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# 1.

## Density of Concrete 24 kN/m3

Density of Water 9.81 kN/m3
Characteristic Strength of high yield Steel 460 N/mm2
Characteristic Strength of Mild Steel 250 N/mm2

1.3 Foundation

## Assumed bearing capacity 125 kN/mm2

Soil parameters c= 0 kN/mm2
(cohesionless soil) j= 30 0
g= 20 kN/m3
(Where c is cohesion, j is friction angle and g is the density.)

2.0 REFERENCES

## BS 8110 Part 1 (1985)

British Standard Structural Use of Concrete

BS 8007 (1987)
Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids

BS 4466 (1981)
Specification for Bending Dimensions and Scheduling of Reinforcement for Concrete.

## Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Hand Book

R.E.Renolds and James C. Steedman - 10 th Edition

## Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete

By Institution of Structural Engineers UK
Reference Calculations Output
1.0 Design Data and Parameters

Material Properties
Density of Concrete 24 kN/m3
Density of Water 10 kN/m3
Density of water during flooding 14.5 kN/m3
Strength of high yield Steel 460 N/mm2

Durability Requirement
Exposure Condition - Severe
Clear cover to r/f 75 mm

Foundation
Bearing capacity (assumed) 75 kN/m2
Soil parameters c= 5 kN/m2
j= 30 deg
g sat= 18 kN/m3
(Where c is cohesion, j is friction angle and g is the density)
Reference Calculations Output

## Cl.3.8 BS 8110 Height of the support = 3.00 m

P-1 Pipe diameter (Inner Diameter) = 0.50 m
Length of a flange pipe = 5.00 m
Maximum spacing between two suports = 5.00 m
Length of pipe which applies the loads on
= 5.00 m
support
Self wt of pipe + Water = 225 lb/ft
= 3.28 kN/m
Column size (Width = Length) = 0.400 m

Wt of water+Pipe = 16.42 kN

## 500 DI Pipe/ 5000 long

Column Support
River Water Flow Thrust force due to pipe flow

## Force on column due to logs impact,

Weight of log hitting during flooding = 2.00 Ton
Velocity of water during flooding = 3.00 m/s
RDA Bridge Log impact on column = 0.1 x W x V
Manual = 0.60 kN

## Since pipe and column fully submerged,

Drag Force, FD = CD AP ρ V02 / 2
Drag coefficient of column, CD = 2.0
Ap for column = 1.60 m2
Total drag force on column during flooding = 20.88 kN

## Force due to water pressure on bends = 2 P A sin (φ / 2)

Water pressure inside the pipe = 0.5 bars
Maximum bend size of gravity main = 45.0 deg
Thrust force on column due to internal pipe
= 7.52 kN
water flow

## Drag Force + Log Impact

y y
Reference Calculations Output

x

21.4 kN 21.4 kN
0.6 kN

20.88 kN 7.5 kN

3.0

2.0

## SECTION y-y SECTION x-x

Equivalent

21.42 kN 21.42 kN
0.6 kN

7.5 kN

3.00 m

41.8 kN.m

## Seviceability forces and moments on column base,

Axial load, N = 21.42 kN
Bending moment along major axis, Mx = 43.56 kN
Bending moment along minor axis, My = 22.55 kN

## Ultimate forces on column,

31 kN 31 kN
1.0 kN

33.41 kN 12.03 kN
Reference Calculations Output

3.0

2.0

## SECTION y-y SECTION x-x

Equivalent

30.99 kN 30.99 kN
1.0 kN

12.03 kN

3.00 m

67 kN.m

## Ultimate forces and moments on column base,

Axial load, N = 30.99 kN
Bending moment along major axis, Mx = 69.70 kN
Bending moment along minor axis, My = 36.08 kN

## Column is subjected to axial load and biaxial bending. Therefore

column shall be designed as slender, unbraced biaxial bending
column.
Y
b

h
X X
h'

b'
Y

b = 300 mm
h = 400 mm

## Clear height of column, l0 = 100 b2 / h ≤ 60b

BS8110-1:1997,
= 22500
Cl 3.8.1.8
60b = 18000
Reference Calculations Output
Actual clear height, l0 = 3000 mm Satisfied

## Clear height = 3.000 m

End condition about x & y axis,
End condition at top = 4
End condition at bottom = 1
ß = 2.2
Effective height (Lex or Ley) = 6.60

Lex/h = 16.50
> 10 for unbraced
Ley/b =
22.00
> 10 for unbraced
Hence the column should be designed as slender about both axis

Cover = 75 mm
Vertical r/f bar diameter = 25 mm
Stirrups = 8 mm

h' = 204.5 mm
b' = 304.5 mm

## Assume, 100 Asc/ bh = 4.0%

Ac = 0.96 bh
Nuz = 0.45fcuAc + 0.95fyAsc
= 3652.8 kN
Nbal = 0.25 fcubh
= 900 kN

K = Nuz - N ≤1
Nuz - Nbal
= 1.32
Take, K = 1.00

ax = (1/2000) (lex/b)2 hK
= 54.5 mm

ay = (1/2000) (ley/h)2 bK
= 40.8 mm

= 1.69 kN.m

= 1.27 kN.m

Design moments,
Mx = 70.96 kNm
My = 37.35 kNm

## Direct load at 45deg bend locations,

M x/h' = 347.0 kN
M y /b' = 122.7 kN
Reference Calculations Output

N/ (bhfcu) = 0.009
Appendix D,
Manual for the N/ (bhfcu) < 0.1, Hence design as a beam.
design of Consider major axis,
reinforced
concrete building d = 304.5 mm
structures, 1985 d' = 95.5 mm
d/h = 0.76

## Sec 4.4.5, 0.1fcubd = 274.05 kN

Manual for the Axial load can be ignored since, N< 0.1f cubd
design of
reinforced
concrete building
structures, 1985 K = M/ fcu bd2
= 0.085
K < 0.156
Compression reinforcement not needed
d = 304.5 mm
z = d {0.5+sqrt(0.25-K/0.9)}
= 272.33 mm
x = (d-z)/0.45
= 71.5 mm
As = M/0.87fyz
As = 651 mm2
Provide 2T 20 As, pro = 830 mm2
1T 16 Per face

4T20+4T16

## Table 3-27 BS Asc = 3927.0 mm2

8110 P-1 Ac = 120000 mm2
100 Asc/Ac = 3.27 %
> 0.13%
Satisfied

## Table 3-27 BS Asc = 3927.0 mm2

8110 P-1 Ac = 120000 mm2
100 Asc/Ac = 3.27 %
< 6.0%
Satisfied

## Check for maximum spacing of Main Bars

Maximum Spacing allowable = 250 mm
Spacing of bars = 54.5 mm
< 250mm
Reference Calculations Output
Satisfied

Stirrups size = Greater of 6mm or
(1/4)*vertical bar dia
= 6.0 mm
Selected stirrup size = 8.0 mm Tor steel

## Maximum Spacing of links = 12xBar dia

= 240 mm
Use stirrups as T8 @ 200

## Check for Crack control

0.2 fcu Ac = 720.0 kN
N = 21.4 kN
N < 0.2 fcu Ac
So, Check for crack width
Along major axis
q1 = bx
b = 300.0 mm
x = 95.2 mm
q1 = 28560.0 mm2
As, pro = 830 mm2
m = Es/Ec
Ec = 28 kN/mm2
Es = 200 kN/mm2
m = 7.12
d = 304.50
d' = 95.50
As ' = 829.7 mm2
g = 0.5q1x+mAsd+(m-1)A'sd'
q1+mAs+(m-1)A's
= 92.1 mm
e = M/N
Service bending moment, M = 43.6 kN.m
Service direct load, N = 21.4 kN
e = 2034 mm
h = 400 mm
d = 305 mm
d' = 96 mm
k1 = (e+g)/d+1
= 7.982
k2 = x/2d(1-x/3d)
= 0.140
k3 = (m-1)(1-d'/x)
= -0.019
fc = Nk1
k2bd+k3A's(1-d'/d)
= 13.376 N/mm2
fs = fc (0.5q1+k3A's)-N
As
= 204.1 N/mm2
Check x = d/ (1+(fs/mfc))
= 96.9 mm
εs = fs / E s
Reference Calculations Output
= 0.0010207
εh = (h-x)/(d-x) εs
= 0.0015
εmh = h (b(h-x)2)/3EsAs(d-x)
ε -
= 0.0012
acr = sqrt(s/22+dc2) - φ/2
= 79.1 mm
Wcr = 3acrεm/(1+2(acr-cmin)/(h-x)))
= 0.191 mm
<0.3 Satisfied

## Characteristic axial load on footing F = 30.06 kN

Ultimate axial load on footing F = 43.08 kN

## Characteristic moments on footing

Cl.3.11 BS 8110
P-1 Mx = 43.6 kNm
My = 22.6 kNm
Ultimate moments on footing
Mx = 70.96 kNm
My = 37.35 kNm

My

Mx
3300

1750

## Allowable bearing capacity = 75 kN/m2

Footing size = qapp/qall
= 0.633 m
Select,
B = 1.750 m
L = 3.300 m
d = 0.500 m
FOS = 3.0
Ultimate bearing capacity = 225 kN/m2
qo = 7.5 kN/m2
< qult ok
Reference Calculations Output

## Design for moment

Equivalent eccentricity, e = M/N

N= 30.1 kN

Mx = 43.6 kN.m

3.300

ex = 1449.2 mm
L/6 = 550.00 mm
e > L/6
Length of pressure diagram, y = 3 (L/2-e)
= 602.43 mm
Using simple elastic analysis,
Pmax = 2N/ (3B(D/2-e))
B = 1.8 m
Pmax = 57.0 kN/m2
Pmax < qall

N= 30.1 kN

My = 22.6 kN.m

1.750

ey = 750.2 mm
B/6 = 291.67 mm
e > L/6
Length of pressure diagram, y = 3 (L/2-e)
= 374.26 mm
Using simple elastic analysis,
Pmax = 2N/ (3B(D/2-e))
B = 3.3 m
Pmax = 48.7 kN/m2
Pmax < qall

## Base thickness = 400 mm

Cover = 75 mm
Bar size = 12 mm
Effective depth, d = 319 mm
fcu = 30 N/mm2

## Select 1m strip along y axis

Mx = 71.0 kN.m
400

3250 1000
Reference Calculations Output

% of moment redistribution = 0
K' = 0.156
K = M/ fcu bd2
= 0.023 kN.m
K < K'
Compression reinforcement not needed,
d = 319.0 mm
z = d {0.5+sqrt(0.25-K'/0.9)}
= 247.83 mm
x = (d-z)/0.45
= 158.2 mm
As = M/0.87f y
z
As,req = 715 mm2
No of bars = 6.33
Spacing = 158
Provide T 12 @ 150 As, pro = 867 mm2
Reference Calculations Output
Reference Calculations Output