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Concern for design quality be integrated We have to make gradual selective infill, new pieces
into the political decision making process. to effectively bring into harmony with existing
Planning-3 Dec. 5, 2017-March 2018
7. Influence policy makers (part of the spaces and architectural forms.
Introduction to Urban & Regional Planning
designer`s role) and the public in order to
ensure that the quality of the environment Integration - is useful in the use of urban space. The
FINDING LOST SPACE is not compromised. design must respond to dynamics of social issues in
Theory of Urban Design its physical forms.
By: Roger Trancik

The key concepts of the five principles In this case, mixed use or integrated uses have
for the creation of integrated urban much greater richness and vitality than single-use
Problem Title:
Toward an integrated approach to Urban Single uses are static and remain lifeless for
substantial periods of time.
Principle One: Linking Sequential
modification, and Recycling Movement You can introduce automobiles into the urban
landscape be sure it will not destroy the quality of
We must give important experience to the outdoor space for the pedestrians.
This approach must combine the spatial definition
pedestrians while moving between districts and
of the figure-ground theory We must accommodate a mix of people and cars.

GOALS Separated Areas for work and living - creates

This will solve the problems of connecting existing
structures into a sequential, unified space. tremendous transportation problems.
1. Concept of time - integrate new elements
with old ones.
Transitional Features: across a bridge, triumphal
2. Small scale steps on the renewal of Principle Two: Lateral Enclosure and Edge
arch, rococo iron gate, an elongated symmetrical
urban landscapes not total redevelopment. Continuity
3. Mixed used of spaces
4. Integrate work and living (some modern The frontage of a building facade facing the public
In order to have a successful urban design, we must
cities they don`t integrate this, downtown space must not break its consistency of design. This
integrate this theory. The designer should integrate
will be deserted at dinner time.) purpose is is the urban wall facing the streets and squares.
new elements with old in order to express the
proximity between housing and
concept of time.
employment. It will help eliminate wasted This will achieve lateral enclosure.
land in then city core. The success or failure of the public space depends
To introduce the concept of time in urban design,
5. Integration of the regional character. largely on the character of its frontage and the
the designer should integrate new elements with
(Indigenous architectural forms, continuity of its walls.
environmental identity - natural forms of
land and plant materials characteristics of Materials, ornamentation, and the rhythm of
You have to make small-scale steps toward the
the area. ( this lecture was stopped here last openings (doors and windows) are as critical as the
renewal of urban landscapes which are more
December 1, 2017) height of the wall in relation to the scale of the
effective than total redevelopment.
outside space.
The articulation of the wall bays, stoops, plantings Principle Four: Axis and Perspective Without design the modern landscape would evolve
should respond to the needs of the interior as well in the absence of judgments on aesthetics, visual
as the exterior. This is the symmetrical hierarchy of urban space laid quality, and social concerns.
along formal axes. Example “Andre Le Norte`s Plan
This is an edge that separates the public and private for Versailles, Eiffel Tower in Paris. Design strives to create order, beauty, and scale:
realm trough varying degrees of transparency and This set-up gives us a system of visual orientation,
opacity. connecting disjointed elements through lines of Order - concerns the logical, comprehensible
sight. This can help in designing hierarchies of arrangement of separate elements, including the
Example: spaces based on levels of visual and functional disposition and relationship of one element to
Spatial Design of Ragnar Ostberg`s City Hall at importance and can be used to clarify block another.
Stockholm; patterns. This can provide directional guidance for
movement. Beauty - the quality that delights the senses or
The architect applied principles of lateral enclosure exalts the mind, the aesthetic and outward visual
to respond to immediate space. impression.
Principle Five: Indoor / Outdoor Fusion
This will create visual landmarks, and marvelous Scale - concerns the proportion of elements to the
landscape edge of the waterfront. In all urban design the transition between indoor human figure that gives a sense of well-being and
and outdoor space is of great importance. comfortable spatial relationship to the environment.
Example GUM department store in Moscow,
Principle Three: Integrated bridging The principle of indoor/outdoor fusion has By artistic inquiry, the designer states a position,
enormous potential for creating new types of urban describes a philosophy, explains a set of values.
Another design principle that can be applied spaces in the future spaces, or for a year-round
today`s urban landscape is illustrated in the “Ponte usage, of spaces that integrate landscape and urban The primary medium of this act is Drawing - a
Vecchio in Florence. gardens, that also explore new architectural language for analysing and revealing the order of
It is a building that is a bridge and a bridge that is possibilities with the use of advanced materials. things.
also a building.
These two functions are successfully integrated into Through drawing the designer strives to simplify
one form. THE DESIGNER`S ROLE complexities and, by simplifying and diagramming,
Without the role of the urban designer we to express essential sensory relationships in the
We use this principle when blockages or barriers in Will experience the absence of the below: form of design.
the city`s fabric needs to overcome, and when Judgement on aesthetics
elevated pedestrian platforms and bridges are Visual quality The process of design remains the same, but the
necessary to retain spatial continuity. Social concerns. factors in each situation are variable, unique to each
We use this principle whenever there’s a disruption Design is the fundamental skill required to
in the spatial flow of pedestrians. As planners we restructure urban space. Urban spatial design is an environmental art. Beauty
should strive for an uninterrupted mesh of activities is measured by how well the components fit into a
in public spaces. Example at “Ponte Vecchio, A skill that distinguishes it from other activities of larger spatial structure - a structure that provides
Florence, Italy. Serve as a link between disconnect planning and engineering the built environment. the gestalt of design.
urban areas.
Contextual Design - looks first outward, then patterns are examined to determine where Effective urban design guidelines for
inward. they create barriers impeding continuous promoting a fit between new and old will
pedestrian flow along desired paths emerge from the process described above.

DESIGN PROCESS between and within districts. (Stop)

In summary, the more important guidelines
All urban projects are different, requiring unique Political and economic development to keep in mind are:
formal responses to the conditions inherent in a policies are looked at in order to evaluate
place in time. (In modern movement thinking, urban redevelopment sites where change is a. Maintain continuity of the street
spatial design was absent). inevitable. wall
The process of arriving at a solution- the way the b. Respect the existing silhouette of
problem is looked at. Fixed and unchangeable sites in a district, buildings and landscape.
the important historic resources and newer c. Prevent building masses that are
buildings to remain, become the out of scale
1. Step one : The Study of Place, this is to cornerstones around which the d. Match and/ or complement
study the evolution of the structure of a restructuring framework is put in place. materials
place by developing descriptive biographies e. Respect existing rhythms of facades
of growth and change. 4. Step Four: Design Intervention. By and spatial elments.
2. Step two : Spatial Analysis, analyse the overlaying these highly valued spaces with f. Enhance patterns of public space
existing physical form of the city. You need areas of lost space, the designer can usage.
the figure-ground map which is the solid pinpoint major gaps in urban continuity
and voids. This will simplify masses, and establish priorities for design Design Strategies
allowing designer to distinguish between intervention on a site-by-site basis. The steps in the design process represent an
buildings, landscape, and other district overlay of the figure-ground, linkage, and place
patterns. You need aerial photographs. In order to achieve and overlapping of time approaches. The structuring principles outlined at
Exterior space systems and linkages the and space that response to the history of a the beginning, this process should supply the
network of streets, walkways, squares and site, we must compare historic precedents, designer with a method of providing integrative
payrks are mapped and photographed for so that ideas for spatial restructuring can be solutions to problems of urban spatial design.
visual quality. View corridors, vistas, and generated. However, solutions are futile (useless, pointless)
visual axes. Patterns of use and activity are without strategies for implementation.
also recorded. After the design has been generated, the designer
The massing of buildings and distribution
3. Step three: Identification of Lost Space and must know how to put it into effect.
of land uses are informed by these
Restructuring Opportunities. Analyse the
strategies. This approach preserves the
problems and opportunities. Identify the Strategies associated with the integrative
richness of the context, retaining the
primary spatial structure. Typologies and approach to design.
identity of the place and offering the public
adjacencies of the urban fabric are  Infill and modification of existing structures
a functionally connected system of exterior
diaugrammed to allow for the study of  Generation of alternatives
space. The fundamental rule is that no
street and block patterns and places where  Collaboration with other professionals and
buildings or spaces are to be designed
connections between districts are confused the public.
without reference to the overriding spatial
or unstructured. Lost spaces, land that is  Persuasion (encouragement, advice) of
vacant or underused, is delineated. Traffic economic and political interest.
Infill, modification, and Recycling Incremental plans and piecemeal intervention will solutions within a strong conceptual structure
The existing structures are the major strategies for inevitably provide greater flexibility for growth and set by the designer.
the creation of successful public spaces. Rther than change than was possible holistic, rigid Functionalist It is rarely possible to see all elements of a design
demolishing buildings and spaces and starting over, city. realized in its entire ideal form. The final solution
we can infill, modify, and recycle these will always be a trade-off between cost, user needs,
environments by adding missing urban elements The integrated approach recognizes that the city is and aesthetic criteria.
base on the historically sound principles of mixed- a continuum that it will change over time as a result
use-streets, enclosed squares, and connected of a multitude of public and private decisions. The goal is to adjust design elements within an
places. “There is no master plan cast in stone”. (by: overall structure to accommodate these
Rodrigo Perez de Arce. In his Urban considerations without losing the essence of the
Instead of trying to design the complete Transformations and the Architecture of Additions.) initial idea.
environment at once, we can work on separate
parts within an integrated plan, an incremental Transformation of unworkable environments by The best way for a designer to retain the basic
approach to planning and design in keeping with adding elements is a much more satisfying concept while allowing for modifications is to
the conflicts and diversities of our period. approach. develop a range of alternative intervention
strategies within an overriding structure that covers
Planning the parts from the nature of the whole. Rules should be developed slowly and incrementally various contingencies, offers choices, and is flexible
The parts of the machine are different, to be sure, to avoid the trauma of violent, holistic reordering as to change.
but these differences exist to create a simple in the blight-clearance project.
function; any conflict between the parts, or even the Collaboration
existence of parts working independently of the Strategies include combinations of additive and Urban design is a hands-on experience that seldom
whole, would defeat the purpose of the machine. subtractive transformations: the infill or removal of occurs behind closed doors. It requires
In planning cities on the machine model, an buildings or fragments of buildings in order to multidisciplinary teamwork at the professional level,
urbanists is trying to integrate these needs, and for reinforce or recreate the street and the square as exposure to community groups and users at the
the purposes of this integration conflict and pain fundamental components of exterior space, or the social level, and often involvement with
between the parts are viewed as bad qualities to be positive reinforcement of nature in the city. governmental institutions at the political level.
eliminated. Lawyers, finance, sociology, ecology, and
Finally, an integrated city will prevail if, in the psychology, should be involved in the design
So, as urban designers we must work as surgeons or process of transforming wornout urban areas, we process and its implementation.
auto mechanics and repair the diverse broken parts bring infill development into harmony with the The particular expertise of the designer, however, is
of the city rather than trying to manufacture a predominant existing pattern. An integration of in understanding the principles of urban open space
completely new, self-sufficient, conflict-free urban living and work places in the urban core can and the way in which these should be used to
machine. stimulate a functional yet cultural city of mixed uses, govern the communal spatial structure.
in which lost exterior spaces become new arenas for
We must reorient our thinking toward centralization social and physical interaction.
rather than dispersion, integration rather than
segregation, and urban space that expresses its Generating Alternatives Economic and Political Factors
setting rather than superimposing order from This is another strategies in urban design of the The designer’s goal of establishing the physical
outside. integrative approach is to generate alternative character and public uses of restructures urban
space is an important means not only of improving
environmental quality but also of creating arbitrate between clients with conflicting criteria
incentives for private investment. Private and demands.
investment, in turn, can be a major contributor to We must develop the patience and sensitivity to
the goals of design. In other words, when private work creatively with environmental rules, codes, and
investment is guided by strong policy for urban restrictions.
space, it can help shape this space in a positive way. The principal problem that we have identified is
The practice of urban design is founded on the how to restructure lost space in modern cities.
assumption that the public sector can provide
opportunities that stimulate, influence, and guide Context
the actions of the private sector – the so-called It is incumbent upon designers of the modern city
public/private marriage. One of the strategies of to find the inherent relationship between form and
urban spatial design is to promote this interaction purpose that has evolved through local tradition
of public and private interests. and regional context. The international Style and
Modern Movement models of urban space must be
The public sector has the strongest control where replaced by a respect for the indigenous nature of
market forces and investment incentives already the city.
exist. Here urban design can have the most
influence. However, design can also implement Incrementalism
strategies to stimulate change in stagnant, A piecemeal reconstruction of and addition to the
underdeveloped areas or to intervene to prevent or parts of the city will become increasingly more
alter the rate of change as a means of preserving important the creation of complete, self-generated
important buildings, sites, or resources. environments. The leftover lost spaces between
buildings, districts, and neighborhoods will become
Toward the Year 20th Century desirable properties as land and resources grow
These principles and strategies of urban design will scarcer.
become increasingly important over the next
decades. Integration
It gives us an opportunity to more sensible about Finally, an integrated city will prevail if, in the
preserving history and valued traditions as we process of transforming worn-out urban areas, we
renew our urban environment. bring infill development into harmony with the
Urban design that responds to indigenous context predominant existing pattern. An intergration of
must be open to community participation, design- living and work places in the urban core can
review boards, and other public organizations that stimulate a functional yet cultural city of mixed uses,
infringe on professional prerogatives. in which lost spaces become new arenas for social
Like designers of houses, we must meet the client and physical interaction.
when designing cities and learn how to use
community participation as a positive factor in the
creation of urban form.
Architects and landscape architects, and town
planners must learn the art of politics in order to