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2.

1 Translation CHAPTER 2 : TRANSFORMATION I, II


1. Translation is a transformation that moves all the points on a plane through the same
distance and in the same direction.
2. Properties of a translation
a) the shape, size and orientation of the object and the image are the same
b) every point is moved through the same distance and in the same direction
h
3. A translation is usually expressed in the form   , where h represents the horizontal
k 
movement parallel to the x-axis and k represents the vertical movement parallel to
the y- axis

Example 1 y Exercise :
i) Draw the image for each of the
following object.
H ii) State the coordinates of the image for each of
y
the points under the given translation.
6
 3
●H’ 1. Translation  
A y  0
4

2 B
6

O 2 4 6 x
4
i) ∆ A is mapped onto ∆B under a
 4  2 ● A
translation   or each point in
  2
triangle A is moved 4 units to the right x
followed by 2 uints downwards O 2 4 6
ii) Under the same translation,
image of Answer : A’( )
H is H’(7,5).

Transformation I,II 1
264264 ●C
●C
●C
6

4
  2   4
2. Translation   3. Translation  
 1  2   2
y

●C
y
6

6 4
●B
4 2

A
2
O 2 4 6 x
x Answer:
O 2 4 6
 2    3
4. Answer:
Translation   5. Translation  
  1  0 
y y

6 6 ●D

4 4

2 ●C 2

x
2 4 6 2 4 6

Answer : Answer:

Transformation I,II 2
h
To find the vector of translation  
k 
h
In each of the diagram below, A' is the image of A under translation T   . In each case, state the
k 
vector of translation. 4 units to the
Example 1 right
Y i) Choose at least two corresponding points
between object and image.
4
ii) Count the number of units to move to the
right or left, then the number of units to
A
2 move upwards or downwards.
iii) The vector of translation is

x
-4 -2 0 2 4
5 units
-2 downward
A'
 4 
-4 Thus, the vector translation is  
  5

1 2

A' .
● A
A'
A

Translation
Translation

3 4

y
4 Translation :
Translation :
A 2 A'

x
-4 -2 0 2 4

Transformation I,II -2 3

-4
y 4y
4 4
A' 2 A
2 2
A' x
5. 6. -4 -2 0y 2 4
x x
-4 -2 0 2 4 -4 -2 40 2 4
-2 A
A
-2 A' -2
2
-4
-4 -4 x
-4 -2 0 2 4

-2

-4
Translation:

2.2 Reflection
Reflection is a transformation which reflects all the points on a plane in a line
called the axis of reflection.
Properties of reflection :
i) the shape and size of the object and its image are the same .(congruent)
ii) the orientation of the image is laterally inverted compared to the object.
iii) the position of any point lying on the axis of reflection does not change.
y
4 In the diagram:
P
AA’ ●
A
2 A' is the image of A under a reflection
'
y =1 of y –axis or x = 0
x
-4 -2 0 2 P’ is the image of P under reflection
4 ● of line y =1
P'
-2

-4

2.2.1 To determine the image under a reflection


Draw and label the image under a reflection for each of the following.

Transformation I,II 4
Example : Exersice:
y 1. y
4 4
A' A
2 2

-4 -2 0 2 4
x x
-4 -2 0 2 4

-2 -2 B

-4 -4
Axis of reflection Axis of reflection FFF
2 3
Y

P
2 Q

X
-4 -2 0 2 4

-2

-4

4 5

R S

2.2.2 To determine the axis of reflection Execsice


Example: Draw the axis of reflection 1.

Transformation I,II 5
B' B

axis of reflection
2. 3

C D
A
A

C' D'

2.2.3 State the axis of reflection. Exersice y


Example: y 1
4
4

2 2

x x
-4 -2 0 2 4 -4 -2 0 2
4
-2 -2

-4 -4
Axis of reflection : x = 2 Axis of reflection :
2. y 3 y

6
6
4
4
2
2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x
Axis of reflection : 7
Axis of reflection :

Transformation I,II 6
2.3 Rotation
A rotation is a transformation which rotates all the points on a plane :
about a fixed point (known as centre of rotation) C Centre

through a given angle A Angle

in the clockwise or anticlockwise direction. D Direction

●P

The diagram shows that P is mapped


onto P’ through a rotation about O of an
Ө angle Ө in clockwise direction
O ● P'

The properties of rotation :


i) the shape of the object and the image are the same
ii) the size of the object and image are the same
iii) the orientation of object and image remain the same
iv) the centre of rotation is the only point that does not change its position.

Since full rotation is 3600


90 clockwise = 2700 anticlockwise
0

2700 clockwise = 900 anticlockwise


1800 clockwise = 1800 clockwise ( for a rotation 1800 it is not necessary to mention the
direction of rotation)
Example : Exersice
Draw the image of M under a Rotation of 900 1.
clockwise about A. Draw the image for each of the object
under the rotation given :
y

6
6
M ● A
4
4

90˚ 2
2 A●
Transformation I,II M' 7
Rotation of 900 anticlockwise about Ax
O 2 4 6 x O 2 4 6
2. Rotation of 1800 anticlockwise about H. 3. Rotation of 900 clockwise about A.
y y

6 6

A
4 4 ●A
●H
2 2

O 2 4 6 x
O 2 4 6 x

4. Rotation of 900 clockwise about B . 5. Rotation of 900 anticlockwise about C


y
y

6
●B 6
4 ●C
4
A y
2
2

O 2 4 6
x
x
O 2 4 6

2.3.2 Determine and mark the centre of rotation


The intersection of two or more lines of perpendicular bisectors is a centre of
rotation. A B

i) Join point D to D’ and construct the


perpendicular bisector of line DD’. D C
ii) Join point C to C’ and construct the
perpendicular bisector of line CC’.
iii) Extend the two lines until they C’ D’
intersect each other. Centre of
rotation

B’ A’
Transformation I,II 8
Perpendicular
bisectors
The point of intersection of these two
perpendicular bisectors is the
centre of rotation.

Exersice : Determine and mark the centre of 2


rotation for each of the following A
diagram
1 P

B
Q R
A’ B’
bbB’
Q’ P’

R’

3. 4
R’ A’

Q’ S’
C’ B’

P’ B C
Q

P R
S A
y y
To determine centre,angle and direction of Exersice :
rotation A’ 1.
4 4
A B
2 B’ 2

x x
-4 -2 0 2 4 -4 -2 0 2 4

Transformation I,II -2 9 -2

-4 -4
Centre : (0,0) Centre : ……………..
Angle : 900 , Angle : …………….
Direction : clockwise Direction : ………...

2. B y y

A 4 4
A’
2 2
B’

x x
-4 -2 0 2 4 -4 -2 0 2 4

-2 -2

-4 -4
Centre : ………….. Centre : ……………..
Angle :…………. Angle : …………….
Direction : ……… Direction : ………...

4 5 y
y

4 4 P
T’
2 2

P’
x x
-4 -2 0 2 4 -4 -2 0 2 4

-2 -2
T
-4 -4

Centre :…………… Centre : ……………..


Angle : …………… Angle : …………….
Direction : ……….. Direction : ………...

Transformation I,II 10
2.4 ENLARGEMENT
An enlargement is a transformation which has a fixed point call the centre of enlargement.
All the points on the plane move at a constant ratio from the centre.
The ratio is known as the scale factor.
The image produced is always similar to the object.
Q’
Triangle P’Q’R’ is the image of
triangle PQR under an enlargement
with centre C and scale factor (k) = 2
Q R’ Scale factor,k can be calculate by
P’ length of side of mage
k = length of side of object
P R P' R'
k = PQ

C● 4
= 2
2
Area under enlargement
For any enlargement with scale factor k.
Area of image = k2 × area of object

Transformation I,II 11
To determine the centre of enlargement Exersice
and the scale factor 1.
Example: i) Mark the centre of enlargement y
ii) State the factor scale of
enlargment 4

2
A’
x
-4 -2 A 0 2 4
C

-2
A

-4

Answer :

Answer i)
i) scale factor : 2

2. 3.
B
B’
R’ C
A
A’ C’
R
D’

i) Scale factor : i) Scale factor :

6. 5.

B’ M’

Transformation I,II 12 M
Scale factor : Scale factor :

To draw an image under enlargement Exersice


Draw and label an image under the following 1
enlargement 1. Centre (2,2) and scale factor .
2
Example : centre (7,2) and scale factor 2
y

6
C’
6
4
4 C
2
2
A’ A B’ B
0 2 4 6 x
0 2 4 6 7 x
1
2. Centre (2,4) and scale factor 3. Centre (4,4) and scale factor 2
2
y y

R 6
6

4 S
4

2 2

x 0 2 4 6 x
0 2 4 6

4 Centre (1,3) and scale factor 3 5 Centre (0,0) and scale factor 2
y y

6 6

4 4
P Q
2 2

x 0 2 4 6 x
Transformation I,II 13
0 2 4 6

Transformation I,II 14