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# Introduction to Electronics

## Dr. Ehab Hassan

Spring 2017
Diode Applications
- Full Wave Rectifier and Zener -
Problem Session

## Dr. Ehab Hassan

Diode Applications: Rectifier
Determine the peak-to-peak ripple and dc output voltages in the full-wave rectifier circuit shown in
the figure below.

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Rectifier
Determine the peak-to-peak ripple and dc output voltages in the full-wave rectifier circuit shown in
the figure below.

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Zener Diode
Assume an ideal zener diode with ZZ = 20 Ω, IZK = 1.5 mA, IZM = 100 mA, and VZ = 14 V at 30 mA.
1. Determine the minimum and maximum output voltages required for regulation to be established.
2. Determine the minimum and maximum input voltages produced from regulation.
3. Determine the line regulation for regulation.

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Zener Diode
Assume a zener diode with ZZ = 20 Ω, IZK = 1.5 mA, IZM = 100 mA, and VZ = 14 V at 30 mA.
1. Determine the minimum and maximum output voltages required for regulation to be established.
2. Determine the minimum and maximum input voltages produced from regulation.
3. Determine the line regulation for regulation.

V Z 0 =V ZT −I ZT ×Z Z =14−20(30×10−3 )=13.4 V

−3
V OUT ( min)=V Z 0 +I ZK Z Z =13.4+20(1.5×10 )=13.43 V
−3
V OUT (max)=V Z 0 +I ZM Z Z =13.4+20(100×10 )=15.4 V

−3
V inn(min)=V OUT (min) +I ZK R=13.43+560(1.5×10 )=14.27 V
−3
V inn(max)=V OUT (max)+ I ZM R=15.4+560 (100×10 )=71.4 V

Δ V out 15.4−13.43
%Line Regulation= ×100= ×100=3.6
Δ V inn 69.43−14.27

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Zener Diode
A loaded zener regulator is shown below. The two identical zener diodes have the following
characteristics: VZ = 10 V at IZ = 25 mA, ZZ = 8 Ω, IZK = 1 mA and IZM = 50 mA. Determine:
a. Minimum input voltage that can be regulated.
b. Maximum input voltage that can be regulated.
c. Line regulation factor.

−3
V Z 0 =V ZT −I ZT ×Z Z =10−8(25×10 )=9.8V

−3
V OUT (min)=2(V Z 0 + I ZK Z Z )=2(9.8+8(1×10 ))=19.62 V
−3
V OUT ( max)=2(V Z 0 + I ZM Z Z )=2(9.8+8(50×10 ))=20.4 V

## V OUT (max) 20.4 V OUT (min) 19.62

I L(max)= = =9.3 mA I L(min)= = =9 mA
RL 2200 RL 2200

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Zener Diode
A loaded zener regulator is shown below. The two identical zener diodes have the following
characteristics: VZ = 10 V at IZ = 25 mA, ZZ = 8 Ω, IZK = 1 mA and IZM = 50 mA. Determine:
a. Minimum input voltage that can be regulated.
b. Maximum input voltage that can be regulated.
c. Line regulation factor.

## I T (min)= I L(min)+ I ZK =10 mA

−3
V inn (min)=V OUT (min) +I T (min) R=19.62+325(10×10 )=22.87 V
−3
V inn (max)=V OUT ( max)+ I T (max ) R=20.4+325 (59.3×10 )=39.7 V

Δ V out 20.4−19.62
%Line Regulation= ×100= ×100=0.034
Δ V inn 39.61−22.87
Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Zener Diode
A loaded zener regulator with VZ = 5.1 V at IZ = 49 mA, IZK = 1 mA, ZZ = 7 Ω, and IZM = 70 mA.
(1) Determine the minimum and maximum output voltages.
(2) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible total currents.
(3) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible load currents.
(4) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible load resistance.
(5) Determine the load regulation.

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Zener Diode
A loaded zener regulator with VZ = 5.1 V at IZ = 49 mA, IZK = 1 mA, ZZ = 7 Ω, and IZM = 70 mA.
(1) Determine the minimum and maximum output voltages.
(2) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible total currents.
(3) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible load currents.
(4) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible load resistance.
(5) Determine the load regulation.
−3
V Z 0 =V ZT −I ZT ×Z Z =5.1−7(49×10 )=4.757 V
−3
V OUT ( min)=V Z 0 +I ZK Z Z =4.757 +7(1.0×10 )=4.764 V
−3
V OUT (max)=V Z 0 +I ZM Z Z =13.4+20(100×10 )=5.247 V

## V inn −V OUT (max) 8−5.247

I T (min)= = =125 mA
R 22
V inn−V OUT (min) 8−4.764
I T (max)= = =147 mA
R 22

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Diode Applications: Zener Diode
A loaded zener regulator with VZ = 5.1 V at IZ = 49 mA, IZK = 1 mA, ZZ = 7 Ω, and IZM = 70 mA.
(1) Determine the minimum and maximum output voltages.
(2) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible total currents.
(3) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible load currents.
(4) Determine the minimum and maximum permissible load resistance.
(5) Determine the load regulation.

## I L(min)=I T ( min)− I ZM =125−70=55 mA

I L(max)=I T (max)−I ZK =147−1=146 mA

## V OUT ( min) 4.764

R L(min)= = =32.63 Ω
I L(max) 0.146
V OUT (max) 5.247
R L(max)= = =95.4 Ω
I L(min) 0.055

Δ V out 5.247−4.764
%Load Regulation= ×100= ×100=10.14
V OUT (min) 4.764

Diode Applications: Rectifier & Zener Dr. Ehab Hassan Spring 2017
Dr. Ehab Hassan