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Criterion

Jayadeep U. B.

Dept. of Mechanical Engg., NIT Calicut.

Introduction

In an idealized setting, yielding is the transition from elastic

regime to (elasto-)plastic regime.

In a uniaxial test, the yielding occurs when the axial stress

exceeds the yield strength of the material.

However, such a criterion cannot be used for other states of

stress, and it is impossible to conduct experiments for all

conceivable stress states.

The purpose of a yield criterion is to predict yielding for an

arbitrary state of stress.

The material constants required in the yield criterion is obtained

from simple experiments, notably the uniaxial tensile test.

What is a Yield Criterion?

A yield criterion is a scalar function of the given state of

stress, value of which can be compared with a critical value to

decide whether the material has yielded.

Hence, a yield criterion is a mathematical model, which

relates the experimental results obtained under standard

conditions (e.g., 1-D state of stress) to a general condition

(say, 3-D state of stress).

It is a usual practice to express the yield criterion in the form

f(σ) = 0. When f(σ) < 0, the material is elastic and the

condition f(σ) > 0 can not occur (details later).

Characteristics of a Yield Criterion

Yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress – A yield criterion should

depend only on the deviatoric part of stress tensor.

Since the material is assumed to be isotropic, the yield criterion should

be independent of specific directions → yield criterion should depend

only on the invariants of deviatoric part of the stress tensor.

Yield point is assumed to be same for tension and compression, hence the

yield criterion should be symmetric in all stress directions → the yield

function should not change if the stress tensor σ is replaced by –σ .

Hence, the yield criterion could be any function of the second invariant,

but an even function of the third invariant (Why not first invariant?).

The yield function should be a convex function → Increasing the stresses

in a given direction should not lead to an elastic state after the material

has undergone yielding at an earlier point during loading. This is an

observation for isotropic case, but an assumption for anisotropic case!

4 ME6302 Metal Forming

Stress Space Representation and the

Deviatoric Plane

Since the principal stress directions are orthogonal, we can create a

Cartesian coordinate system, with principal directions as axes.

Representation of any state of stress in such a coordinate system

(using principal stress values) is called stress space representation.

Any hydrostatic state of stress will be a point on a line, which is

equally inclined to all the three axes.

Deviatoric stress tensor correspond to a plane perpendicular to the

hydrostatic stress line. This plane is called deviatoric plane or π-

plane with the equation: σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 = 0

Yield criterion, when represented on deviatoric plane is a cylinder

(need not be circular) of infinite length, with axis along hydrostatic

stress line (since it is independent of hydrostatic stress).

5 ME6302 Metal Forming

Stress Space Representation

The yield criterion

can be represented

in principal stress

space as shown in

the figure:

Yield Criterion on Deviatoric Plane

Yield function or yield locus should be a closed, convex curve on the

deviatoric plane.

The yielding should depend only on the principal stress values and not

their directions in case of an isotropic material i.e., if (σ1, σ2, σ3) = (p,

q, r) leads to yielding, (σ1, σ2, σ3) = (p, r, q) also should lead to

yielding. Hence yield locus should be symmetric about the projected

σ1, σ2 & σ3 axes.

Similarly, changing the signs of all stresses should not affect yielding

(assuming Bauschinger effect is not present). So any radial line drawn

from any point on the yield locus should meet the yield locus again at

the same distance from the origin. Hence the yield locus should be

symmetric about lines perpendicular to the projected principal axes.

Therefore, the shape of the yield locus is repeated over the twelve 30o

segments, by the six diameters as shown in figure (in next slide).

7 ME6302 Metal Forming

Yield Criterion on Deviatoric Plane contd.…

σ2

-σ3

-σ1

σ3

σ1

-σ2

Note: Yield criterion is called regular if the locus has a continuously

turning tangent everywhere, and singular when it has sharp corners.

8 ME6302 Metal Forming

Concluding Remarks

Based on the experimental observations, we have concluded that

the yield criterion should be a function of the invariants of the

deviatoric part of the stress tensor.

In addition it should be a closed, convex figure on the deviatoric

plane, made of twelve repeating segments.

Many of the yield criteria proposed earlier (like maximum stress

criterion) do not satisfy these requirements.

There are two important yield criteria which satisfy all these

requirements.

von Mises yield criterion proposed in 1913 (a regular criterion).

Tresca yield criterion proposed in 1864 (a singular criterion).

References

Chakrabarty, J., Theory of plasticity, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Hill, R., The mathematical theory of plasticity, Oxford University

Press.

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