.99
2 5
Butanol 2.90 x 10 -1.97 x 10 -5.71 x 103
TOTAL -5.86 x 107

By energy balance:
Q= ΣQ (outlet) - ΣQ (inlet)
= (-1.02 x 109 + (-5.86 x 107)) – (-1.25 x 108)
= -9.54 x 108 kJ/hr (heat been supplied to the system)
155

1. Sample calculations are as follows:


The values of ΔH are calculated by using this formula:

a. Cp = aT² + (b/2) T² + (c/3) T³ + (d/4) T4


b. Cp = Cp (only applied for TEGBE and TetraEGBE)

c. ΔH (J/mol) = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +

Where, ∆Hf = Heat of Formation


V = Specific Volume
Cp = Heat Capacity
∆P = Pressure Drop
∆Hv = Heat of Vaporization
TR = Reference Temperature
Tb = Boiling Temperature
Ts = Source Temperature

2. For Butanol at Inlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 8),

∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +
= (-2.75E5) + [(9.14E-2) x (3980-101.325)] + [((2.05E2) x
(1.18E2-25)) + 4.32E4] + [(2.05E2) x (137.1-1.18E2)]
= -2.08E5 J/mol

3. For Butanol at Outlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 9),

∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +
= (-2.75E5) + [(9.14E-2) x (130-101.325)] + [((2.05E2) x
(1.18E2-25)) + 4.32E4] + [(2.05E2) x (121.8-1.18E2)]
= -2.12E5 J/mol

4. For Butanol at Outlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 10),

∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +
= (-2.75E5) + [(9.14E-2) x (150-101.325)] + [((2.05E2) x
(1.18E2-25)) + 4.32E4] + [(2.05E2) x (195.3-1.18E2)]
= -1.97E5 J/mol
156

5. Enthalpy, Q of Butanol at Inlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 8),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
5
= -2.08E x 117.81
= -2.45E7 kJ/hr
6. Enthalpy, Q of Butanol at Outlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 9),
Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
5
= -2.12E x 4638.3
= -9.82E8 kJ/hr
7. Enthalpy, Q of Butanol at Outlet of Distillation Column 1 (stream 9),
Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -1.97E5 x (2.90 x 102)
= -5.71E3 kJ/hr
157

7.4 Distillation Column 2

Figure 7.4: Distillation Column

Table 7.15: Temperatures and pressures involved at the distillation column 2


Reference Temperature, TR 25oC or 298 K
Temperature Inlet, Tin 195.3 oC or 468.45 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout1 101.4oC or 374.55 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout2 172.1 oC or 445.25 K
Reference Pressure, PR 101.325 kpa
Pressure Inlet, Pin 150 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout1 9 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout2 15 kpa
158

7.4.1 Inlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 10):

From previous mass balance, the molar flow rate, (kmol/hr) values are obtained.
Total enthalpy, ∑Q = ∑ΔH x (kmol/hr)

Table 7.16: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the inlet
of stream 10 of distillation column 2
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
5
EGBE 106.42 -3.49 x 10 -3.71 x 107
DEGBE 29.433 -545383.6659 -16052277
TEGBE 8.685 -595085.0476 -5168313.6
TetraEGBE 0.4825 -574476.6554 -277184.99
Butanol 2.90 x 102 -1.97 x 105 -5.71 x 103
TOTAL -5.86 x 107

7.4.2 Outlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 11):

Table 7.17: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 11 of distillation column 2
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
EGBE 106.42 -420314.0279 -44729818.9
DEGB
E 2.55 x 10-2 -578794.3233 -1.48 x 104
Butan
ol 2.90 x 10-2 -259208.9339 -7.52 x 103
TOTA
L -4.48 x 107
159

7.4.3 Outlet of distillation column 2 (stream 12):

Table 7.18: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 12 of distillation column 2
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
DEGBE 29.407 -553633.9193 -16280713
TEGBE 8.685 -609368.3948 -5292364.5
TetraEGBE 0.4825 -591565.5843 -285430.39
TOTAL -21858508

By energy balance:
Q = ΣQ (outlet) - ΣQ (inlet)
= (-21858508 + (-4.48 x 107)) – (-5.86 x 107)
= -8.06 x 106 kJ/hr (heat been supplied to the system)
160

1. Sample calculations are as follows:


The values of ΔH are calculated by using this formula:
a. Cp = aT² + (b/2) T² + (c/3) T³ + (d/4) T4
b. Cp = Cp (only applied for TEGBE and TetraEGBE)

c. ΔH (J/mol) = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +

Where, ∆Hf = Heat of Formation


V = Specific Volume
Cp = Heat Capacity
∆P = Pressure Drop
∆Hv = Heat of Vaporization
TR = Reference Temperature
Tb = Boiling Temperature
Ts = Source Temperature

2. For DEGBE at Inlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 10),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-6.06E5) + [(1.70E-1) x (150-101.325)] + [(3.56E2) x
(195.3-25]
= -545383.6659 J/mol

3. For DEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 11),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-6.06E5) + [(1.70E-1) x (101.325-9)] + [(3.56E2) x
(101.4-25]
= -578794.3233 J/mol

4. For DEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 12),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-6.06E5) + [(1.70E-1) x (101.325-15)] + [(3.56E2) x
(172.1-25]
= -553633.9193 J/mol
161

5. Enthalpy, Q of DEGBE at Inlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 10),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -545383.6659 x 29.433
= -16052277kJ/hr
6. Enthalpy, Q of DEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 11),
Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -578794.3233 x (2.55 x 10-2)
= -1.48 x 104 kJ/hr
7. Enthalpy, Q of DEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 2 (stream 12),
Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -553633.9193 x 29.407
= -16280713 kJ/hr

7.5 Distillation Column 3

Figure 7.5: Distillation Column


162

Table 7.19: Temperatures and pressures involved at the distillation column 3


Reference Temperature, TR 25oC or 298 K
Temperature Inlet, Tin 172.1 oC or 445.25 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout1 115.5oC or 388.65 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout2 223.6 oC or 496.75 K
Reference Pressure, PR 101.325 kpa
Pressure Inlet, Pin 15 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout1 1.9 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout2 15 kpa

7.5.1 Inlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 12):

From previous mass balance, the molar flow rate, (kmol/hr) values are obtained.
Total enthalpy, ∑Q = ∑ΔH x (kmol/hr)

Table 7.20: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the inlet
of stream 12 of distillation column 3
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
DEGBE 29.407 -553633.9193 -16280713
TEGBE 8.685 -609368.3948 -5292364.5
TetraEGBE 0.4825 -591565.5843 -285430.39
TOTAL -21858508

7.5.2 Outlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 13):

Table 7.21: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 13 of distillation column 3
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
DEGBE 29.406 -573775.0684 -16872430
TEGBE 2.29 x 10-2 -644231.2625 -1.48 x 104
EGBE 3.86 x 10-4 -416497.6349 -1.61 x 102
TOTAL -1.69 x 107
163

7.5.3 Outlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 14):


Table 7.22: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 14 of distillation column 3
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
DEGBE 1.18 x 10-3 -4.81 x 105 -5.66 x 102
TEGBE 8.6621 -577644.3948 -5003613.512
TetraEGBE 0.48248 -553610.0843 -267105.7935
TOTAL -5.27 x 106

By energy balance:
Q = ΣQ (outlet) - ΣQ (inlet)
= ((-1.69 x 107) + (-5.27 x 106)) - (-21858508)
= -3.11 x 105 kJ/hr (heat been supplied to the system)

1. Sample calculations are as follows:


The values of ΔH are calculated by using this formula:
a. Cp = aT² + (b/2) T² + (c/3) T³ + (d/4) T4
b. Cp = Cp (only applied for TEGBE and TetraEGBE)

c. ΔH (J/mol) = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +

Where, ∆Hf = Heat of Formation


V = Specific Volume
Cp = Heat Capacity
∆P = Pressure Drop
∆Hv = Heat of Vaporization
TR = Reference Temperature
Tb = Boiling Temperature
Ts = Source Temperature

2. For TEGBE at Inlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 12),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-7.00E5) + [(2.09E-1) x (101.325-15)] + [(6.16E2) x
(172.1-25]
164

= -609368.3948 J/mol

3. For TEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 13),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-7.00E5) + [(2.09E-1) x (101.325-1.9)] + [(6.16E2) x
(115.5-25]
= -644231.2625 J/mol

4. For TEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 14),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-7.00E5) + [(2.09E-1) x (101.325-15)] + [(6.16E2) x
(223.6 -25]
= -577644.3948 J/mol

5. Enthalpy, Q of TEGBE at Inlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 12),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -609368.3948 x 8.685
= -5292364.5 kJ/hr

6. Enthalpy, Q of TEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 13),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -644231.2625 x (2.29 x 10-2)
= -1.48 x 104kJ/hr

7. Enthalpy, Q of TEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 3 (stream 14),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -577644.3948 x 8.6621
= -5003613.512 kJ/hr
165

7.6 Distillation Column 4

Figure 7.6: Distillation Column

Table 7.23: Temperatures and pressures involved at the distillation column 4


Reference Temperature, TR 25oC or 298 K
Temperature Inlet, Tin 223.6 oC or 496.75 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout1 150.2oC or 423.35 K
Temperature Outlet, Tout2 158.7 oC or 431.85 K
Reference Pressure, PR 101.325 kpa
Pressure Inlet, Pin 15 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout1 0.55 kpa
Pressure Outlet, Pout2 0.65 kpa
166

7.6.1 Inlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 14):

From previous mass balance, the molar flow rate, (kmol/hr) values are obtained.
Total enthalpy, ∑Q = ∑ΔH x (kmol/hr)
Table 7.24: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the inlet
of stream 14 of distillation column 4
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
-3 5
DEGBE 1.18 x 10 -4.81 x 10 -5.66 x 102
TEGBE 8.6621 -577644.3948 -5003613.512
TetraEGBE 0.48248 -553610.0843 -267105.7935
TOTAL -5.27 x 106

7.6.2 Outlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 15):

Table 7.25: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 15 of distillation column 4
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
DEGBE 1.18 x 10-3 -561425.4561 -6.60 x 102
TEGBE 8.6612 -622855.7809 -5394678.5
TetraEGBE 0.47755 -607702.2493 -290208.21
TOTAL -5.69 x 106

7.6.3 Outlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 16):

Table 7.26: shows the molar flow rate, n, delta enthalpy, ∆H and enthalpy, Q at the outlet
of stream 16 of distillation column 4
n (kmol/hr) ∆H (J/mol) Q (kJ/hr)
TEGBE 8.64 x 10-4 -617619.8018 -5.34 x 102
TetraEGBE 4.92 x 10-3 -601437.7744 -2.96 x 103
TOTAL -3.49 x 103
167

By energy balance:
Q = ΣQ (outlet) - ΣQ (inlet)
= ((-5.69 x 106) + (-3.49 x 103)) - (-5.27 x 106)
= -4.2 x 105 kJ/hr (heat been supplied to the system)

1. Sample calculations are as follows:


The values of ΔH are calculated by using this formula:
a. Cp = aT² + (b/2) T² + (c/3) T³ + (d/4) T4
b. Cp = Cp (only applied for TEGBE and TetraEGBE)

c. ΔH (J/mol) = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) + +

Where, ∆Hf = Heat of Formation


V = Specific Volume
Cp = Heat Capacity
∆P = Pressure Drop
∆Hv = Heat of Vaporization
TR = Reference Temperature
Tb = Boiling Temperature
Ts = Source Temperature

2. For TetraEGBE at Inlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 14),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-7.00E5) + [(2.52E-1) x (101.325-15)] + [(7.37E2) x
(223.6-25]
= -553610.0843 J/mol
168

3. For TetraEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 15),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-7.00E5) + [(2.52E-1) x (101.325-0.55)] + [(7.37E2) x
(150.2-25]
= -607702.2493 J/mol

4. For TetraEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 16),


∆H = ∆Hf + (V x ∆P) +
= (-7.00E5) + [(2.52E-1) x (101.325-0.65)] + [(7.37E2) x
(158.7-25]
= -601437.7744 J/mol

5. Enthalpy, Q of TetraEGBE at Inlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 14),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -553610.0843 x 0.48248
= -267195.7935 kJ/hr

6. Enthalpy, Q of TetraEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 15),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -607702.2493 x 0.47755
= -290208.21kJ/hr

7. Enthalpy, Q of TetraEGBE at Outlet of Distillation Column 4 (stream 16),


Q = ΔH (J/mol) x (kmol/hr)
= -601437.7744 x (4.92 x 10-3)
= -2.96 x 103kJ/hr