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# INDUSTRIETECHNIK

## ELECTRICAL and ELECTRONIC

ENGINEERING
Instructor Manual

Test Unit

Basic Electricity 1
Theory

No: EE 003
Test Unit

Basic Electricity 1

Theoretical Part

No.: EE 003

Edition: 2008

## Editor: MCE Industrietechnik Linz GmbH & Co

Education and Training Systems, DM-1
Lunzerstrasse 64 P.O.Box 36, A 4031 Linz / Austria
Tel. (+ 43 / 732) 6987 – 3475
Fax (+ 43 / 732) 6980 – 4271
Website: www.mcelinz.com

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EE 003
Basic Electricity 1

Theoretical Test

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 1

## 3. State how heat can be used to generate electricity.

4. State what determines the magnitude of the voltage induced by motion and give the
formula for finding this magnitude.

## 6. A current I = 11 A flows through a resistance R when it is connected to a voltage U =

220 V.
Calculate the value of the resistance R.

## 8. What happens if the permissible current density in an electrical conductor is

exceeded?

9. The coil of an electromagnet has N = 200 windings. The copper wire has a diameter d
= 6 mm; the mean diameter of the windings is D = 500 mm. The maximum permissible
current density is S = 1.5 A/mm².
Calculate: the current I flowing through the coil; the resistance R of the conductor

## (ϱCU = 0.0178 Ω mm²/m).

10. The coil in a relay is of copper wire. At its working temperature of = 46° it has a
resistance Rh = 4100 Ω
During a break in operation the coil cools down to:
= 20°C (α = 0.004 (1 / °C)). What is the value of the cold resistance RC?

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 2

1. State the ratio between the charge on an electron and that on a proton.

## 6. A voltage source has an internal resistance Ri = 8 Ω and drives a current I = 2.1 A

through an external resistance RL = 12 Ω.
What is the value of the electromotive force U0?

7. Name the three quantities which determine the resistance of an electrical conductor.

8. Calculate the cross section of a 200m long copper conductor if its resistance is R =
0.89 Ω

ϱCu = 0.0178

## 9. Explain the meaning of the term “current density”

10. A copper conductor with a cross section A = 0.75 mm² may be subjected to a
continuous current loading I = 13 A. Calculate the maximum permissible current

density S, in .

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 3

## State what is meant by and .

5. Calculate the induced voltage, U0, in a conductor with N = 100 turns if the magnetic
flux encircling it changes at a constant rate of 0.5 Wb/second.

## resistance R = 2 Ω. Calculate the length of the conductor. (γAL = 36 S x m / mm )

8. Name two factors which determine the maximum permissible current density in a
conductor.

9. Name two electrical materials whose resistance increases on heating and one whose
resistance decreases on heating.

## 10. The resistance RC of a copper wire coil is 80 Ω at = 20°C

(α = 0.004 (1 / °C))
What is its resistance Rh if the temperature rises to = 90°C?

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 4

## 5. A conductor with an effective length of 20 cm, moving with a constant velocity of 1

m/sec., passes through a magnetic field with a flux density B = 0.5 T. Calculate the
voltage induced between the two ends of the conductor.

## 6. The three fundamental electrical quantities are connected by a fixed relationship.

Name and state this law.

## 8. What is the resistance of a 3 km long copper conductor with a cross section A = 6

mm²?

γ = 56

9. State why, when electrical conductors are manufactured of the same material, the
permissible current density in conductors with a large cross sectional area is less than
in conductors with a small cross sectional area.

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10. An aluminium overhead-line conductor has a resistance Rh = 7A at 20 °C. A
measurement in winter gives the resistance RC = 6.25 Ω (α = 0.004(1 / °C))
Calculate the temperature at the time of the measurement.

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 1
(Solution)

1. Voltage is the balancing force that exists between two points that have a deficiency
(positive charge) and excess (negative charge) of electrons.

2. Protons, neutrons.

3. When two metals are heated at their junction point (soldered or welded connection) a
voltage is generated. Heating causes electrons to be transferred from one metal to the
other. The generated voltage has a magnitude of a few millivolts per 100°C and is
approximately proportional to the temperature difference between the cold and the
heated junction.

## 4. The magnitude of the induced voltage, U0, is determined by the following:

B = magnetic flux density of the magnetic field
I = effective length of conductor
v = velocity of conductor
U0 = BxIxv

5. Terminal voltage is the electrical pressure difference across the terminals of a voltage
generator in a closed circuit.

6. I =

R= = = 20 Ω

## 7. Specific resistance, ϱ , is the resistance at +20°C of a conductor with a length of 1 m

and a cross-sectional area of 1 mm².

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8. If the current density in an electrical conductor is exceeded, the conductor is heated
above the permissible value for the insulation and the insulation may be damaged.

9.

10.

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 2
(Solution)

1. The electrical charge of an electron is equal to the charge of a proton, only with the
opposite polarity.

2. Ion is an Atom or an Atomic structure which has lost one or more of its electrons.

## 4. Alternating current changes its direction and magnitude periodically.

5. “1 Ohm” is the resistance in which, when a voltage of 1 volt is across its ends, a
current of 1 Ampere flows.

6. U0 = I x (Ri x RL)
U0 = 2.1 x (8 + 12)
U0 = 42 V

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7. a) ϱ = specific resistance
b) I = length of conductor
c) A = cross section of conductor

8.

9. Current density, S, is the amount of current, that flows per unit of wire cross section.

10. S =
S maximum = 13 A/0.75 mm²
S maximum = 17.33 A/mm²

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 3
(Solution)

1. Atom.

2. Using a variety of methods, we can release electrons from their bonds. Therefore,
there will be points where there are Atoms which have lost some of their electrons.
These points have an “electron deficiency” (have positive electric charge). Similarly
there will be points where there are atomic structures that have gained some
electrons. These points have an “electron excess” (have negative electric charge).

induction.

## 4. = change in magnetic flux of the magnetic field.

= time interval during which the magnetic flux changes.

5. U0 = -N x
U0 = -100 x 0.5 = -50 V

6.

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7.

## 8. a) Conductor cross section

b) Conductor insulation

## 9. a) Copper or any other material (metal)

b) Silver with positive temperature coefficient
c) Carbon or other semi-conducting material

10.

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BASIC ELECTRICITY 1
TEST 4
(Solution)

1. An atom consists of electrons (negative charged) that revolve in fixed paths around
the nucleus. The nucleus consists of protons (positively charged) and neutrons
(neutral). The number of electrons equals the number of protons. The electrons rotate
around the nucleus at fixed distances. They form electron shells named K, L, M, N, O,
P, and Q. The number of electrons occupying each shell is given by 2 x n², where n is
the shell number. These electron shells need not always be occupied.

## 2. Mechanical energy; chemical energy; warmth (heat); light.

3. When light or X-rays strike certain substances, electrons are emitted. This
phenomenon is called the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric cell uses selenium as
a photosensitive material and has a base plate (usually iron). The selenium is covered
with a conducting layer. On the inside of the photosensitive layer, a photoelectric cell
has free electrons which are forced from one side of the layer to the other. Therefore,
there is a deficiency of electrons in the base plate and an excess in the contact ring.

4. Positive electric charge exists at a point with an electron deficiency. Negative electric
charge exists at a point with an electron excess.

5. U0 = B x I x v
U0 = 0.5 x 0.2 x 1
U0 = 0.1 V

6. Ohm’s Law:
U = voltage across the resistor
I = current through a resistor
R = resistance of a resistor

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7. Electrical conductivity, defines how many meters of wire with a cross-sectional area of
1 mm² are required to provide a resistance of 1 Ohm.

8.

9. Cooling of the conductor can only take place on its surface. Consider a conductor with
a diameter, d1 = 1mm, and double the diameter, d2 = 2 mm. comparing the two results
it will be seen that by doubling the diameter, the circumference will also be doubled
but the cross-sectional area, however, is increased by a factor of 4. So we see that,
assuming a constant current density, if a conductor is heated by a factor 4 (cross
section) it only undergoes twice the cooling (circumference). To maintain the degree of
heating within permissible limits the current density must be reduced.

10.

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KEY TO EVALUATION

88 – 100 1

75 – 87 2

62 – 74 3

50 – 61 4

0 – 49 5

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