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POSSIBLE OUTLINE

PROJECT 3: Research Report

 Introduction (Problem Statement) (no heading)


o Audience for the Problem: Who has written about this topic?
o Background of the Problem: What has already been written about this topic?
o Problem: What research remains to be done?
o Promise to Begin to Address the Problem: How does my study begin to do this research?
 Plan (no heading)
o “First, I will review relevant trade-journal and academic-research articles on [my research topic].”
o “Second, I will articulate my research question(s).”
o “Third, I will describe and justify my study design.”
o “Finally, I will present my findings, based on three data sources: a site observation, an interview,
and a questionnaire.”
 Background of the Study (Literature Review)
(Use the following model for each paragraph in this section.)
o INtroduction: For one article: Who wrote this article, and when was it published?
For a set of articles: How would I characterize this set of articles (e.g., “articles about __”)?
o INsertion: What are contributions of this article/set of articles that are relevant to my research
project?
o INterpretation: What are limitations of this article/set of articles that my research project will
attempt to surpass? (What is missing from previous articles that my study will attempt to provide?
What is inspiring about previous articles that my study will attempt to extend?)
 Research Question(s) (no heading, last paragraph of the Literature Review section)
o What question(s) does my research project begin to address? (What question(s) have prompted
me to do the research that remains to be done?)
 Study Design (Methodology)
o Site Selection
 INtroduction: Briefly summarized in one sentence: Where and when did I conduct my
research project?
 INsertion: What are relevant details related to my research site(s)?
 INterpretation: Why did I make my choice of research site(s)?
o Participant Selection
 INtroduction: Briefly summarized in one sentence: Who (not including me) participated in
my research project?
 INsertion: What are relevant details related to my research participant(s)?
 INterpretation: Why did I make my choice of research participant(s)?
o Data Sources
 INtroduction: Briefly summarized in one sentence: What kinds of data did I collect during my
research project?
 INsertion: What are relevant details related to my data source(s)?
 INterpretation: Why did I make my choice of data source(s)?
o Data Collection
 INtroduction: Briefly summarized in one sentence: How did I collect my data source(s)
during my research project?
 INsertion: What are relevant details related to my data-collection procedures?
 INterpretation: Why did I make my choice of data-collection procedures?
o Data Analysis
 INtroduction: Briefly summarized in one sentence: How did I organize, select, and analyze
excerpts from my three data sources during my research project?
 INsertion: What were relevant details related to my data-analysis procedures?
 INterpretation: Why did I make my choice of data-analysis procedures?

© 2017 Ann M. Lawrence, Ph.D. ENC 1102


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o Researcher Positionality
 INtroduction: Briefly summarized in one sentence: Who am I (the researcher)? (Answer in
terms of relevant social categories, like ability, age, class, ethnicity, gender, linguistic
background, race, and religion.)
 INsertion: How might my positionality (my social and cultural identities) as a researcher have
influenced my study for better and for worse?
 INterpretation: Why was I both a strategic choice and an unfavorable one to carry out this
research project?
 Study Results
o Site Observation
 Subsection INtroduction: Where and when did I observe?
 Subsection INsertion:
 (Use the following model for each INsertion paragraph in this subsection.)
 INtroduction: Briefly summarized in one sentence: What did I observe?
 INsertion: What are relevant details regarding my observation?
 INterpretation: How do I interpret my observations? (What claim(s) might I make about
the evidence presented above to begin to answer my research question(s)?)
 Subsection INterpretation: Taken together, how do my observations (presented in the
Subsection INsertion paragraphs of my Site Observation subsection) begin to answer my
research question(s)?
o Interview
 Subsection INtroduction: Whom did I interview? Where and when did I conduct the
interview?
 Subsection INsertion:
(Use the following model for each INsertion paragraph in this subsection.)
 INtroduction: What is one question that I asked my interviewee?
Alternative: What is one pattern that I notice in what my interviewee said?
 INsertion: What did my interviewee say in response to this question?
Alternative: What are relevant details regarding this pattern in what my interviewee said?
 INterpretation: How do I interpret my interviewee’s response? (What claim(s) might I
make about the evidence presented above to begin to answer my research question(s)?)
Alternative: How do I interpret this pattern in what my interviewee said? (What claim(s)
might I make about the evidence presented above to begin to answer my research
question(s)?)
 Subsection INterpretation: Taken together, how do my interviewee’s responses (presented
in the Subsection INsertion paragraphs of my Interview subsection) begin to answer my
research question(s)?
o Survey/Questionnaire
 Subsection INtroduction: Where and when did I administer my survey/questionnaire? Who
(in terms of demographic categories) responded to my survey/questionnaire?
 Subsection INsertion:
(Use the following model for each INsertion paragraph in this subsection.)
 INtroduction: What is one question that I asked my survey/questionnaire participants?
Alternative: What is one pattern that I notice in the survey/questionnaire responses?
 INsertion: How did my survey/questionnaire participants respond to this question?
Alternative: What are relevant details regarding this pattern in the survey/questionnaire
responses?
 INterpretation: How do I interpret my survey/questionnaire participants’ responses?
(What claim(s) might I make about the evidence presented above to begin to answer my
research question(s)?)
Alternative: How do I interpret this pattern in the survey/questionnaire responses? (What
claim(s) might I make about the evidence presented above to begin to answer my
research question(s)?)

© 2017 Ann M. Lawrence, Ph.D. ENC 1102


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 Subsection INterpretation: Taken together, how do my survey/questionnaire
participants’ responses (presented in the Subsection INsertion paragraphs of my
Survey/Questionnaire subsection) begin to answer my research question(s)?
 Discussion
o INtroduction (Contributions):
 INtroduction: Research Question(s) Reminder: What question(s) did I seek to
address in my research project?
 INsertion: Research Contributions: In what ways have my data begun to answer my
research question(s)?
 INterpretation, Part 1: Connections to Previous Research: In what ways does my
research project add to the articles cited in my Literature Review section?
 INterpretation, Part 2: Rebuttals: How might readers object to my assessment of my
study’s contributions? How might I effectively address those objections?
o INsertion (Limitations):
 INtroduction: Study-Results Limitations: In what ways have my data not answered
my research question(s)?
 INsertion: Study-Design Limitations: What aspects of my study design may have
limited my efforts to answer my research question(s)?
 INterpretation, Part 1: Directions for Future Research: Given the limitations of my
research project, what important inquiries might be conducted in the future? (What
research remains to be done?)
 INterpretation, Part 2: Rebuttals: How might readers object to my assessment of
productive directions for future research? How might I effectively address those
objections?
o INterpretation (Personal Reflection):
 INtroduction: What did I learn about research while working on Project 3?
 INsertion: What did I learn about myself as an undergraduate researcher while
working on Project 3?
 INterpretation: Research Contributions: In what ways does my research project add to
the articles cited in my Literature Review section?

© 2017 Ann M. Lawrence, Ph.D. ENC 1102


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