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ScienceDirect

stresses in hot-rolled steel strip during cooling in

coils

AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Poland

Article history: The main factors inﬂuencing on the level of residual stresses in hot rolled steel strips are

Received 4 August 2017 related with uneven temperature and microstructure changes during cooling on the run-out

Accepted 7 November 2017 table and in a coil. That is why in this work, development of coil cooling model with taking

Available online 16 December 2017 into account the inﬂuence of radial stresses on the effective thermal conductivity in the

radial direction was performed. In order to assess the inﬂuence of the phase transformations

Keywords: in the coil on the level of residual stresses, the different laminar cooling strategies were

Residual stress applied. The results of numerical simulations obtained in this work were validated in

Hot-rolled steel coil industrial conditions. It is shown that the end of phase transformations in the strip coil

Radial thermal conductivity has a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the level of residual stresses.

Phase transformation © 2017 Published by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. on behalf of Politechnika Wrocławska.

1. Introduction

after the original causes of the stresses (temperature distribu-

tion, mechanical deformation) have been removed [1]. High

The production process of hot-rolled steel strip is a complex values of residual stresses lead to deformation (bending and

process which incorporates the ﬁve major stages: heating the twisting) of strips during laser cutting because the internal

slab in the reheating furnace, deformation in the roughing and equilibrium of residual stresses ﬁelds is destroyed. As a result,

ﬁnishing mill, cooling on the run-out table (ROT), and coiling it is not possible to get strips with straight edges. For this

for an easier transportation. To obtain the required quality and reason, the manufactures of strips are interested in reduction

properties of steel strip, strictly controlling the temperature of the level of residual stresses.

and the rolling conditions is essential to produce a high- The main factors inﬂuencing the residual stresses in hot-

quality steel strip, free from surface and internal defects. One rolled strip are related with uneven temperature distribution

of important quality parameters of strip which strongly across the width and includes the non-uniform distribution of

depends on the cooling process is the level of residual stresses. elastic–plastic deformations [2], stress relaxation during roll-

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: switek@agh.edu.pl (S. Witek).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2017.11.002

1644-9665/© 2017 Published by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. on behalf of Politechnika Wrocławska.

660 archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668

ing and cooling [3], and phase transformation occurring during Hence the objectives of the current work are twofold. The

cooling [4]. ﬁrst objective is to develop and experimental validation of the

In the last two decades, several studies have been made for coil cooling model with taking into account the key parameters

computing of residual stresses in hot-rolled steel strip for inﬂuencing on the radial thermal conductivity of the coil

enhancing the ﬁnal product quality [4–8]. Zhou et al. [4] during cooling. This model is crucial to thoroughly investigate

performed a preliminary computational study of residual the effect of phase transformation in the coil on the level of

stresses developed during cooling on the ROT using ABAQUS residual stresses, which states the second objective of the

software. The investigations were continued and results have current work.

been published in [5]. It was concluded that the temperature

proﬁle along the strip has little effect on residual stresses but

transverse temperature gradient plays a pivotal role. In work

[6], a three-dimensional FE model was established and later 2. Numerical models

improved [7] to analyze the residual stresses developed during

the cooling of hot rolled strip on the ROT. This model was also 2.1. Rods model of residual stresses

performed using ABAQUS software. The results showed that

temperature drop within the strip edge region resulted to the A model to predict the residual stresses formation in hot-rolled

development of edge waviness. To better control the ﬂatness strips during laminar cooling, coiling and cooling in the coil

quality of steel strip, the strip shape compensation control was presented in the article [9]. The mechanical part of that

strategy of slight center wave rolling and edge masking were model was based on the assumption that all components of

proposed. Cho et al. [8] developed a three-dimensional the stress tensor except tension along the length of the strip

numerical model to predict the edge wave behavior of hot are zero. Veriﬁcation of this assumption was performed by an

rolled steel during ROT cooling based on FEM. The effect of the experimental study of residual stresses in strips rolled in

edge mask width and the checkers on the edge wave were industrial conditions. It was shown that only longitudinal

examined through a series of process simulations. stresses have signiﬁcant inﬂuence in the rolling process. That

In general, it was proved that the optimization of the is why, in this model the proﬁle of strip was presented as a

cooling process allows to reduce the level of residual stresses system of rods interconnected at the ends. In addition to the

to avoid strip ﬂatness defects. However, the long computa- thermal deformation of each rod, all the rods were exposed to

tional time of these models does not allow to use them in the the average strain of the strip em that is a result of the changing

control system of the rolling mill. To solve this problem, the of the length of the strip in the cooling process. Thus, if in the

model of residual stresses based on fast computing methods rod i an increment of temperature Dt and the corresponding

was developed [3,9,10]. The proposed model was composed of increment of thermal deformation Det appeared, the total

mechanical and thermal parts that enable the modeling of increment of the deformation Dei of the rod is equal to:

thermo-mechanical and microstructural phenomena for the

entire manufacturing process of strip.

Dei ¼ Dem Det jc DtDeb (1)

A signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the residual stresses is provided

by cooling in a coil. This is due to the fact that cooling in the where Dt is an increment of time; jc is the rate of creep; Deb is an

strip coil is most unevenly along the length and width of the increment of deformation during coiling and uncoiling pro-

strip. This especially affects the residual stresses in the case cesses. The current strain of the rod i is:

when the phase transformation does not have a time to

complete at the laminar cooling stage on the ROT. In this case,

there are two factors that increase the magnitude and uneven X

J

ei ¼ Deij (2)

distribution of residual stresses. The ﬁrst is associated with the j¼1

generation of heat during the phase transformations in the

where J is the number of increments of time, j is the current

coil. This can lead to uneven heating of the coil during the

number of step.

initial cooling stage. The second factor is related to the

dilatation of the material during the phase transformations, The increment of the thermal deformation was determined

which directly affects the magnitude of the stresses. Thus, in taking into account phase transformations. This relation can

the described situation, the accuracy of the temperature model be represented in a general form:

of the cooling process in the coil must be higher than is usually

considered sufﬁcient. In particular, the anisotropy of the

thermal conductivity caused by the loose contact of the turns Det ¼ f t; tÇ; Dt (3)

and the features of the strip surface must be taken into

where tÇis the cooling rate, t is the temperature.

account. This question in the existing works is usually solved

in a simpliﬁed manner [9]. Thermal conductivity in the radial Increment of deformation during coiling and uncoiling

direction is adopted as a part (usually in the range 0.05–0.2) of processes can be calculated from the equation, which was

the thermal conductivity of the base material. In the presence obtained from geometrical interpretation of bending:

of phase transformations during cooling in a coil, this

approximation is insufﬁcient, since the sensitivity of residual

y

stresses to temperature increases. Deb ¼ (4)

2Rcoil

archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668 661

where Rcoil is the radius of the curvature of the strip at the where c(t) is the speciﬁc heat, r(t) is the density, t is the time, kr,

coiling, y is the coordinate of the rod relative to the neutral line kz is the thermal conductivity in radial and axial directions

of the bend. The value y changes according to the plate thick- respectively, qtrans is the latent heat of phase transformations, t

ness h in the range of ½h=2; h=2. is the temperature.

Increment of stress in rods can be deﬁned in general form The generation of heat due to phase transformations are

as elastic–plastic model of one rod, which takes into account calculated by the following equations:

loading and unloading processes:

f dFf p dFp dF

qtrans ¼ r Htrans þ Htrans þ Hbtrans b (9)

Ds i ¼ Ds i ðt; ei ; Dei ; Dem Þ (5) dt dt dt

f p

where Htrans , Htrans , Hbtrans is an enthalpy of the phase transfor-

In the considered method Dem is an unknown quantity. mations; Ff, Fp, Fb is the volume fractions of ferrite, pearlite and

Determination of Dem was carried out on the basis of the bainite with respect to the whole volume of the material.

conditions of equilibrium of the system of k rods:

f p

The parameters Htrans , Htrans , Hbtrans , c(t) and k are adopted

X

k

according to Medina [11] for the steel A36. The convection

Ds i ðt; ei ; Dei ; Dem ÞSi ¼ 0 (6)

i¼1

boundary condition is applied according to equation:

the current rod i, Ds i ðt; ei ; Dei ; Dem Þ is an elastic–plastic model of Q conv ¼ aðtt1 Þ; (10)

each rod. Detail description of elastic–plastic model and its

where a is the heat transfer coefﬁcient, t1 is an ambient

experimental veriﬁcation was presented in work [10].

temperature.

2.2. Phase transformations model The heat transfer coefﬁcient was determined for the

conditions of natural air cooling (convection and radiation)

The phase transformations model used in the current work from the oxidized surface of steel strip [12]:

was thoroughly presented in [9]. This model is based on

modiﬁed JMAK equation. The basic form of this equation is:

a ¼ exp 3:285 þ 1:57103 t (11)

X ¼ 1expðktn Þ (7)

2.3.1. Effective radial thermal conductivity

where X is the volume fraction of a new phase, t is the time, k, n A solution of Eq. (8) requires knowledge of thermal conductiv-

is the coefﬁcients. ity along both the radial and axial directions of the coil. Due to

the anisotropic structure of the coil which is composed of

Model consists the coefﬁcient k which is deﬁned as a many steel layers and air gaps between them, the thermal

temperature function k = f(t). Coefﬁcient k should map the conductivity in the radial direction is quite different from in

form of a TTT diagram. Various function of k are used for axial direction. In this case the thermal conductivity along the

ferritic, pearlitic and bainitic transformations. Theoretical axial direction is equal to conductivity of the strip material

considerations showed that, according to transformation type [13]. Due to the various mechanism occurring during cooling,

(nucleation and growth process, site saturation process) a the effective radial thermal conductivity (ERTC) are not only

constant value of coefﬁcient n in Eq. (7) can be used. For more function of the thermal conductivity of the base material. In

details, see [9]. general, the ERTC of the coil depends on some factors

interacting with each other [14]:

2.3. FEM models of thermal processes

material properties,

The processes occurring in the strip after the coiling process temperature,

are started at the laminar cooling stage and rolling process. surface characteristics of strip,

Therefore the developed FE thermal model is divided into two the compressive stresses in the radial direction,

parts. The ﬁrst is modeling of the heat transfer in the strip strip and interface thickness.

during rolling and laminar cooling. This model is based on the

two dimensional Fourier equation for the cross section of the In order to determine the effective radial thermal conduc-

hot-rolled strip with taking into account the heat of deforma- tivity, the coil can be modeled by using a concept of

tion and latent heat of phase transformations. The second part representative unit layer and the thermal resistance analysis

of the thermal model is designed for modeling of cooling in the [13–15]. In this case, the ERTC at a speciﬁed temperature and

coil. That model is based on the solution of Fourier equation in location of the coil is equal to the conductivity of the modeled

the cylindrical coordinate system: unit layer. Schematic diagram of representative unit layer is

shown in Fig. 1.

2 Considering the total thermal resistance and thickness of

dt @ t 1 @t @2 t the unit layer, the effective thermal conductivity, kr, can be

cðtÞrðtÞ ¼ kr þ þ kz 2 þ qtrans (8)

dt @r2 r @r @z given as follows:

662 archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668

is the standard deviation of proﬁle height, m is the mean of

absolute slope of a proﬁle, e is an emissivity, S is the Stefan–

Boltzmann constant.

The key parameter inﬂuencing on the effective thermal

conductivity in the radial direction of the coil are the radial

stresses. These stresses are developed in the coil for two

reasons – coiling tension and inhomogeneous thermal

contraction during cooling process.

Fig. 1 – Schematic diagram of representative unit layer of As it was mentioned, the mechanical model of residual

hot-rolled coil. stresses in strip was designed to ensure calculation in real-

time that are required in the control system of the rolling mill.

For this reason, the mechanical part of residual stresses model

was simpliﬁed in the way enabling to model only longitudinal

stresses. Because the initial stresses developed in the coiling

bs þ 2bo þ bi

kr ¼ (12) process usually are known, to reach objective of the current

2Rs þ 2Ro þ Ri

work, a fully coupled axisymmetric model was built using

where bs, bo, bi is the thickness of steel, oxide and interface Abaqus-Standard software to obtain a relationship between

layer, Rs, Ro, Ri is the thermal resistance of steel, oxide and radial thermal conductivity and radial thermal stresses. The

interface layer, respectively. coil was assumed to be a hollow solid cylinder with external

Thermal resistances of steel and oxide layer are expressed as: and internal diameter Ro, Ri respectively. A coupled tempera-

ture-displacement procedure was used to calculate the radial

thermal stresses. It was assumed that the deformations during

bs

Rs ¼ (13) cooling are elastic. The user subroutine USDFLD was used to

2ks

calculate the ERTC using Eq. (17) depending on the radial

thermal stresses and temperature for every time step and

bo location in the coil. The compressive radial stresses increase

Ro ¼ (14)

ko the magnitude of effective thermal conductivity when their

where ks, ko is the conductivity of steel and oxide layer, re- absolute value increases. In the case when the radial thermal

spectively. stresses are tensile, it is assumed in the calculation that they

are zero. In the developed model the initial conditions were

At the interface layer, heat is transferred by a complex adopted based on the results obtained from the thermal part of

phenomenon which involve the combined mechanisms of air the residual stresses model. Finally, in order to take into

conduction, contact points conduction due to the rough of the account the inﬂuence of radial thermal stresses, the ERTC was

surface, and radiation. The total thermal resistance of the introduced to the model of residual stresses in the form of

interface layer can be written as: metadata of correction factor of thermal conductivity as a

function of temperature, time and location in the coil

1

1 1 1 according to formula:

Ri ¼ þ þ (15)

Rcd;s Rcd;a Rrd

through contact points, conduction through air, and radiation Af ðt; t; r; zÞ ¼ (18)

ks

through voids, respectively.

where Af is the correction factor of thermal conductivity

Mean thickness of the interface layer has been measured (CFTC), r, z is the cylindrical coordinates.

experimentally by Baik [13] and is expressed by the following Using of metamodel of Af allows to maintain short

exponential equation as a function of nominal compressive calculation time with high accuracy. For example, the time

pressure P: of these calculations on the computer with Intel Core i7 950

CPU takes 100 s. Fig. 2a presents the example of results of

effective radial thermal conductivity for the coil depended on

bi ¼ 42:7106 expð0:05PÞ (16) the compressive stresses and temperature computed for 4 mm

strip thickness. These results can be presented in form as a

Based on thermal resistance analysis and contact interface ratio between the ERTC and thermal conductivity of the strip

theory, the effective thermal conductivity was proposed as material according to Eq. (18). The correction factor of thermal

follows [16]: conductivity depending on compressive stresses calculated for

bs þ 2bo þ bi

kr ¼ n 1 o (17)

bs =ks þ 2bo =ko þ ð1:13A0:94 ks m=s p Þ þ ðð1AÞka =bi Þ þ 4ð1AÞeSt3

archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668 663

Fig. 2 – The relationship between the ERTC and compressive stresses computed for 4 mm strip thickness (a), and CFTC

variations under compressive stresses computed for 2 mm and 4 mm strip thickness (b).

Fig. 3 – Temperature variations at points P1 and P2 calculated using constant CFTC and stress dependent EFTC.

2 mm and 4 mm strip thickness is presented in Fig. 2b. It is real production process and conditions in the hot strip mill in

clear that the coil with greater strip thickness has higher CFTC. ArcelorMittal Poland. Low carbon steel S235 with the chemical

compositions given in Table 1 was selected as the main

investigated material. Experimental rolling of the steel S235

3. Veriﬁcation of model and analyses of

were carried out. The process of the rolling of 4 mm thick steel

sensitivity

strip from a slab measuring 220 mm 1529 mm 11,034 mm

in 11 stands has been performed. The ﬁrst ﬁve of the stands are

Figs. 3 and 4 show the numerical results of temperature a roughing train and the remaining stands form a ﬁnishing

distribution (for selected points P1 and P2) and residual train. Schedule of deformation during hot rolling is shown in

stresses obtained for two variants of simulation for steel Table 2. In the rolling experiments, two variants of cooling

S235. In the ﬁrst case, the inﬂuence of radial thermal stresses conditions were applied. The schematic representation of

on the radial thermal conductivity is taken into account. In the applied laminar cooling strategies, namely, early and late

second variant, the radial thermal conductivity is obtained by

multiplying the thermal conductivity of material strip by

constant correction factor equal 0.2. The obtained results

presented in Figs. 3 and 4 allow to conclude that including in

the calculation the inﬂuence of radial thermal stresses on the

ERTC has a huge impact on the temperature evolution of the

strip coil, and, consequently, substantially changes the level of

residual stresses.

Validation of the developed model of coil cooling and complex Fig. 4 – Residual stresses in strip for steel S235 calculated

model of residual stresses was conducted on the basis of the using constant CFTC and stress dependent EFTC.

664 archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668

C Mn Si P S Al N Cr Ni Cu

S235 Min 0.10 0.30 – – – 0.020 – – – –

Max 0.12 0.55 0.030 0.025 0.012 0.055 0.008 0.10 0.10 0.10

Max 0.17 1.45 0.030 0.020 0.008 0.055 0.008 0.10 0.10 0.10

Stands 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Initial thickness, mm 224.0 182.0 139.9 97.8 57.9 35.6 22.72 13.66 9.35 6.63 4.94

Final thickness, mm 182.0 139.9 97.8 57.9 35.6 22.72 13.66 9.35 6.63 4.94 4.07

cooling mode is shown in Fig. 5. In the experiment, the were cut from the outer wrap of the coil. Figs. 8 and 9 show that

temperature measurement of the coils were made using the calculation results of residual stresses are in reasonable

portable infrared camera FLIR SC660 which was placed in front agreement with the experimental data in both cases. However,

of the coil. The emissivity coefﬁcient for investigated steel was some discrepancies between measurements and predictions

0.85. The temperature of the coils was measured after are observed probably due to additional uneven deformation

removing the mandrel. The temperature distributions com- caused by the roller leveler in the leveling process of the strip.

parison between the actual measurement and the calculation

is shown in Figs. 6 and 7. As it is seen in this Figs., in both cases,

5. Results of modeling and discussion

the computed results are close and showed good agreement

with the experimental data. The measurements of residual

stresses in strips have been performed by X-ray diffraction Numerical simulations of residual stresses arising in laminar

method and are described in work [17]. The samples of sheet cooling, coiling and cooling in the coil were performed for low

Fig. 6 – Calculated (a) and measured (b) results of temperature distribution in the coil for early cooling mode.

archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668 665

Fig. 7 – Calculated (a) and measured (b) results of temperature distribution in the coil for late cooling mode.

Fig. 8 – Calculated and measured results of residual stresses in strip for early cooling mode.

carbon steels S235 and S355. The chemical compositions of study the inﬂuence of laminar cooling conditions on the

both steels are presented in Table 1. It is worth to emphasize, evolution of phase transformations, as well as on the level of

that investigated steels S235 and S355 are characterized by residual stresses, two variants of the simulation for every each

different carbon and manganese content. Thus, the signiﬁcant steel were performed. These two variants are differed from

differences in the evolution of phase transformations and ﬁnal each other by applied cooling mode. The simulation condi-

volume fractions of each phase can be expected. In order to tions such as rolling schedule or cooling strategies were the

Fig. 9 – Calculated and measured results of residual stresses in strip for late cooling mode.

666 archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668

results of phase volume fractions for steel S235 showed that

the phase transformations from austenite to ferrite and

pearlite take place during cooling on the run-out table in both

cases (Fig. 11). The ﬁnal volume fractions of pearlite are nearly

the same and equal 10% for both variants. Only slight

variations of bainite volume fractions are observed at the

edges of the strip. The lower carbon and manganese content

compared to the steel S355 promote the ending of the phase

transformations during cooling on the ROT. The lack of

impact of laminar cooling strategy change on the level of

residual stresses can be explained by the similar evolution of

Fig. 10 – The control points for phase volume fractions phase transformations during cooling process. Ultimately for

analysis. this steel, the change of laminar cooling strategy has no

essential inﬂuence on the level of residual stresses. In the case

of steel S355, the analysis of numerical simulation showed

that phase transformations ends during cooling on ROT or in

same as in the rolling experiment. In the calculations, heat the coil depending on the applied laminar cooling strategy

generation during plastic deformation and heat of phase (Fig. 12). The calculation results of residual stresses are

transformations were taken into account. The analysis of considerably higher (Fig. 14), when the transformation ends

residual stresses was carried out for the average cross-section during cooling in the coil. For this type of steel, higher carbon

along the length of the strip. The control points (P1, P2) in and manganese content in combination with different cool-

which the change in volume fractions over time was analyzed ing modes varies signiﬁcantly the evolution of phase

are shown in Fig. 10. transformation.

The modeling results of volume fractions of bainite and

pearlite in the coils after cooling process and in control points

6. Conclusions

P1 and P2 during cooling are shown in Figs. 11 and 12. In turn,

Figs. 13 and 14 illustrate the distribution of residual stresses

across the width for both investigated steels. As was In this work, the further development of a model of coil cooling

mentioned in Section 4, the experimental validation of the which is a part of a model of residual stresses in strip has been

developed model of residual stresses was carried out for the performed and applied for analysis of residual stresses and

steel S235. Late and early cooling mode was adopted for temperature. The complex model of residual stresses in strip

laminar cooling system. The comparison of the results was veriﬁed in industrial conditions. Numerical simulations of

obtained from these experiments (Figs. 8 and 9) indicates residual stresses in strips for steels S235 and S355 have been

that there are no signiﬁcance differences among the level of performed. On the basis of the presented numerical and

residual stresses. Analogous results were obtained from the experimental research, the following conclusions are drawn:

Fig. 11 – Distribution of bainite (Fb) and pearlite (Fp) in the coil after cooling processes and in measurement points (P1, P2)

during cooling for steel S235 for early (a) and late (b) cooling mode. LCL – laminar cooling, CCL – cooling during coiling and in

the coil.

archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668 667

Fig. 12 – Distribution of bainite (Fb) and perlite (Fp) in the coil after cooling processes and in measurement points (P1, P2) during

cooling process for steel S355 for early (a) and late (b) cooling mode.

Fig. 13 – Calculation results of residual stresses for steel S235 for early and late cooling mode.

Fig. 14 – Calculation results of residual stresses for steel S355 for early and late cooling mode.

668 archives of civil and mechanical engineering 18 (2018) 659–668

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