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Printed in Great Britain Pergamon Press plc

ONTO ACTIVATED CARBON BASED ON EXTERNAL

MASS T R A N S F E R AND PORE D I F F U S I O N

GORDON McKAY* and M ~ J. BrNo

Department of Chemical Engineering, The Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT9 5DL, Northern Ireland

Abstract--The adsorption of four pollutants in aqueous solutions onto activated carbon has been studied.

The following solutes have been investigated, phenol, p-chlorophenol, sodium dodecyl sulphate and

mercuric ions. The kinetics were studied using an agitated batch adsorber and a model was proposed,

based on external mass transfer and pore diffusion. The model presented has a rapid analytical solution

and is based on the assumption of a pseudo-irreversible (rectangular) isotherm.

Key words--adsorption, carbon, mass transport, phenol, mercuric ions, sodium dodecyl sulphate,

p-chlorophenol

g[i = Modified theoretical Sherwood number

A Outside surface area of particle, 4nR2(cm 2)

a ~ Constant in evaluation of equation (23) Sh = Sherwood number, (krR)/Dmoj

( l - - C h / C h ) 0"33

t= Time (s)

V= Volume of effluent (dm 3)

Bi= Biot number, k/R/Dpo~

W= Weight of adsorbent (g)

B A constant, [1 -- (1/Bi)], in Spahn and Schlunder

x = Variable of integration in equation (23), (1 -~/)3

model

Y~*= Hypothetical solid phase concentration, in this

C = Concentration of solute in aqueous phase work it taken to be the saturated monolayer

(mg din- 3)

coverage (rag g-i)

Concentration of solute at equilibrium, in aque-

ous phase (rag dm -3)

Greek letters

co..= Concentration of solute at equilibrium on the

solid phase (mg dm -3) r/= Dimensionless solid phase concentration

co= Concentration of solution liquid at the outer = Dimensionless liquid phase concentration,

surface of particle (rag dm -3) (c,/co)

c,= Capacity factor in Spahn and Schlunder model, n = Geometrical constant

( YhW/Co V) p, = Bulk density of adsorbate particle, g dry ad-

Ce. co Equilibrium liquid phase concentration in batch sorbent per cm3 of bed .volume

contact when system has reached equilibrium = Dimensionless time, pore diffusion model

(mg dm -3) (D,o~tCo/A~p. r~).

C t~ Liquid phase concentration at time t (mg dm -3)

Defr = Effective diffusion coefficient (cm2 s -~)

Dm~ = Pore diffusion coefficient (cm2 s-I)

Particle diameter (cm) INTRODUCTION

f-~ Liquid phase mass transfer coefficient (cms -I)

k,= Mass transfer coefficient in the solid phase, in Activated carbon is widely used for the adsorption o f

single resistance model (cm s -I) solutes from gases and liquids (Mantell, 1968; Hass-

~'(t) Adsorption rate at time t (mgs -1)

=

ler, 1974; Perrich, 1981; Allen et al., 1967). It is

Qe = The amount of solute adsorbed per unit weight of

adsorbent in forming a complete monolayer on gaining prominence in the removal o f organics from

the surface for the Langrnuir isotherm expression drinking waters and wastewaters (Burke et al., 1980;

(mgg -l) Wu, 1978; Ramalho, 1977). Various contacting de-

Mean value of concentration of adsorbate on

vices are available for adsorption systems, such as

adsorbent (rag g-l)

Concentration of adsorbate at surface of ad- batch adsorbers and fixed bed adsorbers. The accu-

Qe. !

sorbent at equilibrium (mg g-') rate design of such systems is achieved by developing

Qe. ~o Concentration of adsorbate on adsorbent at mass transfer models which adequately describe the

infinitetime (rag g-l) kinetics and mechanisms o f the adsorption process.

Qe.t Solid phase concentration time t (mg g -~)

This paper presents a mass transfer model based on

R = Radius of particle (cm)

r = Radial distance from the centre of particle (cm) external mass transfer and pore diffusion to describe

the adsorption of various pollutants onto activated

carbon in a well agitated batch adsorber. The pollut-

*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. ants under investigation are phenol, p-chlorophenol,

279

280 GORDON McKAY and MURAD J. BINO

sorpti0n isotherms have been determined and contact VariabLespeed

time studies undertaken to assess the effect of system

Rubber support I I~ motor

concentration.

A review of two-resistance mass transfer models

prior to 1974 has been presented (Weber and Chak-

ravorti, 1974). Other two-resistance models have been

developed for liquid phase adsorption, some incor-

porated a numerical solution (Furusawa and Smith,

1974; Neretnieks, 1976) for adsorption in batch ves-

sels. A limited number of analytical techniques have

also been reported (Neretnieks, 1974; Spahn and .

/ II

,i i ,i .

Schlunder, 1975; Weber, 1978; Ditl et al., 1978; Fritz

et al., 1981), however, they involved either graphical

differentiation or the solution to a series of complex

equations. Obviously, for practical design purposes,

the more mathematically simple the model the more D

amenable it is to designers of wastewater treatment

plants. Fig. I. Agitation unit. Z = height of liquid in vessel = D;

In this investigation the adsorption rate is devel- B = baffle width = 0.075D; b = height of impeller blade =

oped as an analytical function which can be solved 0.1D; diameter of impeller blade = 0.5D; distance between

impeller blade and vessel bottom = 0.5D.

rapidly on a computer, based on the assumption of an

irreversible isotherm, that is, where the operating and

tie lines terminate on the monolayer. mass transfer in the particle,

~V = A p , k , ( Q , . , - O.o). (2)

EXPERIMENTAL

It is assumed that the concentrations at the granular

Materials

surface (C, and Qs) remain in equilibrium as de-

The solutes used, namely, phenol, p-chlorophenol, so-

dium dodecyl sulphate and mercuric chloride, were of analar scribed by the adsorption isotherm during the entire

grade as supplied by B.D.H. The carbon was Filtrasorb 400 period of adsorption. The mass transfer coefficients kr

as supplied by Chemviron. and k, are generally functions of all system param-

Analysis eters. They can be determined from batch test

Phenol and p-chlorophenol concentrations were deter- evaluations.

mined by absorption spectrophotometry at wavelengths of At time t -- 0 a prepared wetted quantity of acti-

270 and 280 nm respectively, corresponding to the maxi- vated carbon W of uniform particle size was brought

mum absorption values. Sodium dodecyl sulphate was together with a quantity of water V of initial ad-

analysed using a Beckman Model 915-B Total Organic

Carbon Analyser. Mercuric ion concentrations were meas- sorbate concentration Co in a well agitated beaker.

ured by the sodium borohydrate flameless technique on an Changes of adsorbate concentration C were meas-

atomic absorption spectrophotometer. ured with a spectrophotometer while those in the

adsorbent ~., were calculated from mass balance.

Equipment

Graphical differentiation of Ctt I gives d C / d t which

The agitated batch adsorber is shown in Fig. 1 and is proportional to the adsorption rate .N(t), since the

comprises a 1.7 dm3 vessel. The impeller agitation rate can

be carefully controlled using a Heidolph motor. For the differential mass balance is given by:

agitation runs using mercuric ions the system was entirely

glass but aluminium was used for the impeller and baffles in N(t) = - V dC W d~'c. (3)

the other experiments. The relative dimensions are shown on -~= dt

the figure.

From the adsorption rate N(t) the equilibrium con-

centrations Cs and Qc can be determined as a function

THEORY of the concentrations C, and ~.c as shown in Fig. 2,

provided the external mass transfer coefficient kr is

E x t e r n a l m a s s transfer a n d pore diffusion m o d e l f o r

known.

batch adsorbers

At time t = 0 all the mass transfer resistance is

It is assumed that the adsorption rate is controlled restricted to the external layer on the particle.

by an external and internal mass transfer resistance.

This linked transport mechanism may be described

v (dC

kr = - ACo" \ ' ~ - } t - o ' (4)

using mass transfer coefficients defined as follows:

Hence the external mass transfer coefficient can be

mass transfer in the external layer,

readily determined (Spahn and Schlunder, 1975; Fur-

N = X k r ( C ' - C,); (1) usawa and Smith, 1973; McKay and Allen, 1980).

Adsorption of pollutants 281

C]c Reacted r* Ct

"N / -

O,

/ / Tie

.....Un,~ ~ i \ o0.~-.... . . . . .

/ \

Co Co Unreocted / "~ i

anectiolL between

Fig. 2. Connection be:ween bulk and

mql surf; "e cox

surface concentration porhcl, e ~ ' ~ Cen¢~ntration front

during the adsorption in batch tests,

Once k r is known, the equations (1) and (3) can be Fig. 3. Concentration profile in particle.

used to determine the concentration of the adsorbate

in the liquid phase C~ at the granular surface. This Each Cao was plotted on the isotherm and the

gives the value of the concentration Q~0 in the solid corresponding equilibrium value Q~0 was obtained.

phase which is assumed to be in equilibrium with C~¢o. The operating line for the above process was also

These equilibria are described for both high and low drawn by plotting the Cto, Q,~o values, determined

adsorbate concentrations in water by the equilibrium from the batch contact experiment, and C,.~ and

isotherms. Q,. ~ values were determined by extending the oper-

The adsorbent particle is regarded as a porous ating line to cut the isotherm (Fig. 2). Knowing the

solid. The subsequent description of the adsorption concentrations Ct0, Q~0, C, and Q, at any time, the

rate will therefore be based on the following assump- time dependent internal mass transfer coeffÉcient, k,

tions: values, were calculated by utilizing equations (1) and

(2) in the form,

(i) The adsorbate is transferred within the pores of

the adsorbate solely by means of molecular kf ( C , - C,)

k, = (6)

diffusion. p,(Q,,,-O,)

(ii) Adsorption equilibrium according to the iso-

The rate of adsorption on a carbon particle can be

therm is presumed between the pore water and

determined as follows:

the adsorbent throughout adsorption process.

In other words, the deposition rate of the (i) Mass transfer from the external water phase:

adsorbate molecules in the pore water on the

adsorbent surface is taken to be much higher = 4rrR 2kr(C, - C,). (7)

than their rate of diffusion. (ii) Diffusion in the pore water according to Fick's

(iii) The adsorbate concentration in the carbon is law:

independent of that in the water, i.e. the ad-

47rDeer C

sorption is irreversible. = ~ ~,~ (8)

(iv) The quantity of absorbate in the poore water

is much lower than that on the adsorbent per \rr R]

unit volume and can therefore be neglected. where D,fr is the effective diffusion coefficient in

Because of the external mass transfer resistance, the pore water.

the concentration of adsorbate in the water drops (iii) The velocity of the concentration-front is ob-

from value C0~ in the bulk to the equilibrium value tained from the mass balance on a spherical

C~tl at the surface. The concentration of adsorbate in element:

the pore water, therefore, decreases from C~0 to zero

at rt. The adsorbate in the pores is adsorbed in a N= -4nr~Y~p,(drr~. (9)

\at)

well-defined concentration front, moving with vary-

ing velocity from the particle surface inwards. A (iv) The average concentration in the particle is

concentration curve in the particle is shown in Fig. 3. given by:

The equilibrium concentrations C, and Q, were

determined as a function of the concentration Cto and

~ by substituting the value of kf from equation (4)

and the adsorption rate .~'(t) at different times in: Introducing dimensionless parameters:

+Z.(dq Co D,~t

C~t) = C,) Akr\ dt ]" (5) P, Yg' R2 (11)

W,R.2.2/3.--B

282 GORDON McKAv and MuaAo J. BINO

r/ = y-~ (12)

"pseudo-irreversible" isotherm approximation, so

that,

__Ce (13)

Co Q, - Oe = Y~' - Oe. (20)

Ddr equation (18) in the following manner. Let,

The adsorption rate for a single particle follows 1

B = 1 --- (21)

from equations (7), (8), (9) and (10): Bi

dr/ ~ 3(1 - q),/3 and

-- = (15)

dt 1 -- [1 -- (1/Bi)](l -- q)1/3" x = (1 - 17)0.33. (22)

This equation is of the type,

Substituting equations (21) and (22) and rearranging,

dr/ equation (18) becomes,

d-z = ~f (r/ )Bi. (16)

x ( l - Bx)

The adsorption rate to the individual particle is dz = [1 - Ch(1 -- x3)] dx (23)

thus a function of adsorbate concentrations in the

and if

water phase ~, in the carbon phase r/and of the Biot

number. a __fl-

The coefficients kstt) determined experimentally \ Ch ,] " (24)

were compared in the form of a modified Sherwood

Thus

number. This Sh-number is proportional to the ad-

sorption rate, which follows from equations (2) and 1

(3). dr =--~h\ x3 + a3 j dx (25)

S---h= _ _ 1 dr/ (17) and this can be integrated using partial fractions

3(1 - r / ) dr according to the following form,

with the adsorption rate dr//d~ from the batch tests . +,oF(x .

one obtains the experimental values of Sh while from L\ 1 + a)aJJ

the rearranged equation (15)

I f I-(2- a)-I

dr/ 3(1 - Chr/)(1 -- r/)~/3 + ~larctan L ~ j

d--~= 1 -- [1 -- (l/Bi)](1 - r/)u3 (18)

the theoretical values Sh can be predicted. Thereby (26)

the concentration ¢ in equation (15) was replaced by

(1 - Chr/) which follows from the total mass balance The limits of integration in equation (26) are r = 0,

for the vessel. Here C h = WY~/LCo is the capacity r/=0, atx=l andr=z,r/=qandx=x

factor for the individual test. The value of the

effective diffusivity in the pores D ~ has been adopted r =~-~.~h{ln[(x3+aS)(2B--!)]+ln[(x + a)~]}

to give the best fit between experimental and theor-

etical data. 1 f [-(2 - a ) - ]

From adsorption tests presented in this paper it + ~larctanL a--~-~J

follows that the experimental and theoretical values

of any given system can be fitted with sufficient

accuracy introducing a constant diffusion coefficient

ar,tao[ ll (27)

particle. Therefore, by converting dimensionless time, r,

into real time it is possible to compare experimental

and theoretical concentration decay curves.

Comparison of experimental and theoretical results

based on the assumption of a pseudo-irreversible iso-

therm

DISCUSSION

The coefficients k,(t) obtained from batch tests are

now compared in the form of a modified Sherwood •Adsorption isotherms were determined to assess

number, Sh. This Sh is proportional to the ' the capacity of activated carbon for the four pollut-

ants. The monolayer adsorption capacities are 206,

=

l t'dr/ (19) 410, 335 and 130 mg g - l for phenol, p-chlorophenol,

sodium dodecyl sulphate and mercuric ions re-

provided the operating line terminates at the mono- spectively. F o r the kinetic model to be applicable the

Adsorption of pollutants 283

--" 200-- ~

08 .

0.6

v 100 -

~;

0.,~ I I

20 40 60

Time (rain)

0 100 200 300 400 500

adsorbent mass for the adsorption of phenol on carbon. $ ,

Co (mg dm -~) wt = 0.85 g; &, wt = 1.7 g; C), wt = 2.66 g; - - - , theoretical.

lines for phenol. line approaches the curved region of the isotherm the

agreement is not as accurate.

tic lines and operating lines must terminate at the The effect of varying the mass of adsorbent is

saturation capacity monolayer line. Figure 4 shows shown in Fig. 6 for the adsorption of phenol. The

various tie lines and an operating line for the ad- model gives good prediction of experimental results

sorption of phenol onto carbon using an initial using a constant effective pore diffusivity and a single

concentration of 500 mg dm -3. constant external mass transfer coefficient. The effect

The operating line is constructed from a point on of initial concentration on the adsorption of p-

the C¢ axis of the equilibrium curve, having coordi- chlorophenol onto carbon is shown in Fig. 6. Cor-

nates C= = Co and Q¢= 0. The operating fine is d.rawn relation between experimental and theoretical results

from this point, having a slope-solution volume/ is achieved for only 10-20 min, after this period the

adsorbent mass, to the equilibrium curve thus pre- theoretical equation decreases at a greater rate than

dicting the final liquid phase concentration and solid the experimental results. The deviation from the

loading. The tie or time lines must fall between the theory is probably due to a change in the effective

operating line and the equilibrium curve. The lower pore diffusivity. A branched pore theory was pro-

point is located by the experimentally measured Ct posed (Peel et al., 1981) which involves a change in

value and the particle surface concentration is calcu- Dar with varying extents of adsorption. This extent of

lated from equation (5). adsorption is a function of pore size distribution

In a previous model it was assumed that the solute within the particle and the relative size of the solute

concentration in the pariiele is independent of that in molecule. A detailed description of the branched pore

the water, that is, the adsorption is completely irre- model is given by Peel et al. (1981). Figures 7 and 8

versible. Consequently, the equilibrium concen-

tration, Qe.= can be replaced by a hypothetical 500

equilibrium constant, Y~' = constant. It was found

that this hypothetical equilibrium constant did not

give the best fit between experimental and theoretical

data. In fact, in certain cases Spahn and Schlunder 400

(1975) were unable to use Y* to fit experimental and

theoretical data and selected a value of Y* =0.5.

In the present work this model was tested exten-

sively for the adsorption of phenol onto carbon and

it was found to give a very good correlation between

IE

"D

=" 3C;0

E

\,

experimental and theoretical data. It was also tested

for p-chlorophenol, SDS and Hg 2+ adsorption onto

carbon. The value of Y* adopted in these cases was

200

that of the saturation monolayer coverage of the

relevant isotherm. The variables studied were: (a)

initial concentration and (b) mass of carbon.

The effect of varying the initial concentration is

I I I I I

shown in Fig. 5 for phenol. It can be seen that for IGOC) 5 10 15 20 25

steep operating lines terminating at the adsorption Time (rain)

i.

isotherm monolayer the agreement between theor- Fig. 6. Concentration decay curves showing the effect of

etical andexperimental data is very good and extends initial concentration for the adsorption of p-chlorophenol

for up to 50 rain of contact time, but as the operating on carbon. , Theoretical,

284 GORDON McKAY and Mu~D J. BINO

Co• 200 mg drn -3 process for a phenol--carbon system. Once /~'(t) is

wt • 1.0g

d~:• 605 pm known at fixed values of Ct, equations (4), (5) and (6)

o~ - - TheoreticoL

can be used to determine ks.,.

~ 0.8

Since k r is extracted from the slope of concen-

tration decay curve at t = 0. From the appropriate

value of Ct. Qt can be read from the relevant iso-

therm, and also Qe can be located on the isotherm

0.6 I I I

since it exists in equilibrium with Cs.

100 200 300 If ks., is calculated under the assumption of

Time (min) diffusion in a homogeneous particle the following

Fig. 7. Concentration decay curve for the adsorption o f SDS equation is valid for the boundary conditions of

on carbon. constant particle surface concentration Q ....

(Dpore 7~2"~ ( 4 R2 ~ (29)

for SDS and Hg 2+ adsorption show a trend consistent

k s ' t = \ R 3]+\nDpo~tJ"

with the pore diffusion mass transfer process being

rate controlling. The values of kr and Dcfr are shown If this diffusion process occurs with the boundary

in Table 1 for all the runs. condition of constant surface particle concentration,

then a plot of (ks.t)2 vs (I/t) should have a straight

Estimation of experimental k, values relationship. Figures 10 and 11 show the plot of log k,

Equation (28) describes the rate of mass transport vs log t for SDS and phenol systems respectively. As

in terms of a rate of change of a solute in the liquid was suggested by Spahn and Schlunder (1975) the

or the solid phase for the system as a whole. ~ / t - law is indeed obeyed.

A comparison of experimental and theoretical par-

dxt

N(t) = -- V---~--= WddQe (28/ ticle internal mass transfer mass transfer coefficients

are shown in Table 2. Five values of k,., are presented

by carrying out graphical differentiation (dx/dt) or for the two systems at the following time values; 10,

25, 36, 49 and 64 min. It is observed that these values

do not compare particularly well in the case of phenol

1.o but are well within the range of accuracy expected for

the experimental calculation in the case of SDS. It is

0.8 ~ Theoreticat noticed that when the concentration decay curves are

steep at the initial few minutes of contact time,

experimental and theoretical values do not match.

~, 06 But for systems such as SDS the concentration decay

curves are much less steep than those of phenol

systems at similar experimental conditions.

0.4 The following observations can be made from the

results.

I I I I I

o 20 40 60 an loo (i) Experimental and theoretical values of a given

Time (rain) system can be fitted with sufficient accuracy by

Fig. 8. Concentration decay curve for the adsorption of introducing a constant diffusion coefficient D,~r

Hg2+ on carbon. for mass transfer inside porous particles.

Table I. Film mass transfer and effectivepore diffusion coefficientsfor the adsorption of different

pollutants

Co W dp kr D~ Yt

Run Pollutant (mgdm -3 ) (g) (m) Ch (10 -4 ) (10 -~) (mgg -I )

I Phenol 200 0.85 428 0.515 1.0 2.0 206

2 Phenol 300 0.85 428 0.343 1.0 2.0 206

3 Phenol 400 0.85 428 0.257 1.0 2.0 206

4 Phenol 200 1.70 428 0.941 I.O 2.0 206

5 Phenol 300 1.70 428 0.687 1.0 2.0 206

6 Phenol 400 1.70 428 0.515 1.0 2.0 206

7 Phenol 500 1.70 428 0.495 1.0 2.0 206

8 Phenol 600 1.70 428 0.343 1.0 2.0 206

9 Phenol 300 1.70 605 0.625 1.0 2.0 200

10 Phenol 500 3.40 ' 605 0.786 1.0 2.0 200

II Phenol 326 1.70 303 0.644 1.0 2.0 210

12 Phenol 509 3.40 303 0.825 1.0 2.0 210

13 p-Chlorophenol 500 1.00 428 0.482 1.20 10.0 410

14 p-Chlorophenol 400 1.00 428 0.603 1.20 10.0 410

15 p-Chlorophenol 300 1.00 428 0.804 1.20 10.0 410

Adsorption of pollutants 285

500 -

Phenot.

450

CO = 5 0 0 mg dm - 3

~'~ wt : 1.79 g

E dp = 4 2 8 F m

'1o

E 400.

350

I I

o 50 loo 15o 200 2.50

Time (rain)

(ii) The diffusivity value may be either smaller or Table 2. Comparison of experimental and theoretical

larger than molecular diffusion coefficients in particle mass transfer coefficients for SDS and phenol

systems

the water phase.

Experimental Theoretical

(iii) The porosity has no recognizable effect on the Pollutant k,, t (m s- i) k,,~(m s-J)

transfer mechanism. Phenol 1.5 x 10-s I.I x 10-s

(iv) The adsorption rate (dn/dT) can be predicted 0.88 x I0 -5 0.88 x I0 -5

with a constant diffusion coefficient, Dc~, which 0.40 x 10-5 0.63 x 10-5

0.28 x 10 -5 0.35 x I0 -5

depends solely on the test system and can be 0.12 x 10 -5 0.23 x 10 -5

determined in a straightforward batch tests.

SDS 7.69 x I0 -7 9.00 x I0 -7

(v) The equilibrium isotherm is very important 5.00 x 10 -7 6.92 x 10 -7

and a constant value of a monolayer coverage, 4.1 x 10-7 5.69 x 10-7

3.31 x 10-7 4.82 x 10-7

Y*, can be used to fit experimental and 2.75 x 10-7 4.10 x 10-7

theoretical results.

CONCLUSION

-6.1

¢n

developed for the adsorption of pollutants onto

-6.3

carbon. Theoretical concentration decay curves were

-6.4 generated using an external mass transfer coefficient

-6.5 and a pore diffusion coefficient and these were cor-

I related, using a best fit technique, against the experi-

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 mental curves. It was possible to correlate all the

Log t i m e

experimental curves, with reasonable accuracy using

Fig. 10. Log particle mass transfer vs log time for SDS. a single constant external mass transfer coefficient

and a single constant pore diffusion coefficient for

each solute/carbon system. A rapid analytical solu-

-4

tion has been developed for adsorption systems in

which the operating fines and tie lines terminate on

the saturation monolayer of the isotherm.

REFERENCES

urement of organics in water. 3". Wat. Pollut. Control Fed.

-6 I I I I 39, 217-230.

1.0 1.3 1.5 1.7 Burke T., Hyde R. A. and Zabel T. F. (I980) Performance

l o g time

and costs of activated carbon for control of organics.

Fig. 1I. Log particle mass transfer vs log time for phenol I.W.E.S. Seminar--Trace Organics, London Institute o f

adsorption. Marine Ensinccrs.

286 GORDON M C K A V and M U R A D J. BINO

Ditl P., Coughlin R. W. and Jere E. H. (1978) Mass transfer current flow with systems having a nonlinear isotherm.

kinetics of adsorption on suspended solid particles. J. Chem. Engng Sci. 31, 107-114.

Colloid Interface Sci. 63, 410--420. Peel R. G., Benedek A. and Crowe C. M. (1981) A branched

Fritz W., Merck W. and Schlunder E. U. (1981) Com- pore kinetic model for activated carbon adsorption.

petitive adsorption of two dissolved organics onto acti- A.I.Ch.E.JI 27, 26-32.

vated carbonwI. Chem. Engng Sci. 36, 721-730. Perrich J. R. (1981) Activated Carbon Adsorption for Waste-

Furusawa T. and Smith J. M. (1973) Fluid-particle and water Treatment. Chemical Rubber Co. Press, Fla.

intraparticle mass transport rates in slurries. Ind. Engng Ramalho R. S. (1977) Introduction to Wastewater Treatment

Chem. Fundam. 12~ 197-203. Processes. Academic Press, London.

Furusawa T. and Smith J. M. (1974) Intraparticle mass Spahn H. and Schlunder E. U. (1975) The scale-up of

transport in slurries by dynamic adsorption studies. activated carbon columns for water purification, based on

A.1.Ch.E.JI 20, 88-93. results from batch tests--l. Chem. Engng Sci. 30,

Hassler J. W. (1974) Purification with Activated Carbon. 529-537.

Chemical Publishing Co., New York. Weber T. W. (1978) Predictions of concentration decay

Mantell C. I. (1968) Carbon and Graphite Handbook. curves in adsorption systems. Can. J. chem. Engng 56,

Wiley-Interscience, New York. 187-196.

McKay G. and Allen S. J. (1980) Surface mass transfer Weber T. W. and Chakravorti R. K. (1974) Pore and solid

processes using peat as an adsorbent for dyestuffs. Can. diffusion models for fixed bed adsorbers. A.LCh.E.J. 20,

J. chem. Engng .58~ 521-526. 228-238.

Neretnieks I. (1974) Adsorption of Components Having a Wu V. (1978) Use of granular activated carbon for treating

Saturation Isotherm. Chemic Ingenieur Technik, Verlag- industrial wastewater. Proc. Int. Conf., Bangkok, Thai-

Chemic, Weinheim. land, pp. 573-581.

Neretnieks I. (1976) Adsorption in finite bath and counter-

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