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Lab Report # 02

Group Members Salman Ahmad

Talha Yahya
Waqas Ahmad
Date 12 January 2018
Lab Performed on 5 January 2018
Subject Power System Protection
Lab Instructor Sir Asim Shoaib
Submitted to Dr Abdul Qayyum Khan

 Introduction to electric machines cooling & heating curves.
 To become familiar with thermal protection of motors

Thermistor motor protection device is used for the direct monitoring of the motor winding
temperature. For this the motor is equipped with temperature-dependent resistors (PTC),
which are connected directly to the motor winding by the motor manufacturer and which
abruptly change their resistance when the maximum temperature limit is exceeded.

Figure 1 – 3RN10 12 Thermistor Motor Protection standard evaluation unit & Dimension Diagram

The electronic overload relay is equipped with the following operating elements:
1) By pressing the blue Test-/RESET button for >2s the test function can be invoked
and tripping simulated.
2) Connection terminal for contactor extension.
3) The device is equipped with two LEDs (READY and TRIPPED) for operational
ready and tripped states and contains 1 normally open. Contactor + 1 normally closed
4) It is also equipped with a manual/automatic and a remote RESET facility.
5) Remote RESET is enabled by connecting an external pushbutton with n.c. contactor
function to terminals Y1 and Y2.
6) If the terminals Y1 and Y2 are bridged, automatic RESET follows tripping.
Theory of Thermal Relay
Thermal motor protection relays contain three bimetal strips together with a trip
mechanism in a housing made of insulating material. The bimetal strips are heated by the motor
current, causing them to bend and activating the trip mechanism after a certain travel which
depends on the current-setting of the relay.
The release mechanism actuates an auxiliary switch that breaks the coil circuit of the
motor contactor (Figure 2). A switching position indicator signals the condition “tripped”.

Figure 2 – Principle of operation of a three pole thermally delayed bimetal motor protection relay with temperature

The bimetal strips may be heated directly or indirectly. In the first case, the current
flows directly through the bimetal, in the second through an insulated heating winding
around the strip. The insulation causes some delay of the heat-flow so that the inertia of
indirectly heated thermal relays is greater at higher currents than with their directly heated
counterparts. Often both principles are combined.

Properties of Relay 3RN10 12 (From Data Sheet)

The Following Connections are made to setup system for Experiment:
1. Supply to Meter.
2. Meter to Thermal |Relay
3. Thermal Relay to Switch
4. Switch to Servo Machine test system
5. Test to Servo Motor
6. Servo Motor is Data Connected




Servo Connections

Let the motor cool down as far as possible after performing the first experiment. This
can be performed using the servo machine test stand. Switch on the brake and press the RUN
button in 'Speed Control' mode. Regulate the speed to a maximum of 2500 rpm. The motor is
now driven by the brake and cools down faster thanks to its own fan.
When the motor is operating at standstill and normal operating temperature usually a
delay time of >30 min has to be calculated in before the motor can cool down to room
temperature (depending on the ambient temperature too). Use the multimeter to continuously
monitor the temperature. If you have allowed the motor to cool down sufficiently (<40°C) you
may proceed to carry out the experiment.
To do this start the Active Servo software and make the following settings:

1) Switch to the "timing graph" menu.

2) Switch the load to flywheel mass under the Settings  Load machine.
3) Set a flywheel weight of 800 and a friction of 35 under parameters.
4) Change the measurement time setting to 100s and select the RMS option.
5) Change the measured value display and the diagram division setting.
6) Start the brake.
7) Switch the servo machine test stand to 'RUN'.
8) Start the characteristic recording.
9) Plot the characteristics into a graph.

Temperature of motor before starting experiment = 40.6ºC
Serial No Time sec Temp (Operation) ºC Temp (Cooling) ºC
1 00 40.9 62.1
2 10 47.7 61.1
3 20 57.7 59.6
4 30 62.4 58.3
5 40 63.7 57.2
6 50 63.9 56.3
7 60 - 55.3
8 70 - 54.4
9 80 - 53.8
10 90 - 52.6
11 100 - 52.2
12 110 - 51.5
13 120 - 51.0
14 130 - 50.0
15 140 - 49.4
Table 1(observation of temp rise and fall with time during experiment)
Graph from Observations

Series1 Series 2

Equation for Series 2

Figure 2 – Motor Heating Curve (Series1) & Motor Cooling Curve (Series 2)

To find time required to cool down to room temp we find equation for series 2.
𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝(ºC) = −0.0891 ∗ 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒(𝑠𝑒𝑐) + 61.227
𝑅𝑜𝑜𝑚 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝 = 25ºC
25 = −0.0891 ∗ time(sec) + 61.227
61.227 − 25 = 0.0891 ∗ 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒(𝑠𝑒𝑐)
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 = = 406.58 𝑠𝑒𝑐 = 6 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 47 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
This is the time required for motor to cool down if the cooling curve follows a linear relation.

Conclusion & results

In this experiment we learnt the basic arrangement of thermal relay and also found out
the characteristic curve for heating and cooling of motor under operation. The motor after
applying torque is cooled using the servo machine (brake). The operation of thermal relay
was not exploited in this experiment because firstly it takes a lot of time to cool down and
second the thermal relay is not enough to protect the motor from excessive currents and in
doing so there is a risk that motor winding burns out.

Some precautions for this experiment are:
 Should the room temperature be more than 26°C, reduce the friction and flywheel
mass settings slightly!
 Do not put hand on the motor when it is running there is always danger of shock or
too much heating up.