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Rural Skill Development

& Trade Specialization Centre

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


RURAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT

& TRADE SPECIALIZATION CENTRE


A DESIGN DISSERTATION PRESENTED BY

RUCHITA SAMEL

SUBMITTED TO

ASMITA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE,

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

PROF. MAKARAND

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT:

RUCHITA RAJESH SAMEL

A FINAL YEAR BONAFIDE STUDENT OF

ASMITA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE

HAS COMPLETED TO MY SATISFACTION HER

DESIGN DISSERTATION ENTITLED:

RURAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT

& TRADE SPECIALIZATION CENTRE

UNDER MY GUIDANCE AND SUPERVISION.

(SIGNATURE)

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


ABSTRACT

INTENT

TO CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS SKILL INDIA MISSION IN ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT


& BRING ABOUT RURAL HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT

WHY

INDIA IS YOUTH DOMINATED POPULATION & HAS LOT OF POTENTIAL GIVEN


THE SUPPORT OF EMPLOYMENT INTESIVE TRAINING TO THE YOUTH

CONCEPT

EVOLVE A NEW DEFINITION FOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTION ENGAGED


IN INDUSTRY DEMAND BASED TRAINING & AIDE IN DEVELOPMENT OF
SUSTAINABLE VILLAGES

HOW

INCORPORATING SKILLING PROGRAMS BY BANKING UPON THE OPPORTUNITIES


BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE LOCALITY AND NATURAL RESOURCES

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


INDEX

CONTENT

01. COVER
02. DESCRIPTION
03. CERTIFICATE
04. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
05. ABSTRACT
06. LIST OF ACRONYMNS, ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS
07. INDEX
08. INTRODUCTION
09. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH
10. METHODOLOGY
11. BACKGROUND STUDY
12. JUSTIFCATION IN ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT
13. GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES & SCHEMES
14. LITERATURE STUDY
15. TECHNICAL DATA
16. CASE STUDIES
01. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING INSTITUTE
02. NATIVE KONBAC CENTRE
03. SKILL DEVELOPMENT CENTRE
17. INFERENCES
18. AREA ANALYSIS
19. DESIGN BRIEF
20. SITE SELECTION
21. SITE ANALYSIS
22. DESIGN
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


List of Abbreviations / Acronyms

AICTE – All India Council for Technical Education (Regulatory body)

Cr – Crore

Deptt. – Department

DGET – Directorate General of Employment & Training

DVET – Directorate of Vocational Education & Training

e.g. – Example

FDI – Foreign Direct Investment

GDDP – Gross District Domestic Product

GDP – Gross Domestic Product

GSDP – Gross State Domestic Product

ha – Hectares

HDI – Human Development Index

HDI – Human Development Index

HHI – Household Industry

HR – Human Resources

HRD – Human Resource Development

IMaCS – ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited

IT – Information Technology

ITC – Industrial Training Centre

ITES – IT Enabled Services

ITI – Industrial Training Institute

MES – Modular Employment Scheme

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


MHRD – Ministry of Human Resource Development

MSDE – Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

MW – Megawatt

NGO – Non-Governmental Organization

NH – National Highway

No. – Number

NSDC – National Skill Development Corporation

NSSO – National Sample Survey Organization

PPP – Public-Private Partnership

R & D – Research and Development

SDC – Skill Development Centre

SEZ – Special Economic Zone

Sq. ft. – Square Feet

Sq. m. – Square Meter

Sq. km. – Square Kilometre

SSC – Sector Skill Council

SWOT – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

TSC – Trade Specialization Centre

UNISDR – United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
India is developing at a great pace. India brings out the greatest talents in now almost every
field. Consequentially, it is necessary to keep up the pace by improving the mediums of
education which will bring out the best capacities in our working class. India is now one of the
youngest nations of the world and we need to capitalize on this aspect and train them to
become skilled individuals to absorb the new opportunities and increasing demand. Our
hon’ble Prime minister Narendra Modi came up with fresh approach of Skill India to give a
large scale impetus to training individuals in sectors of great dividends. With a total outlay of
about INR 1,500 crore, this ambitious scheme is likely to impart skills training to training about
15 million persons annually of the country. India’s unemployment rate averaged about 4.9
percent by early 2014. This scheme should bring that number down by a reasonable measure.

What is a Skill Development centre?

A skill development centre is an educational


institution for training individuals in skills that will
render them efficient to perform particular jobs
intended for. Unlike degree courses, they are meant
for quick skilling of individuals for them to get
themselves absorbed by industries and other sectors. This kind of institution has been in
existence from long. They are called various names in accordance with the kind of courses
such institutions undertake or specific undertaking by industries themselves such as
Vocational Training, Industrial Training, Technical Education, etc. A trade specialization centre
is basically when upgradation of skills in particular jobs are required. Such skill development
centres have been established at various locations all over India from long, and more to be
expected. These courses are especially beneficial for youth with financial limitations and
looking for quick earning opportunities. A skill development centre offers a wide range of
employment generating skills which are otherwise overlooked in mainstream educational
institutions.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Skill Development : Need of the hour

India has tremendous potential to become a super-power in the next few decades. India is
one of the youngest nations in the world with more than 62% of its population in the
working age group (15-59 years). India’s population pyramid is expected to “bulge” across
the 15–59 age group over the next decade. As India moves progressively towards becoming
a global knowledge economy, it must meet the rising aspirations of its youth. This can be
partially achieved through focus on advancement of skills that are relevant to the emerging
economic environment. The challenge pertains not only to a huge quantitative expansion of
the facilities for skill training, but also to the equally important task of raising their quality.
Architects have a very important role to play in shaping the nation.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Our country presently faces a dual challenge of paucity of highly trained workforce, as well
as non-employability of large sections of the conventionally educated youth, who possess
little or no job skills. As India moves progressively towards becoming a global knowledge
economy, it must meet the rising aspirations of its youth. This can be partially achieved
through focus on advancement of skills that are relevant to the emerging economic
environment.

Rural sector: an Unexploited Potential

Rural areas or the ‘villages’ have


been primarily associated with
agriculture as their chief source of
livelihood. However, the scenario is
changing with rising literacy rates in
rural areas. 69 % of the total
population of India is living in rural
areas. People living in rural areas are now seeking new opportunities and skills that are
currently lacking in many regions. In order to eradicate the compulsion of migrating for
better opportunities to urban areas, it is necessary to build capacities in villages.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Role of skill development centre

Such institutions should be empowered to compete with mainstream degree course


institutions. Architectural spaces should be sensitively designed taking into consideration
the kind of courses intended. A regular classroom design is no longer applicable for higher
educational institutions. In today’s times, the technology and equipment have become so
advanced that architectural advancement should be as fast paced as it. Also, trends and
demands change in such quick fashions, that Flexibility becomes of prime importance. The
architectural vocabulary should bring about a fresh perspective in how education is being
imparted. The skill development centre shall not be just focussed on individual capacities
but has a more important role to play as in Community Capacity building.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Chapter 2: OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH

2.1 Architectural Significance of the project

 Understanding the current scenario and demands, this thesis intends to serve as an
exemplary institution in its design approach and ambitions. It shall explore in depth
the site contextual opportunities according to which an institution with appropriate
well thought spaces shall be proposed.
 The proposed training institute is intended to be an ideal conception of the
ambitious dream of ‘Skill India’ campaign of the Government of India. It shall
embody the spirit of nation of the youth.

 Architecture has a really important role to play in nurturing Rural India and preserve
the sanctity and the culture. The project intends to embody the co-operative spirit
between the villagers, the Government and the Industry.

 Education and Training mediums should be encouraged to become more interactive


and industry-oriented using Architectural devices. Innovation & Sustainability shall
be of prime importance to this project in all its aspects such as Architectural
execution as well as Actual Operation.

2.2 Architectural challenges

One of the major challenges in the country today is public perception on skilling, which is
viewed as the last option meant for those who have not been able to progress/opted out of
the formal academic system. A number of factors are responsible for this state of affairs:

 Social and traditional view that sees status as being inversely proportional to the
degree to which one works with one’s hands. This can also be attributed to primeval
and archaic ethos which compartmentalized the skilling landscape for several
hundred years. This unfortunate legacy gets at times manifested in norms, attitudes
and societal behaviour. But when a more global platform is given to skilled
individuals, accompanied with greater economic dividends, this mindset will change
gradually.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


 The proclivity of large sections of industry especially in the micro, small and medium
sectors to treat skilled and unskilled persons at par, thereby depriving skilling of any
meaningful economic incentive. An institution specifically designed for skilling with
good facilities, requirement responsive architecture & industry-interaction would
definitely help in improvement of perception of employers towards skilled
individuals.
 Most of the vocational training programmes are not aligned to the requirements of
the industry. As a result of the above, a piquant situation exists in the country
wherein unemployment continues to co-exist with lack of requisite number of skilled
people at functional level to build roads and bridges, lay pipelines, work in factories,
engage in offshore drilling, build ships etc. There is a need to analyse the skill gap for
the particular site & design for courses which are high demand trades.
 It is observed that on an average, of all the students that pass out from an ITI in each
year, only about 40 per cent find jobs in the market due to the less number of
opportunities present within the district. There is a need to identify employment
opportunities that are/can be conducted in the region & developed so as to give good
economic dividends to the individuals.
 Achieving a very efficient cost-efficient architectural design in consideration with the
stakeholders and a built form that manages to embrace the Vernacular Architecture
appreciating the essence of the locality.
 Addressing the issues of flexibility and adaptability and an energy conscious design.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


2.3 Aim
To evolve a site specific & high demand skills training institute to establish rural youth &
workforce at large in consideration with youth ambitions and designing a benchmark all-
inclusive Skill Development as well as Trade Specialization Centre which will not only
establish the educated mass high skilled jobs but also up-skill the existing workforce to
match up to the fast development pace of our country, empower the rural community and
a platform for interaction with industries for greater exposure of their talents in diversified
skills.

2.4 Objectives

Major objectives

1. To identify employment opportunities and ideas that are practical, sufficing in terms
of income generation ability, in context to the site and youth aspirations via means
of collected data.
2. To understand the requirements for the various training activities and how they can
be made flexible to suit ever changing operation methods and industrial influence.
3. To achieve interaction between the various stakeholders for the benefit of the target
community by means of this institution.
4. To make conscious effort towards preservation of the environment and resources
and inculcate high sensitivity in architecture towards the village eco system and
culture.
5. To enrich and engage community, industry and tourist interaction in a progressive
and positive approach.

Minor objectives

1. To additionally serve as a community harbour for various social causes and


workshops, discussions and meetings, festivities and celebrations, etc.
2. To help towards giving a boost of employment & development in neglected rural
areas.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Advanced objectives

1. Education has become a primary necessity to sustain in present times. Rural areas
have limited scope in pursuing higher education and also quality education. Rural
India being the backbone of our country, the first step to becoming a self-sustaining
village is equipping it with skill education rather than theoretical and reinventing old
practices in the present context. It will serve as a role model for other villages to
follow by ensuring eradication of poverty, unemployment and shortages in
resources. A self-sustaining village automatically benefits a considerable region
around it and the load on cities for plain essentials like education and employment
shall be considerably reduced.
2. To study the scope of Green Jobs. India needs a structured awareness and
communications programme not only on green jobs or green skills but a programme
which also builds capacity on ways to dovetail emerging climate change issues with
changing business processes or industry demands and Vocation education. Green
jobs have implications across sectors and are not limited to the familiar renewable
energy and energy efficiency sectors. Different shades of green jobs are manifested
in infrastructure development and construction, power, transportation, travel and
tourism agriculture and forestry.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


2.5 Scope of topic

01. Emphasizing on the role of Architects for design of a Skill Training institution with the
equal amount of sensitivity towards curriculum requirements and interactive
environment as compared with mainstream Higher education institutions.
02. Formulating an outline of curriculum to be conducted in the Centre based on Findings of
High Demand sectors for the region under reference which are sustainable activities and
provide good economic returns.
03. Understanding Spatial implications for Diversified Skill Training & role of Architecture in
the Design of a Skill Development Centre.
04. Studying & Experiencing the working of Skill Development Centres and bringing
architectural intervention to the problems.
05. Finding the best solution in terms of site and context responsive architecture.
06. Deriving a contemporary interpretation of Vernacular architectural styles and materials
of the region.
07. Creating suitable conditions for community interactive growth and Allowing the
architecture to evolve with the technologies and fast developmental pace.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY
UNDERSTANDING THE NEED
FOR SKILLING

DEMAND SUPPLY ANALYSIS

DETERMINING CONTEXT

REINFORCING VALITDITY

IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL REGION

EXAMINING OPPORTUNITIES
OFFERED

DEFINING SCOPE
FOR THE CENTRE

CONDUCTING CASE STUDIES

FINALIZING
DESIGN PROGRAMME

SITE SELECTION BASED


ON INFERENCES

SITE ANALYSIS

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Chapter 4: BACKGROUND STUDY
Capacity Building: empowering the nation

Community capacity building (CCB), also referred to as capacity development, is a


conceptual approach to social or personal development that focuses on understanding the
obstacles that inhibit people, governments, international organizations and non-
governmental organizations from realizing their development goals while enhancing the
abilities that will allow them to achieve measurable and sustainable results.

Capacity building often refers to strengthening the skills, competencies and abilities of
people and communities in developing societies so they can overcome the causes of their
exclusion and suffering.

The UNISDR defines capacity development as "the process by which people, organizations
and society systematically stimulate and develop their capability over time to achieve social
and economic goals, including through improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and
institutions - within a wider social and cultural enabling environment." It is an approach to
development based on the fundamental concept that all people have an equal share of the
world's resources and they have the right to be authors of their own development and
denial of such right is at the heart of poverty and suffering. the activities, approaches,
strategies, and methodologies which help organizations, groups and individuals to improve
their performance, generate development benefits and achieve their objectives.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Capacity building involves:

 Human resource development, the process of equipping individuals with the


understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that enables
them to perform effectively.
 Organizational development, the elaboration of management structures, processes
and procedures, not only within organizations but also the management of
relationships between the different organizations and sectors (public, private and
community).
 Institutional and legal framework development, making legal and regulatory
changes to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in all
sectors to enhance their capacities.

Human Capacity building intends to expand the range of people’s choices. The poor are
poor because their set of capabilities is small—not because of what they don’t have, but
because of what they can’t do. Well-being is possible by things people can do rather than
things people have. If their set of capabilities grows larger, people can do more of the things
they would like to do.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Need for Capacity Building

The issue of capacity is critical and the scale of need is enormous, but appreciation of the
problem is low. The link between demand and supply is weak. There is a lack of realistic
funding. There is need for support for change. Training institutions are isolated -
communications are poor. Development of teaching materials is inefficient. Alternative
ways of capacity building are not adequately recognized.

The human development paradigm introduced in the early 1990s sought to shift focus from
national income as the only indicator of development to expanding the choices people have.
The aim, therefore, was to put people at the centre of the development process. The
concept of human development, pioneered by Mahbub ul Haq, and building on the work of
Amartya Sen on the capabilities
approach, was introduced by the
United Nations Development
Programme in 1990 in the first
global Human Development
Report (HDR).

In India, this coincided with a period of economic reform and liberalization of the economy.
Amidst rapid growth and rising inequalities, a need was felt to reinforce the idea that people
matter, and India welcomed the concept of human development. This was reflected in the
8th National Five-Year Plan, formulated in 1992, which stated that “human development
was the ultimate goal of all planning.”

The Government of India and state governments have mainstreamed human development
into planning, implementation and monitoring processes, including capacity development.
Human development-oriented policymaking has been successfully supported through
courses in training institutes nationally and at the state level. Private sector companies have
also engaged with the human development approach to assess the human development
impact of their business practices.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Current scenario of Educational system in India & Skill Development

The conventional educational system suggests a degree course as Higher education means,
and Vocational Training has been looked down upon.

Figure 01: Structure of Educational system in India & Skill Development

Source: Human Resource and Skill Requirements in the Education and Skill Development
Services Sector

There have been number of training institutes established at


various locations since the 1950s under the Directorate of
Vocational education and training (DVET) known as the
Industrial Training Institute (ITI) as well as affiliated
institutions, private undertakings, NGOs which offer a range of
employment intensive courses with the intention of quick
placement of students in various job opportunities with the
acquired skills. However, the education and skills provided
must be relevant to the labour market. Acquiring skills is
essential, provided those skills are not out-dated or do not
meet industry requirements. Employers experienced problems finding employees with the
right skills. In most cases, the shortages were in trades that were supplied by the ITIs/ITCs –
implying that their graduates did not suit employers’ needs. Most employers felt that ITI
graduates did not perform well enough in the use of computers, practical use of machines,
communications and team work practices. Employers also felt that graduates lack practical
knowledge and need significant on-the-job training to bring their skill levels to match the
needs of the industry.it has been observed that as much as these courses should be
practical approach based, they are not, and so also the design of the institution has not

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


been done with a serious approach. The architectural spatial requirements and
infrastructure required for intensive practical skill training are neglected.
In 2014, Central Government formed a separate
Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship
(MSDE) to converge multiple efforts in the skills space.
The National Policy for Skill Development and
Entrepreneurship, 2015 has the primary objective to
meet the challenge of skill development at scale with speed, standard (quality) and
sustainability. It aims to provide an umbrella framework to all skill development activities
being carried out within the country, to align them to common standards and link skill
development with demand centres. In addition to laying down the objectives and expected
outcomes, the policy also identifies the overall institutional framework which shall act as a
vehicle to reach the expected outcomes.
In these lines, the ministry has taken up several measures to bring coherence in skill
development through introduction of common norms, placing emphasis on demand-driven
training. Policy measures are being introduced to revamp the Technical Vocational
Educational Training (TVET) track in education to make both horizontal and vertical mobility
possible and bring equivalence in ‘general’ and ‘vocational’ certification at all levels through
NSQF.
The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC),
under the Ministry of Skill Development &
Entrepreneurship, is a one of its kind, Public Private
Partnership in India. NSDC aims to promote skill
development by catalyzing creation of large, quality, for-profit vocational institutions.
Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) intend to establish visible and
aspirational training centres in every district of the country.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Chapter 5: JUSTIFICATION IN ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT

5.1 Projected Demographic Dividend

Today, India is one of the


youngest nations in the world
with more than 62% of its
population in the working age
group (15-59 years), and
more than 54% of its total
population below 25 years of age. Its population pyramid is expected to bulge across the 15-
59 age group over the next decade. It is further estimated that the average age of the
population in India by 2020 will be 29 years as against 40 years in USA, 46 years in Europe and
47 years in Japan. In fact, during the next 20 years the labour force in the industrialized world
is expected to decline by 4%, while in India it will increase by 32%. This poses a formidable
challenge and a huge opportunity. To reap this demographic dividend which is expected to
last for next 25 years, India needs to equip its workforce with employable skills and knowledge
so that they can contribute substantively to the economic growth of the country.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


India has been urbanizing faster, like most countries in Asia and Africa, and its urban
population is likely to grow from 410 million in 2014 to 814 million in 2050 with 50 per cent
living in urban areas. However, paradoxically, India will also be a country with the largest rural
population of about 805 million by 2050. So, while urbanization will be faster, the rural
segment will continue to be substantial for many more decades beyond the middle of the
twenty first century when India is likely to achieve population stabilization.

The dream of India becoming a super power aligned with countries such as the US, and
neighbouring China, can be transformed to reality only with proper utilization of its resources.
Human resource is the best resources of any nation and for India; our rural populace can
become the driving factor for development and industrialisation. Time has arrived to hone
this asset and utilise it for the best.

Table 01: Demographics of Rural-Urban population in India over the years

Source: India in Figures 2015, Government of India, Ministry of Statistics and Programme
Implementation

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5.2 Present scenario: Unemployment of the educated

Source: The Hindu, based on Census 2011

These statistics from 2011 Census indicate that if you are illiterate and don't have a degree,
you are more likely to get a job in India. This can be attributed to the following causes:

1. Defective education system: The main cause of this large-scale unemployment among
the educated youth in India is our defective system of education. India is an
agricultural country, about 70% of the people of India live in villages and their main
source of livelihood is cultivation. It is observed that, a cultivator’s son, after receiving
University degree, does not want to follow his father’s profession. He would prefer to
rot in cities and towns, in search of clerical employment. This has made our country’s
unemployment problem more acute and far more distressing. It is a pity that our
system of University education does not cater to the need of these students i.e. those
who belong to agriculturist profession. They should be imparted particular kind of
skills, whereby they can establish themselves in the rural sector & also get good
economic returns.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


2. Lack of Industrial and Technical Training: Lack of industrial and technical training is
also one of the major causes, contributing to the mass- unemployment among the
educated young men in India. There are a very few technical and engineering
institutions in the country, and, secondly, technical education is so costly that
common people cannot afford to get their wards admitted in these institutions.

No doubt, with the operation of our ‘Five-Year Plans’ there is a substantial need of
technically-trained young men. But it must be noted that these newly sprung-up
industries cannot offer employment to non-technically educated youth. And
technically-trained young men are very few in the country and we have to get foreign
technicians imported to run these industries.

3. Lack of Network of Cottage Industries: India is a large and predominantly agricultural


country. Her economic lot is connected with the economic well-being of her village
dwellers. Our country needs above everything else, a network of cottage industries
which can absorb our millions of unemployed educated youth.
4. Mentality: Our educated young men are suffering from a strange malady. They are
scrambling head-way after the glitter of working in urban offices; they do not want to
settle in villages. They, especially after receiving education in cities and towns, prefer
to starve in cities to settling down in their villages to have their own start-ups or
enagage in cottage industries. This mentality of our educated young men must be
changed. They should be made to believe that there is no loss of dignity on their part,
if they do manual work, honestly and sincerely. ‘Every labour has its own vanity’.

Our youth must make it a principle that they should not run after the outwardly shine of urban
life, rather they should settle in villages, thereby contributing their quota of services in the
build-up of our villages. To encourage this, Government should enable mechanisms that
democratize access to information, quality training and funds, thereby removing barriers to
workforce participation, these mechanisms include intensive support to assist the
disadvantaged into work. Youth are therefore empowered to make informed choices about
future work and livelihood.

There is a need for a sensitized approach to address special needs of regions and
communities of workforce development for sustainable development of the region;

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


supporting a model that effectively mobilizes industry partners to go beyond usual
practices, to take ownership and drive skill outcomes in the interests of both industry and
the region.
Source: Causes of Educated Unemployment in India, www.importantindia.com, On November
14, 2014 By Ajit Sen

Conclusion: There is a tremendous supply of prospective labour force in our country. What
the country needs is Skill Development institution designed with the purpose of building
capacities and empowering Rural economy. This establishes the justification for need of a
skilling institution in Rural Sector.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


5.3 Projected Sector-wise Incremental Skilled Human Resource Requirement

Talking about the Demand side of Industry, a skill gap study has been conducted by NSDC
over 2010-2014, which indicates that there is an additional net incremental requirement of
109.73 million skilled manpower by 2022 in twenty-four key sectors.

The country, however, has a big


challenge ahead as it is estimated
that only 4.69% of the total
workforce in India has undergone
formal skill training as compared
to 68% in UK, 75% in Germany, 52% in USA, 80% in Japan and 96% in South Korea. While the
debate on the exact quantum of the challenge continues, there is no disputing the fact there
is indeed a demand generated of a formidable proportion.

On supply side, analysis based on results of 66th and 68th round of NSSO it is observed that
today the total workforce in the country is estimated at 487 million, of which approximately
57% is in the non-farm sector. Of these 256.72 million non-farm workers, a maximum of
5.4% would be formally trained and skilled. Approximately 241.86 million would either be
unskilled or skilled through non formal channels. This workforce will need to be mapped
through recognition of existing skills and then provided with necessary skilling, reskilling and
upskilling to increase productivity and provide a livelihood pathway.

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Following is a skill gap study conducted by NSDC over 2010-2014 indicating the additional
net incremental requirement of skilled manpower by 2022 in twenty-four key sectors.
Table 02: Break up of Incremental Requirement Across Sectors

Source: National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015

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5.4 Projected State-wise Incremental Skilled Human Resource Requirement

Figure 02: State-wise Incremental Skill Man power requirement for the years 2012-22

Source: National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015

The statistics suggest that Maharashtra state has the highest Skilled man power requirement.
Maharashtra state has always been the pacesetter for Indian progress. In this case also, it
becomes the indisputable choice to begin with the new phase in the process of Skill
Development of this nation.

RUCHITA SAMEL DESIGN DISSERTATION


Chapter 6: GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES AND SCHEMES
Poverty is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, but with 75 per cent of the world’s poor living
in rural areas and given that the agricultural sector employs 40 per cent of developing
countries’ workers and contributes over 20 per cent of their GDP, there is convincing
evidence as to why examining this sector is a good starting point for finding solutions to
poverty.

5.1 NREGA:

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural


Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is
the flagship welfare programme of the
UPA government in India. One of its main
objectives is a significant reduction in
labour migration through the provision of
locally available work in rural areas.

However, in spite of some successes, the


programme did not do well in its impact as
expected. NREGA’s limited impact partly
stems from a misconception of labour
migration – as a poverty ‘problem’ and as
merely a product of ‘push-and-pull’
economic factors. It assumes that farming
is what ‘the poor’ really want, establishing poverty as chiefly a rural problem to be tackled
by rural development. Labour mobility is not driven solely by economic considerations,
there are two sets of reasons why people still prefer to migrate; namely social factors and
evolving perceptions of modernity. The poor people too have aspirations, which are not
restricted to survival matters. NREGA has benefitted those with little or no access to positive
migration opportunities, but is unlikely to succeed in curbing labour mobility significantly. It
may be a good way to curb distress migration.

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Skill India Mission:

In 2014, Central Government formed a separate Ministry of Skill Development &


Entrepreneurship (MSDE) to converge multiple efforts in the skills space. The National
Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015 has the primary objective to meet
the challenge of skill development at scale with speed, standard (quality) and sustainability.

The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), under MSDE, is a one of its kind,
Public Private Partnership in India. NSDC aims to promote skill development by catalyzing
creation of large, quality, for-profit vocational institutions.
MSDE intends to establish visible and aspirational training centres in every district of the
country. These training centres will be state of the art Model Training Centres (MTCs), called
as Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra.

These model training centres envisage to:


 Create benchmark institutions that demonstrate aspirational value for competency
based skill development training
 Focus on elements of quality, sustainability and connect with stakeholders in skills
delivery process
 Transform from a mandate driven footloose model to a sustainable institutional
model
The primary objective of this policy is to meet the challenge of skilling at scale with
speed, standard (quality) and sustainability. It aims to provide an umbrella framework to
all skilling activities being carried out within the country, to align them to common
standards and link skilling with demand centres. In addition to laying down the

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objectives and expected outcomes, the policy also identifies the overall institutional
framework which will act as a vehicle to reach the expected outcomes. Skills
development is the shared responsibility of the key stakeholders viz. Government, the
entire spectrum of corporate sector, community based organizations, those outstanding,
highly qualified and dedicated individuals who have been working in the skilling and
entrepreneurship space for many years, industry and trade organisations and other
stakeholders. The policy links skills development to improved employability and
productivity in paving the way forward for inclusive growth in the country.

SKILL INDIA & MAKE IN INDIA

Make in India and Skill India are complementary to each other. The key objective of Make in
India is to promote manufacturing in 25 sectors of the economy, which will lead to job
creation and consequently need for skilled manpower. Some of these sectors include IT,
Pharmaceuticals, textiles, Ports, Leather, Tourism and Hospitality, Wellness, Railways,
design manufacturing, Renewable energy, Bio-technology, and electronics.
Correspondingly, Skill India aims at preparing a highly skilled workforce which is completely
aligned to the requirements of industry so as to promote growth through improved
productivity.

Skilling efforts will be completely aligned with the requirements of 25 key identified sectors
of Make in India. States will also be encouraged to align their skilling efforts with upcoming
industrial activities in the State.

Make in India could be leveraged to increase industry participation in skills. All new
industrial/development clusters will be mandated to set up quality training institutes in the
area to take care of skilling needs of the region.

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Chapter 7: LITERATURE STUDY
Maharashtra is situated in the western and
central parts of India and has a long coastline
stretching about 720 km along the Arabian Sea.

It is the second largest State in India both in terms


of population (9.3 per cent) and geographical area
(9.3 per cent). It is better urbanised with 45 per
cent people residing in urban areas, as compared
to the India average of 31.2 per cent. It is
bifurcated into six revenue divisions’ viz. Konkan,
Pune, Nashik, Aurangabad, Amravati and Nagpur
for administrative purposes.

Figure 03: Region wise population concentration of Maharashtra, as of 2011

Source: Census 2011, IMaCS Analysis

As mentioned earlier, Maharashtra makes second largest contribution to India’s population –


thus becoming a large contributor to the India’s demographic dividend. As of Census 2011,

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Maharashtra has a population of 11.23 crore persons. Of this, 59 per cent of the population
is in working-age group, while only 45 per cent is in the labour force.

The State Government has worked on building a good education infrastructure in the State
over the last few years to ensure availability of qualified and skilled manpower in the State.
Presently, the State has 19 universities, 3,277 general colleges, 1,004 engineering colleges,
508 MBA colleges and many other educational institutions for higher studies in different
streams. At school level, the State has 75,695 primary schools and 21,357 secondary and
higher secondary schools.

Maharashtra’s focus on skill development

Maharashtra Government is proactively following the skill development agenda in the State.
It has planned to equip 4.5 crore people with employable skills by 2022 as a part of the overall
plan of the Government of India. To achieve this objective, the Chief Minister of the State has
constituted the State Apex Council for Skill Development. An Executive Committee for Skill
Development has been constituted under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary. The Skill
Development Executive Committees have been formed at the regional and district levels as
well.

The State Government has established Sectoral Skill Development Committees with industry
participation for the following 11 sectors:

1. Construction
2. Production and Manufacturing
3. Textiles
4. Automobile
5. Hospitality
6. Healthcare
7. Banking, Finance & Insurance
8. Retail
9. Pharmaceuticals & Chemicals
10. IT & ITES
11. Agro Processing

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MAHARASHTRA: ECONOMY
Agriculture and allied activities
As of 2011-12, agriculture and allied activities
make a 13 per cent contribution to
Maharashtra’s GSDP. However, the sector’s
contribution to total employment in the State
is around 52 per cent (as cultivators or
agricultural labourers). Thus, despite a small
contribution to the GSDP, agriculture and
allied sector continues to remain a significant sector for the economy.
Some of the key facts about the sector are:
Area: Maharashtra has a total gross cropped area (GCA) of 23,175 thousand hectares, which
is 73 per cent of the total State area, as compared to 59 per cent for India average.
However, gross irrigated area is only 17.8 per cent as compared to 45 per cent for India
average, showing very high dependence on rainfall.

Fishery: Fishery is an important source of income for the people. It generates employment,
especially in the coastal areas (720 km coastal line).

MAHARASHTRA: INFRASTRUCTURE
 Water scarcity: The State has been facing shortages in rainfall, which has been
leading to decline in growth of agriculture sector especially. During 2012, overall
food production in the State is estimated to decline by 18 per cent as compared to
2011 (as per Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2012-13). Even forestry and fishery
sectors have been estimated to have negative growth during the year. Water scarcity
is reported as an issue faced by the industry as well.

 Inadequate infrastructure development: Based on surveys, it is found that interiors


of many districts (especially tribal districts) do not have good all-weather roads, civic
amenities, and sewage drainage in addition to having erratic power supply. Bad road
connectivity especially hinders the movement of youth from interiors to cities where
quality educational infrastructure is located.

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MAHARASHTRA : SKILL DEMAND-SUPPLY GAP
It is estimated that between 2012 and 2022, Maharashtra is likely to have an incremental
demand for 1.55 crore persons and incremental supply (consisting of locals only) of 1.06
crore persons. This leads to a shortage of supply at 0.49 crore persons. The shortage is most
acute at the skilled level, while there is a small surplus at the minimally skilled level.

Figure 04: Demand-supply gap in Maharashtra, 2012 to 2022 (accounting for local labour
force only)

Source: IMaCS Analysis

Looking at supply at different skill levels, we see that most of the supply is likely to be
concentrated at the minimally skilled level, while most demand is for semi-skilled and above.
Thus, there is a need for up-skilling of the workforce, so that the demand supply mismatch
at higher skill levels is met. Once the minimally skilled people are provided with adequate
skills, a big part of the excess supply at the lowest level will be absorbed at the upper skill
levels.

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Given below are sectors identified as High demand that can be conducted in the state of
Maharashtra. This shall reflect in the prioritization of sectors in the Skill Development
Centre.

Figure 05: Sector-wise High demand trades identified

Source: National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015

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Figure 06: Youth aspirations – common themes across districts

Source: District wise skill gap study for the State of Maharashtra, NSDC

Common themes on youth aspirations across districts:

 Preferred sectors: Youth aspire to be in service sector jobs (preferably white collar).
These include sectors such as organized retail, IT&ITES, tourism and hospitality. Some
of the industrial jobs are also preferred in sectors such as auto and auto components,
and food processing. However, the jobs preferred in industrial sectors are white collar
in nature. There is less inclination to work in blue collar jobs. Jobs requiring hard
manual work (such as building and construction) are a necessity and not a choice.
 Preferred skills: Some of the basic skills which are considered as a necessity by most
youth are English speaking, communication and soft skills and basic IT skills. These
skills are considered a necessity irrespective of the sector of work. Youth with a
preference for self-employment are also interested in learning entrepreneurship skills.
 Preferred jobs: Most youth have Government jobs as their first priority. This is
followed by jobs with renowned multi-national companies (MNCs). Traditional and
unorganized sectors such as handloom and handicrafts etc. and agriculture are

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considered as un-remunerative sectors and youth do not prefer to work on those.
Also, jobs are preferred over self-employment.
 Preferred locations: First preference for youth in Maharashtra is Mumbai. After
Mumbai, other cities which are preferred for work in Maharashtra include Pune,
Nashik, Nagpur and Aurangabad. Thus, there is high rate of migration for jobs.
Migration is prominent not only for jobs, but for education as well, as the educational
institutions in these cities are considered to be of better quality as compared to those
located elsewhere.

The design programme for Skill Development & Trade Specialization Centre has to be in
consideration with both:

1. Market Demand for various sectors


2. Region-wise demand
3. Youth aspirations

The three-fold skilling challenge that needs to be addressed is depicted in the figure below.

Figure 07: Three-fold skill challenge

Source: District wise skill gap study for the state of Maharashtra, NSDC

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The first challenge is to provide skills to the new entrants to the workforce. For this, the
educational institutions need to be up-graded and new institutions need to be created.
Secondly, up-skilling of the existing workforce needs to be done for providing them higher
order skills. This is especially true for sectors such as agriculture and allied, handloom,
handicraft, etc. One of the reasons for the decline of these sectors is the outdated skills.
Modern and sophisticated skills need to be provided to the workforce to make these sectors
sustainable. Thirdly, there is the challenge of recognising the informal on-the-job training of
the existing workforce. This is more crucial for the workers in the informal sectors who gain
mastery in skills by working on-the-job over many years. However, their skills currently go
unrecognised. There is a need to devise a mechanism where their skills are recognised and
even certified, to make these people a part of the recognised skilled workforce.

Figure 08: Roles envisaged for the stakeholders

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Figure 09: District wise, sector wise skilling opportunities

Source: District wise skill gap study for the State of Maharashtra, NSDC

SINDHUDURG

Sindhudurg district lies in the Konkan


region. The district spans an area of 5,207
square kilometers and has eight talukas. It
is bordered on the north by Ratnagiri
District, on the South by the state of Goa,
on the west by the Arabian Sea, and to the
east across the crest of the Western Ghats
or Sahyadhris is Kolhapur district.

The district is pre-dominantly rural with about 87 per cent of the population living in rural
areas. Agriculture and allied activities are also the main occupation of the people, employing
about 83 per cent of the labour force (as of Census 2001). The remaining is in household
industry (two per cent) and other workers are at 15 per cent.

The district is blessed with abundant natural beauty with picturesque spots and azure
beaches which translates into tourism potential.

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In addition to tourism, the district also has potential for fisheries based processing and food
processing industries based on mangoes and cashew. Coir based industries also hold potential
in Sindhudurg due to availability of coconut. However, all of these sectors are still in a very
nascent stage and need further development.

Table 03: Comparison of Sindhudurg district with Maharashtra – key indicators

Source: Census 2001, Census 2011

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SINDHUDURG: TOURISM

Sindhudurg district is blessed with natural beauty due to the


Sahyadhri ranges and the beaches. Added to these natural
landmarks are several forts and places of worship created by
the erstwhile rulers. Several spots like the Sindhudurg fort,
Kunkeshewar temple, Tarkali beach, etc. are virgin locations
which carry immense potential to be developed as tourism circuits. With the nearby location
of Goa becoming extremely commercial as a tourism destination, Sindhudurg has the
potential to exploit the natural beauty to tap into the tourist market that looks for experiential
tourism. Thus, capacity building has to be explored where the human resource needs to be
trained to take this potential forward.

The Western Ghats are given UNESCO World Heritage status. Sindhudurg has the highest
green cover in Maharashtra and was declared the country's first ecotourism district in 1997.
The district has been declared as ‘Tourism District’ and ‘Eco sensitive District’.

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Figure 218: SWOT Analysis of Sindhudurg district

Source: District wise skill gap study for the state of Maharashtra, NSDC
Youth aspirations in Sindhudurg
 Willingness to pursue higher education: Majority of the students want to pursue
higher education, with lateral entry into technical institutes. The students who do
not want to pursue education feel so mainly due to the economic pressures.

 Migration trends: The youth aspiration here is a misnomer, in the sense, though
Sindhudurg does not have great many industries to provide opportunities but the
majority of the skilled youth do not want to migrate to Goa or Mumbai and want to
stay in Sindhudurg only.

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 Soft skills: Most of the students appreciate the importance of soft skills and
personality development and hence seek enhanced importance in the curricula for
the same.
Figure 220: Demand supply gap of human resources in Sindhudurg – by skill level

Source: IMaCS Analysis

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Introduction of ‘Trade Specialisation Centres’ (TSCs):

The objective of Trade Specialization Centre is to create hubs around key centres of
demand for particular trade and enable the students to work on latest
machinery/equipment at the identified centres.

Table 13: Proposed sectors and locations for setting up Trade Specialization Centres

Source: IMaCS Analysis

Sindhudurg being identified as a proposed location for TSC, the special infrastructural
requirements shall be met in the design programme.

It would serve as ‘hub’ for students, trainers and institutions in the region. They would be
able to make use of the equipment for lab work and modules requiring exposure to such
specialised equipment. These specialised equipment can also be shared with neighbouring
small/medium industries for a) trials and testing, and b) training on a rental/’fee-per-use’
basis, thereby serving as an additional revenue-generating source.

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7.1 BOOKS

01.

Book name: Capacity Building – An approach to People-centred development

Author name: Deborah Eade

Published: 1997

The concept of capacity building is based on the principle that any kind of intervention
proposed must address the cause of people’s weaknesses and recognize their sources of
strength; understand the dynamic relation between these. People have natural capacities,
which may or may not be recognized by institutions or even by themselves. It is critical to
understand the context in order to know how change can best be stimulated. Capacity
Building is about empowering people to bring positive changes in their lives; about personal
growth together with public action and about the realization of human potential and
transforming lives and societies. The first step would be to construct a socio-cultural,
political & economic profile of targeted region and understanding ethnic differences
between them. Reaching the grass root level, can guide the further steps to solving them.
Second step would be to create a community bond or a ‘sangha’ for a constructive progress
of the society concerned.

02.

Book name: Learning spaces

Author name: Andrew J. Milne

Published: November 2006

Chapter 11: Designing Blended Learning Space to the Student Experience

We come to understand from this book on how our educational institutes need reforms that
will become of the students who experience it on personal level. The concept of one
presenter and one listener is gone old, and today’s need is of interactive, social learning
system. More than the structured system, it’s the informal spaces which play very important
role in true learning. We need to change our outlook of looking at educational institute as

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coaching institutes and rather as a convention of idea generators and problem solvers.
There should be barrier free learning and the entire campus and building design should in
collaboration to live up to this intention.

03.

Book name: Skills development and Employment creation through small public buildings
in South Africa

Author name: Anne Susan Fitchett

Published: March 2009

Chapter 11: Designing Blended Learning Space to the Student Experience

Summary:

Poverty and unemployment are extremely high in South Africa, especially in rural areas
where there are low levels of infrastructure. In this study, the focus is on public buildings,
specifically small-scale facilities built to serve the functions of government departments at a
local level. Through the construction of small public buildings, skills development can take
place as a means to creating quality jobs – jobs which themselves generate employment
opportunities for those who have not been exposed to vocational training. Public buildings
can act as exemplars in the use of employment-intensive practices, environmentally
appropriate design and locally manufactured materials. This thesis argues that a more
sustainable route to employment creation lies in focusing on the development of higher
technical and managerial skills in the industry. Several interrelated benefits emerge from
this strategy, namely:

 People who have been through an artisan training programme will have skills which are
more marketable, and thereby more sustainable;
 Skilled workers generate jobs for less skilled people – for every artisan or manager,
several unskilled and semi-skilled workers are required to form an efficient team;

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5.2 RESEARCH PAPERS

01 .

Research paper name: London Review of Education Vol. 6, No. 3

Author name: Paul Temple

Published: November 2008

Learning spaces in higher education: an under-researched topic

Space issues are central to the operation of universities, and further research is needed to
illuminate the connections between space and institutional effectiveness. The need to think
about spaces specifically to meet teaching and learning needs appears generally to be
hidden from view in most accounts of campus design. To give students greater autonomy in
organising their learning, proposing physical changes to improve learning focus on breaking
down barriers between the campus and the ‘un-campus’ outside, and mixing teaching,
research, administrative and social spaces within it to create a better sense of community.
More recent thinking on ‘flexible’ learning spaces in which different groups may be
undertaking different activities simultaneously and which lend themselves to a variety of
uses – has suggested how campus and building design can be used to facilitate learning,
particularly informal learning. Providing welcoming and flexible spaces, including informal
meeting spaces, should be seen as part of the support to learning through developing the
wider learning landscape. Clear technical recommendations are needed on the best ways of
providing such spaces in different university settings. The apparent connection between
day-to-day premises maintenance and learning may need to be drawn to the attention of
institutional managements. It seems that small things may make a big difference to learning,
rather than, necessarily, grand architectural statements.

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5.3 NEWSPAPER ARTICLES

Newspaper name: The Times of India, Mumbai

Author name: Hemali Chhapia

Published: 9th July 2016

The article discusses real time statistical data about the progressive attitude of looking at
the Industrial Training Institutes and Vocational training courses. There is a change in
outlook of the industry towards ITIs as a source of ready-made employees rather than cheap
labour. Vocations are now paying better and in specific blue collar job profiles are paid 10-
27% higher than engineering jobs. There is a solid increase in the number of applications for
admissions to the ITIs due to this reason and more so since the advent of Skill India Mission.
Vocational courses are being viewed as a career option now and not a last resort.

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Chapter 8: SCOPE OF SKILL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
OBJECTIVE 1: SKILLING OF NEW ENTRANTS TO THE
WORKFORCE

 Apiculture
 Tourism & hospitality
 Green skills
 Basic construction skills APICULTURE

 Furniture making
 Food processing
 Coir based products
 Communication & soft skills
 Handicrafts
 Advance skills in textile sector HOSPITALITY

OBJECTIVE 2: UPSKILLING OF WORKFORCE FOR


HIGHER ORDER OF SKILLS

 Agriculture advancement
 Horticulture
 Fishing industry
 Coir based products GREEN SKILLS
 Handloom, powerloom
 Unorganized food processing sector
 Organized retail
 Facility management personnel training
 Security and domestic jobs
 Homestays & hospitality
BASIC CONSTRUCTION SKILLS
 Tourism & travel agents

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OBJECTIVE 3: RECOGNIZING INFORMAL
ON-THE-JOB TRAINING OF THE EXISTING
WORKFORCE

 Unorganized sector
 Tourism & hospitality
 Construction SECURITY

 Furniture making
 Retail business
 Food processing
 Textile sector & tailoring

FOOD PROCESSING

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Chapter 9: SPACE NORMS & OTHER REGULATIONS

Spatial requirements for various departments as stated by


Directorate General of Employment & Training (D.G.E.T.)
CLASSROOM STUDIO/LAB
NO. OF
DEPARTMENT NO. X AREA NO. X AREA TOTAL
TRAINEES
IN M² IN M²

TOURISM &
20 1 X 30 1 X 56 86
HOSPITALITY

FURNITURE MAKING &


20 - 1 X 100 100
BAMBOO WORKSHOP

FISHING INDUSTRY 25 - 1 X 100 100

WAREHOUSING &
20 - 1 X 240 240
PACKAGING

FOOD PROCESSING +
20 1 X 30 1 X 96 126
AGRO PROCESSING

TEXTILE
20 - 1 X 240 240
MECHATRONICS

HANDLOOM +
16 - 1 X 144 144
POWERLOOM

APICULTURE 20 - 1 X 96 96

HORTICULTURE 20 - 1 X 1000 1000

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HANDICRAFTS 20 - 1 X 60 60

GREEN SKILLS 20 - 1 X 40 40

COMMUNICATION &
20 1 X 30 1 X 40 70
SOFT SKILLS

BASIC CONSTRUCTION
20 - 1 X 144 144
SKILLS

SECURITY & DOMESTIC


20 1 X 30 1 X 40 70
JOBS

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Spatial requirements for various departments as stated by
Directorate of Vocational Education & Training (D.V.E.T.)

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Chapter 9: CASE STUDY
CS-01 Industrial Training Institute, Vengurla

Location: Vengurla, Sindhudurg,


Maharashtra (RURAL)

Owner: State Govt. affiliated institution

Structure: G + 1, RCC construction

Activity: Training institution

No. of users: 200

Site area: 7179 sqm

Total Built up Area: 476.66 sqm

Topography: Fairly levelled site

Climatic conditions: Semi-tropical climate,


High rainfall zone, Warm & Humid

Site surroundings: Predominantly


residential with light industries

Project year: (old) 1997 (new) 2016

ITI Vengurla was started in 1997 under the Directorate of Vocational Education & Training,
Government of India. It used to be conducted in a school building as new facility wasn’t
available. The case study was conducted on the new building constructed for the ITI at a
different location as original.

Reasons for Selection:

1. To get hands-on information from institute operators on how a training institute is


conducted, what are its requirements & shortcomings faced.
2. This particular ITI was selected for study due to its predominantly rural location in
Sindhudurg district. It gives a more focussed perspective on the problems and
challenges faced in existing system and infrastructure.

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Basic Layout of institute

ANALYSIS:
1. LOCATION APPROPRIATENESS: The site
location is appropriate in terms of residential area with
light industry area, as preferred for an Industrial
Training Institute. There is a Coir Industry next to the
site & a few Food processing units nearby. However,
the institution hasn’t taken advantage of this fact as
yet.
2. CONNECTIVITY/LINKAGES: The site is easily
accessible with connectivity to Arterial roads.
3. NEIGHBOURHOOD: The neighbourhood is
predominantly Residential with Fire station, Police
station in close vicinity.

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4. SITE ENVIRONMENT & CLIMATOLOGICAL
RESPONSE: As such no site contextual & climate
response is observed in the design. This site experiences
heavy rainfall for which sloping roof system should have
been adopted. Central courtyard is provided for cross
ventilation.
5. FORM & FUNCTION: The design is simply
function oriented design with most of the spatial norms
and regulations being followed. Sufficient number of
studios provided. Restrictive design approach and the
option of going vertical is kept for Future expansion
needs. No consideration is given to Architectural style
of the locality & Vernacular Architecture. Window
openings in each room are sufficient for Ventilation,
however, Natural lighting is limited.
6. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM & BUILDING MATERIALS:
The structural system adopted is Reinforced Concrete
Frame system with Masonry. No Vernacular materials
adopted in the main building construction. Laterite
masonry is popular in the region, which has excellent
thermal qualities & has no adverse effect of external
climatic conditions & can be left exposed without
plastering as against concrete masonry.
7. UNIVERSAL DESIGN: The institute design
follows the universal design norms as regard provision
of ramps, differently abled toilets.
8. PARKING: Adequate space for parking provided
as per local by-laws.
9. GREEN BUILDING: Rain Water Harvesting
scheme has been initiated. Solar power can also be
adopted because of good amount of sunlight received
in the region for maximum part of the year.

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Required as
Actual
Areas per ITI space
Provision
norms

Principal's cabin 30 m² 16.14 m²

Office (4 m² per staff) 40 m² 12.33 m²

Record room 20 m² 06 m²

Conference room 20 m² 36 m²

Staff room 20 m² 25.32 m²

Library 40 m² 35.22 m²

Canteen 40 m² 36 m²

GI room 04 m² 12.17 m²

Store room 40 m² 28.62 m²

Watchman's cabin 04 m² -

Parking space 40 m² -

Ladies room 15 m² 06 m²

1 Classroom 60 m² 43.16 m²

36 m²

6 Classrooms 30 m² each 25.32 m²

35.22 m²

25 seat Computer lab 25 m² 28.82 m²

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1 Male toilet 15 m² (2) 14.79 m²

1 Female toilet 15 m² (2) 11.62 m²

1 Female staff toilet 15 m² (2) 8.56 m²

11.62 m² + 11.68
1 Male staff toilet 15 m²

1 Toilet for differently abled (Male) 08 m² 06 m²

1 Toilet for differently abled (Female) 08 m² -

Extra 18.09 m²

Extra 06 m²

Extra 06 m²

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CS-02 Native Konbac Bamboo Products Pvt Ltd, Kudal

Location: MIDC Kudal, Sindhudurg,


Maharashtra (RURAL)

Structure: Ground floor Steel factory shed

Activity: A social enterprise concerning bamboo


products & innovation

No. of users: 600-700

Site area: 1579.35 sq m

BUA: 278.70 sq m

Project year:

Topography: Slightly contoured site

Climatic conditions: Semi-tropical climate, High


rainfall zone, Warm & Humid

Site surroundings: Predominantly industrial area

Native Konbac is a social enterprise engaged with usage of bamboo in Construction, Furniture
& Handicrafts. They undertake training of unemployed uneducated youth in this regard.

Reasons for Selection:

1. Native KONBAC is a unique project with its primary intention of sustainable rural
community growth through the medium of informal skill development. Theirs is a
greatly successful model amongst many such enterprises in India & they have brought
about rural upliftment in villages across various states.
2. They have a cost-effective model & also environmentally friendly enterprise. They are
creating jobs in the role of cultivators as well as artisans, labourers & managers for
various activities they conduct apart from training them in the right direction.

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3. To understand their spatial requirements so as to incorporate in the design
programme.

OPERATION:

BAMBOO SELECTION

TREATMENT PROCEDURE

WORKSHOP AREA

TRAINING

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INFERENCES

 The institution has brought an all-round progress in locality by making maximum use of
resources available at hand.
 Their program is benefitting the local farmers, uneducated, unskilled, as well as educated
people.
 Their operational costs are minimum and spatial requirements are also limited.
 Bamboo has lot of potential in the market and is showing a growing trend.

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CS-03 Friendship Centre, Bangladesh

Location: Gaibandha, Bangladesh (RURAL)

Owner: Friendship NGO

Architect: Kashef Mahboob Chowdhury

Structure: Ground floor structure, Brick


masonry

Activity: Training programs

Site area: 9210 sqm

Area: 2897 sqm

Project year: 2011

A rural training centre inspired by one of


the country’s oldest urban archaeological
sites. The Friendship Center near the
district town of Gaibandha, Bangladesh, is
for an NGO which works with some of the
poorest in the country and who live mainly
in riverine islands (chars) with very limited
access and opportunities. Friendship uses
the facility for its own training programs
and rents out facilities for meetings,
training, conferences etc. as income
generation.

Reasons for Selection:

1. Recipient of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2016.


2. A example of cost- efficient, vernacular architecture, sustainable practices and fluid
architectural spaces.

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Ground floor Plan

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Chapter 10: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

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Chapter 13: DESIGN PROGRAM

Based on Regulations & Norms set by the Government & on Architectural


Sensibilities, following are the final estimated areas for the proposed Design

NO. OF TOTAL AREA


SPACES AREA IN SQ. M.
UNITS IN SQ. M.

ENTRANCE LOBBY +
1 25 25
WAITING AREA

ADMIN OFFICE 1 20 20

PRINCIPALS CABIN 1 15 15

COUSELLING ROOM 1 12 12

STAFF ROOM 1 35 35

TOURIST INFORMATION
1 12 12
CENTRE

DISPLAY & SALES AREA 1 50 50

CONFERENCE ROOM 1 40 40

CLASSROOMS 3 32 96

STUDIOS 1 3 500 1500

STUDIO 2 3 120 360

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OPEN AIR WORKSHOPS 1 200 200

COMPUTER LAB 1 30 30

AUDITORIUM 1 300 300

TRADE SPECIALIZATION
1 200 200
EQUIPMENT

OPEN AIR THEATRE 1 100 100

LIBRARY & READING


1 45 45
ROOM

EQUIPMENT ROOM 1 60 60

COLD STORAGE 1 25 25

LOCKER ROOM 2 10 20

CAFETRERIA 1 60 60

ANCILLARY AREAS 1 75 75

HOSTEL FACILITY FOR


1
120 STUDENTS

STAFF QUARTERS

PLANTATION AREA 1 250 250

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PARKING

ESTIMATED TOTAL AREA 6000

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Chapter 14: SITE SELECTION

1. A predominantly Rural area of Sindhudurg district and along the sea coastline.

2. A site in close vicinity of a proposed Tourism destination.

3. Area of the plot should be approx. 2-3 acres.

4. Moderate Literacy rate site.

5. Highway connectivity essential.

6. Proximity to public transport means available.

7. Residential area with light industrial zone preferred.

Considering these factors: potential site is to be identified from the Taluka viz.

1. DEVGAD

2. MALVAN

3. VENGURLA

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SITE 01 DEVGAD
Taluka: Devgad, Sindhudurg
Area:
Population:
Literacy:
Nearest railway station: Rajapur Road,
Kankavali

SITE 02 MALVAN
Taluka: Malvan, Sindhudurg
Area:
Population:
Literacy:
Nearest railway station: Sindhudurg,
Kudal

SITE 03 VENGURLA
Taluka: Vengurla, Sindhudurg
Area:
Population:
Literacy:
Nearest railway station: Kudal,
Sawantwadi

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14.1 ANALYSING LAND USE:

Source: National Natural Resources Management System, ISRO, 2014

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DEVGAD:

The land use map suggests that Devgad Coastline consists majorly of Scrub lands, Barren lands
and some Cropping area. These are not suitable conditions for agriculture.

MALVAN:

Malvan configures of large clusters of settlements towards coastline due to the various
adventure sports and coastal activities conducted there.

VENGURLA:

Vengurla has been a rich cultural heritage and is a historic port. It has diverse settlements and
good amount of industrial and urbanised areas.

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Proposed Tourism Development Projects in Sindhudurg district
Amongst the given proposals for Tourism
Gateway Development in Sindhudurg
region, Vijaydurg fort, Vijaydurg village,
Dwvgad taluka, shows a capacity of
generating employment in Tourism Sector
of 39,280 which is highest compared to
the proposals at Malvan and Vengurla

Table 04: Proposed Tourism Development Projects in Sindhudurg district with Employment
Generation potential

Source: District Tourism Master plan, Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, Year 2013-2033

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14.2 COMMON CONDITIONS ACROSS THREE REGIONS:
1. MACRO CLIMATE:

2. TOPGRAPHY

3. BEACH ACCESS

4.

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CRITERIA DEVGAD MALVAN VENGURLA

AREA IN SQUARE KM 787.68 608.42 277.12

TOTAL POPULATION 120,906 93,159 73,409

LITERACY % 78.69 80.44 81.22

TOTAL NO. OF WORKING


50,572 39,038 29,244
POPULATION
A. CULTIVATORS A. 17,807 A. 9,118 A. 5,560
B. AGRICULTURAL B. 9,080 B. 3,792 B. 3,890
LABOURERS C. 619 C. 660 C. 510
C. HOUSEHOLD D. 9,996 D. 10,267 D. 9,223
INDUSTRY WORKERS
D. OTHERS

PROPOSED TOURISM
Malvan town,
Vijaydurg fort,
DEVELOPMENT Malvan beach, Vengurla town
Beach,
Sindhudurg fort
PROJECTS
EMPLOYMENT
39280 89739
GENERATION CAPACITY

POWER CUTS Yes Yes Yes

WATER PROBLEMS

PROMINENT LOCATION

PROXIMITY TO URBAN
AREA

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY MIDC Kudal

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HIGHWAY
Yes Yes Yes
CONNECTIVITY

MODES OF Train, Bus, Train, Bus, Train, Bus,


Vehicular, Vehicular, Vehicular,
TRANSPORTATION Auto Rickshaw Auto Rickshaw Auto Rickshaw

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Chapter 15: SITE ANALYSIS

Village Girye, DEVGAD

LOCATION:

Village Girye, Taluka Devgad, District


Sindhudurg

ACCESSIBILITY:

57.3 kms from Rajapur road station

69.6 kms from Kankavali station

700 meters from nearest Bus stop

600 meters from Highway no 115, Vijaydurg Road

NEIGHBOURING AMENITIES:

5 schools, 4 Hospitals/Medical centres, 1 Government rest house

13 Biogas plants, Windmill project

BEACH ACCESS:

2.4 kms from Pural beach

TOPOGRAPHY/AREA:

MACRO CLIMATE:

MICRO CLIMATE:

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