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Special Focus Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels K. GUPTA and M. ETHAKOTA, TechnipFMC, New Delhi, India; and S.

Special Focus

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

K. GUPTA and M. ETHAKOTA, TechnipFMC, New Delhi, India; and S. PAYYANAD, TERI University, New Delhi, India

Integrate solar/thermal energy in oil and gas processing

One of the greatest challenges facing the world is climate change, the aftermath

investment in upstream oil and gas has fallen sharply, roughly $1.8 T/yr of en- ergy sector investment has been attracted to clean energy. The value of fossil fuel consumption subsidies experienced a tre- mendous reduction in 2015, dropping to $325 B from almost $500 B in the previ- ous year. This reflects not only lower fos- sil fuel prices, but also a subsidy reform process that has gathered momentum in several countries.

and gas sector companies. Oil extraction and refining are consuming almost 10% (approximately 9 MMbpd) of the total oil produced—the US Energy Informa- tion Administration’s (EIA’s) Short-Term Energy Outlook 2017 estimates that total oil production in 1Q 2017 was 97 MMb- pd. This is equivalent to 0.055 exajoules per day (EJ/d), considering the calorific value of crude as 43 megajoules (MJ) per kilogram (MJ/kg), which is sufficient to light 6.2 B homes per month (15 W for 5.5 hr for 30 d), or 515 MM homes/yr. The integration of renewable energy sources into the conventional energy sector can be a promising solution if the economics of both can coincide. The op- portunities and applications for solar/ thermal systems to fully or partially re- place fossil fuels are explored here. India’s oil refining capacity for 2016– 2017 was projected to be 310.6 MMtpy, but the lack of accurate data regarding the total energy consumption for the coun- try’s oil refineries exposes the negligence of the sector. The reason for including

of

emissions of greenhouse gases into our

atmosphere. Awareness of climate change

and its causes is spurring the development

of

new methods to reduce carbon dioxide

(CO 2 )

emissions.

In support of the Paris Climate Agree-

ment, India is committed to tackling this ongoing issue. The country’s balanced and comprehensive Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)—

a

term used under the United Nations

A new approach. Fossil fuels continue to dominate energy supply, but the overall distribution of energy sources is changing in both share and investment. Mitigating climate change by reducing CO 2 emis- sions is not an easy task for the conven- tional sector, as a significant monetary burden is imposed on oil and gas compa- nies. An approach is needed regarding new technology that focuses on innovation, as well as on retrofitting existing systems with new combinations. Identifying and investing in technology that will reduce carbon footprint and, at the same time, generate profit is the best option for oil

Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, which all countries that signed the UNFCCC were

asked to publish before the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held

in

Paris, France, in December 2015—are

proving that the recent decisions of the Indian government represent a quantum leap in its aspirations to face the challeng-

of climate change. According to the International Energy Outlook 2016, world consumption of

es

marketed energy will increase from 549 quadrillion Btu in 2012, to 629 quadril- lion Btu in 2020, and to 629 quadrillion Btu in 2040—a 48% increase from 2012 to 2040. Oil remains the world’s lead- ing fuel, accounting for 32.9% of global energy consumption, according to a BP study. Meeting the growing energy de- mand will present further challenges due to the constraints required to minimize environmental damage. The Paris Agreement’s focus on ener-

Indian refineries in the Perform, Achieve

 

TABLE 1. CO 2 emissions by source (IPCC, 2005)

 

Process

Number of sources

CO 2 emissions, MMtpy

Fossil fuels

Power

4,942

10,539

Cement production

1,175

932

Refineries

638

798

Iron and steel industry

269

646

Petrochemical industry

470

379

gy, as well as the new policies in place, will impose greater restrictions on emissions

Oil and gas processing

N/A

50

Other sources

90

33

of

CO 2 . This will significantly impact the

fossil fuel sector. The shift in policy has made its mark on the investment pattern in the energy sector—at a time when

 

Biomass

Bioethanol and bioenergy

303

91

Total

7,887

13,466

Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 35

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels and Trade (PAT-2) cycle is their fuel con- sumption itself. As per international

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

and Trade (PAT-2) cycle is their fuel con- sumption itself. As per international benchmarks, the
and Trade (PAT-2) cycle is their fuel con-
sumption itself.
As per international benchmarks, the
specific energy consumption (SEC) of
an Indian oil refinery is 542 Kcal/l–872
Kcal/l (kilo calorie per liter), or 5.42%–
9.27% of total production. This means
potential and need for integrating solar/
thermal technologies—such as parabolic
trough collectors (PTCs), linear fresnel
reflectors (LFRs), solar towers (STs) and
non-concentrating collectors—that can
result in considerable energy gain.
that
5%–10% of the energy produced is
Energy consumption in refineries.
used
for the production process. This is
not an insignificant amount and therefore
deserves recognition. Energy efficiency
enhancement and an increase of environ-
mentally friendly energy resources (e.g.,
wind, solar, biomass) in the global energy
mix
offer a promising solution. Lower
carbon emissions, increased long-term
profitability, higher natural gas prices and
the non-availability of natural gas in cer-
tain
geographical locations are the main
drivers for the adoption of renewable en-
ergy. Solar/thermal technology is used in
only
a few areas, such as in steam genera-
tion for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) ap-
plications in the Middle East and North
Africa (MENA) region.
Within oil refineries, a good share of en-
ergy
consumption is utilized in the name
of “process heat.” The energy demand is
met by the burning of conventional ener-
gy resources such as oil and gas. Globally,
the refining sector ranks third in station-
ary CO 2 emissions, as shown in TABLE 1. A
typical refinery emits 0.04 metric t/bbl–
0.049 metric t/bbl of CO 2 in processing
Refinery operations generally consume
energy in three different forms: heat,
steam and electricity. For the same pro-
cessing capacity, the amount of energy
consumed changes depending on the re-
finery’s complexity—as the complexity
increases, so do the process steps and en-
ergy consumption. It is important to un-
derstand the average consumption of any
refinery to set a baseline for the study to
quantify the reduction in consumption of
conventional energy (FIG. 1 and TABLE 2).
Ninety percent of the total energy
is used as thermal energy for the high-
temperature processes: heating of feed
(65%) and steam generation (23%). The
average energy consumed in each process
and their temperature requirements are
highlighted in FIGS. 2 and 3.
When examining solar/thermal in-
tegration in refineries, it is important to
consider some of those applications in
detail, along with the understanding of
the basic features of various solar/ther-
mal technologies.
SOLAR/THERMAL
light
to heavy crude, which indicates the
TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 2. Energy consumption of
refineries
Refinery
% of total production
mary parameter in deciding the total ener-
gy available for the CST system. A global
DNI profile is shown in FIG. 4, and can be
used to analyze the solar/thermal poten-
tial of a particular geographical region.
A solar/thermal system combined with
a thermal energy storage (TES) system is
particularly effective, as it can store the
generated heat and can be used when solar
energy is unavailable. Heat transport and
storage have become a focus of research
and can provide solutions to a variety of
challenges related to the intermittent na-
ture of solar energy. The three types of
TES are sensible heat storage, latent heat
storage and thermochemical storage. So-
lar/thermal collectors are classified as
low-temperature, medium-temperature
or high-temperature, and the suitable heat
transfer media is selected primarily based
on the operating temperature.
Low-temperature collectors can make
use of refrigerants/phase-changing mate-
rials, water, water-nano fluids and water-
glycol mixtures as heat transfer media.
Water-glycol mixtures and hydrocarbon
oils are generally preferred for medium-
temperature collectors. High-temperature
systems make use of hydrocarbon oils,
nanofluids and molten salts as heat trans-
fer and storage media. Research is ongoing
for different heat transfer media—such as
air/compressed gases, molten metals, flu-
idized solid particles and ceramics—to
achieve better properties to make them
suitable for storage applications. The
main challenges for energy storage are
finding a commercially viable solution
and committing to high investment costs.
Refinery 1
8.1
Parabolic
trough
collectors. PTCs
Refinery 2
10
Refinery 3
9.3
Concentrating solar/thermal (CST)
systems use combinations of mirrors or
lenses to concentrate direct beam solar ra-
diation to produce forms of useful energy,
such as heat, electricity or fuels. CST sys-
tems are mainly classified as either non-
concentrating or concentrating systems.
consist of solar collectors (mirrors), heat
receivers and support structures (FIG. 5).
Refinery 4
7.5
Direct normal irradiance (DNI) is the pri-
The parabolic-shaped collector is fabri-
140
1.2
Energy consumption, MMKcal/hr
Alkylation
120
1
100
0.8
Catalytic reformer
Fluid catalytic cracker
Hydrocracker
80
0.6
60
0.4
40
Hydrotreater
Visbreaker
Delayed coker
0.2
20
VDU
ADU
0
0
Refinery 1
Refinery 2
Refinery 3
Refinery 4
0
100
200
300
400
500

FIG. 1. Energy consumption of refineries.

36 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.com

FIG. 2. Specific energy consumption in different refinery units, Kcal/l.

cated by forming a reflective surface for concentrating sun rays to its focal line. The receiver consists of an absorber tube (usually metal) inside an evacuated glass envelope. The absorber tube is a coated stainless steel tube, with a spectrally se- lective coating that absorbs the solar (shortwave) irradiation well, but emits very little infrared (longwave) radiation. This helps reduce heat loss. Evacuated glass tubes are used because they contrib- ute to reduced heat loss. PTCs are one of the most mature solar/thermal technolo- gies and have been in commercial use for the last four decades. PTCs have an oper- ating range of 290°C–550°C.

Linear fresnel reflectors. LFR systems

(FIG. 6) generate a line focus onto a down- ward-facing receiver. The long row of plain or slightly curved mirrors is focusing onto the receivers. These systems are single-axis tracking, and the downward-facing cavity reduces convection heat losses. The cost of an LFR system is lower compared to a par- abolic trough system due to the flat mirrors used and the lower requirements of the

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

~1,300°C

of the Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels ~1,300°C Amine treatment Sulfur recovery Sulfur unit unit
Amine treatment Sulfur recovery Sulfur unit unit ~1,000°C Hydrogen HGU ~250°C ~200°C Isomerization Gasoline
Amine treatment
Sulfur recovery
Sulfur
unit
unit
~1,000°C
Hydrogen
HGU
~250°C
~200°C
Isomerization
Gasoline
Naphtha
Naphtha
hydrotreating
splitter
Catalytic
C
~300°C
reforming
D
~380°C
Kerosine
U
Kerosine
hydrotreating
jet fuel
~350°C
Diesel
hydrotreating
Diesel
PRU
Alkylation
~350°C
VGOO
FCC gasoline
FCC
hydrotreating
hydrotreater
Distillates
Heavy fuel/
Hydrocracking
bunker
~425°C
~400°C–430°C
V
~480°C
D
Visbreaking
U
Lube oil
Lube oil
plant
blending
~480°C
Distillates
DCU
Coke

FIG. 3. Temperature requirements of different sub-processes in a crude refinery (coking refinery

configuration).

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Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 37

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels supporting structure, which is mounted closer to the ground. An LFR system has

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

supporting structure, which is mounted closer to the ground. An LFR system has an operating range of 250°C–390°C.

 

time, STs are a more expensive option than the other technologies mentioned here, due to the complex receivers and high-temperature domains.

Solar towers. STs, also known as central receiver systems (CRSs), use hundreds or thousands of small reflectors (called heliostats) to concentrate the sun’s rays on a central receiver placed atop a fixed tower (FIG. 7). The concentrated power of the tower concept achieves very high temperatures. The concept is highly flex- ible; designers can choose from a wide variety of heliostats, receivers and trans- fer fluids. STs have an operating range of 250°C–650°C, which can be extended to 1,000°C–1,200°C by using air/helium as the heat transfer medium. At the same

Non-concentrating collectors. These

collectors (FIG. 8) are either flat-plate or evacuated tube collectors. Compared to concentrating collectors, non-concen- trating collectors can only be used in low- temperature applications that are limited to 120°C. The cost is also low compared to concentrating collectors. The selection of suitable collectors for the application depends on the operating temperature of the application. Collectors and their cor- responding temperature ranges are tabu-

lated in TABLE 3.

 
 

FIG. 4. Direct normal irradiation (DNI) world map (Source: DLR 2008).

normal irradiation (DNI) world map (Source: DLR 2008). FIG. 5. Parabolic trough collector. FIG. 7. Solar
normal irradiation (DNI) world map (Source: DLR 2008). FIG. 5. Parabolic trough collector. FIG. 7. Solar

FIG. 5. Parabolic trough collector.

FIG. 7. Solar power tower.

Parabolic trough collector. FIG. 7. Solar power tower. FIG. 6. Linear fresnel reflector. FIG. 8.
Parabolic trough collector. FIG. 7. Solar power tower. FIG. 6. Linear fresnel reflector. FIG. 8.

FIG. 6. Linear fresnel reflector.

FIG. 8. Non-concentrating collectors.

38 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.com

CASE STUDIES

Case studies for different high-tem- perature requirements for various solar/ thermal technologies are discussed in detail here. The absence of solar energy at night and during cloudy days can be compensated by energy storage and a hy- brid system—a solar energy system with a backup heat source from a conventional source—that will ensure consistent ener- gy supply. Storage is excluded from Case Studies 1, 2 and 3, while Case Study 4 is a hybrid system with storage.

Case 1: ST systems for high-tem- perature process heat applications.

Traditionally, fuel oil, fuel gas and natural gas are used for heat requirements at high temperatures. Most reactions, such as steam reforming, catalytic reforming and gasification, require high temperatures in the range of 500°C–1,000°C, as well as high heat flux due to their endothermic nature. High heat flux and temperature requirements make the entire process highly energy intensive (FIG. 9). Utilizing solar/thermal energy to sup- ply heat to these reactions, directly or indirectly, will be a breakthrough in the integration of solar/thermal technology in oil and gas processing. Different solar thermal technologies can be considered as integration options, but the constraint comes with the operating temperature. Technologies with high concentration ratios, such as a central receiver system/ dish system, offer an operating tempera- ture of 600°C–1,000°C by using heat transfer fluid (HTF) media like air/he- lium. Molten salt as an HTF is a viable option for temperatures below 600°C. A high-temperature application re- quires a temperature of 950°C, and this can be attained by using air as an HTF me- dium, along with a central receiver system with volumetric air receivers. While this is not a mature technology, the prototypes developed have shown a positive output. Heliostats concentrate the solar rays onto a volumetric receiver, which heats the air to the desired temperature. The high-temperature air exchanges heat in the heat exchanger/reactor, and the low- temperature air is returned to the central receiver system through a blower. The results of the case study are summarized

in TABLE 4.

A 20 MW-t (megawatts thermal) ca-

pacity system was simulated to explore its

technical viability. A design point DNI of 800 W/m 2 was chosen, considering the hourly radiation profile available for west- ern India. An inlet temperature of 450°C and an outlet temperature of 950°C were considered. Heliostats of standard size 12.2 m 2 × 12.2 m 2 were used for the anal- ysis. In the high-temperature segment, the payback period exceeds 10 yr due to the high capital expenditure (CAPEX) of the high-temperature ST system. Typically, the central receiver system has an initial investment of $0.7 MM/ MW, including the cost for heliostats, tower and receiver, and a land require- ment of 2.1 acre/MW–3.5 acre/MW without the storage system. The addition of a thermal storage system to ensure a continuous energy supply requires three to four times the average footprint, as well as the same required CAPEX.

Case Study 2: Integration of solar/ thermal crude heating application.

Process heating is an important part of crude oil production. A significant amount of heat is required to preheat crude before it is processed in a crude dis- tillation unit (CDU). Generally, refineries rely on fuel oil-fired heaters for preheating crude. Because the quantity of crude pro- cessed per day is large, so is the required amount of heat. In this case study, a typi- cal plant processing crude with a heat re- quirement of approximately 38 MMKcal/ hr was considered, with a refining capac- ity of 4.5 MMtpy. This demand was supplied through fired heaters that use fuel oil to heat the crude to a temperature of 302°C–380°C. The conventional system was partially replaced by the proposed system with a capacity of 12 MW-t designed to heat the fluid from 302°C to 320°C. The proposed

of 12 MW-t designed to heat the fluid from 302°C to 320°C. The proposed FIG. 9.

FIG. 9. High-temperature application schematic.

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

application schematic. Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels system used a PTC system for harnessing solar energy into

system used a PTC system for harnessing solar energy into process heat. The integra- tion is illustrated in FIG. 10. Since the tem- perature requirement was in the range of 300°C–400°C, a PTC system or dish sys- tem was suitable for this application. The existing system was modified by incorpo- rating a PTC system and integrating it with the existing system with a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. HTF was heated from a temperature of 340°C to 380°C in the PTC, and it was used to heat the crude oil in a heat exchanger by increasing the tem- perature of crude from 302°C to 320°C. After exchanging heat, the HTF (Therminol) was again fed back into the PTC circuit. Crude was further heated from 320°C to 380°C in the fired heater it- self, reducing the fired heater’s load. Typi- cally, a PTC system has an energy collec- tion of 930 MWh/yr/acre–1,150 MWh/ yr/acre, and requires an investment of $300/MWh (TABLE 5).

The simulation provided an energy output of 18,156 MWh/yr, replacing 5% of the heat required for the heating of crude from 302°C to 320°C. The partial replace- ment of the fired heater for crude heating appears to be a viable option, as it replaces 5% of energy from solar with a 12-MW-t system. The project is providing a simple payback period of approximately 5 yr.

Case Study 3: Partial boiler replace- ment with LFR-based solar/thermal

system. A refinery’s steam requirement plays a major role in its energy consump- tion. Low-pressure (3.5 barg/150°C), medium-pressure (10 barg/250°C) and high-pressure steam (35 barg/360°C) are used for different process require- ments. Captive utility boilers are a source of steam and operate either on fuel oil or natural gas. The combustion of fuel oil or fuel gas also contributes to refinery emis-

sions, as well as to the total specific en-

TABLE 3. Operating temperature range of different collectors

Temperature range, °C

Solar collector

Heat transfer fluid

< 80

Flat plate, non-tracking compound parabolic

Water

80–200

Parabolic trough, linear fresnel

Water/steam

200–300

Parabolic trough, linear fresnel

Mineral oil

300–400

Parabolic trough, linear fresnel

Synthetic oil

400–650

Heliostat/central receiver, parabolic dish

Steam/molten salt

> 650

Heliostat/central receiver

Air/helium

Solar field Crude at B/L Desalter
Solar field
Crude at B/L
Desalter
HTF 340°C HTF 380°C Flash Crude Heat exchanger Crude preheat train
HTF 340°C
HTF 380°C
Flash
Crude
Heat exchanger
Crude
preheat
train
Preheated crude to crude distillation
Preheated crude
to crude distillation

Fired heater

FIG. 10. Solar/thermal integrated crude heating.

Hydrocarbon Processing | JANUARY 2018 39

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels ergy consumption. As most of the captive boilers cater to refinery processes, the

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

ergy consumption. As most of the captive boilers cater to refinery processes, the capacity of these systems is usually huge. Typically, a 1-MMtpy refinery requires 35 tph–80 tph of steam through its utility boilers. Replacing a part of the steam re- quirement with solar/thermal technolo- gies can reduce CO 2 emissions and save a significant amount of fossil fuel (FIG. 11). This case study had a steam require- ment of 15 tph at 10 bar, and utilized LFR

   

solar/thermal technology. The results are summarized in TABLE 6. The system is now providing an an- nual solar heat generation of 18,341 MWhr/t and reducing the CO 2 emis- sions by 4,775 tpy, with a simple payback period of approximately 4 yr. Typically, an LFR system requires 0.43 acre/tph– 0.6 acre/tph of steam production, while investment costs vary from $0.41 MM/ tph–$0.62 MM/tph, and can reduce CO 2 generation by 0.19 kg of CO 2 /kg of steam production.

TABLE 4. Key results, central receiver system: 20 MW-t

Location (25.75°N, 71.42°E)

TABLE 6. Key results, LFR: 12 MW-t

 

Design point DNI, W/m 2

800

Location (26.25°N, 73.05°E)

Design loop inlet/outlet temperature, °C

450/950

Design point DNI, W/m 2

750

Total annual solar heat generation, MWh/y

18,341

Total reflective area, m 2

50,098

Annual heat collection, MWh/yr

34,500

Availability, %/yr

17

Availability, %/yr

20

Land requirement, acres

7

Land requirement, acres

70

CAPEX, $MM

4.94

CAPEX, $MM

14.13

OPEX, $MM

0.05

OPEX, $/yr

2,158

Payback period, yr

~4

CO 2 reduction, tpy

9,546

CO 2 reduction, tpy

4,775

Payback period, yr

> 10

 
   

TABLE 7. Key results, solar VAR: 15TR

 

TABLE 5. Key results, PTC: 12 MW-t

 

Location (21.75°N, 72.18°E)

Location (21.75°N, 72.95°E)

Design point DNI, W/m 2

750

Design point DNI, W/m 2

750

Total annual solar heat generation, MWh/y

201

Total annual solar heat generation, MWh/y

18,156

Space cooling, TR

15

Solar share, %

5

Solar share, %

33

Land requirement, acres

16

Land requirement, m 2

201

CAPEX, $MM

7.32

CAPEX, $

83,500

OPEX, $MM

0.146

OPEX, $

2,262

Payback period, yr

~5.0

Payback period, yr

~4.0

CO 2 reduction, tpy

5,975

CO 2 reduction, tpy

78

 
 

FIG. 11. Solar/thermal steam production.

 

40 JANUARY 2018 | HydrocarbonProcessing.com

Case Study 4: Solar/thermal-based vapor absorption refrigeration. In a

typical petroleum refinery, approximate- ly 12% of electricity is used for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting, providing sufficient im- petus to explore space cooling systems. Solar/thermal-based vapor absorption systems make use of heat generated from solar radiation to operate. A non-con- centrating type of solar/thermal system is most suitable for the low-temperature application. The temperature needed for the input heat changes is dependent on the required cooling capacity. Water/ steam can be used as the heat input me- dia, and this provides flexibility to match the heat requirement with the cooling ca- pacity. The solar-based vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) system comprises a vapor absorption chiller, solar collectors, a cooling tower and heat storage. The configuration of the integration of solar/thermal technology with a VAR system is illustrated in FIG. 12. The case used for the analysis had a cooling requirement of 15 TR for the space cooling. Boiler and thermal stor- age were considered to compensate for the non-availability of solar hours and to ensure continuous supply throughout the year. The VAR system required an input of 71 kW-h to generate a cooling power of 53 kW. The system used hot water at 86°C to produce chilled water at 9°C (TABLE 7). The chiller was integrated with solar/ thermal storage of 400 kWh and a 115-kW boiler to ensure a continuous and reliable supply. The system generated heat of 201 MWh-t from solar collectors, while fossil heat generation produced 409 MWh-t. The total heat balance between solar and conventional sources is illustrated in FIG. 13. The system replaced 32.6% of the fossil heat to produce a cooling output of 53 kW, with a payback period of 4 yr. This case study for a low-temperature application is the simplest use of solar heat in the low-temperature segment. Other potential uses include desalina- tion, low-temperature steam production through solar/thermal systems for heat tracing, and storage tank heating. Oil and gas companies can perform various case studies by selecting suitable technol- ogy for their applications. Solar/thermal component costs are expected to drop,

and the options presented in these case

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels studies will continue to become more at- tractive, as seen in the case of

studies will continue to become more at- tractive, as seen in the case of solar photo- voltaics (PV), where the power price has fallen from $0.17/kWh to $0.04/kWh in just a few years.

tor requires heat storage or a hybrid sys- tem while utilizing renewable energy. The high initial cost of the solar/thermal sys- tem creates budgetary concerns, but that cost is demand driven. The solar/ther- mal system offers 35%–40% efficiency in terms of conversion of solar energy into process heat, which is lower compared to fossil fuel heat conversion. Integration presents another challenge—e.g., steam/

system must be integrated with the exist- ing utility boiler and, in the case of the low flow of steam from the solar/thermal system, the utility boiler must ramp up be- fore dropping the steam header pressure. Maintenance of a solar/thermal sys- tem is significant, as the mirrors require regular cleaning to remove the dust and fine particles present in an open atmo- sphere. Improper cleaning mechanisms

Challenges and limitations. The oil

and gas sector faces various challenges and limitations while adopting and integrating renewable technologies. Reliability is the most prominent challenge, and the oil sec-

heat generation through a solar/thermal

can badly affect the performance of the

a solar/thermal can badly affect the performance of the FIG. 12. Solar/thermal VAR system schematic. 1.7

FIG. 12. Solar/thermal VAR system schematic.

1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 Q cool in MWh 0.9 Q aux
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Q
cool in MWh
0.9
Q
aux in MWh
0.8
Q
s, tot in MWh
0.7
Q
tot in MWh
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0
50 100
150
250
300
350
Day 200
FIG. 13. Annual energy balance, solar VAR system.
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Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels system. Perhaps the greatest challenge is convincing the oil and gas sector that

Alternative Feedstocks/Biofuels

system. Perhaps the greatest challenge is convincing the oil and gas sector that the adoption of renewable energy is feasible, and can achieve the necessary efficien- cies and return on investment (ROI).

The path forward. The first step to- ward effectively utilizing the available solar/thermal potential in the oil and gas sector is a combined evaluation by an oil and gas engineering consultant, the solar developer and the refinery client. The engineering consultant must be con- vinced of the benefits of adopting CST technologies, and then should serve as an advocate of those technologies. Using their experience in the oil and gas sec- tor, this group will play a major role in the integration of these technologies and in the reduction of cost of these plants. The solar developer must develop meth- odologies that meet the requirements of the oil and gas industry. The close asso- ciation of the solar developer, manufac- turer/supplier, engineering consultant and client will lead to the development and improvement of these technologies.

The oil and gas industry must in- crease its awareness of the potential benefits of solar/thermal integration. This begins with the identification and classification of the temperature range and heat requirements for the installa- tion of solar/thermal systems, includ- ing the need to review land availability, ownership, complexities in leasing pro- cedures, etc. Partial replacement of industrial heat is a feasible and achievable goal. The re- finery should explore the carbon credit benefit from local government, as well as local policies that are favorable for the deployment of renewable energy technologies. Oil and gas companies can also include the integration of renewable energy in their social responsibilities within the category of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

of renewable energy in their social responsibilities within the category of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
of renewable energy in their social responsibilities within the category of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to sincerely acknowledge the support and guidance provided by Avril Tourmen, New Business Manager for Asia Pacific BD and Sales for TechnipFMC, for her significant contributions to

the development of this article.

KALPANA GUPTA is a Deputy Chief Engineer within the process department at TechnipFMC, India. She has more than 16 yr of experience in the design and engineering of hydrogen and refinery units, with a particular focus on the integration of refineries and renewables. Ms. Gupta earned her graduate degree from the Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) in Jaipur, India; her post-graduate degree in chemical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi); and a diploma in renewable energy from The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) India.

MARUTHI ETHAKOTA is the head of the Technip India process department, and has 20 yr of experience in process engineering and technology. Prior to his time at Technip India, he worked in process and product development for Hydrogen Syngas Technology at Technip Benelux B.V. Netherlands. He earned a BTech degree from Andhra University, and an MTech degree in chemical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT Kanpur).

SACHIN PAYYANAD is a Renewable Energy Specialist with a primary focus on solar/thermal systems. He is a certified boiler engineer, and holds post-graduate diplomas in thermal power plant engineering and environmental law. His key interest areas include solar/thermal systems, solar fuels and hydrogen. He earned an MTech degree in renewable energy engineering and management at The Energy and Resources

Institute (TERI) India.

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