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CSC 101 Assignment 1

Name: Shiza Bashir

Registration number: FA17 BEC-I 016

Input devices:
1. Image scanner
2. Joystick

Output Devices:
1. Speakers
2. Webcam

Input devices:
1. Image Scanner
 Introduction of the device:
An Image scanner is a device that optically scans images,
printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a
digital image.
 Structure
The core component of the scanner is the CCD array. CCD is the
most common technology for image capture in scanners. CCD is a
collection of tiny light-sensitive diodes, which converts photons
(light) into electrons (electrical charge). These diodes are
called photo sites. In a nutshell, each photo site is sensitive to light
-the brighter the light that hits a single photo site, the greater the
electrical charge that will accumulate at that site.

 Working
Scanners operate by shining light at the object or document
being digitized and directing the reflected light (usually through
a series of mirrors and lenses) onto a photosensitive element.
In most scanners, the sensing medium is an electronic, light-
sensing integrated circuit known as a charged coupled device
(CCD). Light-sensitive photo sites arrayed along the CCD
convert levels of brightness into electronic signals that are then
processed into a digital image.

 Connection and Configuration


Firstly, turn the scanner on.
The message saying Found New Hardware will be visible if you
are not using a Plug or Play driver on in case Windows does not
have the driver installed for that device.
Click that message, and then choose yes and this time only
options by clicking on them. This is only necessary if you don’t
permit Windows to automatically connect to Windows Update.
If you have a CD for the scanner, insert it in your CD drive and
click next.
Search for your scanner driver software and install it.
Choose Start, open control panel and type scanners in the
search box. The Windows returns a set of links.
Click on the View scanners and Cameras link. The scanners and
cameras windows appear. Then click the Add device button and
then click next.
The camera and scanner installation wizard window appears.
When you click next, the next screen of the wizard appears.
Click a Manufacturer in the list on the left and then click a
model in the list on the right. Now you just have to follow the
wizard directions based on the model of scanner you choose
and whether you have a manufacturer’s disc. If you don’t have
the disk, Windows can help you download software from the
internet.
And when you reach the end of the wizard, click finish and the
configuration is now complete.
 Pictures to describe Different parts

2. Joystick
 Introduction of the device
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a
base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is
controlling. A joystick, also known as the control column, is the
principle control device in the cockpit of many civilian and
military aircraft, either as center stick or side-stick.

 Structure
The basic structure of a joystick is to translate the movement of
a plastic stick into electronic information a computer can
process.

This basic design consists of a stick that is attached to a plastic base


with a flexible rubber sheath. The base houses a circuit board that
sits directly underneath the stick. The circuit board is made up of
several "printed wires," which connect to several contact terminals.
Ordinary wires extend from these contact points to the computer.

The printed wires form a simple electrical circuit made up of several


smaller circuits. The circuits just carry electricity from one contact
point to another. When the joystick is in the neutral position -- when
you're not pushing one way or another -- all but one of the individual
circuits are broken. The conductive material in each wire doesn't quite
connect, so the circuit can't conduct electricity.
Each broken section is covered with a simple plastic button
containing a tiny metal disc. When you move the stick in any
direction, it pushes down on one of these buttons, pressing the
conductive metal disc against the circuit board. This closes the circuit-
it completes the connection between the two wire sections. When the
Circuit is closed, electricity can flow down a wire from the computer
(or game console), through the printed wire, and to another wire
leading back to the computer.

 Working
A joystick is connected to two potentiometers. Each
potentiometer is used to record for left, right, forward and
backward movements. When a joystick is moved these two
potentiometers send the details of the y and x coordinates to
the Central Processing Unit and the required movement is
achieved.

 Connection and configuration


In order to connect a joystick properly, you have to select your
joystick model in Controls menu.

Firstly, go to Controls tab.

Choose preferred controls method. Then choose your unit


type.

Here you can select your joystick model. If there is no your


joystick model, then you have to adjust controls settings
manually.

You can also setup your own joystick if it is not presented in


the list by using the Controls Wizard.

The configuration method will be complete.


 Pictures to show different parts
Output devices:

1. Speakers

 Introduction to the device


Speaker is an output device that converts analog audio
signals into the equivalent air vibrations in order to make
audible sound.

 Structure
All of the components of the speaker are held together by the frame. The
voice coil is connected to the cone which is connected to the frame via
the suspension and spider. The magnet structure is held in place by the
frame. The frame keeps the family together and it has to be strong to
keep everyone together when things start moving.

 Working
A speaker converts electrical signals into acoustical energy:
sound. By moving back and forth, the speaker increases and
decreases the air pressure in front of it thus creating sound
waves.
The essential parts of a speaker are: Cone, Suspension,
Magnet, Voice Coil, and Frame.
The cone is the main moving mass of the speaker. The larger
the cone, the more mass and surface area a speaker will have.
The more surface area a speaker has the more air it can
move. The more air it can move, the louder the speaker can
get.
The suspension and the spider keep the voice coil aligned and
act like a spring when the speaker is in motion. The
suspension pulls the cone back to the center position when it
moves back and forth. If there were no suspension, there
would be nothing to hold the voice coil and cone in place. The
rigidity, composition, and design of the suspension can greatly
affect a speaker's performance. Below is a diagram of how a
speaker's suspension works.
The magnet structure is what creates the standing magnetic
field. This standing magnetic field gives the voice coil's
generated field something to push off of. A strong standing
magnetic field allows greater cone motion potential. The
stronger this field is, the further it spans thus allowing a voice
coil's field more to push off of. The entire action is similar to
the idea behind a solenoid.

 Connection and Configuration


A speaker is usually comprised of three parts: a box, an
optional passive crossover network and one or more drivers.
This topic has covered many of the key characteristics of the
speakers and has explained how they work together to create
sound.
 Pictures to show different parts
2. Webcam

 Introduction to the device


A webcam is an output device. It is basically a video
camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or
through a computer to a computer network. When
"captured" by the computer, the video stream may be saved,
viewed or sent on to other networks via systems such as the
internet, and emailed as an attachment.

 Structure
Webcams typically include a lens, an image sensor, support
electronics, and may also include a microphone for sound.
Various lenses are available, the most common in consumer-
grade webcams being a plastic lens that can be screwed in
and out to focus the camera. Fixed-focus lenses, which have
no provision for adjustment, are also available. As a camera
system's depth of field is greater for small image formats and
is greater for lenses with a large f-number (small aperture),
the systems used in webcams have a sufficiently large depth
of field that the use of a fixed-focus lens does not impact
image sharpness to a great extent.
Image sensors can be CMOS or CCD, the former being
dominant for low-cost cameras, but CCD cameras do not
necessarily outperform CMOS-based cameras in the low-price
range.
 Working
A simple Webcam setup consists of a digital camera attached
to your computer, typically through the USB port. The camera
part of the Webcam setup is just a digital camera -- there's
really nothing special going on there. The "Webcam" nature of
the camera comes with the software. Webcam software "grabs
a frame" from the digital camera at a pre-set interval (for
example, the software might grab a still image from the
camera once every 30 seconds) and transfers it to another
location for viewing. If you're interested in using your
Webcam for streaming video, you'll want a Webcam system
with a high frame rate. Frame rate indicates the number of
pictures the software can grab and transfer in one second.

 Connection and Configuration


Firstly, plug the webcam into a USB port on your computer.
Then, wait for the webcam to be installed automatically.
Install the software on the disc that came packaged with the
webcam. If the webcam doesn't install automatically, and you
don't have a disc, you can download the drivers from the
manufacturer's website.
Lastly, install the downloaded drivers.
The connection method will be complete.
 Pictures to describe different parts