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Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN  More

2/19/18, 3)59 PM Its All About Education and Knowledge. MONDAY, 28 MARCH 2011

FLASH TANK DESIGN

To determine the Flash temperature, we’ll have to determine the Dew Point and the Bubble Point Temperatures. To calculate the Bubble Point Temperature, we assume that all of our feed is saturated liquid. We assume a temperature and at that temperature, the K value for the component is determined. Then by multiplying this K value with the liquid weight fraction, we get the vapor fractions. The sum of these fractions should be unity in order to have the correct Bubble Point Temperature. So we see that it’s a hit-and-trial method. Similarly, we assume a temperature and at that temperature we determine the K value for the component. Then we assume that all of our feed is saturated vapor. So dividing these fractions with the K values, we get liquid fractions; whose sum should be unity. If the sum of liquid fractions is unity then our assumed Dew Point is correct. Taking the arithmetic average of this Bubble Point and Dew Point Temperatures, we get the Flash Temperature. K values for Iodomethane and Acetic Acid has been determined directly from the Himmelblau Software. The equation that this software uses is V.P = A- {B/(T + C)} Here A,B and C are empirical constants while T is the assumed temperature. By dividing this Vapor Pressure (V.P) by the total pressure, we get the K value. K values for Water and Methyl Acetate have been determined by using the empirical relation given in Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook. The relation is:

V.P = exp [C1+C2/T + (C3*lnT) + (C4*TC5)] * 9.869233E-06 atm

Here C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5 all are empirical constants and there value is given in Chemical

Engineer’s Handbook by Perry. The Vapor Pressure thus obtained is divided by the total pressure to

get the K value at the assumed temperature. The process of calculating Bubble Point and the Dew

Point Temperature is given below:

 CompoundCompound XiXi KK atat 101101 oo CC K*XiK*Xi Acetic Acid 0.632 0.416 0.263 Methyl Acetate 0.215 2.673 0.574 Iodomethane 0.018 3.682 0.065 Water 0.136 0.736 0.100 1.000 1.002

This employs that our Bubble Point Temperature is 101 o C.

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Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN

2/19/18, 3)59 PM

 CompoundCompound YiYi KK atat 119119 oo CC Yi/KYi/K Acetic Acid 0.632 0.739 0.855 Methyl Acetate 0.215 4.163 0.052 FLAG COUNTER Iodomethane 0.018 5.469 0.003 Water 0.136 1.348 0.101 1.000 1.011 This determines our Dew Point Temperature which comes out to be 119 o C. Now: Flash Temperature = (101 + 119)/2 = 110 o C Determining the Vapor and Liquid Flows:- Determination of Vapors going out and the liquid draining the drum is a result of some lethal calculations. These calculations are explained over here. First we make a material balance for a single component. It yields: Fx ﬁ = Vy i + Lx i ………….Eq. I From Henry’s Law, we have: x i = y i /K FOLLOWERS Putting this value in Eq.I, we get: Followers (4) Fx ﬁ = Vy i + L (y i /K)……….Eq. II    ð y i = Fx ﬁ / (V + L/K) Since F = V + L which employs that V = F – L, therefore; y i = Fx ﬁ / (F- L + L/K) y i = x ﬁ / {1 – L/F (1 – 1/K)} Also from Eq. II, we can write that y i V = Fx ﬁ / (1 + L/VK)……… Eq. III Which employs that: y i = (Fx ﬁ / V) / (1 + L/KV)…… Eq. IV Now after determining y i ’s, we can calculate x i ’s by using the K values from the expression: y i = K i x i where K i is determined by using the relation K i = V.P/P V.P stands for Vapor Pressure at the speciﬁed Flash Temperature. Eq. III can be written in the form as: i=c i=c Σ i=1 (y i V) = Σ i=1 {Fx ﬁ / (1 + L/KV)}…… Eq. V

Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN

2/19/18, 3)59 PM

 Procedure to be followed for Flash Calculations:- So simplifying all the procedure, we come to know that if we are to calculate V, L, y i ’s and x i ’s then we’ll have to follow these steps: 1. Assume V. 2. Calculate L = F – V 3. Calculate L / V 4. Look up for K values at Flash Temperature and Total Vessel Pressure 5. Substitute values in; i=c V = Σ i=1 {Fx ﬁ / (1 + L/KV)} If equality is obtained between the assumed V and the calculated V, then the assumed value is satisfactory. 6. Calculate y i ’s from Eq. IV 7. Calculate x i ’s from y i = K i x i Now using this procedure the values of V, L, y i ’s and x i ’s have been calculated for the Flash Drum. Getting started with Design of Flash Drum:- Since our calculations are based upon an hour of operation, so we have the following amount of vapor and liquid ﬂow rates; F L = 1480.196 kg/hr p L = 961.55 kg/m 3 F v = 4664.308 kg/hr p v = 2.654 kg/m 3 Vapor liquid separation factor, which is equal to (F L /F v ) / (p v /p L ) ½ ; comes out to be 0.017. Using the graph, we notice that the Vapor Velocity Factor is equal to 0.35 m/sec.

Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN

2/19/18, 3)59 PM Maximum design vapor velocity is obtained by multiplying the vapor velocity factor with {(p L – p v )/ p L } 0.5 . The value of velocity comes out to be U v = K v * {(p L – p v )/p L } 0.5 U v = 6.653 m/sec If we divide the vapor mass ﬂow rate by the density, we get the volumetric ﬂow rate. So V L = 0.488 m 3 /sec Dividing volumetric ﬂow rate by the vapor velocity, we get the minimum cross sectional area of the drum. Hence A min = V L /U v A min = 0.073 m 2 From this minimum cross sectional area, we can calculate the minimum diameter for the vessel. The minimum diameter is: D min = 0.306 m Actual internal diameter is obtained by adding 6in to this minimum diameter. Therefore D = 0.458 m For a vertical Flash Drum the surge time is in the range of 4 to 7 min and that for a horizontal vessel, it ranges between 7 to 12 min. Flash Drum used in Cativa Process has a surge time of 5 min. So multiplying this time with the liquid volumetric ﬂow rate, we get the liquid volume held in the ﬂash drum. Liquid Volume = V L * 300 Liquid Volume = 0.128 m 3 Since the vessel is cylindrical, therefore its volume is equal to 3.145*(radius) 2 *height. Using this

Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN

2/19/18, 3)59 PM

 relation, we can determine the liquid height in the vessel. The liquid height comes out to be: Liquid Height = 0.779 m Now both H. Silla and Coulson have suggested the following formula for determining the vapor height in the vessel. This formula is: Vapor Height = 1.5* D + 0.4 Vapor Height = 1.087 m Now by adding the liquid and vapor heights, we can determine the total internal height of the vessel. Thus Total Height = 1.866 m The L/D ratio for the Flash Drum comes out to be 4.072 which is a satisfactory value. This ratio actually determines the type of vessel. It tells us that whether we should go for a horizontal vessel or a vertical one. If the value of L/D ratio is between 3 and 5, then a vertical ﬂash drum is used. If its value exceeds 5, then a horizontal vessel should be employed. Material of construction:- Though material of construction is the part of mechanical design of the equipment but we can predict about it. Since we are dealing with acidic, corrosive ﬂuid; therefore we’ll have to look for a material that is corrosion resistant. We come across two important choices that are corrosion resistant as well as economical. The ﬂash drum can either be manufactured from Stainless Steel or we may make use of Aluminium. We can use either of the materials. Both have good mechanical strength, quite resistant to corrosion and are also cheap. Most of the heat transfer equipment in industry is made up from Aluminium Alloys. We are not that concerned with the heat transfer over here, so stainless steel is recommended as the priority material of construction. Posted by Educator at 23:47 7 comments: Partha Engineer 8 January 2015 at 02:29 I really loved reading your blog. It was very well authored and easy to understand. Unlike other blogs, I have read which are really not good like this. Thanks a lot! Heat Exchangers || Columns || Mixers Partha Engineer 8 January 2015 at 02:29 I like the valuable information you provide in your blog. I will bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I'm quite certain I will learn many new stuff right here! Best of luck for the next! Thank you for share. Blenders || Autoclaves || Pressure Vessels Partha Engineer 8 January 2015 at 02:30 I would like to say that this blog really convinced me to do it ! Thanks, very good. We are

Its All About Education and Knowledge.: FLASH TANK DESIGN

2/19/18, 3)59 PM

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