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# Lecture 13: Introduction to Yield

Criterion
Jayadeep U. B.
Dept. of Mechanical Engg., NIT Calicut.
Introduction
In an idealized setting, yielding is the transition from elastic
regime to (elasto-)plastic regime.
In a uniaxial test, the yielding occurs when the axial stress
exceeds the yield strength of the material.
However, such a criterion cannot be used for other states of
stress, and it is impossible to conduct experiments for all
conceivable stress states.
The purpose of a yield criterion is to predict yielding for an
arbitrary state of stress.
The material constants required in the yield criterion is obtained
from simple experiments, notably the uniaxial tensile test.

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What is a Yield Criterion?
A yield criterion is a scalar function of the given state of
stress, value of which can be compared with a critical value to
decide whether the material has yielded.
Hence, a yield criterion is a mathematical model, which
relates the experimental results obtained under standard
conditions (e.g., 1-D state of stress) to a general condition
(say, 3-D state of stress).
It is a usual practice to express the yield criterion in the form
f(σ) = 0. When f(σ) < 0, the material is elastic and the
condition f(σ) > 0 can not occur (details later).

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Characteristics of a Yield Criterion
Yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress – A yield criterion should
depend only on the deviatoric part of stress tensor.
Since the material is assumed to be isotropic, the yield criterion should
be independent of specific directions → yield criterion should depend
only on the invariants of deviatoric part of the stress tensor.
Yield point is assumed to be same for tension and compression, hence the
yield criterion should be symmetric in all stress directions → the yield
function should not change if the stress tensor σ is replaced by –σ .
Hence, the yield criterion could be any function of the second invariant,
but an even function of the third invariant (Why not first invariant?).
The yield function should be a convex function → Increasing the stresses
in a given direction should not lead to an elastic state after the material
has undergone yielding at an earlier point during loading. This is an
observation for isotropic case, but an assumption for anisotropic case!
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Stress Space Representation and the
Deviatoric Plane
Since the principal stress directions are orthogonal, we can create a
Cartesian coordinate system, with principal directions as axes.
Representation of any state of stress in such a coordinate system
(using principal stress values) is called stress space representation.
Any hydrostatic state of stress will be a point on a line, which is
equally inclined to all the three axes.
Deviatoric stress tensor correspond to a plane perpendicular to the
hydrostatic stress line. This plane is called deviatoric plane or π-
plane with the equation: σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 = 0
Yield criterion, when represented on deviatoric plane is a cylinder
(need not be circular) of infinite length, with axis along hydrostatic
stress line (since it is independent of hydrostatic stress).
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Stress Space Representation
The yield criterion
can be represented
in principal stress
space as shown in
the figure:

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Yield Criterion on Deviatoric Plane
Yield function or yield locus should be a closed, convex curve on the
deviatoric plane.
The yielding should depend only on the principal stress values and not
their directions in case of an isotropic material i.e., if (σ1, σ2, σ3) = (p,
q, r) leads to yielding, (σ1, σ2, σ3) = (p, r, q) also should lead to
yielding. Hence yield locus should be symmetric about the projected
σ1, σ2 & σ3 axes.
Similarly, changing the signs of all stresses should not affect yielding
(assuming Bauschinger effect is not present). So any radial line drawn
from any point on the yield locus should meet the yield locus again at
the same distance from the origin. Hence the yield locus should be
symmetric about lines perpendicular to the projected principal axes.
Therefore, the shape of the yield locus is repeated over the twelve 30o
segments, by the six diameters as shown in figure (in next slide).
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Yield Criterion on Deviatoric Plane contd.…
σ2

-σ3
-σ1

σ3
σ1

-σ2
Note: Yield criterion is called regular if the locus has a continuously
turning tangent everywhere, and singular when it has sharp corners.
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Concluding Remarks
Based on the experimental observations, we have concluded that
the yield criterion should be a function of the invariants of the
deviatoric part of the stress tensor.
In addition it should be a closed, convex figure on the deviatoric
plane, made of twelve repeating segments.
Many of the yield criteria proposed earlier (like maximum stress
criterion) do not satisfy these requirements.
There are two important yield criteria which satisfy all these
requirements.
von Mises yield criterion proposed in 1913 (a regular criterion).
Tresca yield criterion proposed in 1864 (a singular criterion).

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References
Chakrabarty, J., Theory of plasticity, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Hill, R., The mathematical theory of plasticity, Oxford University
Press.