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HUMAN ANATOMY 124

General Histology

INTRODUCTION
TYPES OF TISSUES
 Four (4) Basic Types of Animal Tissues
1. Epithelial – Covers body surfaces and lines body cavities
2. Connective – Binds and Supports body parts
3. Muscular – Enables movement of structures within the body and movement of the entire person/animal
4. Nervous – Enables responses to stimuli and coordinates bodily functions

EPITHELIUM
 Epithelium is formed by closely apposed polygonal cells with little or no intercellular material that covers body surfaces
or form glands, associated with basement membrane.

ORIGIN
 Ectoderm - nervous system, skin and appendages
 Mesoderm - supporting tissues, blood vessels and Serosal linings
 Endoderm - gastrointestinal tract, its glands and respiratory tree

TYPES

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Examples of
Type Cell Form Main Function
Distribution
Very thin, flat cells of Facilitates the movement of the
irregular outline fitted Lining of vessels viscera (Mesothelium)
Simple Squamous
closely together to form a (endothelium) Active transport by pinocytosis
continuous sheet (Mesothelium and endothelium)
Serous lining of Secretion of biologically active
cavities molecules (Mesothelium)
Mosaic pattern Pericardium, pleura,
peritoneum
(Mesothelium)
Cuboidal Covering the ovary Covering
Simple Cuboidal
Box or cube-like cells Thyroid Secretion
Absorption of nutrient materials
and fluids from the filtrate that
Simple cuboidal epithelium
passes through the tubules
with brush borders
Proximal and distal Responsive to ADH and controls
(microvilli of different
convolutary tubules resorption of water from the
heights)
glomerular filtrate, thus affect urine
density, and help retain water
content of the body
Columnar
Protection
Composed of cylindrical
Lining of intestine, Lubrication
Simple Columnar cells nuclei situated nearer
gallbladder Absorption
to the basal surface than to
Secretion
the apical
Simple columnar epithelium Absorption - microvilli
with goblet cells and striated Secretion of mucus - goblet cells
Small intestine
(microvilli of same height), Protection from corrosive secretions
borders of stomach
Pseudostratified
Nuclei lie at different levels
Ciliated, Pseudostratified Lining of trachea,
which gives the impression Protection
columnar epithelium bronchi, nasal cavity
that the membrane is Secretion
composed of more than a
layer of cells
Deepest layer: polyhedral or Bladder, Ureter, Allow distensability of urinary
columnar cells with renal calyces (hence organs without breaking the cell
spherical nuclei called Urothelium) contacts.
Next layers: 1-3 rows of Forms a protective osmotic border
Transitional pyriform or pear shaped between urine in the urinary
cells bladder and underlying tissue
Superficial layer: flattened or fluids
umbrella -shaped cells with
oval nuclei
Stratified squamous
keratinized (dry) - cuboidal
Stratified or columnar basal cells on Protection
Epidermis
more than one layer of cells basement membrane, closer Prevents water loss
to the surface the cells
become irregular in shape
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HUMAN ANATOMY 126
General Histology

and flatten, squamous

Mouth, esophagus, Protection


Stratified squamous, Non
larynx, vagina, anal Secretion
keratinized (moist)
canal Prevents water loss

Cuboidal Sweat glands,


Protection
Superficial cells cuboidal in developing ovarian
Secretion
shape follicles
Columnar
Conjunctiva, large
Superficial cells are
ducts of salivary Protection
prismatic and cuboidal or
glands
columnar in shape

Glandular Epithelia:
 Formed by cells specialized to produce secretion
Type, cell form Region of presence
Based on the number of cells
Goblet cells in the lining of the small intestines and
Unicellular glands - consist of isolated glandular cells
respiratory tract
Multicellular glands - composed of clusters of cells
Based on morphology or shape
Tubular
Coiled Tubular - crypts of Lieberkuhn
Simple glands- have only one Unbranched duct
Branched Tubular - sweat glands
Branched Acinar - gastric glands
Compound glands - have ducts that branch Tubular - Testis, Liver, Kidneys
repeatedly Tubuloacinar - Salivary glands, Pancreas
Simple Saccular - Small sebaceous glands
Saccular glands- have saclike invaginations Branched Saccular - Big sebaceous glands
Compound Saccular - Mammary glands

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General Histology

Based on histological characteristics


1. Serous glands - serous Demilunes of Heidenhain’s
2. Mucus glands
3. Mixed glands
Based on physiological classification (quality of secretion)
1. Serous glands - Water and albuminous content
2. Mucus glands - rich in mucin
3. Mixed glands -
 Glands that are neither serous nor mucous - seruminous glands
 Cytogenic or Cellular glands - glands that produce cells like the ovary and testis
Based on integrity of secretory cells during the process of release of its secretion into lumen
1. Holocrine glands
 The cells is completely destructed in the process of secretion
 Ex: Sebaceous gland of skin
2. Apocrine glands
 Apical part of cells together with cytoplasm disintegrates
 Ex: mammary gland, atypical sweat glands
3. Merocrine glands
 Maintains the integrity of the cells and secretions are released by typical exocytosis
 Ex: Most of the other glands
Based on the presence or absence of excretory ducts
1. Endocrine glands - ductless glands, secretes directly into the blood stream
 Cord/ clump type
 Follicular type
 Ex: most of the endocrine glands, thyroid gland
2. Exocrine glands - with duct system

CONNECTIVE TISSUES

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 Function primarily to:


o Support the body
o Bind or connect together all types of tissue
 This tissue also provides a mechanical framework (the skeleton) which plays an important role in locomotion
 It holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues.

FEATURES FUNCTIONS COMPONENTS


Few cells Support CT cells
No basement membrane Protection Protein fibers
More of intercellular substances Transport (Collagen, Reticular, Elastin)
Majority take origin from the mesoderm Insulation Stromal components (Matrix)
(middle layer) Hematopoietic
Immunologic
Tissue repair

Cellular Components of CT(AIPG-2010)


Cell types Features Functions
Synthesis of fibers and amorphous
Most common resident cells of CT ground substances
Fusiform or spindle shaped Synthesis of collagen
Fibroblast
Amino acids by cells  Rough ER
Active form - fibroblast
pro Alpha chains  Alpha chains3
Quiescent form – fibrocyte
alpha chains  Pro collagen
molecule  Leave cells 
Tropocollagen  molecule 
Vitamin C + Oxygen = Collagen
fiber
Has different names in different organs
Lungs - alveolar macrophage Engulfs bacteria
Blood - monocyte Abundant in richly vascularized areas
Liver - Kupffer cell Important for defense
Macrophages /Histiocytes Bone - osteoclast
Brain - microglial cell
Lymph nodes - dendritic cell
Skin - Langerhans cell

Signet ring appearance Heat production


Fat cells / Adipocytes
Storage of neutral fats
With granules containing heparin,
histamine, & serotonin Releases chemical mediators

Mast Cells Filled with basophilic secretory granules Anaphylactic sensitivity reaction
Has a different name in the blood –
basophil

Infrequently found,
Plasma Cells "Cartwheel" appearing nucleus with Seen in inflammation
inclusion bodies called "Russel bodies" Major producer of antibodies

Intercellular Substance/Matrix
Non-living material with 2 elements:

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Amorphous elements/ground substance Fibrous

Polymers of carbohydrates & proteins Collagen fibres


Viscous, semi fluid material between cells & fibres, Elastic fibres
Proteoglycans, structural glycoproteins Reticular fibres

Ground substance
Components of
Features Types
Ground substance
1. Hyaluronic acid
Proteoglycans Consists of glycosaminoglycans 2. Chondroitin sulphate
attached to core proteins & 3. Dermatan sulphate
extend like bristle of brush 4. Keratin sulphate
5. Heparin sulphate
1. Laminins
Structural glycoproteins Adhesive proteins - bind cells 2. Fibronectins
to collagen fibres 3. Chondronectins
4. Osteonectins

Connective Tissue Fibers


Types Features Area of presence
I - Dermis, bone, tendon, fibro cartilage
Collagen Fibers Most numerous II - Hyaline, elastic
Known for rigidity Found as bundles III - Endomysium, smooth muscles, liver,
Bundles branch but not individual spleen, kidney, lung.
fibres IV - Basal lamina
Yellow ligaments of the vertebral column
Elastic Fibers Refractile fibers with Elastin Suspensory ligaments of the penis
Known for flexibility Fibres run singly, individual fiber Bronchi
branch, ends recoil, not visible - Trachea
must be stained Hollow organs
Blood vessels

Reticular Fibers Trabecular system creates a sponge Adipose


Supporting framework of like structure within which cells and Muscle
hematopoietic and fluids are freely mobile, surrounds Basal lamina
lymphoid organs other tissues and cells, Stroma of glandular organs
“argyrophillic" - black fibrillary
strands.

Diagrams of different types of connective tissue

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General Histology

Loose areolar tissue Dense regular connective tissue

Dense irregular connective tissue Adipose tissue


Types of Connective Tissue
Connective tissue type Features Site of presence

Embryonic Connective Tissue

Found in adult In vitreous of eye ball,


Mesenchyme Cell - primitive fibroblast, pulp of teeth, nucleolus
Mucous connective tissue spindle shaped, stellate; pulposes of intervertebral
abundance of ground substance disc, Wharton’s jelly of
composed primarily of umbilical cord
Hyaluronic acid.

Mature Connective Tissue

Widely distributed, fewer


collagen fibers, delicate
Loose Connective Tissue consistency, flexible, well Superficial fascia, deep fascia
vascularized, not very resistant
to stress
Dense Regular / White Fibrous
Dense Connective Tissue Tissue
Collagen fibers oriented Tendons, ligaments,
Close packaging of collagen fibers, adapted to unidirectional in response to Aponeurosis
offer resistance and protection, fewer cells, prolonged stress, great
predominance of collagen fibers resistance in traction forces
Dense Irregular Dermis, gastrointestinal tract
Collagen fibers in bundle, mucosa, capsule of organs,
randomly oriented periosteum, perichondrium

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General Histology

CT with Special Properties


Types
Parenchyma composing of Yellow / white / unilocular -
Adipocytes seen in subcutaneous
Large, oval shape, central fat tissue, around kidney, in
surrounded by thin rim of various organs
Adipose Tissue
cytoplasm containing nucleus - Brown / multilocular / fetal
signet ring appearance. Adipocyte - seen in animals
that are hibernating, in
Functions: fat storage, insulation, fetus -- nape and
mechanical support retroperitonium

Appears in response to tensile Ligaments, tendons,


White fibrous tissue
strain with more collagen fibres membranes

Ligamenta flava, Ligamentum


Yellow elastic tissue Elastic fibres are predominant
nuchae, vocal folds
With reticular fibres & reticular Lymph nodes, spleen, liver,
Reticular tissue
cells lungs.
Made up of pigment cells like Supra choroid membrane,
Pigment connective tissue
Melanocytes lamina fusca of sclera

Specialized Connective tissue

Blood

Sclerous connective tissue

CARTILAGE
- Is a special form of CT, rigid matrix but pliable and elastic
- Made up of cells and matrix, with collagen and elastic fibers in matrix, with perichondrium (dense regular
fibrous CT)
- It is Avascular
Function:
- Provide structural support
- Degree of flexibility
Histogenesis:
- Formed by direct differentiation of mesenchymal cells in chondroblasts
- Chondroblasts multiply grow and produce cartilage matrix
- Surrounded by matrix and trapped in lacunae to mature into chondrocytes
- CT fibers appear in the matrix.
Growth:
- Appositional Growth: New cells and matrix are added into the surface, increase in width by hypertrophy
- Interstitial / Endogenous Growth: In the middle portion of the cartilage, multiplication of the chondrocytes and
production of new matrix from within which increase in size and length of cartilage by hyperplasia.

Classification based on abundance and type of fiber

Hyaline Cartilage Embryonic Hyaline cartilage


Has: Perichondrium, It is the skeletal model for
Most common type youngchondroblasts which are bones developing by cartilage
Consists of collagen type I &II numerous, small, irregular shape, in fetus.
Transparent / translucent minimal matrix

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Adult Hyaline cartilage


Surrounded by the perichondrium
Found in matrix - chondrocytes in Respiratory system - nasal
lacunae, cell nest, matrix appears septum, laryngeal cartilages
homogenous / glassy (because like thyroid, Cricoid,
refractive index of fibres is same as that arytenoids [except its apex],
of matrix) tracheobronchial tree.
Interterritorial matrix and Costal cartilage is unique -
territorial/capsular matrix prone for fibrous changes
Collagen fibers abundant in
intercapsular matrix
Articular Hyalinecartilage- no Between articulating surfaces
perichondrium, more and bigger of bones developing from
chondrocytes, Avascular cartilage
Elastic Cartilage
Yellowish color - due to the presence of At sites of sound reception
Elastin (ear) - Eustachiantube,
With elastic fibers in the matrix, external auditory canal and
more flexible, with perichondrium, sound production (larynx)
fewer cell nests Epiglottis, apex of arytenoids
cartilage, cuneiform cartilage
in the larynx

Fibrocartilage Rich in tropocollagen, no


perichondrium, and scanty matrix
with thick collagen fiber arranged in Intervertebral disc, tendons
parallel bundles, chondrocytes - and ligaments, Symphysis
smaller, fewer, arranged singly in pubis, first costochondral joint
rows between bundles of collagen
fibers.

BONE
 It is rigid form of CT with cells, fibers and ground substance.
 Ground substance is calcified (Hydroxyapatite), hard and brittle
 Calcified matrix is made up of organic elements, collagen, protein polysaccharide; chondroitin SO4, inorganic elements
makes up the greater portion of the matrix - Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium.
Functions
 Internal support
 Attachment of muscles and tendons for locomotion
 Contains bone marrow to form blood elements
 Protect vital organs of the cranial and thoracic cavity
Bones of the Body
 206 named bones
 Axial &appendicular bones - Appendages - arms &legs - 30 bones each
 Head – has typically 22 bones
 Spine- 33 bones, which include:
Cervical (Neck) 7
Thorax 12
Lumbar 5
Sacral 5

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Coccygeal 4

 Pelvic girdle is fused to the sacrum at the sacroilliac joint.


o Pelvis is the part that is added onto the spine
 Thorax (chest) has - 12 pairs of ribs
o 7 pairs 'True' ribs -joined directly to the sternum ("breast-bone")
o 3 pairs 'False' ribs -joined to the sternum ("breast-bone") by cartilage
o 2 pairs 'Floating' ribs - not connected to the sternum ("breast-bone") at all, connected to the diaphragm.
 Shoulder girdle:
o Scapula (shoulder blade)
o Clavicle ("collar bone")
 Bones of upper limb:
o Humerus, Radius, Ulna
o Carpal bones (Proximal bones (medial to lateral) - 8
 Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform
 Distal bones (medial to lateral) –Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate)
o Metacarpal bones - 5
o Phalanges - 14
 Bones of lower limb:
o Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tibia
o Tarsal bones – 7
 Calcanium, Talus, Cuboid, Navicular, Medial, Intermediate, Lateral cuniforms
o Metatarsal bones- 5
o Phalanges – 14

CLASSIFICATION OF BONES

According to Position
Type Location
Axial bone Skull bone, vertebrae, ribs, sternum

Appendicular bones Upper limb - pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula), free bones, lower limb-pelvic girdle (hip
bone), free bones

According to Ossification

Membranous bone, Cartilaginous bone, Membrano-cartilaginous bone

Types Features Location

Intramembranous Occurs directly in primitive Connective Tissue Bones of face &skull


Ossification without cartilage formation

Involves all the bones of the body


Intracartilagenous / Replacement of cartilage of bone developing by cartilage.
Endosteal Ossification Cartilage destruction is a Except
pre-requisite Flat bones or bones developing by
membrane like face & skull

When bone arises in tissue not belonging to the skeletal system or in Connective Tissue
Ectopic Bone Formation without Osteogenic properties

According to shape

Types of bones Features Area of presence

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Greater length than width


Consist of a shaft and a variable
number of endings (extremities)

Typical long bone


It presents a diaphysis and at Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna and radius
Long bones least two epiphysis, one at each
end

Modified long bones Clavicle - functionally the clavicle is weight


Devoid of Medullary cavity, bearing
mostly ossified in membrane.

Miniature or short long bones Metacarpals, metatarsals


Presents a single epiphysis at
one end only
Roughly cube shaped
Short bones Have approximately equal Ankle & wrist bones
length &width

Consists diploes with two plates Cranial bones (protecting the brain)
Flat bones of compact bone with Sternum & Ribs (protecting the organs in the
intervening spongy bone and thorax)
marrow Scapulae (shoulder blades)

Irregular bones Have complicated shapes Vertebrae and some facial bones

Develop in some tendons in


Sesamoid bones locations where there is Patellae (kneecaps) in quadriceps femoris
considerable friction, tension, muscle
&physical stress

Very small bones located within


Sutural bones the sutural joints b/w cranial At sutural joints b/w cranial bones
bones

Contains air filled spaces which Bones confined to nasal cavity-frontal,


Pneumatic bones are lined by mucous membrane maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid

Wormian bones are a subset of the small


intrasutural bones that lie
between the cranial sutures
formed by the bones of the
skull vault. The title Wormian
bones is reserved for abnormal
intrasutural bones that are
typically found around the
lambdoid suture.
According to Bone structure - gross

Spongy  With irregular branching bony spicules forming a network of interconnecting spaces
(Cancellous) bone  Thin trabecular made up of irregular lamellae of bone with lacuna containing osteocytes,
 Absence of Haversian systems
 Trabeculae is lined by endosteum containing:
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- Osteoprogenitor
- Osteoblast
- Osteoclast
Compact bone  Arranged as parallel column made up of concentric layer surrounding the Haversian
system/canal
 Between lamellae are osteocytes in lacuna
 Haversian system/canal (osteon) - channel with concentric lamellae of bone
 Periosteal / External Circumferential Lamellae- outermost portion of compact bone
 Endosteal / Internal Circumferential Lamellae- surround the central Medullary cavity
 Interstitial Lamellae- between the Haversian system as a result of continued resorption and
re-deposition of bones
 Volkmann’s channel- found at the right angle of osteon
 Canaliculi - intercommunicating lacunae
Transverse section of bone

Longitudinal section of bone

Parts of a Long Bone


Periosteum - Dense regular fibrous CT covering outer surface of bone.
- Specialized CT layer with osteogenic cells & role in repair of bone fracture.
- Bound to underlying bone by Sharpey's fibers (bundle of periosteal collagen
fibers)
Endosteum - Thin cellular layer with Osteogenic properties around marrow cavity
- Lines inner bony cavity
Diaphysis / shaft - Thick wall, hollow cylinder, vertical Medullary cavity containing bone marrow
Epiphysis - End of long bone, made up of spongy bone
- Covered by a thick cortex of compact bone
Epiphyseal plate / growth plate - Separation of epiphysis from diaphysis
- Site of Endochondral ossification
Metaphysis - Transitional region connecting the Epiphyseal plate & diaphysis

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Bone marrow
 Two types
o Red
o Yellow
 Long bones - Red marrow mainly in head of femur and humerus in adults, more red marrow in other bones
 Yellow bone marrow is filled with fat in adults (usually in shafts of long bone in adults), can revert to red in anemic
patients.

Bone Cells
Cells Features Location
Found on free body surfaces,
Undifferentiated cell, pale staining
Osteoprogenitor cells endosteum, periosteum, lining of
Divide - Osteoblast (bone forming)
the Haversian canal and Epiphyseal
Unite - Osteoclast (bone destroying)
plate

Osteoblasts Responsible for the development of matrix Surface of developing bones

Cells of fully formed bone.


Lacuna of calcified matrix of a fully
Osteocytes Flat, almond-shaped, long-living cells
formed bone
Involved in the maintenance of bony matrix

Giant multinucleated cell closely associated with areas


of resorption & remodeling of bone tissue Concavities of the bone surface
Osteoclasts
Forms a ruffled border called Lacuna of Howship
Has clear zone (Cytoplasmic zone devoid of organelles)

Bone Matrix :
1. Organic portion - Collagen, Glycoproteins, Proteoglycans
2. Inorganic- hydroxyapatite - Calcium phosphate salts; CaCO3, Mg, Na, K, Fl, SO4

Blood supply of typical long bone:


 Nutrient artery enters the shaft through nutrient foramina which divides into ascending & descending branches in
Medullary cavity
 Metaphyseal artery is direct branch of neighboring systemic artery
 Epiphyseal is branch of periarticular vascular arcade
 Periosteal arteries

MUSCULAR TISSUE
 Muscle tissue is primarily for locomotion
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 Mesodermal in origin with property of contractility


 Word muscle is derived from the Latin musculuswhich means a little mouse.

Classification
 Types of muscle tissue in mammals can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and functional characteristics

Muscle types Location Features

 Bundles of very long, cylindrical, peripherally placed


Skeletal muscle Throughout the multiple nuclei below the sarcolemma
(PGI-2008) body  Show cross-striations
Under conscious/voluntary  Contraction is quick, forceful, and usually under voluntary
control control
 Caused by the interaction of thin actin filaments and thick
Main function -movement myosin filaments whose molecular configuration allows
of the structures of the them to slide upon one another
body, and the body as a  Forces necessary for sliding are generated by weak
whole (by walking, interactions in the bridges that bind actin to myosin
running)

 Cross-striations and is composed of elongated, branched


Cardiac muscle Endocardium of individual cells that lie parallel to each other, centrally placed
heart at centre of cell
Important for effective  At sites of end-to-end contact are the
blood flow through the intercalateddisks,structures found only in cardiac muscle
heart  Contraction of cardiac muscle is involuntary
 Vigorous, and rhythmic
 Forms functional syncytium, in which cells function as a unit

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Around the walls  Collections of fusiform cells that do not show Cross-striations
Smooth Muscle of many internal  Each cell has a single nucleus located in the center of the
structures Like: broadest part of the cell
Involuntary muscle tissue Stomach  Contraction process is slow and not subject to voluntary
&intestines control

Skeletal muscle
Gross structure:
 Epimysium- External sheath of dense connective tissue surrounding the entire muscle
 Perimysium
o Thin septa of connective tissue extend inward
o Surrounding the bundles of fibers within a muscle from the epimysium around each bundle of muscle fibers
 Endomysium - Each muscle fiber is itself surrounded by a delicate layer of connective tissue composed mainly of a basal
lamina and reticular fibers

Ultrastructure:
Each muscle is consists of
 Sarcoplasm - Acidophilic cytoplasm of muscle cell fibers
 Sarcolemma - Cell membrane complex
 Sarcosome - Mitochondrion in the sarcoplasm with granular appearance
 Myofibrils
o Fine threadlike structures composed of finer myofilaments
o Located in the Sarcoplasm for contraction
 Sarcomere - Smallest repetitive subunit of the contractile apparatus extends from Z line to Z line
 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum - Endoplasmic Reticulum of the muscle

Structure of Skeletal muscle fiber:


 Nuclei are multiple, oval in shape and are peripheral in distribution beneath the sarcolemma
 Myofibrils are contractile, unbranched parallel threads situated along the axis of the entire length of the muscle fiber
 They are arranged in groups forming polygonal Cohneim’s area
 Under polarized microscope each myofibril presents along its length alternate dark A band and light I band
 Each I band presents middle a dark transverse line known as Z disc
 The segment of myofibril between two successive Z discs is known as Sarcomere
 Myofilament is composed of longitudinally oriented protein
 Two types of protein filaments-thick and thin
 Thick filaments are composed of myosin and thin consist of actin, tropomyosin and troponin

Classification of Skeletal muscle

Types Features/ structure Site of presence

According to the color

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Myohaemoglobin is most abundant Deep muscle


It is more primitive Ex: soleus muscle
Red muscle Contraction is slow but more sustained
Contain high concentrations of mitochondria and enzymes
associated with oxidative metabolism
Presents more cross striations and less Sarcoplasm. Superficial muscle
Contraction is rapid but less sustained Ex: gastrocnemius muscle
White muscle
Their rapid fatigability is associated with their anaerobic
metabolism

According to the direction of the muscle fibres

Strap muscle Ex: Sartorius


Parallel Quadrate muscle Ex: Qudratus
The muscle fibres are parallel to the line of pull
lumborum
Fusiform muscle Ex: Biceps brachii
Unipennate Ex: Flexor pollicis longus
Bipennate Ex: Rectus femoris
Pennate Fleshy fibres are oblique to the line of pull Multipennate Ex: Acromial fibres of
deltoid
Cricumpennate: Ex: Tibialis anterior

Spiral Muscles are twisted close to their insertion Pectoralis major

Muscle fibres are arranged in superficial and deep planes


Cruciate Masseter, Sternocleidomastoid
crossing like X
According to force of actions - spurt and shunt muscle

 Muscle while acting on a mobile bone


- Exerts a force with two components forces at right angles to each other
o Swing component which tends to produce angular movement of the joint
o Shunt component which tends to draw along the shaft towards the joint and compresses the
articular surface.
 If swing component is more it is a spurt muscle, if shunt component is more it is a shunt muscle

Regeneration
 Cardiac muscle:
o Has almost no regenerative capacity beyond early childhood.
o Defects or damage (e.g. infarcts) in heart muscle are generally replaced by the proliferation of connective tissue,
forming myocardial scars
 Skeletal muscle:
o Although the nuclei are incapable of undergoing mitosis
o Tissue can undergo limited regeneration.
o The source of regenerating cells is believed to be the satellite cells
 Smooth muscle:
o Capable of an active regenerative response.
o After injury - viable mononucleated smooth muscle cells& pericytes from blood vessels undergo mitosis
o Provide for the replacement of the damaged tissue

NERVOUS SYSTEM
 It is the combination of organs which integrate activities of other system
 Conduct impulses around the body and permit internal and external sentinent activities
 Development:
o Embryonic ectoderm that is induced to differentiate by the underlying notochord.
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Structure of nervous tissue


 Cells of the Nervous System
CNS PNS
Neurons Ganglion cells
Neuroglia Schwann cells
Neurons
 Structural & functional unit of nervous system
 It is an excitable cell which is concerned with the receiving information from the environment or other nerve cells, process
information, send information to other neurons or effector
 Neurons are known for:
o No mitosis
o No proliferation
o High metabolic activity
 Neuron consists of:
o Cell body/soma
o Processes of two kinds
 Dendrites
 Axons
 Cell membrane:
o Similar to other cells
o Trilaminar – 75 A˚
 Nucleus:
o Central large, vesicular, prominent nucleolus
o Eccentric position – injury, fatigue, healthy sympathetic ganglion
 Mitochondria:
o Present in cytoplasm and processes.
o Respiration and oxidation
 Golgi apparatus:Storing and releasing neuro secretion
 Lysosomes:
o Thick walled membranous vesicles
o Release hydrolytic enzymes and acid phosphatase
 Neurofibrils:
o Ultra microscopic fine fibrils
o Arranged in plexiform manner in the cell body and extends in all processes.
o Crowded at axon hillock
 Pigments:
o Lipochrome-gives yellow color to neuron, Abundant in old age
o Melanin:Dopamine synthesis, Substantia nigra of mid brain
o Lipofuscin: wear and tear
o Nissl bodies:
 Trigoid, chromidial substances, Deeply stained angular bodies stained with basic dyes.
 Absent in axons – crowding of neurofibrils at the axon hillock.
 More in motor nerves.
 Ribose nucleoprotein and iron
 Functions:
 Synthesis of new protein in cell body.
 Maintains continuous axonal flow.
 When the nerve cell is injured or fatigued nissl bodies disappears, and the process is known as
chromotolysis.
Multipolar neuron - Nerve processes:

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Dendrites Axons

Extensions of the Cell body Lacks nissl bodies


From axon hillock

Shorter Longer

More abundant Fewer

More branching Few branching


Near the cell body Axon collaterals

Cellulipetal Cellulifugal

Classification of Neurons
According to Polarity
Apolar neuron No process.
Ex: chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
Unipolar neuron Contains only one process i.e. axon. Found in lower animals.
Ex: mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve
Bipolar neuron Two processes.
Spindle shape.
Dendrite – from periphery to cell body.
Axon from cell body to CNS.
Ex: olfactory cells, ganglion cell of auditory nerve, some cells of retina(COMEDK-2008)
Pseudo Unipolar neuron One process divides in ‘T’ shaped manner into dendrite and axon.
Ex: dorsal root ganglia of all spinal nerves
Multipolar neuron Two or more dendrites and one axon.
Ex: most of the neurons of human body

According to Function
Sensory neurons Carry sensation to CNS.
Cell body is outside the CNS
Internuncial or connector neurons Present in CNS.
Connects sensory with motor.

Motor or effector neurons In somatic nerve – upper and lower motor neuron.
In ANS – pre and post ganglionic neuron.
According to Length of Processes
Golgi Cell Type I (Projection neurons) Dendrites are shorter and numerous, axons are long

Golgi Cell Type II (Interneuron’s) Axons are short and morphologically similar dendrites

Reflex Arc
 Pathway for reflex arc is considered as the functional unit of nervous system.

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 Ex: Stretch, Micturition reflex.


 It involves
o Receptor: specialized termination of sensory nerves, responds to stimulus,
o Sensory (afferent) neuron: carry impulse to brain
o Centre: process the stimulus
o Motor (efferent) neuron: impulse from center to effector organ
o Effector:muscle or gland which carry out the response.
Neuroglia
 Supporting non excitable cells undergo mitotic division
 Takes an active part in transport and metabolism.
Macroglia
 Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, Ependymal cells
 They are developed from embryonic neuroectodermal cells
Microglia
 Mesodermal derivatives
 Brought about by blood vessels
Glial Cell type Origin Location Main Functions
Central nervous system

Neural Myelin production


Oligodendrocyte
tube Electric insulation

Neural Myelin production


Schwann cell Peripheral nerves
tube Electric insulation
Astrocytes Central nervous system
Fibrous Astrocytes: contains Neural Structural support
microfilament Gliofibrils which tube Repair processes
extend into processes. Situated in Blood–brain barrier
white matter of CNS Metabolic exchanges
Protoplasmic Astrocytes: lack
Gliofibrils. Situated in grey
matter of CNS
Neural Lining cavities of central
Ependymal cell Central nervous system
tube nervous system
Central nervous system

Bone
Microglia Macrophagic activity
marrow

Peripheral Nervous System


 Main components:
o Nerves
o Ganglia
o Nerve endings
 Nerves: Bundles of nerve fibers surrounded by connective tissue sheaths
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 Nerve fibers:
o Consist of axons enveloped by a special sheath derived from cells of ectodermal origin
o Constitute the tracts of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
 Myelinated fibers:
o Plasmalemma of the covering Schwann cell winds and wraps around the axon.
o Layers of membranes of the sheath cell unite and form
 Myelin: Whitish lipoprotein(Jelly Roll Hypothesis)
 Nodes of Ranvier:
o Gaps along myelin sheath represent the spaces between adjacent Schwann cells
o Along the length of the axon partially covered by interdigitating processes of Schwann cells
 Internode distance between two nodes is called an and consists of one Schwann cell

Histology
 Nerve covered by Epineurium (a fibrous dense connective tissue with Adipocytes and blood vessels)
 Bundles of nerve fibers (fascicles) surrounded by Perineurium (more fibroblasts)
 Axon of each nerve fiber ensheathed by Schwann cell and Endoneurium (loose connective tissue with reticular fibers and
fibroblasts)

Ganglia:
Spinal or sensory or dorsal root ganglia Autonomic or sympathetic ganglia
Surrounded by thick capsule. Surrounded by thin capsule

Peripherally arranged big round pseudounipolar neurons Irregularly arranged Multipolar neurons - star shaped
of varying sizes in sections
Each neuron is enveloped by a layer of small cuboidal cells -
satellite cells Few satellite cells incompletely surround the cell body

Neurons in groups separated by bundles of nerve fibres Neurons widely spaced & separated by axons/dendrites
which pass through without being involved in synapse
Regularly arranged nerve fibers entering and leaving the
ganglion Nerve fibers are irregularly scattered

Ex: dorsal roots of the spinal nerves, sensory ganglia of Ex: sympathetic ganglia along sympathetic chain, otic
cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X. ganglion, ciliary ganglion, Submandibular ganglion

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Nerve Endings in Epithelium

Receptors Structure Sensory Modality

Non Encapsulated Receptor

Myelinated fibers that loses its myelin as it Pain and temperature (thermo
Free Nerve Endings
terminates receptors)
Touch receptors
Merkel's cells /Tactile Disc Disc shaped expansion

Silent when hair is bent; stimulated


Peritrichial Receptors Winds around the hair follicle
when hair is released

Encapsulated Receptor

Ovoid shaped with stack of flattened Two point tactile discrimination


Meissner's Corpuscle
Schwann cells (dermal papillae)
Pacinian Corpuscle Lamellated disc (onion like) Deep pressure; vibrations
Ruffini's Corpuscle Elongated bodies with granular cytoplasm Skin stretch

Proprioceptive Receptors

Nerves in parallel
Muscle Spindle  Nuclear bag Muscle length and strength
 Nuclear chain

Golgi Tendon Organ Nerves in series Muscle tension

Autonomic Nervous System


Structure Sympathetic Stimulation Parasympathetic Stimulation
Iris (eye muscle) Pupil dilation Pupil constriction
Salivary Glands Saliva production reduced Saliva production increased
Oral/Nasal Mucosa Mucus production reduced Mucus production increased
Heart Heart rate and force increased Heart rate and force decreased
Lung Bronchial muscle relaxed Bronchial muscle contracted
Stomach Peristalsis reduced Gastric juice secreted; motility increased
Small Intestine Motility reduced Digestion increased
Large Intestine Motility reduced Secretions and motility increased
Liver Increased conversion of glycogen to glucose
Kidney Decreased urine secretion Increased urine secretion
Adrenal medulla Nor-epinephrine and epinephrine secreted
Bladder Wall relaxed Sphincter closed Wall contracted Sphincter relaxed

Histology of Central Nervous System


 Consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord
 Has almost no connective tissue and is therefore a relatively soft, gel-like organ

White matter Myelinated axons and the myelin-producing Oligodendrocytes


Does not contain neuronal cell bodies
Present in more central regions
Gray matter Contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites
Initial unmyelinated portions of axons and Glial cells
Region at which synapses occur prevalent at the surface of the cerebrum and cerebellum
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Forms the cerebral and cerebellar cortex


Spinal Cord Outer White - peripheral
Inner Gray
- Central (H shaped) horizontal bar of this H is an opening
- Central canal - a remnant of the lumen of the embryonic neural tube.
- Limbs / horns of the H forms the anterior horns (ventral motor)
- Arms forms the posterior horns (dorsal sensory)
Cerebellum (Cerebellar  Have three layers:(AIPG-2010)
Cortex) - An outer molecular layer
- Central layer of large Purkinje cells
- Inner granule layer

Molecular Layer
o Few cells and few Myelinated fibers; more dendrites
o Stellate cells (superficial) & basket cell (deep)
o Reason for the sparseness of nuclei
Purkinje or Middle Ganglionic Layer
o Conspicuous cell body and their dendrites are highly developed, assuming the
aspect of a fan
Granular Layer
o Closely packed chromatic nuclei resembling lymphocytes, irregular light spaces
that constitute the “islands” or “glomeruli”
 Granule Cells:Small, Multipolar cells with 3 or 4 dendrites, have unmyelinated axons
 Golgi Type II cell: Vesicular nuclei and chromophilic bodies
 Mossy fibers: thick fibers and synapse with the granular layer
 Climbing Fibers: granular layer to terminate of Purkinje cell

Composed of six layers:


Cerebrum (Cerebral 1. Molecular or Plexiform - Composed of horizontal cells of Cajal& Golgi type II
Cortex) 2. Outer / External Granular Layer - Small pyramidal or triangular cells whose dendrites
terminate on the molecular layer
3. Outer / External Pyramidal Layer
- Composed of typical well-formed pyramidal neurons
- 2 sub layers
o Superficial layer of medium sized pyramidal cells: horizontal Myelinated
fibers
o Deep layer of large pyramidal cells
4. Internal Granular Layer
- Composed of stellate cells
- Interspersed within the layer are horizontal myelinated fibers forming external band
of Baillarger (thalamo-cortical ramifications )
5. Internal Pyramidal or Ganglion Layer
- Giant Pyramidal cells of Betz (origin of the pyramidal tract)
- Interspersed are granule cells and cells of Martinotti, and horizontal fibers forming
the internal band of Baillarger
6. Multiform or Fusiform Layer
- Contains spindle-shaped cells, granule cells, Martinotti cells, and stellate cells
- The layer is pervaded by fiber bundles

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*****

PREVIOUS YEARS MCQS

GENERAL HISTOLOGY
CELLS AND EPITHELIUM
1. The cell junctions allowing exchange of cytoplasmic molecules between two cells are called –AI 03, DNB 04
A. Gap junctions
B. Tight junctions
C. Anchoring junctions
D. Focal junctions

Ans:- A i.e. Gap Junction


Ref:- Ganong: Review of medical Physiology 21/e P-16-17
Ganong review of medical physiology, 24/E, pg : 43
Explanation:-
The junction which permits molecules (ions, sugars, amino acids & other solutes with mol. wt. up to about 1000) to pass
between the cells without entering the ECF is Gap Junction.
2. The cells belonging to the following type of epithelium are provided with extra reserve of cell membrane –AI 2003
A. Transitional
B. Stratified squammous
C. Stratified cuboidal
D. Stratified columnar

Ans:-A i.e. Transitional


Explanation : Transitional epithelium is a type of tissue consisting of multiple layers of epithelial cells which can contract
and expand. It is so named because of this function in the transition of degree of distension. This tissue structure type is
found in urothelium, including that of the renal pelvis, urinary bladder, the ureters, the superior urethra, and
the prostatic and ejaculatory ducts of the prostate.
3. Which of the following is lined by transitional epithelium-DNB 05, Jipmer 95
A. Stomach
B. Colon
C. Uretero-urethral junction
D. Prostrate

Ans:- C i.eUretro-urethral junction


Explanation :

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4. The ureter is lined by … epithelium-DNB 01, AIIMS 04


A. Stratified squamous
B. Cuboidal
C. Ciliated columnar
D. Transitional

Ans:- D i.e. Transitional


- Transitional epithelium is a multilayered (4 - 6) stretchable epithelium, which has extra reserve of cell layers i.e. as
tension increases the epithelial sheet is expanded & number of observable cell layers decrease & cell shape change
from cuboid to sauamous.
- The deepest layer of transitional epithelium is columnar or cuboidal; middle layer is polyhedral or pear shaped &
surface layer is umbrella shaped.
- It differs from stratified squamous epithelium in that the cells at surface are not squamous.
- Membranous and most of penile urethra (in males) is lined by pseudostratified or stratified columnar epithelium
- Ansanephroni (renal loop of Henle) and mesothelium (i.e. serous/outer/parietal layer of peritoneum, pericardium &
pleura) is lined by simple squamous epithelium and distal convulated tubule (DCT) is lined by simple cuboidal
epithelium without brush border

5. Ansanephroni is lined by-DNB 02, Jipmer 95


A. Columnar
B. Squamous epithelium
C. Cuboidal and columnar epithelium
D. Stratified squamous epithelium
E. Cuboidal and squamous

Ans:- B i.e. Squamous epithelium


Explanation : it is the loop of henle. The area is lined by squamous epithelium and the tissue type is simple.

6. Urothelium lines all except -AIIMS May 09


A. Ureters
B. Minor calyx
C. Urinary bladder
D. Membranous urethra

Ans:- D i.e. Membranous Urethra

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Explanation : urothelium lines is an example of transitional epithelium. It lines the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, parts
of the urethra

7. Cuboidal epithelium lines which –AIIMS 1993


A. Distal convoluted tubule
B. Descending loop of Henle
C. Proximal convoluted tubule
D. Ascending loop of Henle

Ans:- A. i.e. Distal convoluted tubule

Explanation : Simple cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube-like) cells. These
cuboidal cells have large, spherical and central nuclei.

Simple cuboidal epithelia are found on the surface of ovaries, the lining of nephrons, the walls of the renal tubules, and parts of
the eye and thyroid.

the distal convoluted tubule – these tubules are less numerous than the proximal convoluted tubules. The epithelial cells
are cuboidal, with very few microvilli. The cells stain more palely than those of the proximal convoluted tubule.

8. Parietal peritoneum is lined by-PGI 95


A. Simple squamous
B. Stratified squamous
C. Cuboidal
D. Columnar

Ans:- A i.e. Simple squamous


Ref:- Histology-Inderbir Singh 4/e P-48, 262; MohiniKaul 3/c P-122-123; Gray's 38th/e P-1822-23; Krishna Garg -
Histology 3/e P-124
Explanation:-
-The peritoneum is a large thin serous membrane , which lines the interior of the abdominopelvic cavity. It is made
up of a tough layer of elastic tissue lined with simple squamous epithelium.
-It forms the largest serous sac of the body
9. Olfactory epithelium is-DNB99, Kerala 98
A. Squamous Keratinised
B. Squamous non keratinized
C. Striated columnar
D. Simple
E. Pseudostratified

Ans:- E i.e. Pseudostratified


Reference : Difiore’s atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E,pg : 336
10. The ducts of all the following glands consist of stratified cuboidal epithelium except-AIIMS May 05
A. Sweat gland
B. Sebaceous glands
C. Salivary glands
D. Pancreas

Ans:- B i.e. Sebaceous glands

Explanation : Stratified cuboidal epithelium is a type of epithelial tissue composed of multiple layers of cube-shaped cells. Only the
most superficial layer is made up of cuboidal cells, and the other layers can be cells of other types.

This type of tissue can be observed in sweat glands, mammary glands, circumanal glands, and salivary glands. They protect areas
such as the ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands.

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11. Epithelium of cornea is-PGI 2004


A. Stratified squamous non keratinizing
B. Stratified squamous keratinizing
C. Columnar keratinized
D. Columnar non keratinized
E. Cuboidal

Ans:- A. i.e. Stratified Squamous non Keratinizing

Non-keratinized surfaces must be kept moist by bodily secretions to prevent them from drying out.

Examples of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium include cornea (see also corneal epithelium), lining mucosa of oral
cavity, esophagus, anal canal, ectocervix, foreskin and the internal portion of the lips.

Even non-keratinized surfaces, consisting as they do of keratinocytes, have a minor superficial keratinized layer of varying
thickness, depending on the age of the epithelium and the damage it has experienced.

12. Which vitamin deficiency may lead to keratinization –DNB 03, Jipmer 99
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D

Ans:- A i.e. A
Explanation : vitamin A deficiency leads to night blindness, cell keratinisation, dry skin, xerophthalmia, reproductive
failure, abnormal skeletal development/maintenance, immune dysfunction, respiratory infection.
13. Basal layer of cell in stratified squamous epithelium is-PGI 93
A. Squamous
B. Transitional
C. Cuboidal-columnar
D. Pseudostratified

Ans:- C i.e. Cuboidal – Columnar


Ref: Krause’s essential Human histology, 3/E, Pg : 33
14. Parakeratinization is seen in-AIIMS 96
A. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
B. Non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
C. Transitional epithelium
D. Simple squamous epithelium

Ans:- B. i.e. Non - keratinized stratified squamous epithelium


Explanation : Parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium is associated with the masticatory mucosa of the attached gingiva, in
higher levels than with orthokeratinization, and also the tongue’s dorsal surface. Most histologists believe that parakeratinized
epithelium is an immature form of orthokeratinized epithelium. The presence of this form of keratinization on the skin is
considered a disease state; therefore, parakeratinization is one of the unique histological features of the healthy oral cavity.
Parakeratinized epithelium is also associated with the specialized mucosa of the lingual papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue
as well as the sulcular epithelium lining the sulcus.
Parakeratinized epithelium may have all the same layers of epithelium as orthokeratinized epithelium, such as the basal layer,
prickle layer, granular layer, and keratin layer, although the granular layer may be indistinct or absent altogether.
The main difference between parakeratinized epithelium and orthokeratinized epithelium is in the cells of the keratin layer. In
parakeratinized epithelium, the most superficial layer is still being shed or lost; however, these cells of the keratin layer contain not
only keratin but also nuclei, unlike those of orthokeratinized epithelium. This distinction is sometimes difficult to discern under

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lower microscopic power in certain histological sections. Studies have shown that even though the epithelial cells have nuclei in the
parakeratinized epithelium, they possibly are no longer viable, similar to the orthokeratinized epithelium.

15. Which group has similar kind of epithelium-PGI 95


A. Alveoli-olfactory epithelium
B. Olfactory epithelium-skin
C. Oesophagus-urinary bladder
D. Lung alveoli-Bow man’s capsule

Ans:- D i.e. Lung alveoli -Browman's capsule


Explanation : Simple squamous epithelium refers to a single layer of thin, flat cells that line body surfaces. One side of the
surface opens to the environment while the other is anchored to the underlying cells. These cells provide a thin membrane
that allows for the passage of small molecules into the body, which occurs for example when air diffuses in the lungs;
when blood is filtered to form urine in the kidneys; and when nutrients diffuse from the blood into body tissues in minute
blood vessels called capillaries.

16. A patient presented with acute abdominal pain. Onclinical suspicion patient underwent cholecystectomy. On
histopathological examination the finding is normal. The gall bladder epithelium will be-AIIMS Nov 07
A. Squamous
B. Simple columnar
C. Simple columnar with brush border
D. Cuboidal with stereocilia

Ans:- C i.e., Simple columnar with brush border


Explanation : The inner surface of the gall bladder is covered by the mucosa. The sufrace is made up of a simple columnar
epithelium. The epithelial cells have microvilli, and look like absorptive cells in the intestine. Underneath the epithelium is
the lamina propria. The wall of the bladder does not have a muscularis mucosae and submucosa.
17. Transitional epithelium is seen in all except –AIIMS Nov 07
A. Collecting duct
B. Calyces
C. Ureter
D. Bladder

Ans:- A i.e. Collecting duct


Ref:- Difiore's Atlas of histology 11/e p -29-41,212-13, 363; Gray's 39/e p- 29-33,622; IBS Histology p. 45- 52, 202-6, 278;
Krishna Garg-Histology 3/e p-124
Explanation:-
Transitional epithelium is a type of tissue consisting of multiple layers of epithelial cells which can contract and expand. It
is so named because of this function in the transition of degree of distension. This tissue structure type is found
in urothelium, including that of the renal pelvis, urinary bladder, the ureters, the superior urethra, and
the prostatic and ejaculatory ducts of the prostate.

- Olfactory epithelium is pseudostratified non ciliated columnar without goblet cells.


- Duct of sebaceous gland is lined by stratified squamous epithelium; whereas ducts of sweat gland, salivary gland &
pancreatic duct is lined by stratified cuboidal epithelium.
- Non Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium is seen in cornea, vagina & upper gastrointestinal trat i.e. mouth,
tongue, tonsil & pharynx.
- Basal layer of cells in stratified squamous epithelium is cuboidal to columnar. Nonkeratinized stratified squamous
epithelium may be partially keratinized (= parakeratinized) d/t abrasion; vitamin A deficiency also l/t keratinization.
- Gall bladder has simple columnar epithelium with brush border. Collecting duct has simple columnar/cuboidal
lining; whereas lung alveoli & Bowman's capsule have simple squamous epithelium.
18. Lining cells of the alveoli include all of the following except-AI 08
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A. Kulchitsky cells
B. Clara cells
C. Brush cells
D. Langerhans cells

Ans:- D i.e. Langerhans cells


Ref: Gray's 39/e p. 1057- 62, 82; diFiore's : Atlas of histology 11/e p- 350 -51
Explanation:-
- Langerhans cells are immature dendritic cells, present throughout the epidermis but are most clearly identifiable in
stratum spinosum. They possess characteristic Birbeck granules and undergo maturation from antigen capturing to
antigen presenting cells, and express MHC class I & II molecules. They are found in lymph nodes and activate T
lymhocytes. Langerhans cells reach lung during pathological conditions like Histiocytosis
- Alveoli mainly contain two types of alveolar epithelial cells (pneumocytes), interalveolar pores of kohn, & alveolar
macrophages (dust cells)
 Q Type I pneumocytes form >90% of alveolar area, and share a fused basal lamina with adjacent capillary
endothelium to form interalveolar septum and blood -air barrier. These are epithelial squamous cells with
tight junction. If damaged, non dividing type I cells are replaced by proliferation & differentiation of type II
cells. Smaller rounded type II cells are often more numerous but contribute only <10% of surface area. They
contain characteristic secretory lamellar bodies form surfactant and line interalveolar pores of Kohn.
Surfactant is produced and recycled by type II pneumocytes and cleared (phagocytized) by macrophages
 In pathological conditions neutrophils - leukocytes & lymphocytes may enter alveoli and respiratory tree
and impart sputum a yellow appearance.
- Conducting airway of trachea, bronchi &broncheoles contain 6 types epithelial cells namely - ciliated columnar cells,
goblet cells, basal cells, brush cells, clara cells &neuroendocrinalcells of kulchitsky/ APUD cells. Small lymphocytes
(mainly T cells) and mast cells migrate into epithelium from underlying connective tissue.
 Larger conducting airay is lined by pseudostratified columnar predominantly ciliated epithelium. In
terminal & respiratory bronchioles there are fewer cilia and cells are low columnar or cuboidal.
 Goblet cells are present from trachea to smaller bronchi but are normally absent in bronchioles (but found in
smokers)
 Clara cells are functionally similar to type II pneumocyte& it produce surfactant lipoprotein.
 Basal cells are mitotic stem cells for other epithelial cells, & are present in larger airways lined by
pseudostratified respiratory epithelium.
 Brush cells are present throughout conducting airway including the respiratory epithelium of nasopharynx.
It is in contact with afferent nerve fiber basally & thus have sensory receptor function
 Neuroendocranial cells of Kulchitsky or dense core or small granule cells are APUD cells most numerous in
fetal lung and decrease dramatically after birth.

Regional distribution of cell types


Upto terminal bronchiole
- Ciliated columnarepithelial cells
- Goblet cells
- Basal cells
- Seromucous glandcells
- Neuroendocrine cells
- Brush cells

Lobular-bronchiole
- Ciliated cuboidalepithelium
- Basal cells
- Seromucous glandcells(in upper part)
- Brush cells

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Terminal bronchiole
- Ciliated & non - Ciliated & non ciliatedcuboidalepithelium
- Clara cells
- Brush cells

Respiratory bronchiole
- Ciliated & non - Ciliated & non ciliatedcuboidalepithelium
- Clara cells
- Type 1 pneumocytes

Alveoli
- Type I & IIpneumocytes

EXCRETORY SYSTEM
19. JG cells (Juxta glomerular apparatus) are–DNB 99, Rohtak 97
A. Macula densa
B. Smooth muscular cells of afferent arteriole
C. Smooth muscular cells of afferent arteriole
D. Islets of epithelial cells

Ans:- B i.e., Smooth muscle cells of afferent arteriole


Ganong review of medical physiology, 24/E, pg : 705
20. Cells of kidney having secretory function –PGI-95
A. I cell
B. P cell
C. JG cell
D. Type I medullary cell

Ans:- C. i.e. JG cells, D-i.e. Type I medullary cells


Ganong review of medical physiology, 24/E, pg : 705
Ref:- Ganong 22/e p- 700-702
Explanation:-
Cells in kidney that have secretory function are juxtaglomerular (JG) cells and type I medullary interstitial cell. JG cells are
rennin secreting cells located in smooth muscle of afferent arteriole
21. All are true about trigone of bladder except-AI 07, AIIMS Nov 06
A. Mucosa is loosely attached to the underlying musculature
B. Mucosa is smooth
C. Lined by transitional epithelium
D. Derived from absorbed part of the mesonephric duct

Ans:- A i.e. Mucosa loosely attached to the underlying musculature


Ref:- BDC 4/e vol- II p. 347

Explanation:-
Interior of bladder
In trigone area Rest of bladder
Mucosa is smooth as it is Mucosa is loosely attached
firmly attached to the to the muscular coat &
muscular coat shows irregular folds

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GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
22. The toughest layer of the esophagus is the –AI 1995
A. Mucosa
B. Submucosa
C. Muscularis
D. Adventitia

Ans:- C i.e. Muscularis


Ref:- Ross and Reith- Histology P-416
Explanation:-
The esophagus contains four layers—the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and tunica adventitia. The mucosa is made up
of stratified squamous epithelium containing numerous mucous glands. The submucosa is a thick, loose fibrous layer
connecting the mucosa to the muscularis. Together the mucosa and submucosa form long longitudinal folds, so that
a cross section of the esophagus opening would be star-shaped. The muscularis is composed of an inner layer, in which
the fibres are circular, and an outer layer of longitudinal fibres. Both muscle groups are wound around and along the
alimentary tract, but the inner one has a very tight spiral, so that the windings are virtually circular, whereas the outer one
has a very slowly unwinding spiral that is virtually longitudinal. The outer layer of the esophagus, the tunica adventitia,
is composed of loose fibrous tissue that connects the esophagus with neighbouring structures. Except during the act of
swallowing, the esophagus is normally empty, and its lumen, or channel, is essentially closed by the longitudinal folds of
the mucosal and submucosal layers.
Muscularisexterna is the toughest layer of esophagus; upper 1/3rd is composed of skeletal muscle, lower1/3rd is composed
of smooth muscle & the middle third is made up of both types of muscle.

23. Within which part of a gastric gland are chief cells located –AI 09, DNB 05
A. Gastric Pit
B. Neck
C. Isthumus
D. Fundus

Ans:- D i.e. Fundus


The fundic glands (or oxyntic glands), are found in the fundus and body of the stomach. They are simple almost straight
tubes, two or more of which open into a single duct. Oxyntic means acid-secreting and they secrete hydrochloric
acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor
Chief cells are located in this layer
24. Chief cells of stomach are most abundant in-DNB 11
A. Fundus
B. Body
C. Antrum
D. Pylorus

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Ans:- A > B i.e. Fundus > Body


Ref:- IB Singh -274-288 5/ed pg-240-43, An Atlas of histology - znang 1999 — Pg- 220; Ganong 22/edpg- 491; Gray's
Anatomy 40/e p. 1120-22, 111 Morson& Dawson's gastro intestinal pathology 4/ed pg-94
Explanation:-
Chief (peptic or zymogen) cells are characteristically found in basal or deep fundus portion of gastric glands mainly
situated in fundus of stomach. Wheres parietal (oxyntic) cells are typically located in upper half of gastric gland in body of
stomach.
25. Brunners glands are located in the –DNB 07, CUPGEE 96
A. Duodenum
B. Jejunum
C. Ileum
D. All

Ans:- A i.e. Duodenum


Ref : Difiore’s atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, Pg: 292
26. Brunner’s gland are found in mucosa of-Kerala 94, UP 96, DNB 08
A. Stomach
B. Colon
C. Duodenum
D. Esophagus

Ans:- C. i.e. Duodenum


Ref:- BDC 4/e Vol III P-251; Human Histology Inderbir Singh 4/e P-242-3
Ref : Difiore’s atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, Pg: 292
Explanation:-
Mucus secreting brunner's gland insubmucosa are seen in duodenum; solitary lymphatic nodules in submucosa are seen
in jejunum and submucosal aggregated lymphatic follicles (peyer's patch) are seen in ileum.
27. Brunners glands are seen in-DNB 99, Kerala 94
A. Jejunum
B. Upper duodenum
C. Lower duodenum
D. Appendix

Ans:- B i.e., Upper duodenum


Ref :- Di Fiore's histology 7/e p-178-80
Explanation:-
- The presence of mucous duodenal (Brunner's) glands in the submucosa is indicative of upper duodenum. These
submucosal glands are absent in the jejunum, ileum & the entire large intestine.
- The histology of lower duodenum, jejunum, and ileum remains similar to that of the upper duodenum. The only
differences are.
 duodenal glands of Brunner are limited to upper part of duodenum
 large aggregates of lymphatic nodules (Peyer's patches) are observed in lower regions of ileum.

28. All of these cells are found in small intestine Except –AIIMS 2002
A. Stem cells
B. Goblet cells
C. Neck cells
D. Paneth cells

Ans:-C i.e. Neck Cells


Ref:- MohiniKaul 3/e P-105

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Ref : Difiore’s atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, Pg: 292
Explanation:-
Mucous Neck Cells are short columnor cells, fullof mucus with round nuclei, line the neck of gastric glands not the small
intestine.
29. Paneth cells-true is-AIIMS May 2010
A. Rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. High zine content
C. Foamy cytoplasm
D. Numerous lysozyme granules

Ans:-(Question is wrong, it should have A/E and then the answer) is C i.e. Foamy cytoplasm; But if the Question is
about characteristic feature then Ans is D i.e. Numerous lysozyme granules
Ref : Development of GIT, Sanderson & walker,vol1, Pg : 150
30. All of the following statements about paneth cells are true except-AI 2009
A. Rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. Rich in zinc
C. Contain lysozyme
D. Foamy appearance

Ans:- D i.e. Foamy appearance


Ref : Development of GIT, Sanderson & walker, vol1, Pg : 150

31. Cell which does not migrate from the base of the crypt to ends of villi is-AIIMS May 07
A. Enterocyte
B. Endocrine cell
C. Paneth cell
D. Goblet cell

Ans:- C i.e. Paneth cells


Ref:- Gray's 40/e p. 1133-35, 1210; Ross histology 6/e p. 589-95; Gunasegaran 1/e p. 193; Robbins 7/e p. 828-29; Ross
(Harper edition) p. 430; Difiore's : Histology 11/edpg- 292- 296-97; Inderbir Singh Histology 6/e p. 254-55; Ganong 22/e
pg-506; Shakelford's Alimentary tract surgery 7/e pg- 998
Ref : Development of GIT, Sanderson & walker, vol1, Pg : 150

Explanation:-
- Foamy appearance or frothy cytoplasm is a feature associated with presence of lipid / mucinous material in the cell
cytoplasm. It is seen in mucous secreting goblet cells or lipid phagocytizing macrophage egTouton giant cell (but not
in paneth cells)
- Paneth (zymogen) cells are rich in zinc, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and secretory granules containing
lysozyme, defensins or cryptidins such as TNF-αQ. It exceptionally migrate towards the base of crypt of Lieberkuhn
instead of going towards the tip of villi.

32. True about histology of small intestine is –PGI Nov 2009


A. Zone of replication is in lower half of gland
B. M cells convey microorganism to peyers patches
C. GALT is absent in lamina propria
D. SigA provides mucosal immunity
E. Close cell secrete digestive enzymes

Ans:-C i.e. GALT is absent in lamina propria; E i.e. Close cell secrete digestive enzymes
Re f:- Gray's 40/e p 974
Explanation:-

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- Zone of replication (intestinal stem cell niche) is restricted to lower half of intestinal gland (crypts of Lieberkuhn)
- Microfold (M) cells are antigen transporting cells that convey microorganisms & macromolecules from intestinal
lumen to Peyer's patches
- Close entero endocrine cells are resting non secretory cells . Whereas open cells secrete CCK, secretin, GIP, motilin,
gastrin & ghrelin hormones.
- GALT is prominent in lamina propria of small intestine. Secretory IgA is principle molecule of mucosal immunity.

33. Auerbachs plexus is present in the –Kerala 98, DNB 99, PGI 94
A. Colon
B. Esophagus
C. Stomach
D. S. intestine
E. All of the above

Ans: - 39. E i.e. All


Ref:-Ganong 22/e , p- 479-80; Gray's 40/e p. 1051
Gray’s anatomy, 41/E, pg : 1043
Explanation:-
Auerbach's (myenteric) plexus & Meissner's plexus are found in esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon.
34. Mucous secreting glands are absent in-AI 1998
A. Cervix
B. Vagina
C. Duodenum
D. Oesophagus

Ans:- B i.e. Vagina


Ref:- Keith Moore Clinical Anatomy 4th/e P415-413; Shaws textbook of gynaecology 13/e P-5
Explanation:-
- No glands open into vagina & vaginal secretions are derived partly from the mucous discharge of cervix & partly
from a transudation through the vaginal epithelium,
- Doderlein bacilli (gram +ve) are found in vagina
- Vaginal mucosa is line by squamous epithelium
- Posterior vaginal wall is longer than anterior
- Cytology for evidence of corpus luteal activity (ovulation test) is taken from upper lateral vaginal wall.

Duodenum Jejunum Ileum


Submucosal Brunner's gland Peyer's patch
Bruner's gland &Peyer's patch (aggregated
present absent lymph nodules)
present

35. Stellate cells of von Kupffer are seen in the sinusoids of which of the following organs –DNB 01, Kerala 2K
A. Spleen
B. Bone marrow
C. Liver
D. Adrenal
E. None of the above

Ans:-C i.e. Liver


Ref : Ganong review of medical physiology, 24/E, pg : 511

36. Space of Disse is in –DNB 96

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General Histology

A. Spleen
B. Lyphnode
C. Liver
D. Bone

Ans:- C i.e. Liver


Ref : Ganong review of medical physiology, 24/E, pg : 513

37. All are true about liver histology except –PGI-99, UP 2001
A. Portal space contain bile duct, portal vein, and hepatic artery
B. Hepatic lobule is functional unit
C. Zone I is well oxygenated
D. Central vein drains lobule

Ans:- B i.e. Hepatic lobule is functional unit


Ref:- Ganong 22/e 499-500; Di Fiore's histology 7/e, p-200-01; Blue histology : Lutz Stomianka - The live lobule
Ganong review of medical physiology, 24/E, pg : 509,510
Explanation:-
Kupffer cells and space of Disse are seen in liver Portal canal (space) contains branches of bile duct, portal vein and
hepatic artery. The functional unit of liver is acinus. Central portion of acinus (zone 1) is well oxygenated and peripheral
(zone 3) is least oxygenated. Liver lobule is liver tissue drained by single branch of central vein.
38. Sinuses are not seen in-DNB 98, Kerala 91
A. Kidney
B. Spleen
C. Endocrine gland
D. Liver

Ans:- i.e. Kidney


Ref:- Di Fiore', histology 7/e p 120-21, 114-15, 230-33, 242-46, 198-200, 112-14
Ref : Ganong review of medical physiology, 24/E, pg : 673
Explanation:-
Sinuses are seen in endocrine glands, liver, spleen &lymphnodes and absent in kidney, thymus gland and tonsil.
Sinuses or sinusoids are seen in
- Liver: central vein is in the branches of center of each hepatic lobule. Plates of hepatic cells (Hepatic cords) radiate
from central vein towards periphery. Hepatic sinusoids are located between hepatic plates. On entering the liver
arterial and venous blood mixes in these sinusoids & then flows towards the central vein. Bile is formed in liver cells
& flows in opposite direction into the interlobular bile ducts
- Endocrine glands (hypophysis or pitutary gland, thyroid parathyroid gland, adrenal gland)
- Spleen: red or spleenic pulp contains venous sinuses and splenic cords of Billroth
- Lymph node: the cortex of the lymph node is seperated from the connective tissue capsule by the subcapsular
(marginal) sinus

39. Secretion of salivary gland is


A. Apocrine
B. Holocrine
C. Merocrine
D. Endocrine
Ans : C
Ref: Difiore’s Atlas of Histology, 11/E, p. 43
Krause’s essential human histology for medical students, 3/E, pg :41

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HUMAN ANATOMY 158
General Histology

40. Lymphatics are found in


A. Brain
B. Choroid
C. Internal ear
D. Dermis of skin

Ans:- D. i.e. Dermis of skin


Ref:- Keith Moore 45'/e P-38; IBS Histology 4/e P-178; Gray's 38"/e P-400
Explanation:-
Superficial lympahtic vessels are found in skin
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous
tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. It is
divided into two layers, the superficial area adjacent to the epidermis called the papillary region and a deep thicker area
known as the reticular dermis. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane. Structural
components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix. It also contains mechanoreceptors that
provide the sense of touch and thermoreceptors that provide the sense of heat. In addition, hair follicles, sweat
glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels are present in the dermis. Those blood
vessels provide nourishment and waste removal for both dermal and epidermal cells.

INTEGUMENTRY SYSTEM
41. Henle’s and Huxley’s layer are histologically seen in-PGI-97, AIIMS 95
A. Bulb of hair follicle
B. Tongue
C. Salivary gland
D. Sweat gland

Ans:- A i.e. Bulb of hair follicle


Explanation:-
Bulb of hair follicle has following layers
- Fibrous connective tissue
- External root sheath
- Internal root sheath composed of epithelium stratum (Henle's layer)and granular stratum (Huxley's layer) Cuticle,
cortex & medulla of hair.

42. Halocrine secretion is seen in… gland-DNB 99


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General Histology

A. Salivary
B. Mammary
C. Sebaceous glands
D. Gastric

Ans:- C i.e. Sebaceous gland


Ref:- Di Fiore's Histology 7/e 130- 31; Gray's 39/e p- 34-35, Difiore's Atlas of histology 11/e p – 43
Explanation:-
The lumen of sebaceous gland is filled with secretory cells undergoing cytolysis (holocrine secretion), a process whereby
the cells degenerate to become the oily secretory product of the gland called sebum. The duct is lined with stratified
squamous epithelium that has continuity with the external root sheath of hair follicle.
43. The only fixed cell of the connective tissue

A. Histiocyte
B. Lymphocyte
C. Polymorphs
D. Mast cell
Ans: A
Ref: Di Fiore’s Atlas of Histology, 11/E,
p. 57
Explanation
• Histiocytes are fixed macrophages
 They are the stationary macrophages fixed in tissues (histiocytes), which are sometimes referred to as "resting wandering
cells".

44. All of the following are the components of the white pulp of spleen, except –AI 06
A. Periarteriolar lymphoid sheath
B. B cells
C. Antigen presenting cells
D. Vascular sinus

Ans:- D i.e. Vascular sinuses


Ref:- Atlas of Histology - Difoires 7/e p. 121; I B Singh Histology 4/e P-185; Harsh Mohan 5/e p-464;
www.med.ca/anatomyts/thorax/Iymphist.htm]
Histology and cell biology: an introduction to pathology E- book, 4/E, Pg: 341
Explanation:-
Vascular sinuses are a component of the red pulp of spleen and not the white pulp
45. Hassals corpuscles are seen in-DNB 09, Kerala 94
A. Thymus
B. Spleen
C. Lymph node
D. Appendix

Ans:- A i.e. Thymus


Explanation : Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the
human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric
corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid
cells.
46. All are true about thymus gland except –PGI-99, Jipmer-02
A. Hassall’s corpuscles are highly
B. Histology varies with age
C. Thymic corpuscles are seen in cortex

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General Histology

D. Medulla has more reticular cells

Ans:- C. i.e. Thymic corpuscles are seen in cortex Ref: - Di Fiore's histology 7/e- p-118-19
Explanation:-
Highly characteristic histological feature of thymus is presence of Hassall's (thymic) corpuslces in inner medulla.

47. The following is a special stain for collagen


A. Haematoxylin and Eosin
B. Leishman’s
C. PAS
D. Masson’s
Ans: D
Ref: Di Fiore’s Atlas of Histology 11/E ,p. 4
Explanation : Masson's trichrome is a three-colour staining protocol used in histology. Most recipes produce
red keratin and muscle fibers, blue or green collagen and bone, light red or pink cytoplasm, and dark brown to black cell nuclei.
48. Cartilage differs from bone in that, the cartilage can increase in size by
A. Apposition
B. Interstitial growth
C. Selective resorption
D. Endosteal remodelling
Ans : B
Explanation : Cartilage can grow in two ways: Interstitial growth - chondrocytes grow and divide and lay down more matrix inside
the existing cartilage. This mainly happens during childhood and adolescence. Appositional growth - new surface layers of matrix
are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts from the perichondrium.
Long bones lengthen at the epiphyseal plate with the addition of bone tissue and increase in width by a process called appositional
growth.
49. What is the number of bones a neonate has in the skeleton?
A. 270
B. 250
C. 230
D. 206
Ans : A
Explanation : The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body. It is composed of around 270 bones at birth –
this total decreases to around 206 bones by adulthood after some bones get fused together.

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50. Mature bone is otherwise called as


A. Woven bone
B. Lamellar bone
C. Irregular bone
D. Resorbing bone
Ans: B
Ref: Osteology, RN Bajpai, 1/E, p. 4
Explanation : Bone is specialized connective tissue with a calcified extracellular matrix (bone matrix) and 3 major cell types:
the osteoblast, osteocyte, and osteoclast. The first type of bone formed developmentally is primary or woven bone (immature). This
immature bone is later replaced by secondary or lamellar bone (mature). Secondary bone is further classified as two
types: trabecular bone (also called cancellous or spongy bone) and compact bone (also called dense or cortical bone).

51. Which is not a feature of skeletal muscle DNB 03, Jipmer 91


A. Spindle shaped
B. Syncytium
C. Striations
D. Hypolemmal nucleus

Ans:- B i.e. Syncytium


Ref: Ganong 22/e p- 65-66, 82-83
Explanation:-
Skeletal muscles don't have syncytium and smooth muscles lack cross striations.

52. Intercalated disc is present in-PGI 2000


A. Cardiac muscle
B. Smooth muscle
C. Skeletal muscle
D. All

Ans:- A. i.e. Cardiac muscle


Ref :-IBS Histology 4/e p-129

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General Histology

53. Heart muscle, true are all except –AI 07


A. Act as syncitium
B. Has multiple nuclei
C. Has gap junctions
D. Has branching

Ans:- B i.e. Has multiple nuclei

54. Cardiac muscle is able to function as a syncy-tium because of the structural presence of-AI 98, DNB 2K
A. Branching fibres
B. Intercalated disc
C. Protoplasmic bridges between cells
D. Gap-junctions

Ans:-D i.e. Gap junction


Ref:- Ganong 22/e 78, 79; Guyton 11/e p. 103, 104; Chaudhari 5/c p. 161
Explanation:-
- Cardiac muscle have characteristic intercalated disc (always at z line) & skeletal muscle have cross striation; and
smooth muscles don't have both.
- Skeletal muscle has dark & light bands and peripherally placed nucleus; whereas cardiac muscle has intercalated disc
& centrally placed nucleus.
- Each cardiac muscle has a single nucleus. Cardiac muscle fiber branch &interdigitate. Cardiac muscle function as a
synctium because of presence of gap junction.

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55. Neuro-epithelium type of sensory receptors are present in the following system except-AIIMS May 05
A. Visual
B. Auditory
C. Gustatory
D. Olfactory

Ans:-B i.e. Auditory


Ref:- Grays 40/e p. 57; IBS Histology 6/e P-234; Ross Pawling 6/e P-936-37, 530; Snell's 7/e P- 841
Explanation:-
- Olfactory (smell) epithelium is a neuro-epithelial receptor (definite); visual (rod & cones) & taste buds are doubtful
(±); not included by Gray's & many books) neuro epithelial receptors.
- Merkel epidermal cells, auditory receptors and taste buds (gustatory cells) are definite examples of epithelial
receptors.

56. Myelin sheath in CNS is synthesized by-DNB 04, AP 90


A. Microglia
B. Schwann cell
C. Oligodendroglia
D. All

Ans:- C i.e. Oligodendroglia


Ref : Langman’s medical embryology, 12/E, pg : 134
57. Oligodendrocytes are important in –Kerala 01, DNB 09
A. Blood brain barrier
B. Myelin formation
C. Phagocytosis
D. Chemotaxis

Ans:- B i.e. Myelin formation


Ref:-BDC 4/e vol III p - 300, Gray's Anatomy 39/e p- 50-52
Ref : Langman’s medical embryology, 12/E, pg : 134
Explanation:-
Mn: "1SPM - 50CMO" i.e., Schwann cell Mylinate peripheral nervous system in 1:1 basis; and Central nervous system is
mylinated by Oligndendrocyte in 1:50 basis.
58. Gitter cells are-DNB 08, Kerala 01
A. Microglia
B. Modified macrophages
C. Astrocytes
D. Neutrophils

Ans:- A i.e. Microglia


Ref:-Di Fiore's histology 7/e p-290
Rubin’s pathology, clinicopathological foundations of medicine, 5/E, Pg: 1176
Explanation:-
Gitter or Hortega cell is a lipid laden microglial cell commonly seen at the edge of healing brain infarcts. It phagocytize
lipid from necrotic or degenerating brain cells. It is also known as compound granule cell, gitterzelle (lattice or wire-net),
mesoglia or perivesicular glial cell.

59. Pseudeounipolar neurons are seen in-DNB 06


A. Olfactory
B. Celiac ganglion
C. Spinal dorsal root ganglion

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General Histology

D. Cochlea

Ans:- C i.e., Spinal dorsal root ganglion


Ref: BDC 4/e vol 111 p - 300, Gray's Anatomy 39/e p- 44, 59, 235, 391
Explanation:-
Pseudo-unipolar neurons is seen in dorsal spinal nerve root ganglion.
The pseudounipolar neuron has one axon with two branches: central and peripheral. These axonal branches should not be
confused with dendrites. These sensory neurons are an exception to the typical neuron, in that they do not have separate
dendrites and an axonal process, but rather one branched process that serves both functions. The soma (cell body) of each
pseudounipolar neuron is located within a dorsal root ganglion. The axon leaves the cell body (and out of the dorsal root
ganglion) into the dorsal root, where it splits into two branches. The central branch goes to the posterior (dorsal) horn of
the spinal cord, where it forms synapses with other neurons. The peripheral branch travels through the distal dorsal
root into the spinal nerve all the way until skin, joint, and muscle.
60. Clara cells are found in-AIIMS 98
A. Trachea
B. Bronchioles
C. Alveoli
D. Oesophagus

Ans:- B. i.e. Bronchioles


Ref:- Inderbirsingh text book of Human Histology 4/e p-214; Chandrasoma Taylor 3/e P-506
Explanation:-
Cells of Clara are nonciliated cells present predominantly in terminal bronchioles, produce secretion (surfactant
lipoproteins) which spreads over the alveolar cells forming a film that reduces surface tension and thus share functional
similarities with type II alveolar cells.

NERVOUS, CARDIAC AND MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM


61. All the following features are seen in neurons from dorsal root ganglia,except-AI 2002
A. They have centrally located nuclei
B. They are derived from neural crest cells
C. They are multipolar
D. They contain, lipofuscin granules

Ans:- C i.e. They are multipolar


Ref:- IBS Embryology 7/e P-312-14; Langman's 9/e P- 443; IBS Histology 4/e p-164
Basic anatomy, Anitha Oommen, vol 1, pg:21
Explanation:-
Dorsal root ganglion or spinal ganglion are unipolar or pseudounipolar& Sympathetic or autonomic ganglion is
mulitpolar on section.
Dorsal root (Sensory/Spinal) Autonomic (Sympathetic)
ganglion ganglion
Consists of pseudo unipolar Consists of multipolar
Q neuron neuron
-Has cell bodies of afferent -Has cell bodies of efferent
neuron neurons
-Neurons arranged in -Neurons & nerve fibres are
groups Q separated by nerve scattered
fibres lying in group
Large rounded cell body Cell body is smaller &
with central nucleus & a irregular with eccentric
prominent nucleolus nucleus and a prominent
nucleolus
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General Histology

- Neurons of sensory (dorsal /posterior) spinal nerve root ganglion, sympathetic (autonomic) ganglion & sensory
ganglion of 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th & 10th cranial nerve are derived from neural crest.
- Some dorsal root ganglion cells contain small clumps lipofuschin pigment.
62. Most common site for avascular necrosis of femur is-AI 98
A. Subcapital #
B. Transcervical#
C. Trochanteric#
D. Basal#

Ans:- i.e. Subcapital fracture


Ref:- Campbell Operative orthopaedics 10/e P-2918
Explanation:-
Avascular necorsis & Non union are most common in subcapital type of fracture neck femur & least common in basal
neck femur.

NEET – MDS PATTERN MCQS


PICTURE BASED MCQS
The cells marked in the figure represent:

A. Basal cells
B. Umbrella cells
C. Goblet cells
D. All of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 15

DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:34

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HUMAN ANATOMY 166
General Histology

In the section of intestine,identify the region marked:

A. Crypts of Lieberkuhn
B.Brush borders
C. Acinus
D.None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 15

Wheater’s functional histology,5/E, pg:282

Identify the layer of epithelium marked in the figure:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 167
General Histology

A. Stratum granulosum
B. Stratum corneum
C. Strartum basale
D. Stratum spinosum

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 21


Tencate’s oral Histology Ebook, 9/E, pg: 262

Histologically,fibres shown in th figure represent:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 168
General Histology

A. Elastic fibres
B. Collagen fibres
C. Nerve fibres
D.None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 35


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:56

The cells marked in the figure are present in:

A. Bone
C. Nerve
C.Muscle
D. Cartilage

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 41


Krause essential human histology, 3/e, pg : 52

In the figure below, the canals marked are seen in:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 169
General Histology

A. Compact bone
B. Spongy bone
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 48


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:80

The intercalated discs marked in the figure are seen in:

A. Skeletal muscle
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HUMAN ANATOMY 170
General Histology

B. Smooth muscle
C. Cardiac muscle
D.All of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 59


Wheater’s functional histology,5/E, pg:116

In the section of nervous tissue,the granules marked in the figure synthesize:

A. Carbohydrates
B. Lipids
C. Proteins
D. None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 63


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg: 162

In the tranverse section of nerve shown in figure, each fascicle is covered by:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 171
General Histology

A. Epineurium
B.Myelin sheath
C. Endoneurium
D. Perineurium

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 73


Wheater’s functional histology,5/E, pg:136

In the section of cerebellum shown , identify the cells present at the junction of molecular and granular layers:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 172
General Histology

A. Granule cells
B. Basket cells
C. Purkinje’s cells
D. Golgi cells

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 79


Wheater’s functional histology,6/E, pg:146

In the section of lymph node shown below, identify the region marked:

A. Trabeculum
B. Medulla
C. Germinal centre
D. Sub capsular sinus

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 95


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:194

In the section of spleen shown below, cells seen in red pulp are:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 173
General Histology

A. Billroth’s cords
B. Malphigian corpuscles
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 97


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg: 206

The section of salivary gland showing both serous and mucus acini :

A. Parotid
B. Sub Mandibular
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HUMAN ANATOMY 174
General Histology

C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 110


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:258

In these section of salivary glands,identify the region marked in the figure:

A. Striated duct
B. Demilune of Giannuzzi
C. Adipose cells
D. None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 111

Serous demilunes, also known as Crescents of Giannuzzi or Demilunes of Heidenhain, are cellular formations in the shape of a
half-moon (hence the name "demilune") on some salivary glands.

Serous demilunes are the serous cells at the distal end of mucous tubuloalveolar secretory unit of certain salivary glands. These
demilune cells secrete the proteins that contain the enzyme lysozyme, which degrades the cell walls of bacteria. In this way,
lysozyme confers antimicrobial activity to mucus.

The serous demilune is an artifact from traditional methods of preparing samples. Samples are traditionally preserved and fixed
in formaldehyde. When samples were preserved by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and then fixed with osmium tetraoxide
in acetone, no demilunes were found. Examination showed that the serous cells and mucosal cells were aligned in the acinus. The
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HUMAN ANATOMY 175
General Histology

traditional preparation caused mucous cells to swell during fixation which results in the serous cells being popped out of their
alignment. After sectioning the serous cells resembled the common demilune shape, and were so named

In the section of hepatic lobule shown, the sinusoids are lined by:

A. Hepatocyte
B. Kupffer’s cells
C. Hepatic cords
D. Portal tract

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 168


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:320

In the section of pancreas shown below, the cells marked secrete:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 176
General Histology

A.Pepsin
B. Glucagon
C. Insulin
D.Both B & C

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 174


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:324

The hormone secreted by the region marked in the figure:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 177
General Histology

A. FSH
B. TSH
C. MSH
D. ADH

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 227


Wheater’s functional histology,5/E, pg:329

In the section of hypophysis cerebri, the cells marked in the figure secrete:

A. TSH, ACTH
B. FSH, LH
C. MSH
D. Both A & B

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 229


Netter’s essential histology, E book, 2/e, PG : 221

In the section of parathyroid shown below, the function of principal cells marked:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 178
General Histology

A. Calcium hemostasis
B. Temperature regulation
C. Both A & B
D. None of the above

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 233


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:395

In the section of adrenal gland, the zone marked in the figure secretes:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 179
General Histology

A. Mineralocorticoids
B. Glucocorticoids
C. Epinephrine
D. Calcitonin

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 237


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:395

Identify the cells shown in the figure:

A. Basal cells
B. Supporting cells
C. Gustatory cells
D. Nerve fibres

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg


DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:240

The phase of division shown in the figure denotes:

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HUMAN ANATOMY 180
General Histology

A. Prophase
B. Telophase
C.Anaphase
D. Metaphase

Reference: BD Chaurasia’s Human Embryology, 2nd Ed, Pg 11


Wheater’s functional histology,5/E, pg:36

MATCH THE FOLLOWING MCQS


Cells of bone Function
1. Osteocytes a. Howship’s lacunae
2. Osteoclasts b. Bony surface
3. Osteoblasts c. Cells of mature bone
4. Bone lining cells d. Bone forming cells

A. 1-a, 2-c, 3-d, 4-b


B. 1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 4-d
C. 1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b
D. 1-c, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b

Reference: BD Chaurasia’s Human Embryology, 2nd Ed, Pg 92

Cells of connective tissue Feature


1. Macrophages a. Antibody production
2. Fibroblasts b.Ground substance
3. Mast cells c. Histamine secretion
4. Plasma cells d. Wandering cells

A. 1-d, 2-b, 3-c, 4-a


B. 1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-a
C. 1-c, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b
D. 1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b

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HUMAN ANATOMY 181
General Histology

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 25-27.

Cell type Harmone secreted


1. Corticotrope a. Thyrotropin
2. Somatotrope b. FSH
3. Thyrotrope c. Growth hormone
4. Gonadotrope d. Corticotropin

A. 1-d, 2-b, 3-c, 4-a


B. 1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-a
C. 1-d, 2-c, 3-a, 4-b
D. 1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 228

Cell type Gland


1. Acidophils a.Thyroid
2. Parafollicular cells b. Parathyroid
3. Oxyphilic cells c. Hypophysis cerebri
4. Spongiocytes d. Adrenal

A. 1-d 2-b, 3-c, 4-a


B. 1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 4-d
C. 1-d, 2-c, 3-a, 4-b
D. 1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 229-234.

Nerve cell Function


1. Oligodendrocytes a.Secrete CSF
2. Astrocytes b. Myelin sheath formation
3. Satellite cells c. Supporting framework
4. Ependymal cells d. Protection of neurons

A. 1-d 2-b, 3-c, 4-a


B. 1-b, 2-a, 3-c, 4-d
C. 1-b, 2-c, 3-d, 4-a
D. 1-d, 2-c, 3-a, 4-b

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HUMAN ANATOMY 182
General Histology

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 66-68.

Cell type Location


1. Kupffer’s cells a. Adenohypophysis
2. Goblet cells b.Liver
3. Centroacinar cells c. Intestine
4. Chromophilic cells d. Pancreas

A. 1-b, 2-c, 3-d, 4-a


B. 1-b, 2-c, 3-a, 4-d
C. 1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b
D. 1-c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 170-172

Terminology
1. Hyperplasia a. Loss of cell differentiation
2. Anaplasia b.Increase in cell size
3. Hypertrophy c. Increase in cell number
4. Metaplasia d. Change in cell type

A. 1-b, 2-c, 3-d, 4-a


B. 1-b, 2-c, 3-a, 4-d
C. 1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 4-d
D. 1-b, 2-d, 3-c, 4-b

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 58,22

Epithelium Location
1. Stratified squamous non keratinized a. Oesophagus
2. Stratified squamous keratinized b. Ureter
3. Transitional c. Skin
4. Strartified columnar d.Salivary glands

A. 1-a, 2-b, 3-d, 4-a


B. 1-a, 2-c, 3-b, 4-d
C. 1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 4-d
D. 1-b, 2-d, 3-c, 4-b

Reference: Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5th Ed, Pg 18

TRUE/FALSE MCQS

9. Mast cells secrete 1) histamine 2) serotonin


A. Both 1 and 2 true

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HUMAN ANATOMY 183
General Histology

B. Both 1 and 2 false


C. 1 true 2 false
D. 1 false 2 true
Reference:Krishna Garg, Textbook of Histology, 5 th Ed, Pg 28.
Explanation : Mast cells store a number of different chemical mediators including histamine, interleukins, proteoglycans
(e.g., heparin), and various enzymes—in coarse granules found throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. Upon stimulation by
an allergen, the mast cells release the contents of their granules (a process called degranulation) into the surrounding tissues. The
chemical mediators produce local responses characteristic of an allergic reaction, such as increased permeability of blood vessels
(i.e., inflammation and swelling), contraction of smooth muscles (e.g., bronchial muscles), and increased mucus production.

ASSERTION & REASON MCQS

Assertion (A): Brown adipose tissue is more seen in newborn babies than adults.
Reason (R): As child grows, multiple fat droplets coalesce to form single fat droplet, thus reducing brown adipose tissue in adult.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

B. Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.

C. A is true but R is false.

D.A is false but R is true

ANS : A
Ref : DiFiore’s Atlas of histology with functional correlations, 11/E, pg:66

Assertion (A): Mitochondria is known as power house of the cell.


Reason (R): Protein synthesis occurs in mitochondria.
A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

B. Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A.

C. A is true but R is false.

D. A is false but R is true


Ans : C
Ref : Ganongs Medical physiology, 24/E, Pg: 38

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