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Designation: B 740 – 02

Standard Specification for


Copper-Nickel-Tin Spinodal Alloy Strip1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 740; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope * E 290 Test Method for Bend Testing of Material for Duc-
1.1 This specification establishes requirements for copper- tility3
nickel-tin alloy strip in the following alloys: E 478 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper
Nominal Composition Weight %
Alloys4
Copper Alloy UNS No.
Copper Nickel Tin
C72700 85 9 6 3. General Requirements
C72900 77 15 8
C72650 87.5 7.5 5
3.1 The following sections of Specification B 248 constitute
a part of this specification:
1.2 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units and the 3.1.1 Terminology,
values stated in SI units in Table 5 are to be regarded as 3.1.2 Materials and Manufacture,
standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical 3.1.3 Dimensions and Permissible Variations,
conversions to SI units and are provided for information only 3.1.4 Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance,
and are not considered standard. 3.1.5 Sampling,
3.1.6 Significance of Numerical Limits,
2. Referenced Documents
3.1.7 Inspection,
2.1 The following documents of the issue in effect on date 3.1.8 Rejection and Rehearing,
of material purchase form a part of this specification to the 3.1.9 Certification,
extent referenced herein: 3.1.10 Test Reports, and
2.2 ASTM Standards: 3.1.11 Packaging and Package Marking.
B 248 Specification for General Requirements for Wrought 3.2 In addition, when a section with a title identical to that
Copper and Copper-Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled referenced in 3.1 above appears in this specification, it contains
Bar2 additional requirements that supplement those appearing in
B 598 Practice for Determining Offset Yield Strength in Specification B 248.
Tension for Copper Alloys2
B 601 Classification for Temper Designations for Copper 4. Terminology
and Copper Alloys—Wrought and Cast2 4.1 For definitions of terms related to copper and copper
B 820 Test Method for Bend Test for Formability of Copper alloys, refer to Terminology B 846.
Alloy Spring Material2
B 846 Terminology for Copper and Copper Alloys2 5. Ordering Information
E 3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens3 5.1 Include the following information in orders for prod-
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials3 ucts:
E 75 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper-Nickel 5.1.1 Specification number and date,
and Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloys4 5.1.2 Quantity,
5.1.3 Copper Alloy UNS number (see 1.1),
1
5.1.4 Form of material: strip,
This specification is under the ASTM Committee B05on Copper and Copper
Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B05.01 on Plate, Sheet, and 5.1.5 Temper (see 7.1),
Strip. 5.1.6 Dimensions: thickness and width, and length if appli-
Current edition approved July 10, 2002. Published September 2002. Originally cable,
published as B 740 – 84. Last previous edition B 740 – 96.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.01.
5.1.7 How furnished: rolls or coils, stock lengths with or
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01. without ends, specific lengths with or without ends, and
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 740 – 02
5.1.8 Type of edge other than slit, for example, rounded 9.1.1 The solution heat-treated or solution heat-treated and
corners, rounded edges, or full-rounded edges. cold-worked material shall conform to the tensile property
5.1.9 When material is purchased for agencies of the U.S. requirements specified in Table 2, when tested in accordance
government, this shall be specified in the contract or purchase with Test Methods E 8.
order, and the material shall conform to the Supplementary 9.1.2 The spinodal heat-treated material shall conform to
Requirements as defined in the current edition of Specification the tensile property requirements specified in Table 3. Spinodal
B 248. heat-treatment parameters are given in 11.1.
5.2 The following options are available and should be 9.1.3 The mill-hardened material shall conform to the ten-
specified at the time of placing of the order when required: sile property requirements specified in Table 4.
5.2.1 Width and straightness tolerances, if different from
those required in Specification B 248. 10. Performance Requirements
5.2.2 Special thickness tolerances if required, 10.1 Bend Testing—The bend test is a method for evaluating
5.2.3 Certification if required, the ductility of mill-hardened copper-nickel-tin spinodal alloy
5.2.4 Mill test report if required, and strip in thicknesses of 0.004 to 0.020 in. (0.102 to 0.508 mm),
5.2.5 Special tests or exceptions, if any. inclusive.
10.1.1 Material in tempers TM00, TM02, TM04, and TM06
6. Chemical Composition shall conform to the bend test requirements specified in Table
6.1 The material shall conform to the requirements specified 4 when tested in accordance with 14.2.1.
in Table 1.
6.2 These specification limits do not preclude the presence 11. Spinodal Heat Treatment
of other elements. Limits for unnamed elements may be 11.1 Solution-heat-treated or solution-heat-treated and cold-
established by agreement between manufacturer or supplier worked material is normally spinodal hardened by the pur-
and purchaser. Copper may be given as remainder and taken as chaser after forming or machining. For the purpose of deter-
the difference between the sum of all elements analyzed and mining conformance to the mechanical properties of Table 3, a
100 %. When all the elements in the table including copper are sample of the as-supplied strip of alloys C72700 and C72900
analyzed, their sum shall be 99.7 % min. material shall be heat treated at 662 6 9°F (3506 5°C) for 11⁄2
h 6 5 min and a sample of the as-supplied strip of alloy
7. Temper C72650 shall be heat treated at 725 6 9°F (385 6 5°C) for 2
7.1 The standard tempers of material are as designated in h 6 5 min. Other heat-treating temperatures and times may be
Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4. Tempers are as follows: TB00 preferred for end products of this material.
(solution heat treated), or with varying additional degrees of 11.2 Special combinations of properties such as increased
cold rolling TD01 to TD12 (solution heat treated with varying ductility, electrical conductivity, dimensional accuracy, endur-
degrees of cold rolling); spinodal hardened from these appro- ance life, improved stress relaxation resistance, resistance to
priate tempers TX00 or TS01 to TS12 (spinodal hardened from elastic drift, and hysteresis in springs may be obtained by
the appropriate solution heat treated or solution heat treated special spinodal-hardening treatments. The mechanical re-
and cold rolled temper); or Mill Hardened TM00 to TM08 quirements of Table 3 do not apply to such special heat
(mill hardened). treatments.
7.2 Other tempers are available and shall be subject to 11.3 Mill-hardened products have been spinodal heat treated
agreement between supplier or manufacturer and purchaser. by the manufacturer. Further thermal treatment is not normally
required.
8. Grain Size for Annealed Tempers
8.1 Product over 0.010 in. (0.25 mm) in thickness shall have 12. Retests
an average grain-size not exceeding the limits prescribed in 12.1 If any lot of material fails to conform to the require-
Table 5. The determinations are made on the separate samples ments of this specification due to inadequate heat treatment,
and in a plane perpendicular to the surface. new samples of material may be resubmitted for test after heat
treatment. Only two such reheat treatments shall be permitted.
9. Mechanical Property Requirements 12.2 If any lot of material fails to conform to the bend test
9.1 Tensile Strength Requirements: requirements of this specification, one retest is permitted if

TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements


Composition, %
Copper Copper, A Nickel, Manga- Nio- Magne-
Previous Lead, Iron,A Zinc,A
Alloy UNS incl incl Tin nese,A bium,A sium,A
Designation max max max
No. Silver Cobalt max max max
C72650 Cu-7.5Ni-5Sn remainder 0.01 0.10 0.10 7.0–8.0 4.5–5.5 0.10 ... ...
C72700 Cu-9Ni-6Sn remainder 0.02B 0.50 0.50 8.5–9.5 5.5–6.5 0.05-0.30 0.10 0.15
C72900 Cu-15Ni-8Sn remainder 0.02B 0.50 0.50 14.5–15.5 7.5–8.5 0.30 0.10 0.15
A
The total of the elements Pb, Fe, Zn, Mn, Nb, and Mg not to exceed 0.7 %.
B
0.005 % Pb, max for hot rolling.

2
B 740 – 02
TABLE 2 Tensile Property Requirements
Tempers: Solution Heat-Treated
Solution Heat-Treated and Cold Worked
YieldD
Temper Designations Tensile
Strength
Copper Alloy Strength, Elongation
(0.05 % Offset),
UNS No. ksiA (MPa)B in 2 in., %
E ksiA (MPa)B
Standard Former min–maxC
min–maxC
C72650 TB00 Solution HT 55–70 21—32 32
(380—480) (145–220)
C72650 TD01 Solution HT and Cold Worked 1⁄4 Hard 60–75 45–60 18
(415–515) (310–415)
C72650 TD02 Solution HT and Cold Worked 1⁄2 Hard 75—85 55–75 5
(515—585) (380–515)
C72650 TD03 Solution HT and Cold Worked 3⁄4 Hard 80–90 68–82 4
(550–620) (470–565)
C72650 TD04 Solution HT and Cold Worked Hard 85–95 77–90 2
(585–655) (530–620)
C72700 TB00 Solution HT 60–80 23–33 30
(410–550) (160–230)
C72700 TD01 Solution HT and Cold Worked 1⁄4 Hard 72–95 48–64 12
(500–660) (330–440)
C72700 TD02 Solution HT and Cold Worked 1⁄2 Hard 82–108 57–80 6
(570–740) (390–550)
C72700 TD04 Solution HT and Cold Worked Hard 97–125 77–100 3
(670–860) (530–690)
C72700 TD08 Solution HT and Cold Worked Spring 110–140 95–115 2
(760–970) (660–790)
C72700 TD12 Solution HT and Cold Worked Special Spring 115–150 105–125 ...
(790–1030) (720–860)
C72900 TB00 Solution HT 64–85 24–40 32
(440–585) (165–275)
C72900 TD01 Solution HT and Cold Worked ⁄ Hard
14 75–100 50–66 18
(515–690) (345–455)
C72900 TD02 Solution HT and Cold Worked 1⁄2 Hard 85–110 65–84 8
(585–760) (450–580)
C72900 TD03 Solution HT and Cold Worked 3⁄4 Hard 95-120 80-100 3
(655-825) (550-690)
C72900 TD04 Solution HT and Cold Worked Hard 100–130 85–108 ...
(690–895) (585–745)
C72900 TD08 Solution HT and Cold Worked Spring 122–145 100–125 ...
(840–1000) (690–860)
C72900 TD12 Solution HT and Cold Worked Special Spring 135–155 110–130 ...
(930–1070) (760–895)
A
1 ksi = 1000 psi.
B
See Appendix X1.
C
Max for reference.
D
As per Practice B 598.
E
As per Classification B 601.

only one of the three specimens fails the test. No retest is 14.1.1 Composition shall be determined, in case of dis-
permitted if two or more specimens fail this test. agreement, as follows:
Element Test Methods
13. Specimen Preparation Copper E 75
Nickel E 478
13.1 Tension test specimens shall be prepared as specified in Tin E 75
Test Methods E 8. The longitudinal axis of the specimen shall Lead E 75
be parallel to the direction of rolling unless otherwise specified. Iron E 75
Zinc E 75
13.2 Specimens for the determination of grain size shall be Manganese E 75
prepared in accordance with Guide E 3.
13.3 For bend testing, three specimens, 1⁄2 6 1⁄16 in. (12.70 14.2 Other Tests:
6 1.59 mm) in width of any convenient length, with the rolling 14.2.1 Bend Test—The axis of the bend shall be at an angle
direction perpendicular to the 1⁄2 in. dimension, shall be of 90° to the direction of rolling, unless otherwise specified.
prepared and tested in accordance with Test Method B 820. The test specimens shall be bent 90 6 5° around the test radius.
To pass the test, all three specimens tested from a lot must
14. Test Methods withstand the 90° bend without visible cracks or fracture when
14.1 Chemical Analysis: observed on the convex surface of the bend at a magnification

3
B 740 – 02
TABLE 3 Tensile Property Requirements
Tempers: Solution Heat Treated and Spinodally Hardened;A
Solution Heat Treated, Cold Worked and Spinodally HardenedA
YieldE
Temper Designations Tensile
Strength
Copper Alloy Strength, Elongation
(0.05 % Offset),
UNS No. ksiB (MPa)C in 2 in., %
F ksiB (MPa)C
Standard Former min–maxD
min–maxD
C72650 TX00 Spinodal HT 120–140 60—95 6
(825—965) (415–655)
C72650 TS01 ⁄ Hard and Spinodal HT
14 130–140 90–115 8
(900–965) (620–790)
C72650 TS02 ⁄ Hard and Spinodal HT
12 135–145 100–125 6
(930—1000) (690–860)
C72650 TS03 ⁄ Hard and Spinodal HT
34 140–150 105–130 6
(965–1035) (725–895)
C72650 TS04 Hard and Spinodal HT 140–155 110–135 4
(965–1070) (760–930)
C72700 TX00 Spinodal HT 100–130 55–99 15
(690–900) (380–680)
C72700 TS01 ⁄ Hard + Spinodal HT
14 115–140 85–112 10
(790–970) (590–770)
C72700 TS02 ⁄ Hard + Spinodal HT
12 125–150 100–123 6
(860–1030) (690–850)
C72700 TS04 Hard + Spinodal HT 135–160 115–135 4
(930–1100) (790–930)
C72700 TS08 Spring + Spinodal HT 145–179 125–150 3
(1000–1230) (860–1030)
C72700 TS12 Special Spring + Spinodal HT 150–180 130–160 2
(1030–1240) (900–1100)
C72900 TX00 Spinodal HT 120–150 95–120 6
(825–1035) (655–825)
C72900 TS01 ⁄ Hard + Spinodal HT
14 130–160 105–130 4
(895–1105) (725–895)
C72900 TS02 ⁄ Hard + Spinodal HT
12 145–175 125–150 3
(1000–1205) (860–1035)
C72900 TS03 ⁄ Hard + Spinodal HT
34 155–185 135–160 2
(1070–1275) (930–1105)
C72900 TS04 Hard + Spinodal HT 165–195 145–170 2
(1140–1345) (1005–1170)
C72900 TS08 Spring + Spinodal HT 175–205 155–185 ...
(1205–1415) (1070–1275)
C72900 TS12 Special Spring + Spinodal HT 180–225 160–200 ...
(1240–1550) (1105–1380)
A
662 6 9°F (350 6 5°C) for 11⁄2h 6 5 min (C72700, C72900); 725 6 9°F (385 6 5°C) for 2 h 6 5 min (C72650).
B
1 ksi = 1000 psi.
C
See Appendix X1.
D
Max for reference.
E
As per Practice B 598.
F
As per Classification B 601.

of 103. The test radius shall be within 66 % of the nominal 15. Keywords
radius up to 0.010 in. (0.254 mm), and within 64 % for radii 15.1 age hardening; copper-nickel-tin; spinodal; strip; UNS
0.010 in. (0.254 mm) and over. C72650; UNS C72700; UNS C72900

4
B 740 – 02
TABLE 4 Mechanical Property Requirements Copper Alloy UNS Nos. C72650 and C72900—Mill Hardened Tempers
Yield Yield
Temper Designations Tensile Minimum
Copper Strength StrengthD Elongation
Strength, 90° Bad Way
Alloys (0.2 % offset)C, (0.05 % offset) in 2 in., %
ksiA (MPa)B Bend Ratio
UNS No. StandardG ksiA (MPa)B ksiA (MPa)B min
Former min–max (R/t)F
min–max min–maxE
C72650 TM00 AM 100–120 70–90 65–85 18 1
(690–825) (480–620) (450–555)
C72650 TM02 ⁄ HM
12 115–135 90–110 85–105 10 2.5
(790–930) (620–760) (585–725)
C72650 TM04 HM 115–135 100–120 95–115 10 3.7
(790–930) (690–830) (655–790)
C72650 TM06 XHM 120–140 105–125 100–120 10 5
(825–965) (725–860) (690–825)
C72650 TM08 XHMS 130–145 115–135 105–125 6 5.5
(895–1000) (790-930) (725-860)
C72900 TM00 AM 95–115 75–95 70–90 22 0
(655–790) (515–655) (480–620)
C72900 TM02 ⁄ HM
12 105–125 90–110 80–105 15 0.5
(725–860) (620–760) (550–725)
C72900 TM04 HM 115–135 105–125 95–120 10 1
(790–930) (725–860) (655–825)
C72900 TM06 XHM 130–150 120–145 105–130 6 6
(895–1035) (825–1000) (725–895)
C72900 TM08 XHMS 150–180 140–170 125–150 2 ...
(1035–1225) (965–1170) (860–1035)
A
1 ksi = 1000 psi.
B
See Appendix X1.
C
For reference.
D
As per Practice B 598.
E
Max for reference.
F
As per Practice B 820. The “t” equals the measured average strip thickness to be tested. The “R” equals the bend radius.
G
As per Classification B 601.

TABLE 5 Grain Size Requirements for Copper Alloy UNS Nos.


C72700 and C72900—Tempers TB00, TX00, and TM00
Maximum
Thickness, Average
in. (mm)A Grain Size,
mmB
Up to 0.030 (0.762) 0.035
Over 0.030 to 0.090 (0.762 to 2.28) 0.045
Over 0.090 to 0.188 (2.28 to 4.78)C 0.060
A
See Appendix X1.
B
Although no minimum grain size is required, this material must be fully
recrystallized.
C
As per Classification B 601.

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. METRIC EQUIVALENTS

X1.1 The SI unit for strength properties now shown is in stress is the newton per square metre (N/m2), which has been
accordance with the International System of Units (SI). The named the pascal (Pa) by the General Conference on Weights
derived SI unit for force is the newton (N), which is defined as and Measures. Since 1 ksi = 6 894 757 Pa, the metric equiva-
that force which when applied to a body having a mass of one lents are expressed as megapascal (MPa), which is the same as
kilogram gives it an acceleration of one metre per second MN/m2 and N/mm2.
squared (N = kg·m/s2). The derived SI unit for pressure or

5
B 740 – 02
SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee B05 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (B 740 – 96)
that may impact the use of this standard.

(1) In Table 1, the correction of iron and zinc limits for UNS (2) The addition of minimum bend test ratios to Table 4.
72650, and manganese range for C 72700. Also, the substitu- (3) Editorial and format changes as required for a 5-year
tion of the chemical symbol Nb, for the obsolete Cb, in review.
footnote A of the table.

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if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
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(www.astm.org).

6
Designation: B 742 – 90 (Reapproved 2000)

Standard Specification for


Fine Silver Electrical Contact Fabricated Material1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 742; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope purposes, are not covered by this specification, because the


1.1 This specification covers fine silver grade 99.9 % in mechanical properties can be appreciably different.
fabricated form. The forms covered are tubing, rod, wire, strip, 4. Ordering Information
and sheet for electrical contact applications.
1.2 The electrical contact properties may vary dependent 4.1 Orders for material under this specification shall include
upon the method of manufacture (refer to 6.3). the following information:
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the 4.1.1 Quantity (weight usually in troy ounces, or number of
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the units).
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 4.1.2 Name of material (fine silver).
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- 4.1.3 Temper.
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. It is also the 4.1.4 Dimensions; thickness, width, length, diameter, coil
responsibility of the user to become familiar with all hazards, size, or other pertinent sizes.
including those identified in the appropriate Material Safety 4.1.4.1 Form of Material: sheet, strip, disks, blanks, wire,
Data Sheet for this material as provided by the manufacturer. shaped wire, or other.
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded 4.1.4.2 Form Furnished: flat lengths, coils, rod, straight
as the standard. The SI units may be approximate. lengths, or other.
4.1.5 ASTM designation and date of issue.
2. Referenced Documents 4.1.6 Additions to the specification and supplementary re-
2.1 ASTM Standards: quirements, if required.
B 413 Specification for Refined Silver2 5. General Requirements
B 476 Specification for General Requirements for Wrought
Precious Metal Electrical Contact Materials2 5.1 The provisions of Specification B 476 shall apply to all
materials produced to this specification.
3. Classification
6. Manufacture
3.1 This specification presently defines only one grade of
fine silver, 99.90 % minimum silver. It differs from the Grade 6.1 The materials used for making this product shall be of
99.90 referred to in Specification B 413 in that the chemical such quality and purity that the finished material will conform
limits are slightly different. The reason for this is that Speci- to the requirements and properties prescribed in this specifica-
fication B 413 refers to “refined silver in cast bar form,” tion.
whereas this Specification covers fabricated forms. The prop- 6.2 The material shall be produced by either hot or cold
erties of silver are greatly dependent upon the amount and type working operations. It should be finished by such cold working
of elements present, up to 0.10 %. and annealing as may be necessary to meet the properties
3.2 Other types of silver containing appreciably lesser specified.
amounts of impurities, and those with additives for special 6.3 After the initial shipment and approval has been made,
the supplier must notify the purchaser prior to making any
significant changes in process techniques, basic formulation, or
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on other factors that might affect the quality or the electrical
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee contact characteristics, such as weld resistance or erosion. Such
B2.05 on Precious Metals.
Current edition approved Aug. 31, 1990. Published January 1991. Originally
changes in process shall be immediately brought to the
published as B 742 – 85. Last previous edition B 742 – 85. attention of the purchaser for determination of the necessity for
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04. requalification.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 742 – 90 (2000)
7. Chemical Composition 8.2 Since it is not always possible to tension test some parts
7.1 Material produced under this specification shall meet the and shapes, the user and supplier should reach an agreement
requirements of chemical composition prescribed in Table 1. with respect to the type of hardness tests and the acceptable
7.2 By agreement between the purchaser and the manufac- range that should be applicable.
turer, analysis may be required and limits established for 8.3 All test specimens shall be full size when practical.
elements or compounds not specified in the table of chemical 8.4 All tests shall be conducted at room temperature, 65 to
composition. 85°F (18 to 29°C).
8. Mechanical Properties
8.1 The material shall conform to the mechanical properties 9. Inspection and Testing
prescribed in Table 2 or Table 3. 9.1 All material produced to this specification shall be
inspected as detailed in the provisions of Specification B 476.
TABLE 1 Chemical CompositionA
Element Weight % 10. Certification
Silver 99.90 min (by difference)
Silver and copper 99.95 min 10.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
Copper 0.10 max producer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished to the
Nickel 0.002 max
Cadmium 0.005 max purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled, tested,
Zinc 0.005 max and inspected in accordance with this specification and has
Lead 0.025 max
Iron 0.005 max
been found to meet the requirements. When specified in the
Aluminum 0.002 max purchase order or contract, a report of the test results shall be
Bismuth 0.001 max furnished.
Total others 0.05 max
Total of all impurities 0.10 max
A
Elements, such as phosphorus, sodium, and lithium are not natural impurities
11. Keywords
in this grade of silver and thus are not normally found in any appreciable quantities.
However, since they may be detrimental for certain electrical contact applications,
11.1 contact; electrical contact; fine silver; silver; wrought
limits for these and other elements may be established by agreement between the
purchaser and manufacturer. Refer to 7.2.

2
B 742 – 90 (2000)
TABLE 2 Mechanical Properties of Sheet and Strip

NOTE 1—These hardness values are listed as “Typical,” because of the difficulty in establishing a range meaningful for all the thicknesses possible.
If the purchaser desires hardness specifications, rather than tensile strengths, he shall reach agreement with the supplier as to the proper and suitable
hardness scale and range for the particular size and form ordered.
Ultimate Tensile Typical
Reduction Minimum
Percent Strength, psi (MPa) (see Note 1)
in B & S Elongation
Temper Reduction Hardness
Numbers in 2-in.
(Reference) Rockwell,
(Reference) Minimum Maximum (51 mm), %
15 T
Annealed 0 0 24 000 (165) 30 000 (207) 25 59 max
1⁄2 H 2 21 30 000 (207) 37 000 (255) 8 72
Hard 4 37 37 000 (255) 44 000 (303) 3 76
Spring 8 60 44 000 (303) 51 000 (352) 1 80

TABLE 3 Mechanical Properties of Wire and Rod


Reduction Ultimate Tensile Minimum
Percent
in B & S Strength, psi (MPa) Elongation
Temper Reduction
Numbers in 2 in.
(Reference) Minimum Maximum
(Reference) (51 mm), %
Annealed 0 0 24 000 (165) 30 000 (207) 25
1⁄8 H 1⁄2 11 26 000 (179) 33 000 (228) 15
1⁄4 H 1 21 30 000 (207) 37 000 (255) 4
1⁄2 H 2 37 39 000 (269) 46 000 (317) 4
Hard 4 60 42 000 (290) 49 000 (338) 2
Spring 8 84 46 000 (317) 54 000 (372) 1

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

The following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the purchaser in the
inquiry, contract, or order, for agencies of the U.S. Government.

S1. Referenced Documents contract or purchase order, the manufacturer may use his own
S1.1 The following documents of the issue in effect on date or any other suitable facilities for the performance of the
of material purchase form a part of this specification to the inspection and test requirements unless disapproved by the
extent referenced herein: purchaser at the time the order is placed. The purchaser shall
S1.1.1 Federal Standards 3 have the right to perform any of the inspections and tests set
Fed. Std. No. 102 Preservation. Packaging and Packing forth when such inspections and tests are deemed necessary to
Levels. assure that the material conforms to prescribed requirements.
Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment (Civil Agencies) S3. Preparation for Delivery
S1.1.2 Military Standards 3
S3.1 Preservation, Packaging, Packing
MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage
S3.1.1 Civil Agencies—The requirements of Fed. Std. No.
S2. Quality Assurance 102 shall be referenced for definitions of the various levels of
packaging protection.
S2.1 Responsibility for Inspection—Unless otherwise speci-
S3.2 Marking:
fied in the contract or purchase order, the manufacturer is
S3.2.1 Military Agencies—In addition to any special mark-
responsible for the performance of all inspection and test
ing required by the contract or purchase order, marking for
requirements specified. Except as otherwise specified in the
shipment shall be in accordance with MIL-STD-129.
S3.2.2 Civil Agencies—In addition to any special marking
3
Available from Standardization Documents, Order Desk, Bldg. 4, Section D, required by the contract or purchase order, marking for
700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, ATTN: NPODS. shipment shall be in accordance with Fed. Std. No. 123.

3
B 742 – 90 (2000)
APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. TYPICAL PROPERTY VALUES

X1.1 The following is a list of typical property values that NOTE X1.1—The typical values listed for conductivity and resistivity
are useful for engineering calculations in electrical contact can vary. They depend upon the purity and the temper. For this reason,
design and application. even ranges of 95 to 103 % IACS for electrical conductivity and 1.67 to
1.81 µV·cm for resistivity can be exceeded.
Electrical conductivity, % IACS 100 (Note X1.1) NOTE X1.2—The freezing point of silver is a defined fixed point,
(volume basis)
Resistivity, µV·cm 1.72 (Note X1.1)
according to the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968.4
Freezing point 961.93°C (1763.5°F) (Note X1.2)
Density approximately 20°C 10.49 Mg/m3(g/cm3)
Coefficient of thermal expansion, 19.68 µm/m·K (10.93 µin./in.°F) 4
For further information, refer to Symposium on Evolution of the International
Linear at 0 to 20°C Practical Temperature Scale of 1968, ASTM STP 565, ASTM, 1968.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 741 – 95 (Reapproved 2000)

Standard Test Method for


Porosity In Gold Coatings On Metal Substrates By Paper
Electrography 1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 741; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope B 276 Test Method for Apparent Porosity in Cemented


1.1 This test method covers equipment and techniques for Carbides 5
determining porosity in gold coatings, particularly electrode- B 374 Terminology Relating to Electroplating 6
posits and clad metals used on electrical contacts. B 537 Practice for Rating of Electroplated Panels Subjected
1.2 This test method is designed to show whether the to Atmospheric Exposure 5
porosity level is less or greater than some value which by B 542 Terminology Relating to Electrical Contacts and
experience is considered by the user to be acceptable for the Their Use 5
intended application. B 735 Test Method for Porosity in Gold Coatings on Metal
1.3 This test method is suitable for flat surfaces, or with Substrates by Nitric Acid Vapor 6
appropriate fixtures, for gently curved surfaces. B 765 Guide for Selection of Porosity Tests for Electrode-
1.4 A variety of other porosity testing methods are described posits on Related Metallic Coatings 5
in Guide B 765 and in the literature. Detailed critical reviews B 798 Test Method for Porosity in Gold or Palladium
of porosity testing are also available.2 , 3 , 4 Other porosity test Coatings on Metal Substrates by Gel-Bulk Electrography 6
methods are B735, B798, B799, and B809. B 799 Test Method for Porosity in Gold and Palladium
1.5 This test method is specifically designed for use with Coatings by Sulfurous Acid/Sulfur-Dioxide Vapor 6
gold coatings (>95 % gold) on substrates of copper and nickel B 809 Test Method for Porosity in Metallic Coatings by
and their alloys. Although not covered in this standard, Humid Sulfur Vapor (“Flowers-of-Sulfur”) 5
variations of this test method may be found useful in evaluating
3. Terminology
coatings other than gold.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as 3.1 Definitions—Many terms used in this test method are
standard. The values in parenthesis are for information only. defined in Terminology B 542 and terms relating to metallic
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the coatings are defined in Terminology B 374.
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the 3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 3.2.1 decorations—those reaction products emanating from
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- the pores that provide visual contrast with the paper.
bility of regulatory limitations prior to its use. For a specific 3.2.2 measurement area (or 88significant surface’’)—the
precautionary statement, see Note 1. surface that is examined for the presence of porosity. The
significant surfaces or measurement areas of the part to be
2. Referenced Documents tested shall be indicated on the drawing of the part or by
2.1 ASTM Standards: provision of suitably marked samples.
3.2.3 Discussion—For specification purposes, the signifi-
cant surfaces or measurement areas are often defined as those
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on portions of the surface that are essential to the serviceability or
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee function of the part, such as its contact properties, or which can
B02.11 on Electrical Contact Test Methods.
Current edition approved April 15, 1995. Published June 1995. Originally be the source of corrosion products or tarnish films that
published as B 741 – 85. Last previous edition B 741 – 90. interfere with the function of the part.
2
For example: Nobel, F. J., Ostrow, B. D., and Thompson, D. W., “Porosity
Testing of Gold Deposits,” Plating, Vol 52, 1965, p. 1001.
3
Clarke, M., in “Properties of Electrodeposits—Their Measurement and Signifi-
cance,” Edited by Sard, R., Leidheiser, H., and Ogburn, F. The Electrochemical
Society, Princeton, NJ, 1975.
4 5
Krumbein, S. J., “Porosity Testing of Contact Platings,” Proceedings, Connec- Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05.
6
tor and Interconnection Technology Symposium, Oct. 1987, Phila., PA, p. 47. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 741
3.2.4 metallic coatings—include platings, claddings, or of pores per unit area up to a limit where the pore indications
other metallic layers applied to the substrate. The coating can begin to overlap to the extent that counting individual indica-
comprise a single metallic layer or a combination of metallic tions is not feasible.
layers. 5.4 The relationship of porosity levels revealed by particular
3.2.5 porosity—the presence of any discontinuity, crack, or tests to contact behavior must be made by the user of these tests
hole in the coating that exposes a different underlying metal. through practical experience or by judgment. Thus, absence of
3.2.6 underplate—a metallic coating layer between the porosity in the coating may be a requirement for some
substrate and the topmost layer or layers. The thickness of an applications, while a few pores in the contact zone may be
underplate is usually greater than 0.8 µm (30 µin.). acceptable for another.
5.5 The severity of porosity-determining tests may vary
4. Summary of Test Methods from procedures capable of detecting all porosity to procedures
4.1 This test method uses chemically impregnated moist- that detect only highly porous conditions. The test method in
ened paper pressed against the specimen surface at controlled this document is regarded as severe.
pressure. 7 Current is passed from the specimen, which is 5.6 This test method is highly sensitive and is capable of
anodic, to an inert cathode, at a fixed voltage for a specified detecting virtually all porosity or other defects in gold coatings
time. Base metal ions at pore sites migrate to the paper where that could participate in substrate corrosion reactions. The test
a reaction occurs. Depending on the reagents employed, this is rapid, simple, and inexpensive. It provides good pore
gives either colored products or colorless products that can be delineation in areas where there are several pores. The time for
made visible by developing the paper in appropriate chemical this test is usually on the order of 60 s.
vapors or solutions. 5.7 Since the results are printed on paper, a permanent
4.2 This porosity test involves corrosion reactions in which record of the porosity is obtained.
the products delineate defect sites in coatings. Since the
chemistry and properties of these products may not resemble 6. Limitations
those found in natural or service environments, these tests are 6.1 This test is considered destructive in that it reveals the
not recommended for prediction of the electrical performance presence of porosity by attacking the base metal areas and by
of contacts unless correlation is first established with service undercutting the gold coating at pore sites or at the edges of the
experience. gold coated areas. Any parts exposed to this test shall not be
placed in service.
5. Significance and Use 6.2 The paper electrographic procedure is used for gold
5.1 Gold coatings are often specified for the contacts of coatings on substrates of copper or copper alloys with or
separable electrical connectors and other devices. Electrode- without a nickel underlayer. This test is faster than the sulfur
posits are the form of gold that is most used on contacts, dioxide, nitric acid vapor, and gel bulk electrographic tests, but
although it is also employed as clad metal and as weldments on it requires that the test specimen be flat or of such shape that a
the contact surface. The intrinsic nobility of gold enables it to uniform clamping force can be applied.
resist the formation of insulating oxide films that could 6.3 This test is intended to be used for quantitative descrip-
interfere with reliable contact operation. tions of porosity (such as number of pores per unit area or per
5.2 In order that the nobility of gold be assured, porosity, contact) only on coatings that have a pore density sufficiently
cracks, and other defects in the coating that expose base metal low that the corrosion sites are well separated and can be
substrates and underplates must be minimal or absent, except readily resolved. As a general guideline this can be achieved
in those cases where it is feasible to use the contacts in for pore densities up to about 100/cm2. Above this value the
structures that shield the surface from the environment or tests may still be useful for the qualitative detection and
where corrosion inhibiting surface treatments for the deposit comparisons of porosity.
are employed. The level of porosity in the coating that may be
7. Apparatus
tolerable depends on the severity of the environment to the
underplate or substrate, design factors for the contact device 7.1 Regulated Variable Power Supply is required. The volt-
like the force with which it is mated, circuit parameters, and the age shall have a ripple of less than 0.1 V at the working voltage
reliability of contact operation that it is necessary to maintain. and be adjustable from 0 to 5 V with the capability of being set
Also, when present, the location of pores on the surface is to 60.2 V. The power supply shall not develop a voltage
important. If the pores are few in number and are outside of the transient that exceeds the test value by more than 0.1 V. The
zone of contact of the mating surfaces, their presence can often voltmeter shall have a range of at least 0 to 7 V, capable of
be tolerated. readings to 0.2-V resolution. The ammeter shall have a range
5.3 Methods for determining pores on a contact surface are of at least 0 to 10 mA with 0.5-mA resolution.
most suitable if they enable their precise location and numbers 7.2 Press for Clamping Test Specimen and Paper Togeth-
to be determined. This test method is well suited to determin- er is required. The clamping force shall be adjustable so that
ing pore location. It is also well suited to determine the number clamping pressures on the specimen from 0 to 3.4 MPa (0 to
500 lb/in2) can be produced. A means of measuring clamping
force must be provided. The accuracy of the force measure-
7
Noonan, H. N., “Electrographic Determination of Porosity in Gold Electrode- ment must be adequate to assure that the clamping pressure can
posits,” Plating, Vol 53, 1966, pp. 461–470. be measured with an accuracy of 60.3 MPa (650 lb/in2). The

2
B 741
member applying the pressure shall be fabricated from NOTE 2—Caution should be exercised in interpreting the results of this
corrosion-resistant metal such as aluminum, stainless steel, or test with certain substrates or underplates which may passivate with time.
titanium. A pressure member made from these materials shall An example is tin-nickel, a 1:1 intermetallic alloy having a weight
composition of approximately 65 % Sn-35 % Ni. This material is reactive
be lightly abraded periodically to remove the passivating layer in these porosity tests when freshly plated, but becomes passive when
that develops with use. An alternative is to plate the member exposed to air over a period of days to weeks. The“ apparent” porosity of
with a coating of gold sufficiently thick and nonporous to gold at pore sites over such materials may appear to diminish with time,
eliminate corrosion. The pressure member is connected to the following plating.
negative terminal of the power supply and the test specimen to
9.1.3 An alternative developing solution may be prepared
the positive. (see Fig. 1)
by dissolving 0.25 g of rubeanic acid (dithio oxamide, NH2-
7.3 Dye Transfer Paper— cut in pieces large enough to
CSCSNH 2) in 100 mL of ethanol. The ethanol may be warmed
cover the test specimen.
gently to aid in dissolving the solids. Pore decorations on paper
7.4 Timer shall be used to determine the length of the test.
treated with this solution are green for copper ions and purple
7.5 Stereomicroscope having 10X magnification and an
for nickel ions, although the purple may be masked by the
illuminator are required for inspection of the electrographic
green from any copper ions present.
print after the test.
9.2 Method Procedure B—Single Step Method:
8. Reagents 9.2.1 This method uses a combined indicator-electrolyte
solution prepared by adding 20 g/L sodium chloride and
8.1 Use reagent or “certified” grade chemicals in the prepa- 20 g/L of the disodium salt of dimethylglyoxime
ration of all solutions. In the case of ethanol, reagent grade (CH3C:NONaC:NONaCH3·8H 2O) to deionized water. A new
ethanol, or “specially-denatured” (with methyl and isopropyl solution shall be prepared every two weeks or if the solution
alcohols only) may be used. appears other than colorless, whichever occurs first. The
solution shall be stored in a closed container. Pore decorations
9. Solutions
on paper treated with this solution are green for copper ions
NOTE 1—Precaution: Observe good laboratory practice in handling all and red for nickel ions.
chemicals so as to avoid contact of chemicals with the operator’s skin or
eyes. 10. Procedure
9.1 Method Procedure A—Two Step Method: 10.1 Handle specimens as little as possible, and only with
9.1.1 The electrolyte is 0.01 M with respect to both sodium tweezers, microscope-lens tissue, or clean, soft cotton gloves.
chloride and sodium carbonate. It is prepared by dissolving Prior to the test, inspect the samples under 103 magnification
0.59 g of sodium chloride and 1.06 g sodium carbonate in for evidence of particulate matter. If present, such particles
deionized water and adding deionized water to make 1 L. shall be removed by blowing them off with clean, oil-free air.
9.1.2 The developing solution is prepared by first dissolving If this is not successful discard the sample. Then, clean the
the dimethylglyoxime in ethyl alcohol to make a 1 % solution. samples with solvents or solutions that do not contain chlori-
This ethanol solution is then combined with an equal volume of nated hydrocarbons, CFC’s or other known ozone-destroying
deionized water to which a few drops of ammonia have been compounds. The procedure outlined in Note 3 has been found
added. Pore decorations on paper with this developing solution to give satisfactory results for platings with mild to moderate
are red for nickel ions and green-to-brown for copper ions. surface contamination.
NOTE 3—Suggested cleaning procedure:
(1) Keep individual contacts separated if there is a possibility of
damage to the measurement areas during the various cleaning steps.
(2) Clean samples for 5 min in an ultrasonic cleaner which contains a
hot (65–85°C) 2 % aqueous solution of a mildly alkaline (pH 7.5–10)
detergent (such as Micro or Sparkleen).
(3) After ultrasonic cleaning, rinse samples under warm running tap
water for at least 5 s.
(4) Rinse samples ultrasonically for 2 min in fresh deionized water to
remove the last detergent residues.
(5) Immerse in fresh methanol or isopropanol, and ultrasonically
“agitate” for at least 30 s in order to remove the water from the samples.
(6) Remove and dry samples until the alcohol has completely evapo-
rated. If an air blast is used as an aid to drying, the air shall be oil free,
clean, and dry.
(7) Do not touch measurement area of the samples with bare fingers
after cleaning.
(8) Re-inspect samples (under 103 magnification) for particulate matter
on the surface. If particulates are found, repeat the cleaning steps. Surface
cleanliness is extremely important; contaminants, such as plating salts,
FIG. 1 Schematic Diagram of the Paper-Electrography Test organic films, and metal flakes may give erroneous indications of defects,
Method and are unacceptable.

3
B 741
10.2 Soak the dye transfer paper in the electrolyte solution are often counted according to size. A useful sizing technique
for at least 15 but less than 45 min (preferably 20 to 25 min). is to tabulate the pores in accordance with three size ranges.
Remove excess electrolyte from the paper by blotting with a These are (approximately):
filter paper. Do not use paper that has been in contact with the 10.9.1 A 0.005-in. (0.13 mm) diameter or less.
electrolyte for more than 45 min, since the emulsion on the 10.9.2 Between 0.005 and 0.015-in. (0.13 and 0.38-mm)
paper may be excessively softened. This could cause difficulty diameter.
later in the procedure. 10.9.3 Greater than 0.015-in. (>0.38-mm) diameter. For
sizing purposes, the longest dimension is taken as the diameter.
NOTE 4—A good technique when conducting many tests is to initially
immerse three to five strips of paper, then add one strip as one is removed. If two or more, generally circular spots, overlap but appear to
This allows continuous testing with about 5 min between samples. have separate origins, each is counted as an individual pore and
classified in the appropriate size range.
10.3 Place the paper emulsion side (glossy side) down on
the test specimen and slide it under the clamping member. NOTE 5—It is often difficult to determine if decorations on the print
Connect the clamping member to the negative terminal of the which intersect the edge of the gold-coated area originate from defects in
the gold or from the base metal normally present beyond the edge of the
power supply and the test specimen to the positive terminal. gold. It is, therefore, suggested that the supplier and user agree upon a
10.4 Adjust the clamping force and the voltage. Values that procedure for treating such decorations. If the edge of the coated area is
have been found satisfactory are a clamping force sufficient to not critical in the performance of the part, it may be appropriate to
produce 1.0 MPa (150 psi) pressure, a voltage of 2 V 6 10 %, disregard decorations which appear to originate from locations within
and a time of 60 s, 63 s. (see 7.2 for comments on acceptable 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) of the coating edge.
pressure accuracy).
11. Interpretation of Results and Report
10.4.1 If the clamping pressure is too low, background color
from the reagents and base metal appearing at pore sites and 11.1 Report:
coating edges may obscure the color decorations. If the 11.1.1 The porosity evaluation shall be determined and
pressure is too high, so much electrolyte may be squeezed from reported in accordance with one or more of the options
the treated paper that few or no decorations will appear in the described in Guide B 765.
print. This condition can be detected by testing a specimen on 11.1.2 Option 1—The number and size of the pores in the
which a scratch through the coating has been made. significant area. This is converted to a pore density in terms of
10.4.2 The observed current typically falls in the range from number of pores per square centimetre.
0.05 to 0.5 mA/cm2 (0.3 to 3.0 mA/in.2) of specimen area. 11.1.3 Option 2—The percentage of total area covered by
Much lower values indicate an electrical problem such as poor the pores.
contact due to a passivating layer or contamination. The low 11.1.4 Option 3—The area, in square millimetres, of the
current condition produces an inaccurate porosity print. A largest spot on the significant surface.
high-current reading, that is, off scale, indicates a short circuit 11.2 Interpretation of Results:
between the electrodes. This can occur if the paper is out of 11.2.1 In option 1, count individual pores at 103 magnifi-
position. In either event, repeat the test with a new specimen. cation in the significant area of the coating, as defined by the
10.5 Turn off the power, release the clamp, and carefully specification or drawing of the product. In Option 2, compare
peel the paper away from the specimen. results with panels shown in Test Method B 276 and Practice
10.6 If Procedure A with the separate electrolyte and devel- B 537, to those supplied as criteria by the purchaser. In Option
oping solutions is in use, dip the paper in the developing 3, scan for the largest defect.
solution or wipe with a cloth saturated with developing 11.2.2 Criteria (Pass-Fail)—Pass-fail criteria, such as pore
solution. Then place the paper face down on some soft paper count greater than 50/cm2(Option 1), or an area greater than
toweling and press with a roller to remove the excess devel- 1 % (Option 2), or a spot or crack with a total area greater than
oping solution. The paper can then be left to dry face up for 2.5 mm2 (Option 3), should be chosen in conformance to the
about 5 min (heating is usually not necessary with the paper intended function of the coating and the intended use of the
recommended in 7.3). Pore sites will appear as colored spots objected coated. Such criteria should be agreed upon between
(pore decorations) on the white paper. The paper may be kept the supplier and purchaser.
as a permanent record. 12. Precision and Bias
10.6.1 If Procedure B is used, no further development is
required. 12.1 Precision—The precision of this test method is being
10.7 Alternatively, the paper may be dried in an oven investigated with gold-plated coupons having a nickel under-
operating between 50 and 70°C. Drying time will vary depend- plate. Round-robin results from a series of four runs in each
ing on temperature and the size of the paper. Remove the paper laboratory with a test of similar severity gave coefficients of
immediately when it is dry; prolonged heating may cause the variation of less than 20 % in each of three participating
paper to turn brown. laboratories. 8 However, poorer precision was obtained when
10.8 Examine the print under direct illumination (at an the results of the different laboratories were compared.
angle of 75 to 90° to the surface). Either an incandescent lamp
or fluorescent ring light may be used. 8
Krumbein, S. J., and Holden, C. A., “Porosity Testing of Metallic Coatings,”
10.9 If pores are to be counted, duplicate counts shall be Testing of Metallic and Inorganic Coatings, ASTM STP 947, Harding, W. B. and
made of each, and the two readings averaged. Pore decorations DiBari, G. A. eds., ASTM, 1987, p. 193.

4
B 741
12.2 Bias—The porosity of commercially produced contact 13. Keywords
platings is a property with potentially large sample-to sample
13.1 electrography; paper; gold coatings; gold platings;
variability. 8 Since there is no acceptable reference material
metallic coatings; paper electrography; plating porosity; poros-
suitable for determining the bias for porosity testing, bias has
ity testing
not been determined.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

5
Designation: B 743 – 00

Standard Specification for


Seamless Copper Tube in Coils1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 743; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope * B 193 Test Method for Resistivity of Electrical Conductor


1.1 This specification establishes the requirements for seam- Materials3
less copper tube in coils, suitable for use in refrigeration and air B 224 Classification of Coppers2
conditioning or other uses, such as oil lines, gasoline lines, and B 251 Specification for General Requirements for Wrought
so forth. Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube2
1.2 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are stan- B 577 Test Methods for Detection of Cuprous Oxide (Hy-
dard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical con- drogen Embrittlement Susceptibility) in Copper2
versions to SI units, which are provided for information only B 601 Practice for Temper Designations for Copper and
and are not considered standard. Copper Alloys—Wrought and Cast2
1.3 The tube shall be produced of the following coppers. E 2 Methods of Preparation of Micrographs of Metals and
Unless otherwise specified, tubes made from any one of these Alloys (Including Recommended Practice for Photography
coppers may be supplied: as Applied to Metallography)4
Copper Alloy Previously Used
E 3 Practice for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens5
UNS No. Designation Type of Copper E 8 Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Materials6
E 18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell
C10200 OF Oxygen-free without residual deoxidantsA
C10300 ... Oxygen-free, extra low phosphorusA
Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials5
C10800 ... Oxygen-free, low phosphorusA E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to
C12000 DLP Phosphorized, low residual phosphorus Determine Conformance with Specifications5
C12200 DHP Phosphorized, high residual phosphorus
A
E 53 Test Methods for Determination of Copper in Unal-
See Classification B 224.
loyed Copper by Gravimetry7
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded
E 62 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper and
as the standard. The SI values given in parentheses are
Copper Alloys (Photometric Methods)7
provided for information only.
E 112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size5
1.5 The following safety hazards caveat pertains to the test
E 243 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Exami-
method portion, Section 19, of this specification. This standard
nation of Copper and Copper-Alloy Tubes8
does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any,
E 255 Practice for Sampling Copper and Copper Alloys for
associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this
Determination of Chemical Composition9
standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices
E 846 Terminology for Copper and Copper Alloys2
and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior
to use. 3. General Requirements
2. Referenced Documents 3.1 The following sections of Specification B 251 constitute
a part of this specification:
2.1 ASTM Standards:
3.1.1 Sampling,
B 153 Test Method for Expansion (Pin Test) of Copper and
3.1.2 Number of tests and retests,
Copper-Alloy Pipe and Tubing2
3.1.3 Dimensions and permissible variations,
B 170 Specification for Oxygen-Free Electrolytic Copper—
3.1.4 Test specimens, and
Refinery Shapes2

3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.03.
1 4
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B05 on Copper Discontinued. See 1982 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
5
and Copper Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B05.04 on Pipe Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
6
and Tube. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
7
Current edition approved March 10, 2000. Published May 2000. Originally Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
8
published as B 743 – 85. Last previous edition B 743 – 95. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.
2 9
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.01. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.04.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 743 – 00
3.1.5 Significance of numerical limits. 5.2.4 Eddy-current test (see 13.1.1),
3.2 In addition, when a section with a title identical to those 5.2.5 Expansion test (see 12.1.1),
referenced in 2.1 appears in this specification, it contains 5.2.6 Electrical resistivity requirement (see 10.1),
additional information which supplements those appearing in 5.2.7 Certification (see Section 23),
Specification B 251. In case of conflict, this specification shall 5.2.8 Mill test report.
prevail.
6. Materials and Manufacture
4. Terminology
6.1 Material:
4.1 Definitions—For the definitions of terms related to 6.1.1 The material of manufacture shall be cast billet, bar,
copper and copper alloys, refer to Terminology B 846. tube, and so forth of Copper Alloys Nos. C10200, C10300,
4.1.1 coil, n—length of the product wound into a series of C10800, C12000, or C12200 and of such purity and soundness
connected turns. The unqualified term“ coil” as applied to tube as to be suitable for processing in to the product prescribed
usually refers to a bunched coil. herein.
4.1.1.1 bunched, adj—coil in which the turns are bunched 6.2 Manufacture:
and held together such that the cross section of the bunched 6.2.1 The tube shall be manufactured by such hot and cold
turns is approximately circular. working processes needed to produce a homogenous, uniform
4.1.1.2 level or traverse wound, adj—coil in which the turns wrought structure in the finished product.
are wound into layers parallel to the axis of the coil such that 6.2.1.1 It shall be cold-drawn to the finish size and wall
successive turns in a given layer are next to one another thickness.
(sometimes called “helical coil”). 6.2.1.2 When the cold-drawn temper is required, the final
4.1.1.3 single layer flat, adj—coil in which the product is drawing operation shall be such as to meet the specified
spirally wound into a single disk-like layer (sometimes called temper.
“pan-cake coil” or “single layer spirally wound coil”). 6.2.1.3 When the annealed temper is required, the tube shall
4.1.1.4 double layer flat, adj—coil in which the product is be annealed after the final cold draw.
spirally wound into two connected disk-like layers such that
one layer is on top of the other (sometimes called “double layer 7. Chemical Composition
pan-cake coil” or “double layer spirally wound coil”). 7.1 The material shall conform to the compositional require-
4.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: ments listed in Table 1 for the copper specified in the ordering
4.2.1 unaided eye, n—visual inspection, without the use of information.
special equipment or enhancement excepting the use of cor-
rective lenses. 8. Temper
5. Ordering Information 8.1 H (Drawn) Temper—The temper of drawn tube shall be
5.1 Orders for materials under this specification shall in- designated as H58 (drawn, general purpose).
clude the following information: 8.2 O (Annealed) Temper—The temper of annealed tube
5.1.1 ASTM designation and year of issue, shall be designated as 050 (light anneal) and 060 (soft anneal)
5.1.2 Copper UNS No. (for example, C12200), if required (see Table 2). Tempers are defined in Practice B 601.
(see 1.4 and 7.1),
9. Grain Size of Annealed Tempers
5.1.3 Temper (see Section 8).
5.1.4 Dimensions, diameter, and wall thickness. Dimen- 9.1 Samples of annealed temper tubes shall be examined at
sional tolerances, if other than those included in this specifi- a magnification of 75 diameters. The microstructure shall show
cation, are required, complete recrystallization and shall have an average grain size
5.1.5 Length (see 16.1), within the limits specified in Table 3, when tested in accor-
5.1.6 Type of coil (see 4.1), dance with Test Method E 112.
5.1.7 Total quantity of each item,
5.2 The following options are available and shall be speci- 10. Physical Property Requirements
fied at the time of placing the order, when required: 10.1 Electrical Resistivity—When specified in the contract
5.2.1 Embrittlement test (see 13.3.1), or purchase-order, tube ordered for electrical conductor appli-
5.2.2 Refrigeration or air-conditioning grade (see 17.3), cation produced from Copper UNS No. C10200, C10300, or
5.2.3 If coil ends are to be sealed (see 13.4.1.1), C12000 shall have an electrical mass resistivity, V.g/m2, not to

TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements


Composition, %
Element Copper Alloy UNS No.
C10200A C10300 C10800 C12000 C12200
Copper,B min 99.95 ... ... 99.90 99.9
Copper + phosphorus, min ... 99.95 99.95 ... ...
Phosphorus ... 0.001–0.005 0.005–0.012 0.004–0.012 0.015–0.040
A
Oxygen in C10200 shall be 10 ppm max.
B
Silver counting as copper.

2
B 743 – 00
TABLE 2 Mechanical Property Requirements of Drawn-Temper and Annealed-Temper Tube
Rockwell Hardness
Wall Thickness, Tensile Strength Min, Yield StrengthB Min, Elongation in 2 in.,
Temper Designation Scale Value
in. (mm) ksiA (Mpa) ksiA (Mpa) min %
H58 Less than 0.020 N/A N/A 36 (250) 30 (205) N/A
0.020 and over 30TC 30 min 36 (250) 30 (205) N/A
O50 Less than 0.015 N/A N/A 30 (205) 9 (62) 40
0.015 to 0.035 15TC 65 max 30 (205) 9 (62) 40
(0.381 to 0.889)
Over .035 FC 55 max 30 (205) 9 (62) 40
(0.889)
O60 Less than 0.015 N/A N/A 30 (205) 6 (40) 40
0.015 to 0.035 15TC 60 max 30 (205) 6 (40) 40
(0.381 to 0.889)
Over 0.35 FC 50 max 30 (205) 6 (40) 40
(0.889)
A
ksi = 1000 psi.
B
Yield strength to be determined at 0.5 % extension under load.
C
Rockwell hardness values apply to tubes having an inside diameter of 5⁄16 in. (7.92 mm) or over, and Rockwell hardness test shall be made on the inside surface of
the tube. When suitable equipment is not available for determining the specific Rockwell hardness, other Rockwell scales and values may be specified subject to agreement
between the purchaser and supplier.

TABLE 3 Grain Size of Annealed Tempers 13. Other Requirements


Temper Average Grain Size, mm
O60 0.040 min
13.1 Nondestructive Examination for Defects:
O50 0.040 max 13.1.1 Upon agreement between the manufacturer and the
purchaser, each tube shall be subjected to an eddy-current test.
13.1.2 Tubes shall be tested normally in the drawn temper;
however, they may be tested in the annealed temper at the
exceed the limits in Table 4 for the specified copper and temper
option of the manufacturer.
when tested in accordance with Test Method B 193.
13.1.3 Testing shall follow the procedures of Practice E 243
11. Mechanical Property Requirements except for the determination of “end effect.”
11.1 Tensile and Yield Strength—The product shall conform NOTE 1—End effect is that length of the tube, which travels through the
to the requirements in Table 2 for the specified temper. coil until the testing unit, has stabilized and is able to detect flaws. The
11.2 Rockwell Hardness: magnitude of the spike, generated when an end passes through the test
11.2.1 For product of the H58 temper and Rockwell hard- coils is such that it disrupts testing momentarily.
ness values are given for reference purposes only. 13.1.4 Unless otherwise agreed upon between the manufac-
11.2.2 For product of the O (annealed) temper, the product turer, or supplier, and the purchaser, the manufacturer shall
shall conform to the Rockwell hardness values contained in have the option of calibrating the test equipment using either
Table 2. notches or drilled holes. If agreement cannot be reached,
drilled holes shall be used.
12. Performance Requirements 13.1.4.1 Notch-depth standards rounded to the nearest 0.001
12.1 Expansion Requirement: in. (0.025 mm) shall be 22 % of the nominal bottom-wall
12.1.1 When specified in the contract or purchase order, thickness.
specimens of the annealed product shall be capable of being 13.1.4.2 Drilled-hole standards shall be 0.025 in. (0.635
expanded in accordance with Test Method B 153 with an mm) diameter for tubes up to and including 3⁄4 in. (19.05 mm)
expansion of the outside diameter in the following percentage: specified diameter and 0.31 in. (0.785 mm) diameter for tubes
Outside Diameter, Expansion of Outside over 3⁄4 in. (19.05 mm) specified diameter.
in. (mm) Diameter, %
13.1.5 Tubes that do not actuate the signaling device on the
0.750 (19.1) and under 40 eddy-current tester shall be considered in conformance with the
Over 0.750 (19.1) 30
requirements of this test.
12.1.2 The expanded tube shall show no cracking or rupture 13.1.6 Tubes, rejected for irrelevant signals because of
visible to the unaided eye. moisture, soil, and like effects, may be reconditioned and
retested.
13.1.7 Tubes that are reconditioned and retested (see 13.1.6)
TABLE 4 Copper UNS No.
shall be considered in conformance with the requirements of
NOTE 1—Refer to Appendix X1 for the International Annealed Copper this specification, if they do not cause output signals beyond
Standard (IACS) electrical conductivity equivalents. the acceptable limits.
Temper C10200 C10300 C12000 13.1.8 Eddy-current discontinuities will be identified on
O50, O60 0.153 28 0.156 14 0.170 31
H58 0.15737 0.159 40 0.174 18 coils in excess of 200 ft (61 m) in length for subsequent
removal by the purchaser.

3
B 743 – 00
13.1.9 At the customer’s discretion, the permissible number (0.025 mm) shall be 22 % of the nominal wall thickness.
of identified eddy current discontinuities may be specified. Drilled hole standards shall be 0.025 in. (0.635 mm) diameter
13.2 Cuprous Oxide Requirement—Samples of Copper for tubes up to and including 3⁄4-in. specified diameter. Alter-
UNS No. C10200, C10300, and C12000 shall be significantly natively, when a manufacturer uses speed insensitive equip-
free of cuprous oxide as determined by Procedure A of Test ment that can select a maximum unbalance signal, a maximum
Methods B 577. In case of dispute, a referee method in unbalance signal of 0.3 % may be used.
accordance with Procedure C shall be used. 15.4 Unless otherwise specified, eddy-current discontinui-
13.3 Embrittlement—Samples of Copper UNS Nos. ties, as detected, will be identified on coils in excess of 200 ft
C10200, C10300, C10800, C12000, and C12200 shall be (6096 cm) in length for subsequent removal by the purchaser.
capable of passing the embrittlement test of Procedure B of 15.5 At the customer’s discretion, the permissible number
Test Methods B 577. The actual performance of this test is not of identified eddy-current discontinuities may be specified.
mandatory under the terms of this specification unless specified
in the ordering information. In case of a dispute, a referee 16. Dimensions and Permissible Variations
method in accordance with Procedure C shall be used. 16.1 For coil lengths, see Table 5 of this specification. If
13.4 Cleanness Requirement: coils are produced to a specified nominal weight, no coil shall
13.4.1 When refrigeration or air conditioning grade is speci- weigh less than 40 % of the nominal weight, and no more than
fied, the tube shall be capable of meeting the following 20 % of the coils in a lot shall weigh less than 70 % of the
cleanness requirement described in 13.4.1.1. nominal weight unless otherwise agreed between supplier and
13.4.1.1 The inside of the tube, with closed ends, shall be purchaser.
sufficiently clean such that when the interior of the tube is
washed with a suitable solvent, such as re-distilled chloroform 17. Workmanship, Finish and Appearance
or redistilled trichloroethylene, the residue remaining upon 17.1 The product shall be free of defects of a nature that
evaporation of the solvent shall not exceed 0.0035 g/ft2 (0.038 interfere with normal commercial applications, except as noted
g/m2) of interior surface. See 19.3 for the test method. in 13.1.8.
13.4.1.2 The term “capable of” in the context of this 17.2 The product shall be well cleaned and free of dirt.
requirement shall mean that the testing and reporting of 17.3 Product of refrigeration and air conditioning grade
individual lots need not be performed by the producer of the shall meet the cleanness requirement of 13.4.
product, if capability of the manufacturing process to meet this
requirement has previously been established; however, should 18. Specimen Preparation
subsequent testing by either the producer or purchaser establish 18.1 Chemical Analysis:
that the product does not meet this requirements, the product 18.1.1 Sample preparation shall be in accordance with
shall be subject to either rejection, or recall or both. Practice E 255.
18.1.2 Analytical specimen preparation shall be the respon-
14. Expansion Test sibility of the reporting laboratory.
14.1 The annealed material shall be capable of being ex- 18.2 Electrical Resistivity:
panded in accordance with Test Method B 153 with an expan- 18.2.1 The test specimen shall be full size and shall be the
sion of the outside diameter in the following percentage: full cross section of the material it represents, when possible.
Outside Diameter, Expansion of Outside 18.2.2 When the test specimen is taken from material in
in. (mm) Diameter, % bulk, care must be taken that the properties are not appreciably
0.750 (19.1) and under 40 altered in the preparation.
Over 0.750 (19.1) 30
NOTE 2—Plastic deformation tends to work-harden a material and raise
14.2 The expanded tube shall show no cracking or rupture its resistivity, while heating tends to anneal the material with a subsequent
visible to the unaided eye. The term “unaided eye” as used reduction in resistivity.
herein permits the use of corrective spectacles necessary to 18.3 Microscopical Examination—Samples preparation
obtain normal vision. shall be in accordance with Test Method B 577.
18.4 Embrittlement Test—Samples preparation shall be in
15. Nondestructive Testing accordance with Test Method B 577.
15.1 Upon agreement between the manufacturer and the
purchaser, tube shall be subjected to an eddy-current test. TABLE 5 Methods of Test
15.2 The tube shall be passed through an eddy-current test
Test ASTM Designation
unit adjusted to provide information on the suitability of the
tube for the intended application. Testing shall follow the Chemical analysisA B 170, E 53, E 62
Tension E8
procedures of Practice E 243 except for the determination of Rockwell hardness E 18
“end effect.” Grain size E 2, E 3, E 112
Expansion (pin test) B 153
15.3 Unless otherwise agreed upon between the manufac-
A
turer and the purchaser, the manufacturer shall have the option Reference to Specification B 170 is to the suggested chemical methods in the
annex thereof. When Committee E-1 has tested and published methods for
of calibrating the test equipment using either notches or drilled assaying the low level impurities in copper, the annex in Specification B 170 will be
holes. Notch depth standards rounded to the nearest 0.001 in. eliminated.

4
B 743 – 00
18.5 Grain-Size—The test specimen shall be prepared in sample. The corrected weight shall then be calculated in grams
accordance with Test Method E 3 and shall approximate a of residue per internal area of the tube in square feet.
radial longitudinal-section of the tube. 19.3.2 The quantity of the solvent used will vary with the
18.6 Expansion Test Specimen—Test specimens shall con- size of the tube being examined. The quantity of solvent used
form to the requirements of the specimen preparation section of for the blank run shall be the same as that used for cleaning the
Test Method B 153. tube sample.
18.7 Cleanness Test Specimen—A section of straight tube, 19.3.3 The sample must be prepared in such a manner as to
or a section of a straightened tube from the outside end of a prevent the inclusion in the residue of copper chips or dust
coil, not less than 5 ft (1.5 m), shall be selected. resulting from the cutting of the sample.
19. Test Methods 20. Significance of Numerical Limits
19.1 In the case of disagreement, the properties enumerated 20.1 For purpose of determining compliance with the speci-
in this specification shall be determined in accordance with the fied limits for requirements of the properties listed in Table 7,
ASTM test methods listed in Table 6. an observed value or calculated value shall be rounded as
19.2 Tension Test: indicated in accordance with the rounding method of Practice
19.2.1 Tension-test specimens shall be of the full-section of E 29.
the tube and shall conform to the requirements of specimens
21. Inspection
for tube section, of Test Method E 8, unless the limitations of
the testing machine preclude the use of such a specimen. Test 21.1 The manufacturer shall inspect and make the necessary
specimens conforming to type No. 1, Fig. 9, of Test Methods tests to verify that the product furnished conforms to the
E 8, may be used when a full-section specimen cannot be requirements of this specification.
tested. 21.2 If, in addition, the purchaser elects to perform his own
19.2.2 Whenever different tension-test results are obtained inspection, the manufacturer shall afford the inspector all
from both full-size and machined test specimens, the results reasonable facilities, without charge, to satisfy him that the
obtained from full-size test specimens shall be used to deter- tubes are being furnished in accordance with this specification.
mine conformance to the requirements of this specification. 22. Rejection and Rehearing
19.2.3 Tension-test results on products produced under this
specification are not seriously affected by variations in speed of 22.1 Products that fail to conform to the requirements of this
testing. A considerable range of testing speed is permissible; specification may be rejected. Rejection shall be reported to the
however, the rate of stressing to the yield strength should not manufacturer or supplier promptly. In addition, written notifi-
exceed 100 ksi/min (690 MPa/min.) Above the yield strength, cation of rejection shall follow. In case of dissatisfaction with
the movement per minute of the testing-machine head under the results of the test, the manufacturer or supplier may make
load should not exceed 0.5 in./in. (0.5 mm/mm) of gage length claim for a rehearing.
(or distance between grips for full section specimens). 23. Certification
19.3 Cleanness Test: 23.1 When specified on the purchase order, the manufac-
19.3.1 A section of a straightened tube from the outside end turer shall furnish to the purchaser a certificate stating that each
of a coil, not less than 5 ft (1.5 m), shall be selected. One end lot has been sampled, tested, and inspected in accordance with
of the tube shall be closed, and the tube shall be filled with this specification and has met the requirements.
solvent to 1⁄8 of capacity. The opposite end shall be closed and
the tube shall be rolled back and forth on horizontal supports to 24. Mill Test Report
thoroughly wash the inside surface. The closure shall be 24.1 When specified on the purchase order, the manufac-
removed and the solvent shall be poured into a suitable turer shall furnish to the purchaser a test report showing results
weighed-container. The solvent in the container shall be of the tests required by the specification.
evaporated to dryness on a low-temperature hot plate or sand
bath. Overheating of the container shall be avoided to prevent 25. Packaging and Package Marking
charring of the residue. The container then shall be dried in an 25.1 The material shall be separated by size, composition,
oven at 212 to 230°F (100 to 110°C) for 10 min, cooled in a and temper, and prepared for shipment in such a manner as to
desiccator, and weighed. A blank determination shall be run ensure acceptance by common carrier for transportation.
with the same volume of solvent and the gain in weight for the
blank shall be subtracted from the weight of the residue TABLE 7 Rounding Units
Rounded Unit for Observed
Property
or Calculated Value
TABLE 6 Methods of Test
Chemical composition hardness nearest unit in the last righthand
Test ASTM Designation
place of figures of the specified
Grain size E 112 limit
Expansion (pin test) B 153 Tensile strength nearest ksi (nearest 5 MPa)
Eddy current E 243 Expansion nearest 1 %
Chemical analysis Grain size:
Copper E 53 Up to 0.055 mm, incl nearest multiple of 0.005 mm
Phosphorus E 62 Over 0.055 to 0.160 mm, incl nearest 0.01 mm

5
B 743 – 00
25.2 Each shipping unit shall be legibly marked with the 26. Keywords
purchase order number, metal or alloy designation, temper,
26.1 coils; copper tubes; seamless
size, gross and net weight, total length or piece count, or both,
and name of supplier. The specification number shall be shown,
when specified.

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. INTERNATIONAL ANNEALED COPPER STANDARD (ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY EQUIVALENTS)

TABLE X1.1 Electrical Conductivity Equivalents


Electrical
Electrical Resistivity, Conductivity, Conductivity,
Resistivity,
V.gm/m2 % %
V.gm/m2
0.151 76 101.00 0.159 40 96.16
0.153 28 100.00 0.170 31 90
0.156 14 98.16 0.174 18 88
0.157 37 97.40 ... ...

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee B05 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue of B 743 - 95
that may impact this standard.

(1) General rewrite of the specification to conform with the (4) Appendix X1 on Conductivity was added.
Committee B05 Outline of Form. Included in the rewrite is the (5) The Mechanical Properties table was rearranged, and the
further utilization of Specification B 251. yield strength of O60 temper was lowered.
(2) The electrical resisivity requirement was added to the (6) The Mechanical Properties section was changed to clarify
Physical Property section. the Rockwell hardness requirement.
(3) Appendix X1 on Metrics was deleted. (7) The Ordering Information section was amended.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
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(www.astm.org).

6
Designation: B 744/B 744M – 99

Standard Specification for


Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Corrugated Aluminum Pipe1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 744/B 744M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 4.1.3 Specified sheet thickness, using only those thicknesses


1.1 This specification covers aluminum alloy sheets used in listed in Table 1.
the fabrication of corrugated aluminum pipe intended for use 4.1.4 For sheet ordered in coils:
for storm water drainage, underdrains, culverts, and similar 4.1.4.1 Sheet width,
uses. The material is furnished corrugated in cut lengths, and 4.1.4.2 Coil size requirements (specify maximum outside
uncorrugated in coils and cut lengths. diameter (OD), acceptable inside diameter (ID), and maximum
1.2 This specification is applicable to orders in either weight), and
inch-pound units (as B 744) or SI units (as B 744M). Inch- 4.1.4.3 Total quantity (mass).
pound units and SI units are not necessarily equivalent. SI units 4.1.5 For sheet ordered flat in cut lengths:
are shown in brackets in the text; they are the applicable values 4.1.5.1 Sheet width and length,
when the material is ordered to B 744M. 4.1.5.2 Total quantity (mass or number of sheets), and
4.1.5.3 Maximum mass or number of sheets in a lift.
2. Referenced Documents 4.1.6 For sheet ordered corrugated:
2.1 ASTM Standards: 4.1.6.1 Sheet width (overall) and length,
B 209 Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy 4.1.6.2 Corrugation size (pitch and depth) (see 8.4),
Sheet and Plate2 4.1.6.3 Total quantity (mass or number of sheets), and
B 209M Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy 4.1.6.4 Maximum mass or number of sheets in a lift.
Sheet and Plate [Metric]2 4.2 Additionally, orders for materials under this specifica-
B 666/B 666M Practice for Identification Marking of Alu- tion shall include the following information when requested by
minum and Magnesium Products2 the purchaser:
2.2 American National Standards:2 4.2.1 Whether certification is required.
H35.2 Dimensional Tolerances for Aluminum Mill Products NOTE 1—Typical ordering descriptions are as follows: (1) Aluminum
H35.2M Dimensional Tolerances for Aluminum Mill Prod- alloy sheet for corrugated aluminum pipe, conforming to ASTM
ucts [Metric] B 744 – ____; 0.060-in. thickness; 1000 sheets, 251⁄2by 60 in., with 22⁄3 by
1⁄2 in. corrugations; maximum 300 sheets per lift. (2) Aluminum alloy

3. Terminology sheet for corrugated aluminum pipe, conforming to ASTM


B 744M – ____; 2.67-mm thickness by 760-mm width; 25 000 kg total;
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
coils 1200 mm OD max, 600 mm ID min, 5000 kg max each coil; certified
3.1.1 fabricator—the producer of the pipe. with test report.
3.1.2 manufacturer—the producer of the sheet.
3.1.3 purchaser—the purchaser of the finished pipe. 5. Chemical Composition
4. Ordering Information 5.1 The sheet material shall conform to the chemical com-
position limits in Specifications B 209 [B 209M].
4.1 Orders for materials under this specification shall in-
clude the following information: 6. Mechanical Requirements
4.1.1 Name of material (aluminum alloy sheet for corru- 6.1 The sheet material shall conform to the requirements for
gated aluminum pipe), mechanical properties specified in Specification B 209
4.1.2 This specification designation (including number, [B 209M], when tested prior to corrugating or other fabrica-
year, and revision letter if applicable), as B 744 – ____ for tion.
inch-pound units or B 744M – ____ for SI units, and
NOTE 2—Sheet material tested after corrugating and other fabricating
should conform to the specified tensile and yield strength requirements,
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-7 on Light but due to cold working, conformance to the elongation requirements may
Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B07.08 on not be obtained.
Aluminum Culvert.
Current edition approved May 10, 1999. Published August 1999. Originally 7. General Requirements
published as B 744/B 744M – 85. Last previous edition B 744/B 744M – 95.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.02. 7.1 Aluminum alloy sheets or coils supplied under this

Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 744/B 744M
TABLE 1 Sheet ThicknessA TABLE 3 Covering Width Tolerance For Corrugated Sheet
Specified Thickness Minimum Thickness Tolerance Over
Covering Width, in. [mm] and Under
in. mm in. mm
in. [mm]
0.036 0.91 0.034 0.84
To 24 [610], inclusive ⁄ [6.5]
14
0.048 1.22 0.045 1.14
Over 24 [610] to 36 [915], inclusive ⁄ [9.5]
38
0.060 1.52 0.057 1.44
Over 36 [915] to 48 [1220], inclusive 1⁄2 [13]
0.075 1.91 0.072 1.82
0.105 2.67 0.101 2.55
0.135 3.43 0.130 3.29
0.164 4.17 0.158 3.99 TABLE 4 Corrugated Sheet Lip Dimensions
A
Thickness is measured at any point on the sheet not less than 3⁄8 in. or [10 mm] Nominal Corrugation Lip Dimension
from an edge, and if corrugated, on the tangents of corrugations. Size Minimum Maximum
in. mm in. mm in. mm
specification shall conform to the applicable requirements of 22⁄3 by 1⁄2 68 by 13 3⁄4 19 ⁄
15 16 24
3 by 1 75 by 25 7⁄8 22 11⁄8 28
Specification B 209 [B 209M] (as appropriate) for alclad alloy
6 by 1 150 by 25 7⁄8 22 11⁄2 38
3004-H34 for both helical and riveted pipe or alclad alloy
3004–H32 for helical pipe.
8. Dimensions and Tolerances 9.2 The fabricator or the purchaser may make such tests as
8.1 Sheet thickness shall conform to dimensions prescribed are necessary to determine the acceptability of the material or
in Table 1. to verify the correctness of a certification.
8.2 The thickness of cladding shall be as specified in 9.3 Mechanical properties shall be determined on sheet
Specification B 209 [B 209M]. prior to corrugating or other fabricating, except tests may be
8.3 Permissible variations in flat width, length and square- made after fabrication by the purchaser for tensile and yield
ness shall be in accordance with ANSI H35.2 [H35.2M]. strengths.
8.4 Corrugations shall form smooth continuous curves and 10. Rejection
tangents. The dimensions of the corrugations shall be in
accordance with Table 2. 10.1 Material tested by the purchaser and found not con-
8.5 Covering width of corrugated sheet shall be in accor- forming to this specification may be rejected.
dance with Table 3. Covering width is the distance between the 11. Certification
crests of the extreme corrugations. There is no established
tolerance for overall width since the covering width and lip 11.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
dimensions are the governing factors for the formed product. manufacturer’s certification shall be furnished to the purchaser
The lip dimension of corrugated sheet shall be in accordance of the sheet (fabricator) or to the purchaser of the finished pipe
with Table 4. This dimension is measured along the radial stating that samples representing each lot have been tested and
curvature from the crest of the corrugation to the edge of the inspected in accordance with this specification and the require-
sheet. ments have been met. When specified in the purchase order or
contract, a report of the mechanical test results and the
9. Sampling and Testing chemical composition limits shall be furnished.
9.1 Sampling and testing shall be according to Specification NOTE 3—As the identity of the sheet is not maintained from the original
B 209 [B 209M]. The manufacturer shall make adequate tests ingot production, if numerical results are required by the purchaser, tests
and measurements to ensure that the material produced com- should be performed on the finished sheet.
plies with this specification.
9.1.1 Test results including chemical composition, mechani- 12. Product Marking
cal properties, and cladding thickness shall be maintained by 12.1 Each corrugated sheet furnished for use in annular
the sheet manufacturer for seven years and shall be made corrugated pipe shall be identified by the sheet manufacturer
available to the fabricator and purchaser upon request, for showing the following:
examination at the manufacturer’s facility unless otherwise 12.1.1 Name or trademark of sheet manufacturer,
agreed upon. 12.1.2 Alloy and temper,
TABLE 2 Corrugation Requirements
Inside Radius
Nominal Size Maximum PitchA Minimum DepthB
Nominal Minimum
B744—All values in in.
22⁄3 by 1⁄2 27⁄8 0.48 11/16 0.5
3 by 1 31⁄4 0.95 9/16 0.5
6 by 1 61⁄4 0.95 2.2 2.0

B744M—All values in mm
68 by 13 73 12 17 12
75 by 25 83 24 14 12
150 by 25 160 24 56 51
A
Pitch is measured from crest to crest of corrugations, at 90° to the direction of the corrugations.
B
Depth is measured as the vertical distance from a straightedge resting on the corrugation crests to the bottom of the intervening valley.

2
B 744/B 744M
12.1.3 Specified thickness, 12.3 The marking shall be applied to the sheet by a
12.1.4 Date of corrugating by a six-digit number indicating permanent method such as coining in accordance with Practice
in order the year, month, and day of the month, and B 666 [B 666M].
12.1.5 ASTM designation number.
12.2 Coils and cut-length flat sheets shall be similarly 13. Keywords
marked by the manufacturer (except 12.1.4) at 2 to 5-ft [0.6 to
1.5 m] intervals, or the information shall be included on a tag 13.1 aluminum pipe; aluminum sheet; culvert
so that the fabricator can mark the sheet at the time of
fabrication.

The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection
with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your
views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual
reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585
(phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (http://www.astm.org).

3
Designation: B 746/B 746M – 02

Standard Specification for


Corrugated Aluminum Alloy Structural Plate for Field-Bolted
Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and Arches1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 746/B 746M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope 60 000 psi Tensile Strength3


1.1 This specification covers corrugated aluminum alloy A 325 Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat
structural plate used in the construction of pipe, pipe-arches, Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength3
arches, underpasses, box culverts, and special shapes for field A 449 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Steel
assembly. Appropriate fasteners are also described. The pipe, Bolts and Studs3
arches, and other shapes are generally used for drainage A 563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts3
purposes, pedestrian and vehicular underpasses, and utility A 563M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
tunnels. Aluminum box culvert shapes are covered in Specifi- [Metric]3
cation B 864/B 864M. A 930 Practice for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Corrugated
1.2 This specification does not include requirements for Metal Pipe Used for Culverts, Storm Sewers, and Other
bedding, backfill, or the relationship between earth cover load Buried Conduits2
and plate thickness of the pipe. Experience has shown that the B 209 Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy
successful performance of this product depends upon the Sheet and Plate4
proper selection of plate thickness, type of bedding and B 209M Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy
backfill, controlled manufacture in the plant, and care in the Sheet and Plate [Metric]4
installation. The purchaser must correlate the above factors and B 221 Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy
also the corrosion and abrasion requirements of the field Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes4
installation with the plate thickness. The structural design of B 221M Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy
corrugated aluminum structural plate pipe and the proper Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes [Metric]4
installation procedures are given in Practices B 790/B 790M B 666/B 666M Practice for Identification Marking of Alu-
and B 789/B 789M, respectively. A procedure for using life- minum and Magnesium Products4
cycle cost analysis techniques to evaluate alternate drainage B 695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically
system designs using corrugated metal pipe is given in Practice Deposited on Iron and Steel5
A 930. B 789/B 789M Practice for Installing Corrugated Alumi-
1.3 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units num Structural Plate Pipe for Culverts and Sewers4
are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in B 790/B 790M Practice for Structural Design of Corrugated
each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system Aluminum Pipe, Pipe-Arches, and Arches for Culverts,
shall be used independently of the other. Storm Sewers, and Other Buried Conduits4
B 864/B 864M Specification for Corrugated Aluminum
2. Referenced Documents Box Culverts4
2.1 ASTM Standards: E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to
A 153/A 153M Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Determine Conformance with Specifications6
Iron and Steel Hardware2 F 467 Specification for Nonferrous Nuts for General Use3
A 307 Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, F 467M Specification for Nonferrous Nuts for General Use
[Metric]3
F 468 Specification for Nonferrous Bolts, Hex Cap Screws,
1
and Studs for General Use3
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B07 on Light
Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B07.08 on
Aluminum Culvert.
3
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 2002. Published November 2002. Last Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.08.
4
previous edition B 746/B 746M–01. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.02.
2 5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.06. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05.
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 746/B 746M – 02
F 468M Specification for Nonferrous Bolts, Hex Cap 3.1.13 vehicular underpass—a high arch shape with an
Screws, and Studs for General Use [Metric]3 approximate semicircular crown, large-radius sides, small-
F 568M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Externally radius corners between sides and invert, and large-radius
Threaded Metric Fasteners3 invert.
F 593 Specification for Stainless Steel Bolts, Hex Cap 4. Ordering Information
Screws, and Studs3
F 594 Specification for Stainless Steel Nuts3 4.1 Orders for material under this specification shall include
F 738M Specification for Stainless Steel Metric Bolts, the following information as necessary to adequately describe
Screws, and Studs3 the desired product:
F 836M Specification for Style 1 Stainless Steel Metric 4.1.1 Name of material (aluminum alloy structural plate and
Nuts3 accessories),
2.2 American National Standards:7 4.1.2 Description of structure (see Section 3),
B18.2.1 Square and Hex Bolts and Screws, Inch Series 4.1.3 Number of structures,
B18.2.2 Square and Hex Nuts 4.1.4 ASTM designation and year of issue, as B 746–___
B18.2.3.6M Bolts, Metric, Heavy Hex for inch-pound units or B 746M–___ for SI units.
B18.2.4.6M Hex Nuts, Heavy, Metric 4.1.5 Dimensions of structure (diameter or span and rise,
and length, etc.) (see 7.2),
3. Terminology 4.1.6 Thickness of plate (see 7.1),
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 4.1.7 Type of bolts; whether aluminum, stainless steel, or
3.1.1 arch—a part circle shape spanning an open invert steel bolts are required or permitted. If not specified, steel bolts
between the footings on which it rests. and nuts shall be furnished (see 5.3 and Note 2),
3.1.2 box culvert—a rectangular box with short-radius in 4.1.8 End treatment (bevel, skew, grade or slope correc-
upper corners and a long-radius crown. It can be with full tions, or other special provision if required by the project plans
invert or with footing pads. or specifications),
3.1.3 fabricator—the producer of the components for the 4.1.9 Special requirements (including extrusion reinforce-
finished product. ment locations and shapes), if required, and
3.1.4 flat plate—sheet or plate used to fabricate structural 4.1.10 Certification, if required.
plate. NOTE 1—Typical ordering descriptions are as follows: (1) Structural
3.1.5 manufacturer—the producer of the flat plate and plates and fasteners for two aluminum alloy structural plate pipes, per
accessories. ASTM B 746–___, 180-in. dia., 0.100-in. plate thickness, each 140-ft
3.1.6 pipe—a conduit having full circular shape; also, in a nominal centerline length with end treatment as shown on plans. (2)
general context, all structure shapes covered by this specifica- Structural plates and fasteners for one aluminum alloy structural plate pipe
arch, per ASTM B 746–___, 3860 mm span by 2460 mm rise, 3.81 mm
tion. plate thickness, 27.0 m nominal centerline length with square ends.
3.1.7 pipe-arch—an arch shape with an approximate semi-
circular crown, small-radius corners, and large-radius invert. 5. Materials
3.1.8 pipe, horizontal ellipse—an elliptically shaped pipe 5.1 Flat Plate—Insofar as applicable, flat plate shall con-
with the horizontal diameter approximately 20 % greater than form to the requirements of Specification B 209 or B 209M.
the nominal diameter. The plates shall be fabricated from alloy 5052-H141. The
3.1.9 pipe, vertically elongated—an elliptically shaped pipe mechanical properties for alloy 5052-H141 shall conform to
with the vertical diameter up to 10 % greater than the nominal the requirements of Table 1.
diameter. 5.2 Extrusions—The extrusions for circumferential or lon-
3.1.10 purchaser—the purchaser of the finished product. gitudinal stiffeners, or secondary structural components, shall
3.1.11 special shape—a shape, other than described else- be fabricated from aluminum alloys 6061-T6 or 6063-T6
where in this section, suitable for fabrication with structural conforming to Specification B 221 or B 221M.
plate. 5.3 Assembly Fasteners—Except as provided elsewhere in
3.1.12 structural plate—a corrugated and curved plate this section, bolts and nuts shall conform to the requirements
which is field assembled with other structural plates to form the specified in Table 2 and Table 3. The bearing surface of both
required structure. bolts and nuts shall be shaped to a 1-in. (25-mm) radius
spherical surface, or to a uniform taper of approximately 22° to
7
Available from American National Standards Institute, 25 W. 43rd St., 4th form a conical surface. In lieu of bolts and nuts with the special
Floor, New York, NY 10036. bearing surface, standard type bolts and nuts with special

TABLE 1 Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Structural Plate, Alloy 5052-H141A


Tensile Strength, Yield Strength Elongation, %
Specified Thickness
min (0.2 % offset), min min in 2 in. or
in. mm ksi MPa ksi MPa 50 mm
0.100–0.150 2.54–3.81 35.5 245 24.0 165 6
0.175–0.250 4.44–6.35 34.0 235 24.0 165 8
A
To determine conformance with this specification, each value for tensile strength and for yield strength shall be rounded to the nearest 0.1 ksi (1 MPa) and each value
for elongation to the nearest 0.5%, both in accordance with the rounding method of Practice E 29.

2
B 746/B 746M – 02
TABLE 2 (B 746) Bolt and Nut Requirements
Bolts Nuts
General Dimensions ANSI B18.2.1 Heavy Hex ANSI B18.2.2 Heavy Hex
Steel Bolts and Nuts A 307A A 563 Grade A
Zinc Coating A 153/A 153M or B 695 Class 50 A 153/A 153M or B 695 Class 50
Stainless Steel Bolts and Nuts F 593 Alloy Group 1, 2, or 3 F 594 Alloy Group 1, 2, or 3
Aluminum Bolts and Nuts F 468 Alloy 6061-T6 F 467 Alloy 6061-T6
Nominal Diameter, in. 3⁄4 3⁄4

A
Bolts conforming to Specifications A 325 or A 449 with suitable nuts may be substituted.

TABLE 3 (B 746M) Bolt and Nut Requirements


Bolts Nuts
General Dimensions ANSI B18.2.3.6M Heavy Hex ANSI B18.2.4.6M Heavy Hex
Steel Bolts and Nuts F 568M Class 4.6A A 563M Class 5
Zinc Coating A 153/A 153M or B 695 Class 50 A 153/A 153M or B 695 Class 50
Stainless Steel Bolts and Nuts F 738M Alloy Group A1, A2, or A4 F 836M Alloy Group A1, A2, or A4
Aluminum Bolts and Nuts F 468M Alloy 6061-T6 F 467M Alloy 6061-T6
Nominal Diameter, metric size M 20 M 20
A
Bolts through Class 8.8 with suitable nuts may be substituted.

washers may be used. The number of nuts and bolts of each than 10 in. (250 mm). The diameter of the bolt holes in the
size and length furnished shall be 2 % in excess of the longitudinal seams shall not exceed the bolt diameter by more
theoretical number required to field erect the structure or than 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) except those in the plate corners. Bolt holes
structures. Bolt lengths shall be such as to result in at least “full in circumferential seams, including plate corners, may be
nut” engagement when tightened in place. slotted with a width equal to the bolt diameter plus 1⁄4 in. (3
NOTE 2—Aluminum bolts and nuts, due to lower strength properties
mm) and a length equal to the bolt diameter plus 3⁄8 in. (10
than steel bolts, have lower allowable design seam strengths in pipe with mm). The minimum distance from the center of a hole to the
all plate thicknesses, but especially so for plate thicknesses greater than edge of a plate shall be 13⁄4 times the diameter of the bolt.
0.175 in. (4.44 mm). The purchaser should indicate which bolts and nuts Holes shall be provided as required for connecting headwall
are acceptable or required based on his design calculations. Corrosion anchors, bearings, and miscellaneous attachments.
should be considered in selecting bolt types for use in corrosive environ- 6.4 Special Plates—Plates for forming skewed ends, bev-
ments. eled ends, or curved alignment shall be accurately cut to fit the
6. Fabrication order plans. Cut edges of plates shall be free of notches,
gouges, or burrs and shall present a workmanlike finish.
6.1 Structural plates shall be fabricated from flat sheets or
Legible identification shall be placed on each special plate to
plates, corrugated in accordance with 6.2, punched for bolted
designate its proper position in the finished structure and
lap seams in accordance with 6.3 and curved to the required
referenced to the approved erection drawings.
radius.
6.5 Extrusions—Extrusions for longitudinal or circumferen-
6.2 Corrugations—Corrugations shall form smooth con-
tial structural reinforcing, if required, shall be as sized and
tinuous curves and tangents. Corrugations shall form annular
located on the order plans, and fabricated from aluminum alloy
rings (complete or partial) about the axis of the structure. The
6061-T6. Extrusions for receiving angles or receiving channels
dimensions of the corrugations shall be in accordance with
on arches or other less critical structural members, if required,
Table 4.
shall be as sized and located on the order plans, and shall be
6.3 Bolt Holes—The bolt holes shall be punched so that all
fabricated from aluminum alloy 6061-T6 or 6063-T6.
plates having like dimensions, curvature, and same number of
bolts per foot of seam shall be interchangeable. Longitudinal 7. Dimensions
seams shall have holes for four bolts per corrugation, with two 7.1 Plate Thickness—Plate thickness shall be as specified
holes in each valley and two holes in each crest, with the holes by the purchaser from the specified plate thickness listed in
placed 13⁄4 in. (45 mm) apart. Circumferential seams in the Table 5 (Note 3). For corrugated plate, the thickness shall be
finished product shall provide for a bolt spacing of not more measured on the tangents of the corrugations.
TABLE 4 Corrugation Requirements NOTE 3—The purchaser should determine the required thickness ac-
cording to the design criteria in Practice B 790/B 790M.
Nominal Maximum Minimum Inside Radius
Size PitchA DepthB Nominal Minimum 7.2 Cross-Section Dimensions—Cross-section dimensions,
B 746—All values in in. such as diameter, span and rise, and radius of curvature, shall
9 by 21⁄2 9 3⁄8 23⁄8 21⁄4 2.0
B 746M—All values in mm be measured to the inside crest of corrugations. The average
230 by 64 238 60 57 51 diameter of circular pipe, based on two measurements at 90° to
A
Pitch is measured from crest to crest of corrugations, at 90° to the direction of each other, shall not vary more than 62 % from the calculated
the corrugations. inside diameter shown in Table 6. The span and rise of pipe
B
Depth is measured as the vertical distance from a straightedge resting on the
corrugation crests parallel to the axis of the pipe, to the bottom of the intervening arch, arch, underpass, and other noncircular structures shall be
valley. as specified within 62 %.

3
B 746/B 746M – 02
TABLE 5 Plate ThicknessA 9. Sampling and Testing
Specified Thickness Minimum Thickness 9.1 Sampling and testing of plate shall be according to
in. mm in. mm Specification B 209 or B 209M. Sampling and testing of other
0.100 2.54 0.093 2.36 materials shall be according to the specification referenced.
0.125 3.18 0.118 3.00 The manufacturer shall make adequate tests and measurements
0.150 3.81 0.138 3.51
0.175 4.44 0.161 4.09 to ensure that the material produced complies with this
0.200 5.08 0.186 4.72 specification.
0.225 5.72 0.209 5.31 9.1.1 Test results including chemical composition and me-
0.250 6.35 0.232 5.89
A
chanical properties shall be maintained by the manufacturer for
Thickness is measured at any point on the plate not less than 3⁄8 in. or 10 mm
from an edge, and if corrugated, on the tangents of corrugations.
seven years and shall be made available to the fabricator and
purchaser upon request, for examination at the manufacturer’s
TABLE 6 Diameter of Circular Pipe, 9 by 2.5 in. (230 by 65 mm),
facility unless otherwise agreed upon.
Corrugation 9.2 The fabricator or the purchaser may make such tests as
Nominal Diameter Calculated Inside
are necessary to determine the acceptability of the material or
Specified Diameter to verify the correctness of a certification.
in. mm in. mm 9.3 Mechanical properties shall be determined on plate prior
60 1525 58.7 1490
to corrugating or other fabricating, except tests may be made
66 1675 64.8 1645 after fabrication by the purchaser for tensile and yield
72 1830 70.9 1805 strengths.
78 1980 77.0 1955
84 2135 83.2 2115
90 2285 89.3 2265 10. Rejection and Rehearing
96 2440 95.4 2425
102 2590 101.6 2580
10.1 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of
108 2745 107.7 2735 this specification shall be rejected. Rejection shall be reported
114 2895 113.8 2890 to the manufacturer or fabricator promptly and in writing. In
120 3050 119.9 3050
126 3200 126.1 3200
case of dissatisfaction with the results of the test, the manu-
132 3355 132.2 3360 facturer or fabricator may make claim for a rehearing.
138 3505 138.3 3515
144 3660 144.4 3670
150 3810 150.6 3825
11. Certification
156 3960 156.7 3980 11.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
162 4115 162.8 4135
168 4265 169.0 4290
manufacturer’s certification shall be furnished to the purchaser
174 4420 175.1 4445 of the plate (fabricator), or manufacturer’s and fabricator’s
180 4570 181.2 4600 certification shall be furnished to the purchaser of the finished
186 4725 187.3 4760
192 4875 193.5 4910
pipe, stating that samples representing each lot have been
198 5030 199.6 5070 tested and inspected in accordance with this specification and
204 5180 205.7 5225 the requirements have been met. When specified in the
210 5335 211.8 5380
216 5485 218.0 5535 purchase order or contract, a report of the mechanical test
222 5640 224.1 5695 results and the chemical composition limits shall be furnished.
228 5790 230.2 5845
234 5945 236.3 6005 NOTE 5—As the identity of the plate is not maintained from the original
240 6095 242.5 6160 ingot production, if numerical results are required by the purchaser, tests
246 6250 248.6 6315 should be performed on the finished plate.
252 6400 254.7 6470
258 6555 260.9 6630
264 6705 267.0 6780
12. Product Marking
270 6860 273.1 6940 12.1 Each plate shall be identified by showing the follow-
276 7010 279.2 7090
282 7165 285.4 7250
ing:
288 7315 291.5 7405 12.1.1 Name or trademark of plate manufacturer,
294 7470 297.6 7560 12.1.2 Name of fabricator, if other than the manufacturer,
300 7620 303.7 7715
306 7770 309.9 7870
12.1.3 Alloy and temper,
312 7925 316.0 8025 12.1.4 Specified thickness,
12.1.5 Identification symbols showing date of fabricating by
NOTE 4—The purchaser should consult the fabricator to determine the a six digit number indicating in order the year, month, and day
standard dimensions for the various types of structures, other than circular of the month, and
structure. 12.1.6 ASTM designation number.
12.2 The remarking shall be so placed that when the
8. Workmanship structure is erected, the identification will appear on the inside.
8.1 Plates, fasteners, and accessories shall be of uniform 12.3 The marking shall be applied to the plate by a
quality consistent with good manufacturing and inspection permanent method such as coining in accordance with Practice
practices. B 666/B 666M.

4
B 746/B 746M – 02
13. Keywords
13.1 aluminum structural plate; arches; culverts; field bolted
structures; pipe; pipe arches

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

5
Designation: B 745/B 745M – 97

Standard Specification for


Corrugated Aluminum Pipe for Sewers and Drains1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 745/B 745M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope * Metal Pipe Used for Culverts, Storm Sewers, and Other
1.1 This specification covers corrugated aluminum pipe Buried Conduits2
intended for use for storm water drainage, underdrains, the B 209 Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy
construction of culverts, and similar uses. Pipe covered by this Sheet and Plate4
specification is not normally used for the conveyance of B 209M Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy
sanitary or industrial wastes. Sheet and Plate [Metric]4
1.2 This specification does not include requirements for B 221 Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars,
bedding, backfill, or the relationship between earth cover load Rods, Wire, Shapes, and Tubes4
and sheet thickness of the pipe. Experience has shown that the B 221M Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars,
successful performance of this product depends upon the Rods, Wire, Shapes, and Tubes [Metric]4
proper selection of sheet thickness, type of bedding and B 316/B 316M Specification for Aluminum and
backfill, controlled manufacture in the plant, and care in the Aluminum-Alloy Rivet and Cold-Heading Wire and Rods4
installation. The purchaser must correlate the above factors and B 633 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Zinc
also the corrosion and abrasion requirements of the field on Iron and Steel5
installation with the sheet thickness. The structural design of B 666/B 666M Practice for Identification Marking of Alu-
corrugated aluminum pipe and the proper installation proce- minum and Magnesium Products4
dures are given in Practices B 790/B 790M and B 788/ B 695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically
B 788M, respectively. A procedure for using life-cycle cost Deposited on Iron and Steel5
analysis techniques to evaluate alternative drainage system B 744/B 744M Specification for Aluminum Alloy Sheet for
designs using corrugated metal pipe is given in Practice A 930. Corrugated Aluminum Pipe4
1.3 This specification is applicable to orders in either B 788/B 788M Practice for Installing Factory-Made Cor-
inch-pound units as B 745 or SI units as B 745M. Inch-pound rugated Aluminum Culverts and Storm Sewer Pipe4
units and SI units are not necessarily equivalent. SI units are B 790/B 790M Practice for Structural Design of Corru-
shown in brackets in the text; they are the applicable values gated Aluminum Pipe, Pipe Arches, and Arches for Cul-
when the material is ordered to B 745M. verts, Storm Sewers, and Other Buried Conduits4
C 443 Specification for Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer
2. Referenced Documents and Culvert Pipe, Using Rubber Gaskets6
2.1 ASTM Standards: D 1056 Specification for Flexible Cellular Materials—
A 153 Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Sponge or Expanded Rubber7
Steel Hardware2 F 467 Specification for Nonferrous Nuts for General Use3
A 307 Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, F 467M Specification for Nonferrous Nuts for General Use
60 000 PSI Tensile Strength3 [Metric]3
A 563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts3 F 468 Specification for Nonferrous Bolts, Hex Cap Screws,
A 563M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts and Studs for General Use3
[Metric]3 F 468M Specification for Nonferrous Bolts, Hex Cap
A 930 Practice for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Corrugated Screws, and Studs for General Use [Metric]3
F 568 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Externally
Threaded Metric Fasteners3
F 593 Specification for Stainless Steel Bolts, Hex Cap
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-7 on Light Screws, and Studs3
Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B07.08 on
Aluminum Culvert.
4
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1997. Published June 1998. Originally Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.02.
5
publishedas B 745/B 745M – 85. Last previous edition B 745/B 745M – 95. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05.
2 6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.06. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.05.
3 7
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.08. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 08.01.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 745/B 745M
F 594 Specification for Stainless Steel Nuts3 5.1.5 Diameter of circular pipe (8.1.1), or span and rise of
F 738M Specification for Stainless Steel Metric Bolts, pipe-arch section (8.2.1),
Screws, and Studs3 5.1.6 Length, either total length or length of each piece and
F 836M Specification for Stainless Steel Metric Nuts3 number of pieces,
2.2 AASHTO Standard:8 5.1.7 Description of corrugations (7.2),
T 249 Test for Helical Lock Seam Corrugated Pipe 5.1.8 Sheet thickness (8.1.2),
5.1.9 Coupling bands, number, and type (9.1) if special type
3. Terminology is required,
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 5.1.10 Gaskets for coupling bands, if required (9.3),
3.1.1 fabricator—the producer of the pipe. 5.1.11 For perforated pipe, the class of perforations. If no
3.1.2 manufacturer—the producer of the sheet. class is specified for Type III pipe, Class 1 perforations will be
3.1.3 purchaser—the purchaser of the finished product. furnished. Type IIIR pipe is furnished with Class 4 perforations
only (8.3.2.1 and 8.3.2.3).
4. Classification
5.1.12 Certification, if required (13.1), and
4.1 The corrugated aluminum pipe covered by this specifi- 5.1.13 Special requirements.
cation is classified as follows:
4.1.1 Type I—This pipe shall have a full circular cross- 6. Materials
section, with a single thickness of corrugated sheet, fabricated
6.1 Aluminum Sheet for Pipe—All pipe fabricated under
with annular (circumferential) or helical corrugations.
this specification shall be formed from aluminum-alloy sheet
4.1.2 Type IA—This pipe shall have a full circular cross-
conforming to Specification B 744/B 744M.
section, with an outer shell of corrugated sheet and an inner
6.2 Aluminum Sheet for Coupling Bands— The sheet used
liner of smooth (uncorrugated) sheet, fabricated with helical
in fabricating coupling bands shall conform to Specification
corrugations and lock seams.
B 744/B 744M.
4.1.3 Type IR—This pipe shall have a full circular cross-
6.3 Rivets—The material used for rivets in riveted pipe shall
section, with a single thickness of smooth sheet, fabricated
conform to the requirements of Specification B 316/B 316M
with helical ribs projecting outwardly.
for alloy 6053-T4, with the following mechanical properties:
4.1.4 Type II—This pipe shall be a Type I pipe which has
Tensile Strength, min, ksi [MPa] 25 [170]
been reformed into a pipe-arch, having an approximately flat Yield Strength, min, ksi [MPa] 14 [95]
bottom. Shear Strength, min, ksi [MPa] 15 [105]
4.1.5 Type IIA—This pipe shall be a Type IA pipe which has Elongation in 2 in., 50 mm, or 4x dia., min, % 16
been reformed into a pipe-arch, having an approximately flat If bolts and nuts are substituted for rivets (see 7.3.1), they
bottom. shall meet the following requirements for either steel bolts and
4.1.6 Type IIR—This pipe shall be a Type IR pipe which has nuts, stainless steel bolts and nuts, or aluminum alloy bolts and
been reformed into a pipe-arch, having an approximately flat nuts:
bottom. Bolts Nuts
4.1.7 Type III—This pipe, intended for use as underdrains or
for underground disposal of water, shall be a Type I pipe which For B745 pipe
(Steel) A307 A563, Gr. A
has been perforated to permit the in-flow or out-flow of water. (Stainless Steel) F593, Alloy Grp 1, 2, or 3 F594, Alloy Grp 1, 2, or 3
4.1.8 Type IIIR—This pipe, intended for the underground (Aluminum Alloy) F468, Alloy 6061-T6 F467, Alloy 6061-T6
disposal of water or for subsurface drainage, shall be a Type IR For B745M pipe
(Steel) F568, Cl. 4.6 A563M, Cl. 5
pipe which has been perforated to permit the outflow or inflow (Stainless Steel) F738M, Alloy Grp A1, A2, F836, Alloy Grp A1, A2,
of water. or A4 or A4
4.2 Perforations in Type III pipe are classified as Class 1 or (Aluminum Alloy) F468M, Alloy 6061-T6 F467M, Alloy 6061-T6

Class 2 and perforations in Type IIIR pipe are classified as The steel bolts and nuts shall be hot-dip galvanized in
Class 4, as described in 8.3.2. conformance with Specification A 153, or be mechanically
galvanized in conformance with Specification B 695 Class 40.
5. Ordering Information
6.4 Hardware for Coupling Bands—Bolts and nuts for
5.1 Orders for material to this specification shall include the coupling bands shall conform to the requirements shown in 6.3
following information as necessary, to adequately describe the except for the coating on steel bolts and nuts. Steel bolts, nuts,
desired product: and other threaded steel items used with coupling bands shall
5.1.1 Name of material (corrugated aluminum pipe), be zinc coated by one the following processes: hot-dip process
5.1.2 ASTM designation and year of issue, as B 745-_ for as provided in Specification A 153, electroplating process as
inch-pound units or B 745M-_ for SI units, provided in Specification B 633 Class FE/ZN 8 or mechanical
5.1.3 Type of pipe (4.1), process as provided in Specification B 695 Class 8. Other steel
5.1.4 Method of fabrication for Type I and Type II pipe hardware items used with coupling bands shall be zinc coated
(7.1), by one of the following processes: hot-dip process as provided
in Specification A 153; electroplating process as provided in
8
Available from American Association of State Highway and Transportation Specification B 633 Class FE/ZN 25; or mechanical process as
Officials, 444 North Capitol Street NW, Suite 225, Washington, DC 20001. provided in Specification B 695 Class 25. Aluminum angles

2
B 745/B 745M
and lugs shall conform to the requirements of Specification TABLE 1 Corrugation Requirements for Type I, IA, II, IIA, and III
B 221 or B 221M for alloy 6063-T6. Pipe
6.5 Gaskets—If gaskets are used in couplings, they shall be Maximum Minimum Inside RadiusC
Nominal Size
a band of expanded rubber meeting the requirements of PitchA DepthB Nominal Minimum
Specification D 1056 for the “RE” closed cell grades, or B 745 (in.)
O-rings meeting the requirements of Specification C 443.
11⁄2 by 1⁄4D 17⁄8 0.24 ⁄
9 32 0.25
7. Fabrication 22⁄2 by1⁄2 27⁄8 0.48E 11 16⁄ 0.5
3 by 1 31⁄4 0.95 ⁄
9 16 0.5
7.1 General Requirements—Pipe shall be fabricated in full 6 by 1 61⁄4 0.95 2.2 2.0
circular cross-section.
B 745M (mm)
7.1.1 Type I pipe shall have annular corrugations with lap
joints fastened with rivets or shall have helical corrugations 38 by 6.5D 48 6.0 7 6.5
with a continuous lock seam extending from end to end of each 68 by 13 73 12E 17 12
75 by 25 83 24 14 12
length of pipe. As there are important differences in the 150 by 25 160 24 56 51
structural characteristics of annular, riveted pipe versus helical A
Pitch is measured from crest to crest of corrugations, at 90° to the direction of
pipe, it is important for the purchaser to stipulate, for Type I the corrugations.
B
and Type II pipe, the method of fabrication desired. If the Depth is measured as the vertical distance from a straightedge resting on the
corrugation crests parallel to the axis of the pipe, to the bottom of the intervening
method of fabrication is not stated in the ordering information, valley.
the fabrication method shall be at the option of the fabricator. C
Minimum inside radius requirement does not apply to a corrugation containing
7.1.2 Type IA pipe shall be fabricated with a smooth liner a helical lock seam.
D
The corrugation size of 11⁄2 by 1⁄4 in. [38 x 6.5 mm] is available only in helically
and helically corrugated shell integrally attached at helical lock corrugated pipe.
seams extending from end to end of each length of pipe. The E
For pipe 12 to 21 in. [300 to 525 mm] dia. inclusive, the minimum corrugation
shell shall have corrugations of nominal 22⁄3 (or 3 in. [68 or 75 depth shall be 0.42 in. [11 mm].
mm] pitch.
7.1.3 Type IR pipe shall be fabricated with helical ribs depending on sheet thickness, corrugation size, and diameter of
projecting outward with a continuous lock seam extending pipe. For pipe with 1 in. [25 mm] deep corrugations, 1⁄2-in.
from end to end of each length of pipe. [Metric M12] diameter bolts and nuts may be used in lieu of
7.2 Corrugations—The corrugations shall be either annular rivets on a one-for-one replacement ratio. Circumferential
or helical as provided in 7.1. The direction of the crests and seams shall be riveted using rivets of the same size as for
valleys of helical corrugations shall not be less than 60° from longitudinal seams and shall have a maximum rivet spacing of
the axis of the pipe for pipe diameters larger than 21 in. [525 6 in. [150 mm], measured on centers, except that six rivets will
mm], and not less than 45° from the axis for pipe diameters of be sufficient in 12-in. [300 mm] diameter pipe.
21 in. [525 mm] and smaller. 7.3.2 All rivets shall be driven cold in such a manner that
7.2.1 For Type I and IA pipe, corrugations shall form the sheets shall be drawn tightly together throughout the entire
smooth continuous curves and tangents. The dimensions of the lap. The center of a rivet shall be no closer than twice its
corrugations shall be in accordance with Table 1 for the size diameter from the edge of the sheet. The distance between the
indicated in the order. centerlines of the two rows of rivets, where two rows are
7.2.2 For Type IR pipe, the corrugations shall be essentially required, shall not be less than 11⁄2 in. [38 mm]. All rivets shall
rectangular ribs projecting outward from the pipe wall. The have neat, workmanlike, and full hemispherical heads or heads
dimensions and spacings of the ribs shall be in accordance with of a form acceptable to the purchaser, shall be driven without
Table 2 for the size indicated in the order. See also Fig. 1. For bending, and shall completely fill the hole.
the 111⁄2 in. [292 mm] rib spacing, a stiffener shall be included 7.4 Helical Lock Seams—The lock seam for Type I pipe
midway between the ribs, if the sheet between the ribs does not shall be formed in the tangent element of the corrugation
include a lock seam. This stiffener shall have a nominal radius profile with its center near the neutral axis of the corrugation
of 0.25 in. [6.4 mm] and a minimum height of 0.20 in. [5.1 profile. The lock seam for Type IA pipe shall be in the valley
mm] toward the outside of the pipe. of the corrugation, shall be spaced not more than 30 in. [760
NOTE 1—The nominal dimensions and properties for smooth corruga- mm] apart, and shall be formed from both the liner and the
tions and for ribs are given in Practice B 790/B 790M. shell in the same general manner as Type I helical lock seam
pipe. The lock seam for Type IR shall be formed in the flat zone
7.3 Riveted Seams—The longitudinal seams shall be stag-
of the pipe wall, midway between two ribs.
gered to the extent that no more than three thicknesses of sheet
7.4.1 The edges of the sheets within the cross-section of the
are fastened by any rivet. Pipe to be reformed into pipe-arch
lock seam shall lap at least 5⁄32 in. [4.0 mm] for pipe 10 in. [250
shape shall also meet the longitudinal seam requirement of
mm] or less in diameter and at least 5⁄16 in. [7.9 mm] for pipe
8.2.2.
greater than 10 in. [250 mm] in diameter, with an occasional
NOTE 2—Fabrication of pipe without longitudinal seams in 120° of arc, tolerance of minus 10 % of lap width allowable. The lapped
so that the pipe may be installed without longitudinal seams in the invert, surfaces shall be in tight contact. The profile of the sheet shall
is subject to negotiation between the purchaser and fabricator. include a retaining offset adjacent to the 180° fold (as described
7.3.1 The size of rivets, number per corrugation, and width in AASHTO T249) of one sheet thickness on one side of the
of lap at the longitudinal seam shall be as stated in Table 3, lock seam, or one-half sheet thickness on both sides of the lock

3
B 745/B 745M
TABLE 2 Rib Requirements for Type IR Pipe
Rib
Nominal Size Bottom Outside BottomD Outside Top Outside TopD Outside
Width, MinA Depth, MinB Spacing, MaxC
Radius, Min Radius, Max Avg. Radius, Min Radius, Max Avg.
in.
⁄ by 3⁄4 by 71⁄2
34 0.68 0.73 73⁄4 0.10 0.25 0.10+t 0.25+t
3⁄4 by 1 by 111⁄2 0.68 0.95 113⁄4 0.10 0.25 0.10+t 0.25+t
mm
19 by 19 by 190 17 19 197 2.5 6.0 2.5+t 6.0+t
19 by 25 by 292 17 24 298 2.5 6.0 2.5+t 6.0+t
A
Width is a dimension of the inside of the rib but is measured on the outside of the pipe (outside of the rib). It shall meet or exceed the stated minimum width plus two
wall thicknesses, that is, 2T + 0.68 in. [2 t + 17 mm].
B
Depth is an average of the ribs within a sheet width measured from the inside by placing a straight edge across the open rib and measuring to the bottom of the rib.
C
Spacing is an average of three adjacent rib spacings for 3⁄4by 3⁄4 by 71⁄2 in. [19 by 19 by 190 mm] pipe and two adjacent rib spacings for 3⁄4 by 1 by 111⁄2 in. [19 by
25 by 292 mm] pipe measured center-to-center of the ribs, at 90° to the direction of the ribs.
D
The averages of the two top rib radii and of the two bottom radii shall be within the minimum and maximum tolerances. The term outside radius refers to the surface
outside of the pipe. See Fig. 1.

TABLE 4 Specified Aluminum Alloy Sheet Thicknesses and Lock


Seam Tensile Strength
Specified Sheet ThicknessA,B Lock Seam Tensile Strength, min.
in. mm lbf/in. kN/m
0.036 0.91 100 17
0.048 1.22 145 25
0.060 1.52 170 30
0.075 1.91 245 43
0.105 2.67 425 74
0.135 3.43 550 96
0.164 4.17 700 122
FIG. 1 Outside Radius of the Pipe (see Table 2)
A
Thicknesses listed are those included in Specification B 744/B 744M.
B
For Type IA pipe, the lock seam tensile strength requirement shall be based on
TABLE 3 Riveted Longitudinal Seams the thickness of the corrugated shell.
Nominal Corrugation Size
Specified Sheet
22⁄3 3 1⁄2 in. 3 3 1 in. 6 3 1 in.
Thickness
68 3 13 mm A,B
75 3 25 mmC,D 150 3 25 mmE,D 7.5 End Finish:
Rivet Diameters, min.
in. mm
in. mm in. mm in. mm
7.5.1 To facilitate field jointing, the ends of individual pipe
0.060 1.52 5⁄16 8.0 3⁄8 9.5 1⁄2 12.7 sections with helical corrugations or ribs may be rerolled to
0.075 1.91 5⁄16 8.0 3⁄8 9.5 1⁄2 12.7 form annular corrugations extending at least two corrugations
0.105 2.67 3⁄8 9.5 1⁄2 12.7 1⁄2 12.7
0.135 3.43 3⁄8 9.5 1⁄2 12.7 1⁄2 12.7
from the pipe end, or to form an upturned flange meeting the
0.164 4.17 3⁄8 9.5 1⁄2 12.7 1⁄2 12.7 requirements in 7.5.3, or both. The diameter of ends shall not
A
One rivet each valley for pipe diameters 36 in. [900 mm] and smaller. Two exceed that of the pipe barrel by more than the depth of the
rivets each valley for pipe diameters 42 in. [1050 mm] and larger. corrugation. All types of pipe ends, whether rerolled or not,
B
Minimum width of lap: 11⁄2 in. [38 mm] for pipe diameters 36 in. [900 mm] and shall be matched in a joint such that the maximum difference
smaller, and 3 in. [75 mm] for pipe diameters 42 in. [1050 mm] and larger.
C
Two rivets each valley for all pipe diameters. in the diameter of abutting pipe ends is 1⁄2in. [13 mm].
D
E
Minimum width of lap: 3 in. [75 mm] for pipe of all diameters. 7.5.2 When pipe with helical corrugations or ribs is rerolled
Two rivets each crest and valley for all pipe diameters.
to form annular corrugations in the ends, the usual size of
annular corrugations is 22⁄3 (by 1⁄2 in. [68 by 13 mm].
seam, at the fabricator’s option. There shall be no visual cracks 7.5.3 If a flanged finish is used on the ends of individual
in the metal, loss of metal-to-metal contact, or excessive pipe sections to facilitate field jointing, the flange shall be
angularity on the interior of the 180° fold of metal at the uniform in width, be not less than 1⁄2 in. [13 mm] wide, and
completion of forming the lock seam. The lock seam shall be shall be square to the longitudinal axis of the pipe.
mechanically staked (indented) at periodic intervals, or other- 7.5.4 The ends of all pipe which will form the inlet and
wise specially constructed to prevent slippage. outlet of culverts, fabricated of sheets having normal thick-
7.4.2 Specimens cut from production pipe normal to and nesses of 0.075 in. [1.91 mm] and less, shall be reinforced in
across the lock seam shall develop the tensile strength as a manner approved by the purchaser, when specified.
provided in Table 4, when tested according to AASHTO T249.
For Type IA pipe, the lock seam strength shall be as tabulated 8. Pipe Requirements
based on the thickness of the corrugated shell. 8.1 Type I, Type IA, and Type IR Pipe:
7.4.3 When the ends of helically corrugated lock seam pipe 8.1.1 Pipe Dimensions—The nominal diameter of the pipe
have been rerolled to form annular corrugations, either with or shall be as stated in the order, selected from the sizes listed in
without a flanged end finish, the lock seam in the rerolled end Table 5. The size of corrugations which are standard for each
shall not contain any visible cracks in the base metal and the size of pipe are also shown in Table 5. The average inside
tensile strength of the lock seam shall be not less than 60 % of diameter of circular pipe and pipe to be reformed into
that required in 7.4.2. pipe-arches shall not vary more than 1 % or 1⁄2 in. [13 mm],

4
B 745/B 745M
TABLE 5 Pipe Sizes
Minimum Outside
Nominal Inside Diameter Corrugation SizesA
CircumferenceB
11⁄2 by 1⁄4 in. 22⁄3 (by 1⁄2 in. 3 by 1 in. 6 by 1 in.
in. mm Ribbed PipeC in. mm
38 by 6.5 mm 68 by 13 mm 75 by 25 mm 150 by 25 mm
4 100 X 11.4 284
6 150 X 17.7 441
8 200 X 24.0 598
10 250 X 30.2 755
12 300 X 36.5 912
15 375 X X 46.0 1148
18 450 X X 55.4 1383
21 525 X X 64.8 1620
24 600 X X 74.2 1854
27 675 X X 83.6 2091
30 750 X X X 93.1 2325
33 825 X X X 102.5 2561
36 900 X X X 111.9 2797
42 1050 X X X 130.8 3269
48 1200 X X X X 149.6 3739
54 1350 X X X X 168.4 4209
60 1500 X X X X 187.0 4675
66 1650 X X X X 205.7 5142
72 1800 X X X X 224.3 5609
78 1950 X X X 243.0 6075
84 2100 X X X 261.7 6542
90 2250 X X 280.3 7008
96 2400 X X 299.0 7475
102 2550 X X 317.6 7941
108 2700 X X 336.3 8408
114 2850 X X 355.0 8874
120 3000 X 373.6 9341
A
An “X” indicates standard corrugation sizes for each nominal diameter of pipe.
B
Measured in valley of annular corrugations. Not applicable to helically corrugated pipe.
C
Rib sizes 3⁄4 by 3⁄4 by 71⁄2 in. [19 by 19 by 190 mm] and 3⁄4 by 1 by 111⁄2 in. [19 by 25 by 292 mm].

whichever is greater, from the nominal diameter when mea- tion shall be accomplished by the use of a mechanical
sured on the inside crest of the corrugations. Alternately, for apparatus which will produce a uniform deformation through-
pipe having annular corrugations, conformance with the inside out the length of the section.
diameter requirement may be determined by measuring the NOTE 6—When corrugated aluminum pipe is designed according to
outside circumference, for which minimum values are given in Practice B 790 and installed according to Practice B 788, vertical elonga-
Table 5. tion (factory or field) is not required for structural purposes.
NOTE 3—The outside circumference of helically corrugated pipe is 8.2 Type II, Type IIA, and Type IIR Pipe:
influenced by the corrugation size and the angle of the corrugations, 8.2.1 Pipe-Arch Dimensions—Pipe furnished as Type II,
affecting the number of corrugations crossed, therefore no minimum IIA, or IIR shall be made from Type I, IA, or IR pipe
circumferential measurement can be specified. respectively, and shall be reformed to provide a pipe-arch
8.1.2 Sheet Thickness—Sheet thickness shall be as specified shape. All applicable requirements for Types I, IA, or IR pipe
by the purchaser from the specified sheet thicknesses listed in shall be met by finished Types II, IIA, and IIR respectively.
Table 4 (Note 4 and Note 5). For Type IA pipe, the thickness Pipe-arches shall conform to the dimensional requirements of
of both the shell and the liner shall be given; the thickness of Table 6, Table 7, or Table 8 [Table 9, Table 10, or Table 11]. All
the corrugated shell shall be at least 60 % of the thickness of dimensions shall be measured from the inside crest of corru-
the equivalent Type I pipe; the liner shall have a nominal gations for Type II pipe or from the inside liner or surface for
thickness of at least 0.036 in. [0.91 mm]; and the sum of the Types IIA or IIR pipe, respectively.
specified thicknesses of shell and liner shall equal or exceed the 8.2.2 Longitudinal Seams—Longitudinal seams of riveted
specified thickness of an equivalent pipe of identical corruga- pipe-arches shall not be placed in the corner radius.
tions as the shell according to the design criteria in the Practice 8.2.3 Reforming Type IR pipe into Type IIR pipe-arch shall
B 790/B 790M. be done in such a manner as to avoid damage to the external
ribs.
NOTE 4—The sheet thicknesses indicated in Table 4 are the thicknesses
listed as available in Specification B 744/B 744M. 8.3 Type III and IIIR Pipe:
NOTE 5—The purchaser should determine the required thickness for 8.3.1 Type III and IIIR pipe shall have a full circular
Type I, IA, or IR pipe, or Type I, IA or IR pipe to be reformed into Type cross-section and shall conform to the requirements for Type I
II, IIA or IIR pipe according to the design criteria in Practice B 790, or or Type IR pipe, and in addition shall contain perforations
other appropriate guidelines. Specified thickness of 0.036 in. [0.91 mm] is conforming to one of the classes described in 8.3.2.
generally used only for Type IA pipe. 8.3.2 Perforations—The perforations in Type III pipe shall
8.1.3 When specified by the purchaser, the finished pipe conform to the requirements for Class 1 or Class 2 as specified
shall be factory elongated to the extent specified. The elonga- in the order and described in 8.3.2.1 and 8.3.2.2 respectively.

5
B 745/B 745M
TABLE 6 Pipe-Arch Requirements— TABLE 9 Pipe-Arch Requirements—
22⁄3 by 1⁄2 in. Corrugations [68 by 13 mm Corrugations]
Pipe Arch Equiv. SpanA, RiseA, Min. Corner Max BB, Min.
Equiv.
Size, in. Dia, in. in. in. Radius, in. in. Pipe Arch SpanA, RiseA, Corner
Dia, Max BB, mm
Size, mm mm mm Radius,
17 3 13 15 17 13 3 51⁄4 mm
mm
21 3 15 18 21 15 3 6
24 3 18 21 24 18 3 71⁄4 430 3 330 375 430 330 75 135
28 3 20 24 28 20 3 8 530 3 380 450 530 380 75 155
35 3 24 30 35 24 3 91⁄2 610 3 460 525 610 460 75 185
42 3 29 36 42 29 31⁄2 101⁄2 710 3 510 600 710 510 75 205
49 3 33 42 49 33 4 111⁄2 780 3 560 675 780 560 75 225
57 3 38 48 57 38 5 131⁄2 885 3 610 750 870 630 75 240
64 3 43 54 64 43 6 15 970 3 690 825 970 690 75 255
71 3 47 60 71 47 7 161⁄2 1060 3 740 900 1060 740 90 265
77 3 52 66 77 52 8 18 1240 3 840 1050 1240 840 100 290
83 3 57 72 83 57 9 20 1440 3 970 1200 1440 970 130 345
1620 3 1100 1350 1620 1100 155 380
A
A tolerance of 61 in. or 2 % of equivalent diameter, whichever is greater, is
1800 3 1200 1500 1800 1200 180 420
permissible in span and rise.
B 1950 3 1320 1650 1950 1320 205 460
B is defined as the vertical dimension from a horizontal line across the widest
2100 3 1450 1800 2100 1450 230 510
portion of the arch to the lowest portion of the base.
A
A tolerance of 625 mm or 2 % of equivalent diameter, whichever is greater, is
permissible in span and rise.
TABLE 7 Pipe-Arch Requirements— B
B is defined as the vertical dimension from a horizontal line across the widest
3 by 1 in. Corrugations portion of the arch to the lowest portion of the base.
Pipe Arch Equiv. SpanA, RiseA, Min. Corner
Size, in. Dia., in. in. in. Radius, in. TABLE 10 Pipe Arch Requirements—
53 3 41 48 53–2.4 41 + 2.4 7 [75 by 25 mm Corrugations]
60 3 46 54 60–2.7 46 + 2.7 8
Pipe Arch Equiv. SpanA, RiseA, Min. Corner
66 3 51 60 66–3.0 51 + 3.0 9
Size, mm Dia, mm mm mm Radius, mm
73 3 55 66 73–3.3 55 + 3.3 12
81 3 59 72 81–3.6 59 + 3.6 14 1340 3 1050 1200 1340–60 1050 + 60 180
87 3 63 78 87–4.4 63 + 4.4 14 1520 3 1170 1350 1520–70 1170 + 70 205
95 3 67 84 95–4.8 67 + 4.8 16 1670 3 1300 1500 1670–75 1300 + 75 230
103 3 71 90 103–5.2 71 + 5.2 16 1850 3 1400 1650 1850–85 1400 + 85 305
112 3 75 96 112–5.6 75 + 5.6 18 2050 3 1500 1800 2050–95 1500 + 95 355
117 3 79 102 117–5.9 79 + 5.9 18 2200 3 1620 1950 2200–110 1620 + 110 355
128 3 83 108 128–6.4 83 + 6.4 18 2400 3 1720 2100 2400–120 1720 + 120 410
137 3 87 114 137–6.9 87 + 6.9 18 2600 3 1820 2250 2800–130 1820 + 130 410
142 3 91 120 142–7.1 91 + 7.1 18 2840 3 1920 2400 2840–145 1920 + 145 460
A 2970 3 2020 2550 2970–150 2020 + 150 460
Negative and positive numbers listed with span and rise dimensions are
3240 3 2120 2700 3240–165 2120 + 165 460
negative and positive tolerances, zero tolerance in opposite direction.
3470 3 2220 2850 3470–175 2220 + 175 460
3800 3 2320 3000 3600–180 2320 + 180 460
TABLE 8 Pipe-Arch Requirements— A
Negative and positive numbers listed with span and rise dimensions are
⁄ by 3⁄4by 71⁄2 in. and 3⁄4 by 1 by 111⁄2 in. Rib Corrugations
34
negative and positive tolerances, zero tolerance in opposite direction.
Pipe Arch Equiv. SpanA, RiseA, Min Corner
Size, in. Dia., in. in. in. Radius, in. TABLE 11 Pipe Arch Requirements—
20 3 16 18 20–1.0 16 + 1.0 5 [19 by 19 by 190 mm and 19 by 25 by 292 mm Rib Corrugations]
23 3 19 21 23–1.0 19 + 1.0 5
Pipe Arch Equiv. SpanA, RiseA, Min Corner
27 3 21 24 27–1.5 21 + 1.5 5
Size, mm Dia, mm mm mm Radius, mm
33 3 26 30 33–1.5 26 + 1.5 5
40 3 31 36 40–1.8 31 + 1.8 5 500 3 410 450 500–25 410 + 25 130
46 3 36 42 46–2.1 36 + 2.1 6 580 3 490 525 580–25 490 + 25 130
53 3 41 48 53–2.4 41 + 2.4 7 680 3 540 600 680–40 540 + 40 130
60 3 46 54 60–2.7 46 + 2.7 8 830 3 670 750 830–40 670 + 40 130
66 3 51 60 66–3.0 51 + 3.0 9 1010 3 790 900 1010–45 790 + 45 130
73 3 55 66 73–3.3 55 + 3.3 12 1160 3 920 1050 1160–55 920 + 55 155
81 3 59 72 81–3.6 59 + 3.6 14 1340 3 1050 1200 1340–60 1050 + 60 180
A 1520 3 1170 1350 1520–70 1170 + 70 205
Negative and positive numbers listed with span and rise dimensions are
1670 3 1300 1500 1670–75 1300 + 75 230
negative and positive tolerances, zero tolerance in opposite direction.
1850 3 1400 1650 1850–85 1400 + 85 305
2050 3 1500 1800 2050–95 1500 + 95 355
The perforations in Type IIIR pipe shall conform to the A
Negative and positive numbers listed with span and rise dimensions are
requirements for Class 4 as described in 8.3.2.3. Class 1 negative and positive tolerances, zero tolerance in opposite direction.
perforations are for pipe intended to be used for subsurface
drainage. Class 2 and Class 4 perforations are for pipe intended in. [9.5 mm]; and shall be arranged in rows parallel to the axis
to be used for subsurface disposal of water, but pipe containing of the pipe. The perforations shall be located on the inside
these classes of perforations may also be used for subsurface crests or along the neutral axis of the corrugations, with one
drainage. perforation in each row for each corrugation. Pipe connected
8.3.2.1 Class 1 Perforations—The perforations shall be by couplings or bands may be unperforated within 4 in. [100
approximately circular and cleanly cut; shall have nominal mm] of each end of each length of pipe. The rows of
diameters of not less than 3⁄16 in. [4.8 mm] nor greater than 3⁄8 perforations shall be arranged in two equal groups placed

6
B 745/B 745M
symmetrically on either side of a lower unperforated segment TABLE 12 Rows of Perforations, Height H of the Centerline of
corresponding to the flow line of the pipe. The spacing of the the Uppermost Rows Above the Invert, and Chord Length L of
Unperforated Segment, for Class 1 Perforations
rows shall be uniform. The distance between the center lines of
rows shall be not less than 1 in. [25 mm]. The minimum Internal Dia of Pipe Rows of H, maxB L, minB
Perfor-
number of longitudinal rows of perforations, the maximum in. mm ationsA in. mm in. mm
heights of the centerlines of the uppermost rows above the 4 100 2 1.8 46 2.6 64
bottom of the invert, and the inside chord lengths of the 6 150 4 2.8 69 3.8 96
unperforated segments illustrated in Fig. 2 shall be as specified 8 200 4 3.7 92 5.1 128
10 250 4 4.6 115 6.4 160
in Table 12. 12 300 6 5.5 138 7.7 192
15 400 6 6.9 172 9.6 240
NOTE 7—Pipe with Class 1 perforations is generally available in 18 450 6 8.3 207 11.5 286
diameters from 4 to 21 in. [100 to 525 mm] inclusive, although perforated 21 500 6 9.7 241 13.4 336
pipe in larger sizes may be obtained. 24 and larger 600 and larger 8 C C C C

A
8.3.2.2 Class 2 Perforations—The perforations shall be Minimum number of rows. A greater number of rows for increased inlet area
shall be subject to agreement between purchaser and fabricator. Note that the
circular holes with nominal diameters of 5⁄16 to 3⁄8in. [8.0 to 9.5 number of perforations per foot [metre] in each row (and inlet area) is dependent
mm], or slots with nominal width of 3⁄16 to 5⁄16in. [4.8 to 8.0 on the corrugation pitch.
B
mm] and maximum length of 1⁄2in. [12.7 mm]. The perforations See Fig. 2 for location of dimensions H and L.
C
H (max) = 0.46D; L (min) = 0.64D, where D = internal diameter of pipe, inches
shall be uniformly spaced around the full periphery of the pipe. or millimetres as appropriate.
The perforations shall provide an opening area of not less than
3.3 sq in./sq ft [230 sq cm/sq m] of pipe surface based on nominal diameter and length of pipe.
nominal diameter and length of pipe.
NOTE 9—There is no provision for Class 3 perforations in this speci-
NOTE 8—Thirty perforations, 3⁄8in. diameter, per square foot [323 fication.
perforations, 9.5-mm diameter, per square meter] satisfies the inlet area
requirement for Class 2 perforations. 9. Coupling Bands
8.3.2.3 Class 4 Perforations—The perforations shall be 9.1 Types of Coupling Bands—Field joints for each type of
circular holes with nominal diameters of 5⁄16 to 3⁄8in. [8.0 to 9.5 corrugated aluminum pipe shall maintain pipe alignment dur-
mm], or slots with a nominal width of 3⁄16 to 5⁄1 6in. [4.8 to 8.0 ing construction and prevent infiltration of fill material during
mm] and a maximum length of 1⁄2 in. [12.7 mm]. All perfora- the life of the installation.
tions shall occur in the flat sheet between spiral ribs or 9.1.1 Coupling bands may be of the following types:
lockseam with the center of any hole no closer than 3⁄4 in. [19.0 9.1.1.1 Bands with annular corrugations;
mm] from the outside edge of a rib. The perforations shall be 9.1.1.2 Bands with helical corrugations;
uniformly spaced around the full periphery of the pipe. The 9.1.1.3 Bands with projections (dimples);
perforations shall provide an opening area of not less than 2.0 9.1.1.4 Channel bands for upturned flanges, with or without
sq in./sq ft [140 sq cm/sq m] of pipe surface based on the annular corrugations;
9.1.1.5 Flat bands; and
9.1.1.6 Smooth sleeve-type couplers.
9.1.2 Except as provided in 9.1.3-9.1.6, the type of coupling
furnished shall be at the option of the fabricator unless the type
is specified in the order.
NOTE 10—Bands are classified according to their ability to resist shear,
moment, and tensile forces as described in Practice B 788/B 788M, and
identified as “standard joints” and “special joints”. The four types of bands
listed in 9.1.1.1-9.1.1.4, and meeting the requirements of 9.2, are expected
to meet the requirements for “standard joints”. Some may also be able to
meet the requirements for “special joints”, but such capability should be
determined by analysis or test.
9.1.3 Coupling bands with annular corrugations shall be
used only with pipe with annular corrugations, or helical pipe
in which the ends have been rerolled to form annular corruga-
tions. The corrugations in the band shall have the same
dimensions as the corrugations in the pipe end, or may be of a
special design to engage either the first or the second corruga-
tion from the end of each pipe. The band may also include a
U-shaped channel to accommodate upturned flanges on the
pipe.
9.1.4 Coupling bands with helical corrugations shall be used
only with pipe with helically corrugated ends. The corrugations
in the bands shall be designed to properly mesh with the
FIG. 2 Circumferential Location of Class 1 Perforations corrugations in the pipe.

7
B 745/B 745M
9.1.5 Coupling bands with projections (dimples) may be TABLE 14 Coupling Band Width Requirements
used with pipe with either annular or helical corrugations. The Coupling Band Width, min
Nominal Nominal
bands shall be formed with the projections in annular rows with Corrugation Pipe Annular Helically Bands
one projection for each corrugation of helical pipe. Bands 101⁄2 SizeA Inside DiaB Corrugated Corrugated With
Bands Bands Projections
in. [265 mm] wide shall have two annular rows of projections,
and bands 161⁄4 and 26 in. [415 and 660 mm] wide shall have B 745 (in.)

four annular rows of projections. 11⁄2 by 1⁄4 4 to 10 101⁄2 7 101⁄2


9.1.6 Channel bands may be used only with pipe having 22⁄3 by 1⁄2 12 to 36 7 12 101⁄2
upturned flanges on the pipe ends. 42 to 72 101⁄2 12 101⁄2
78 to 120C 101⁄2 12 161⁄4
9.1.7 When specified by the purchaser, flat bands may be 3 by 1 30 to 72 12 14 101⁄2
used on pipe with helically corrugated ends, annular corrugated 78 to 120 12 14 161⁄4
pipe, or helical pipe on which the ends have been rerolled to 6 by 1 48 to 114 24 24 26

form annular corrugations. B 745M (mm)


9.1.8 Smooth sleeve-type couplers may be used with Type
III pipe of 12-in. [300-mm] diameter or smaller. 38 by 6.5 100 to 250 265 180 265
68 by 13 300 to 900 180 300 265
9.2 Requirements—Coupling bands shall be fabricated to 1050 to 1800 265 300 265
lap on an equal portion of each of the pipe sections to be 1950 to 3000C 265 300 415
75 by 25 750 to 1800 300 350 265
connected. The ends of the bands shall lap or be fabricated to 1950 to 3000 300 350 415
form a tightly closed joint upon installation. Coupling bands 150 by 25 1200 to 2650 600 600 660
shall conform to the requirements in Table 13 based on the A
For helically corrugated pipe with rerolled ends, the nominal corrugation size
sheet thickness of the pipe to be connected, except as provided refers to the dimensions of the end corrugations in the pipe.
B
in 9.2.1 and 9.2.2. The band width shall be not less than as Equivalent diameter of Type II, Type IIA, and Type IIR pipe.
C
Diameters through 120 in. [3000 mm] for annular corrugated bands used on
shown in Table 14. The bands shall be connected in a manner rerolled ends of helically corrugated pipe.
approved by the purchaser with suitable aluminum or galva-
nized steel devices such as: angles, or integrally or separately
[22-mm] diameter for larger pipe diameters, having 1⁄2 in. [13
formed and attached flanges, bolted with bolts as described in
mm] deep end corrugations. Rubber O-ring gaskets shall be
6.4; bars and straps; wedge lock and straps; or lugs. Coupling
13⁄8-in. [35-mm] diameter for pipe having 1 in. [25 mm] deep
bands shall be fastened with the following size of bolts: pipe
end corrugations.
diameters 18 in. [450 mm] and less—3⁄8-in. [Metric M10] dia.;
pipe diameters 21 in. [525 mm] and greater—1⁄2-in. [Metric NOTE 11—Riveted pipe is not water tight, having small openings at the
M12] dia. intersection of longitudinal and circumferential seams. Therefore this type
9.2.1 If flanges are provided on the pipe ends, the coupling of fabrication should not be used where water tightness is a concern unless
the pipe is bituminous coated or lined prior to installation.
may also be made by interlocking the flanges with a preformed
channel band or other band incorporating a locking channel not 9.4 Other types of coupling bands or fastening devices
less than 3⁄4 in. [19 mm] in width. The depth of the channel which are equally effective as those described, and which
shall be not less than 1⁄2 in. [13 mm]. The channel band shall comply with the joint performance criteria of Practice B 788/
have a minimum nominal thickness of 0.075 in. [1.91 mm]. B 788M, may be used when approved by the purchaser.
9.2.2 Smooth sleeve type couplings shall be aluminum sheet
having a nominal thickness of not less than 0.036 in. [0.91 10. Workmanship
mm], or as an option, may be a plastic sleeve to provide 10.1 The completed pipe shall show careful, finished work-
equivalent strength. The coupling shall be close-fitting, to hold manship in all particulars. Pipe which has been damaged, either
the pipe firmly in alignment without the use of sealing during fabrication or in shipping, may be rejected unless
compounds or gaskets. The coupling shall contain a device so repairs are made which are satisfactory to the purchaser.
that the coupling will lap equally on the two pipes being joined. Among others, the following defects shall be considered as
The overall length of the coupling shall be equal to or greater constituting poor workmanship:
than the nominal diameter of the pipe. 10.1.1 Variation from a straight centerline;
9.3 Gaskets—Where infiltration or exfiltration is a concern, 10.1.2 Elliptical shape in pipe intended to be round;
the couplings may be required to have gaskets. The closed-cell 10.1.3 Dents or bends in the metal;
expanded rubber gaskets shall be a continuous band, approxi- 10.1.4 Lack of rigidity;
mately 7 in. [180 mm] wide and approximately 3⁄8in. [9.5 mm] 10.1.5 Illegible markings on the aluminum sheet;
thick. Rubber O-ring gaskets shall be 13⁄16-in. [20-mm] diam- 10.1.6 Ragged or diagonal sheared edges;
eter for pipe diameters of 36 in. [900 mm] or smaller, and 7⁄8-in. 10.1.7 Uneven laps in riveted pipe;
10.1.8 Loose, unevenly lined, or unevenly spaced rivets;
TABLE 13 Coupling Band Thickness and
Nominal Pipe Thickness Nominal Coupling Band Thickness, min 10.1.9 Loosely formed lockseams.
in. mm in. mm
0.105 and thinner 2.67 and thinner 0.048 1.22 11. Inspection
0.135 3.43 0.060 1.52
0.164 4.17 0.075 1.91 11.1 When agreement is made as part of the purchase
contract, the purchaser or his representative shall have free

8
B 745/B 745M
access to the fabricating plant for inspection, and every facility NOTE 12—As the identity of the sheet is not maintained from the
shall be extended to him for this purpose. This inspection shall original ingot production, if numerical results are required by the
include an examination of the pipe for the items in 10.1 and the purchaser, tests should be performed on the finished sheet.
specific requirements of this specification applicable to the type 14. Product Marking
of pipe and method of fabrication. 14.1 If the aluminum alloy sheet was not marked by the
11.2 On a random basis, samples may be taken for chemical manufacturer as indicated in Specification B 744/B 744M, it
analysis and mechanical property determination for check shall be marked by the fabricator as described in 14.2, during
purposes. These samples will be secured from fabricated pipe the course of corrugating the sheet and fabricating the pipe.
or from sheets or coils of the material used in fabrication of the 14.2 Each corrugated sheet used in annular corrugated pipe,
pipe. Testing shall be as described in Specification B 209 or and each 2 to 5 ft [0.6 to 1.5 m] of coiled sheet used in helically
B 209M. corrugated pipe, shall be identified by the fabricator showing
12. Rejection the following:
14.2.1 Name of sheet manufacturer,
12.1 Pipe failing to conform to the requirements of this 14.2.2 Identification of the pipe fabricator, if different than
specification may be rejected. This requirement applies not the sheet manufacturer,
only to the individual pipe, but to any shipment as a whole 14.2.3 Alloy and temper,
where a substantial number of pipe are defective. If the average 14.2.4 Specified thickness,
deficiency in length of any shipment of pipe is greater than 14.2.5 Fabricator’s date of corrugating or forming into pipe
1 %, the shipment may be rejected. by a six digit number indicating in order the year, month, and
13. Certification day of the month, and
14.2.6 ASTM designation number.
13.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a 14.3 The marking shall be applied to the sheet by a
manufacturer’s or fabricator’s certification, or both, shall be permanent method such as coining in accordance with Practice
furnished to the purchaser stating that samples representing B 666/B 666M. This identification shall appear on the outside
each lot have been tested and inspected in accordance with this of the pipe.
specification and have been found to meet the requirements for
the material described in the order. When specified in the order, 15. Keywords
a report of the mechanical test results and chemical composi- 15.1 aluminum culvert; aluminum storm drains; culvert
tion limits shall be furnished. pipe; storm drain pipe

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

This section identifies the principal changes to this standard process in use to produce this product. Appropriate correspond-
that have been incorporated since the last issue. ing revisions to sectional properties are incorporated in B 790/
(1) Increase the maximum rib corner radius in Table 2 for both B 790M.
rib profiles to correspond with the manufacturing

The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection
with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your
views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at
610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org).

9
Designation: B 747 – 02

Standard Specification for


Copper-Zirconium Alloy Sheet and Strip1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 747; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope * 3.1.4 Number of Tests and Retests,


1.1 This specification establishes the requirements for sheet 3.1.5 Specimen Preparation,
and strip of Copper Alloy UNS C15100. 3.1.6 Significance of Numerical Limits,
1.2 Values stated in inch-pound units are the standard. SI 3.1.7 Inspection,
values given in parentheses are for information only. 3.1.8 Rejection and Rehearing,
3.1.9 Certification,
2. Referenced Documents 3.1.10 Test Reports,
2.1 ASTM Standards: 3.1.11 Packaging and Package Marking, and
B 193 Test Method for Resistivity of Electrical Conductor 3.1.12 Supplementary Requirements.
Materials2
4. Terminology
B 248 Specification for General Requirements for Wrought
Copper and Copper-Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled 4.1 For definition of terms related to copper and copper
Bar3 alloys, refer to Terminology B 846.
B 601 Practice for Temper Designations for Copper and 5. Ordering Information
Copper Alloys—Wrought and Cast3
B 846 Terminology for Copper and Copper Alloys3 5.1 Orders for product under this specification should in-
E 3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens4 clude the following information:
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials4 5.1.1 ASTM designation number and year of issue,
E 53 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper5 5.1.2 Quantity (of each size),
E 62 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper and 5.1.3 Copper Alloy UNS No. (see 1.1),
Copper Alloys (Photometric Methods)5 5.1.4 Form of material (sheet or strip),
E 112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size4 5.1.5 Temper (see 8.1),
E 255 Practice for Sampling of Copper and Copper Alloys 5.1.6 Dimensions (thickness, width, length, if applicable),
for Determination of Chemical Composition5 5.1.7 How furnished (rolls, specific lengths with or without
E 478 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper ends, stock lengths with or without ends),
Alloys5 5.1.8 Type of edge, if required (slit, sheared, sawed, square
E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)6 corners, rounded corners, rounded edges, or full-rounded
edges),
3. General Requirements 5.1.9 Type of width and straightness tolerances, if required
3.1 The following sections of Specification B 248 constitute (slit metal tolerances, square sheared metal tolerances, sawed
a part of this specification: metal tolerances, straightened or edge-rolled metal tolerances),
3.1.1 Terminology, and
3.1.2 Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance, 5.2 In addition, when material is purchased for the U.S.
3.1.3 Sampling, Government, it shall conform to the Supplemental require-
ments as defined in Specification B 248 when specified in the
contract or purchase order.
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B05 on Copper 6. Material and Manufacture
and Copper Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B05.01 on Plate,
Sheet, and Strip. 6.1 Material:
Current edition approved April 10, 2002. Published June 2002. Originally 6.1.1 The material of manufacture shall be a cast bar, slab,
published as B 747 – 85. Last previous edition B 747 – 96.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.03.
cake, billet, etc. of Copper Alloy UNS No. C15100 of such
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.01. purity and soundness as to be suitable for processing in to the
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01. products prescribed herein.
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05. 6.1.2 In the event heat identification or traceability is
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 747
required, the purchaser shall specify the details desired. TABLE 2 Tensile Strength and Grain Size Requirements
Temper DesignationA Tensile Strength, ksiB (MPa)C Grain Size,
NOTE 1—Due to the discontinuous nature of the processing of castings mmD
into wrought products, it is not always practical to identify a specific Standard Former Min Max
casting analysis with a specific quantity of finished material. OS015 annealed ... ... 0.030 max
H01 quarter hard 40 (275) 45 (310) ...
6.2 Manufacture: H02 half hard 43 (295) 51 (350) ...
6.2.1 The product shall be manufactured by such hotwork- H03 three-quarter 47 (325) 56 (385) ...
ing, cold-working, and annealing processes as to produce a hard
H04 hard 53 (365) 62 (430) ...
uniform wrought structure in the finished product. H06 extra hard 59 (405) 65 (450) ...
6.2.2 The product shall be hot- or cold-worked to the H08 spring 64 (445) 71 (490) ...
finished size and subsequently annealed, when required, to A
Standard designations defined in Practice B 601.
B
meet the temper properties specified. C
ksi = 1000 psi.
See Appendix X1.
6.3 Edges: D
Although no minimum grain size is required, this material must be fully
6.3.1 Slit edges shall be furnished unless otherwise speci- recrystallized.
fied in the contract or purchase order.
TABLE 3 Electrical Resistivity
7. Chemical Composition
Equivalent
Electrical Resistivity
7.1 The product shall conform to the chemical composition Temper at 20°C (68°F),
Conductivity at 20°C
prescribed in Table 1. (68°F),
max, V·g/m2
% IACS, min
7.2 These composition limits do not preclude the presence Annealed (OS015) 0.16136 95
of other elements. Limits may be established and analysis Rolled (H01, H02, 0.17031 90
required for unnamed elements by agreement between the H03, H04, H06,
H08)
manufacturer or supplier and the purchaser.
7.3 When all elements listed in Table 1 are analyzed, the
sum of results shall be 99.9 % minimum. 12.1.1 Thickness.
12.1.2 Width—Slit metal and slit metal with rolled edges.
8. Temper 12.1.3 Square Sheared Metal; Sawed Metal.
8.1 The tempers, as defined in Practice B 601, available 12.1.4 Length:
under this specification are as designated in Table 2. 12.1.4.1 Length Tolerances for Specific and Stock Lengths
With and Without Ends.
9. Grain Size for Annealed Temper 12.1.4.2 Schedule of Lengths (Specific and Stock) With
9.1 Grain size for OS015 temper product shall be as given in Ends.
Table 2 when tested in accordance with Test Methods E 112. 12.1.4.3 Length Tolerances for Square Sheared Metal.
12.1.4.4 Length Tolerances for Sawed Metal.
10. Physical Property Requirements 12.1.5 Straightness:
10.1 Electrical Resistivity Requirements: 12.1.5.1 Slit Metal or Slit Metal Either Straightness or Edge
10.1.1 The product shall conform to the requirements of Rolled.
Table 3 by temper when tested in accordance with Test Method 12.1.5.2 Square Sheared Metal.
B 193. 12.1.5.3 Sawed Metal.
12.1.6 Edges:
11. Mechanical Property Requirements 12.1.6.1 Square Edges.
11.1 Tensile Strength Requirements: 12.1.6.2 Rounded Corners.
11.1.1 Tempers H01, H02, H03, H04, H06, and H08 shall 12.1.6.3 Rounded Edges.
conform to the requirements prescribed in Table 2 when tested 12.1.6.4 Full Rounded Edges.
in accordance with Test Methods E 8. Tensile strength shall be
13. Workmanship, Finish and Appearance
the basis for acceptance or rejection of product in these
tempers. 13.1 The material shall be free of defects, but blemishes of
a nature that do not interfere with normal commercial opera-
12. Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variations tions are acceptable. It shall be well-cleaned and free of dirt. A
12.1 The following titled sections and tables in Specifica- superficial film or residual light lubricant is normally present
tion B 248 are a part of this specification: and is acceptable unless otherwise specified.
13.2 The surface finish and appearance shall be the normal
TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements
commercial quality for the alloy, thickness, and temper or-
dered. When application information is provided with purchase
Composition, %
Element
order, the surface shall be that commercially producible for the
Copper Alloy
UNS No. C15100
application. Superficial films of discoloration, or lubricants, or
tarnish inhibitors are permissible unless otherwise specified.
Copper (including Ag) 99.8 % min
Zirconium 0.05–0.15 14. Sampling
Cu + sum of named elements 99.9 % min
14.1 Sampling—The lot size, portion size, and selection of

2
B 747
sample pieces shall be as follows: from samples selected in accordance with 14.1.2 fails to
14.1.1 Lot Size—40 000 lb (18 144 kg) or less material of conform to the specified limits, analysis shall be made on a
the same mill form, temper, and thickness, subject to inspection new composite sample prepared from the pieces selected in
at one time. accordance with 14.1.2.
14.1.2 Portion Size—Sample pieces shall be selected from 15.4.2 If one of the two tests made to determine any of the
eight individual pieces, and shall be taken so as to be mechanical or grain size requirementss fails to meet a specified
representative of those pieces. If the lot consists of less than limit, this test shall be repeated on the remaining pieces,
eight pieces, a sample shall be taken from each individual maximum of two, selected in accordance with 14.1.2, and the
piece. results of both of these tests shall comply with the specified
14.2 Chenical Analysis: requirements.
14.2.1 The sample for chemical analysis shall be taken in 15.4.3 If any test specimen shows defective machining or
accordance with Practice E 255 for product in its final form develops flaws, it may be discarded and another specimen
taken from the pieces selected in 14.1.2 and combined into one substituted.
composite sample. The minimum weight of the composite 15.5 Chemical Analysis, shall be determined as the average
sample shall be 150 g. of at least two replicate determinations for each element
14.2.2 Instead of sampling as directed in 14.2.1, the manu- specified.
facturer shall have the option of sampling at the time the
16. Specimen Preparation
castings are poured or samples taken from the semifinished
product. If the manufacturer determines the chemical compo- 16.1 In the grain size test, all specimens shall be prepared as
sition of the material during the course of manufacture, he shall specified in Method E 3.
not be required to sample and analyze the finished product. 16.2 In the tension test, all strip less than 3⁄4 in. wide shall be
14.2.2.1 When samples are taken at the time the castings are pulled in full size when practicable. Machined test specimens
poured, at least one sample shall be taken from each group of shall be as specified in Test Method E 8, Fig. 1 for sheet type
castings poured from the same source of molten metal. specimens.
14.2.2.2 When samples are taken from semifinished prod- 16.3 Chemical Composition—The composite sample for
uct, a sample shall be taken to represent each 10 000 lbs (5 000 laboratory analysis shall, in case of disagreement, be prepared
kg) or fraction thereof, except that no more than one sample in accordance with Practice E 255.
shall be required per piece. 17. Test Methods
14.2.2.3 Only one sample need be taken from the semifin- 17.1 The properties and chemical compositions enumerated
ished product of one cast bar from a single melt charge in the specifications shall, in case of disagreement, be deter-
continuously processed. mined in accordance with the following ASTM test methods:
14.3 Samples for all Other Tests—Samples for all other tests
Test ASTM Designation
shall be taken from the sample portions selected in 14.1.2 and
be of an convenient size to accomodated the test and comply Chemical Analysis E 53, E 62, E 478
with the requirements of the appropriate product specificatiion Tension E8
Grain E 112
and test method. Electrical Resistivity B 193

15. Number of Tests and Retests 18. Significance of Numerical Limits


15.1 Tests 18.1 For purposes of determining compliance with the
15.1.1 Chemical Requirements: specified property limits for the properties listed in the follow-
15.1.2 When samples are taken at the time the castings are ing table, an observed value of a calculated value shall be
poured, at least one sample shall be analyzed for each group of rounded as indicated in accordance with the rounding method
castings poured simultaneously from the same source of of Practice E 29:
molten metal. Property Rounded Unit for Observed
15.1.3 When samples are taken from the semifinished or or Calculated Value

finished product, at least one sample representative of the Chemical composition nearest unit in the last right-hand place
product of each cast bar from a single melt charge continuously Hardness of figures of the specified limits.
processed with heat identity maintained shall be analyzed. Tensile strength nearest ksi (nearest 5 MPa)
Grain size:
15.2 Mechanical Properties and Grain Size—Unless other- Up to 0.055 mm, incl nearest multiple of 0.005 mm
wise provided in the product specification, test specimens shall Over 0.055 to 0.160 mm, incl nearest 0.01 mm
be taken from two of the sample pieces selected in accordance Elongation:
5 % and over nearest 1 %
with 14.1.2. The required tests shall be made on each of the
specimens so selected. 19. Inspection
15.3 Other Tests—For other tests, test specimens shall be 19.1 The manufacture shall inspect and make the test
taken from four of the sample pieces selected in accordance necessary to verify that the product furnished conforms to the
with 14.1.2. The required tests shall be made on each of the requirements of this specification.
specimens so selected. 19.2 If, in addition, source inspection of the material by the
15.4 Retests: purchaser is agreed upon by the manufacturer and the pur-
15.4.1 If the chemical analysis of the specimens prepared chaser as part of the purchase contract, the nature of the

3
B 747
facilities needed to satisfy the inspector representing the specification, or alternatively, upon agreement of both parties,
purchaser that the product is being furnished in accordance an independent laboratory may be selected for the test(s) using
with this specification shall be included in the agreement. All the test methods(s) specified in this product specification.
tests and the inspection shall be conducted so as not to interfere
unnecessarily with the operation of the works. 21. Certification
19.3 The manufacturer and the purchaser, by mutual agree- 21.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, the
ment, may accomplish the final inspection simultaneously. purchaser shall be furnished certifications that samples repre-
sentimg each lot have been tested or inspected as directed in
20. Rejection and Rehearing this specification and the requirements have been met.
20.1 Rejection:
20.1.1 Product that fails to conform to the specified require- 22. Test Report
ments when inspected or tested by the purchaser or his agent 22.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
may be rejected. report of the test results shall be furnished.
20.1.2 Rejection should be reported to the manufacturer or
supplier promptly and in writing. 23. Packing, Marking, Shipping, and Preservation
20.1.3 In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the test, 23.1 Packaging—The product shall be separated by size,
the manufacturer or supplier may make claim for a rehearing. composition, and temper, and prepared for shipment in such a
20.2 Rehearing—A a result of product rejection, the manu- manner as to ensure acceptance by common carrier for
facturer or supplier may make a claim for a retest to be transportation and to afford protection from the normal hazads
conducted by the manufacturer or supplier and the purchaser. of transportation.
Samples of the rejected product shall be taken in accordance
with this product specification and subjected to test by both 24. Keywords
parties using the test methods (s) specified in this product 24.1 copper-zirconium; sheet and strip

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

An extensive five-year review was conducted. Most sections were revised in order to conform to
Society requirements and to improve clarity of product requirements.

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. METRIC EQUIVALENTS

X1.1 The SI unit for strength properties now shown is in stress is the newton per square metre (N/m2), which has been
accordance with the International System of Units (SI). The named the pascal (Pa) by the General Conference on Weights
derived SI unit for force is the newton (N), which is defined as and Measures. Since 1 ksi = 6 894 757 Pa the metric equiva-
that force which when applied to a body having a mass of one lents are expressed as megapascal (MPa), which is the same as
kilogram gives it an acceleration of one metre per second MN/m2 and N/mm2.
squared (N = kg m/s2). The derived SI unit for pressure or

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee B05 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (B 747 – 96)
that may impact the use of this standard.

(1) Added many sections to this specification to meet current (2) Table 1 was changed to match CDA chemical composition.
outline of form.

4
B 747
ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

5
Designation: B 748 – 90 (Reapproved 2001)

Standard Test Method for


Measurement of Thickness of Metallic Coatings by
Measurement of Cross Section with a Scanning Electron
Microscope1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 748; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 5. Equipment
1.1 This test method covers the measurement of metallic 5.1 The scanning electron microscope shall have a resolu-
coating thicknesses by examination of a cross section with a tion of at least 50 nm. Suitable instruments are available
scanning electron microsope (SEM). commercially.
1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the 6. Factors Affecting the Measurement Reliability
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 6.1 Surface Roughness—If the coating or its substrate is
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- rough relative to the coating thickness, one or both of the
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. interfaces bounding the coating cross section may be too
irregular to permit accurate measurement of the average
2. Referenced Documents thickness in the field of view.
2.1 ASTM Standards: 6.2 Taper of Cross Section—If the plane of the cross section
E 3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens2 is not perpendicular to the plane of the coating, the measured
E 766 Practice for Calibrating the Magnification of a Scan- thickness will be greater than the true thickness. For example,
ning Electron Microscope2 an inclination of 10° to the perpendicular will contribute a
1.5 % error. True thickness, (t), equals measured thickness,
3. Summary of Test Method (tm), multiplied by the cosine of the angle of inclination (u):
3.1 A test specimen is cut, ground, and polished for metal- t = t m 3 cos(u). (See X1.3.2.)
lographic examination by an SEM of a cross section of the 6.3 Specimen Tilt—Any tilt of the specimen (plane of the
coating. The measurement is made on a conventional micro- cross section) with respect to the SEM beam, may result in an
graph or on a photograph of the video waveform signal for a erroneous measurement. The instrument should always be set
single scan across the coating. for zero tilt.
6.4 Oblique Measurement—If the thickness measurement is
4. Significance and Use not perpendicular to the plane of the coating, even when there
4.1 This test method is useful for the direct measurement of is no taper (6.2) or tilt (6.3), the measured value will be greater
the thicknesses of metallic coatings and of individual layers of than the true thickness. This consideration applies to the
composite coatings, particularly for layers thinner than nor- conventional micrograph (9.3.1) and to the directon of the
mally measured with the light microscope. single video waveform scans (9.3.2).
4.2 This test method is suitable for acceptance testing. 6.5 Deformation of Coating—Detrimental deformation of
4.3 This test method is for the measurement of the thickness the coating can be caused by excessive temperature or pressure
of the coating over a very small area and not of the average or during the mounting and preparation of cross sections of soft
minimum thickness per se. coatings.
4.4 Accurate measurements by this test method generally 6.6 Rounding of Edge of Coating—If the edge of the coating
require very careful sample preparation, especially at the cross section is rounded, that is, if the coating cross section is
greater magnifications. not completely flat up to its edges, the observed thickness may
4.5 The coating thickness is an important factor in the differ from the true thickness. Edge rounding can be caused by
performance of a coating in service. improper mounting, grinding, polishing, or etching.
6.7 Overplating of Specimen—Overplating of the test speci-
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B08 on Metallic men serves to protect the coating edges during preparation of
and Inorganic Coatings and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B08.10 on cross sections and thus to prevent an erroneous measurement.
Test Methods. Removal of coating material during surface preparation for
Current edition approved Feb. 23, 1990. Published April 1990. Originally
published as B 748 – 85. Last previous edition B 748 – 85. overplating can cause a low thickness measurement.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.

Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 748
6.8 Etching—Optimum etching will produce a clearly de- 7.1.2 The surface is flat and the entire width of the coating
fined and narrow dark line at the interface of two metals. A image is simultaneously in focus at the magnification to be
wide or poorly defined line can result in an inaccurate used for the measurement,
measurement. 7.1.3 All material deformed by cutting or cross sectioning is
6.9 Smearing—Polishing may leave smeared metal that removed,
obscures the true boundary between the two metals and results 7.1.4 The boundaries of the coating cross section are sharply
in an inaccurate measurement. This may occur with soft metals defined by contrasting appearance, or by a narrow, well-defined
like lead, indium, and gold. To help identify whether or not line, and
there is smearing, repeat the polishing, etching, and measure- 7.1.5 If the video waveform signal is to be measured, the
ment several times. Any significant variations in readings signal trace is flat except across the two boundaries of the
indicates possible smearing. coating.
6.10 Poor Contrast—The visual contrast between metals in 7.2 For further guidance see Appendix X1.
the SEM is poor when their atomic numbers are close together.
For example, bright and semibright nickel layers may not be 8. Calibration of Magnification
discriminable unless their common boundary can be brought 8.1 Calibrate the SEM with an SEM stage micrometer and
out sufficiently by appropriate etching and SEM techniques. determine the magnification factor, M, in accordance with
For some metal combinations, energy dispersive X-ray tech- Practice E 766 (see X1.4.2). Other calibration methods may be
niques (see X1.4.5) or backscatter image techniques (see used if it can be demonstrated that they are sufficiently accurate
X1.4.6) may be helpful. for meeting the requirement of Section 12.
6.11 Magnification: 8.2 If practical, the stage micrometer and the test specimen
6.11.1 For any given coating thickness, measurement errors shall be mounted side by side on the SEM stage.
tend to increase with decreasing magnification. If practical, the
magnification should be chosen so that the field of view is 9. Procedure
between 1.5 and 33 the coating thickness.
9.1 Operate the SEM in accordance with the manufacturer’s
6.11.2 The magnification readout of an SEM is often poorer
instructions.
than the 5 % accuracy often quoted and the magnification has
9.2 Take into account the factors listed in Sections 6 and 12.
been found for some instruments to vary by 25 % across the
9.3 Make a micrograph of the test specimen under the same
field. Magnification errors are minimized by appropriate use of
conditions and instrument settings as used for the calibration
an SEM stage micrometer and appropriate experimental pro-
and make an appropriate measurement of the micrograph
cedure. (See Practice E 766.)
image. Carry out this step in accordance with 9.3.1 or 9.3.2.
6.12 Uniformity of Magnification—Because the magnifica-
9.3.1 Conventional Micrograph:
tion may not be uniform over the entire field, errors can occur
9.3.1.1 With the boundaries of the coating clearly and
if both the calibration and the measurement are not made over
sharply defined, make conventional micrographs of the SEM
the same portion of the field. This can be very important.
stage micrometer scale and of the test specimen.
6.13 Stability of Magnification:
9.3.1.2 Measure the micrographs to at least the nearest 0.1
6.13.1 The magnification of an SEM often changes or drifts
mm using a diffraction plate reader or equivalent device. If this
with time. This effect is minimized by mounting the stage
is not practical, it may be because poor sample preparation is
micrometer and test specimen side by side on the SEM stage so
causing the boundaries of the coating to be poorly defined.
as to keep the transfer time short.
9.3.2 Video Waveform Signal:
6.13.2 A change in magnification can occur when adjust-
9.3.2.1 Photograph the video waveform signal for a single
ments are made with the focusing and other electronic SEM
scan across the coating cross section and across the SEM stage
controls. Such a change is prevented by not using the electronic
micrometer scale.
focus controls or other electronic SEM controls after photo-
graphing the stage micrometer scale except to focus with the 9.3.2.2 To measure the coating, measure the horizontal
mechanical X, Y, and Z controls. Appropriate manipulation of distance between the inflection points of the vertical portions of
the X, Y, and Z controls will bring the specimen surface to the the scan at the boundaries of the coating. Make the measure-
focal point of the SEM beam. ments to the nearest 0.1 mm using a diffraction plate reader or
6.14 Stability of Micrographs—Dimensional changes of equivalent device.
micrographs can take place with time and with temperature and 9.3.3 For further guidance see Appendix X1.
humidity changes. If the calibration micrograph of the stage
10. Calculation and Expression of Results
micrometer scale and the micrograph of the test specimen are
kept together and time is allowed for stabilization of the 10.1 Calculate the thickness according to the expression:
photographic paper, errors from this source will be minimized. T 5 1000 3 d/M (1)

7. Preparations of Cross Sections


7.1 Prepare, mount, grind, polish, and etch the test specimen where:
so that the following occurs: T = coating thickness, in µm,
7.1.1 The cross section is perpendicular to the plane of the d = linear distance on micrograph, in mm, and
M = magnification factor as defined in Practice E 766.
coating,

2
B 748
11. Report 11.1.9 Name of individual responsible for the measure-
11.1 The report of the measurements shall give the follow- ments.
ing information:
11.1.1 Date measurements were made, 12. Precision and Bias
11.1.2 The title, number, and year of issue of this test 12.1 The instrument, its operation, and its calibration shall
method, be such that the uncertainty of the measurements shall be less
11.1.3 Identification of the test specimen(s), than 0.1 µm or 10 %, whichever is larger.
11.1.4 Location of measurement on test specimen(s),
11.1.5 The measured values and their arithmetic mean, 12.2 For a thin gold coating, one laboratory reported mea-
11.1.6 The calibrated magnification as measured with an surement uncertainty of 0.039 µm for the SEM stage microme-
SEM micrometer scale immediately before the test specimen ter scale, 0.02 µm for the measurement of the calibration
measurements, micrographs, and 0.02 µm for measurement of the video
11.1.7 Type of measurement: conventional micrograph or waveform signal scan. Based on practical experience, a repeat-
video waveform signal, ability of 0.1 µm or better may be assumed.
11.1.8 Any unusual feature of the measurement that might
affect the results, and

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. TECHNIQUES OF SPECIMEN PREPARATION AND USE OF THE SEM

X1.1 Introduction Grades 240, 320, 500, and 600 without exceeding grinding
X1.1.1 The preparation of specimens and measurement of times of 30 to 40 s on each paper; alter the direction of
coating thickness are greatly dependent on individual tech- scratches by 90° for each change of paper. Then polish
niques and there is a variety of suitable techniques available. successively with 6 to 9, 1, and 0.5-µm diamond on microcloth.
(See Guide E 3.) It is not reasonable to specify only one set of Some metallographers prefer the use of 0.3- and 0.05-µm
techniques, and it is impractical to include all suitable tech- alumina.
niques. The techniques described in this appendix are intended X1.3.2 A convenient way to check for tapering of the cross
as guidance. section is to mount a small diameter rod or wire with the
specimen so that the perpendicular cross section of the rod is
X1.2 Mounting parallel to that of the coating. If a taper is present, the cross
X1.2.1 To prevent rounding of the edge of the coating cross section of the rod will be elliptical.
section, the free surface of the coating should be supported so X1.3.3 If the video waveform signal scan technique is used,
that there is no space between the coating and its support. This it is important that scratches be completely removed and that
is usually achieved by overplating the coating with a coating at overpolishing does not selectively remove one of the metals
least 10 µm thick of a metal of similar hardness to the coating. more than the other so that the signal scan is distorted. With
The overplate should also give an electron signal intensity careful polishing, it is often unnecessary to use chemical
different from that of the coating. The mounting material or etches.
sample surface must be electrically conducting and grounded
to prevent a surface charge buildup in the SEM. X1.4 Use of SEM
X1.3 Grinding and Polishing X1.4.1 If the image of the cross section, as revealed in a
X1.3.1 It is essential to keep the cross section surface of the conventional micrograph, is measured; and if the boundaries of
mount perpendicular to the coating. This is facilitated by the coating cross section are revealed solely by the photo-
incorporating additional pieces of a similar metal in the plastic graphed contrast between the two materials; the apparent width
mounting, near the outer edges, by periodically changing the of the coating cross section can vary, depending on the contrast
direction of grinding (rotating through 90° and by keeping the and brightness settings. The variation can be as great as 10 %
grind time and pressure to a minimum). If, before grinding, without any change in instrument magnification. To minimize
reference marks are inscribed on the sides of the mount, any the resulting uncertainty, adjust the contrast and brightness so
inclination from horizontal is easily measurable. Grind the that the image contains surface detail of the materials on either
mounted specimens on suitable abrasive paper, using an side of each boundary.
acceptable lubricant, such as water, and apply minimum X1.4.2 Because the magnification of an SEM can change
pressure to avoid bevelling the surface. Initial grinding should spontaneously with time and can change as a result of changing
employ 100 or 180 grade abrasive to reveal the true specimen other instrument settings, it is advisable to calibrate the
profile and to remove any deformed metal. Subsequently, use instrument immediately before or after measurement of the test

3
B 748
specimen. For critical measurements, the average of measure- polished specimen that yields a flat, smooth signal.
ments made before and after measurement of the test specimen X1.4.5 Many SEMs are equipped with energy dispersive
should be used. This assures that no change in the magnifica- X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) which can be helpful in identi-fying
tion occurred and it provides information about the precision of the metal-coating layers. At best the resolution of EDS is about
the calibration. 1 µm and often it is poorer.
X1.4.3 If the video waveform trace is measured, the mea- X1.4.6 The use of backscatter images instead of secondary
surement is made of the horizontal distance between the electron images can also be helpful in distinguishing metal
inflection points at the boundaries. The inflection point is half layers with atomic numbers as close together as 1.0 and with a
way between the horizontal traces of the two materials. resolution of 0.1 µm.
X1.4.4 For a video-waveform trace, select a portion of the

The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection
with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your
views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at
610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 749 – 03

Standard Specification for


Lead and Lead Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate Products1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 749; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope delivery at one time for sampling and inspection from one
1.1 This specification covers lead sheet, strip, and plate of manufacturing or smelting heat.
various alloys intended for use in chemical plants, sound 3.2 plate—any product over 0.187 in. (4.75 mm) in thick-
attenuation, roofing, vibration dampening, flashing and ness and over 10 in. (254 mm) in width.
weather stripping, waterproofing, and radiation shielding. 3.3 sheet—products 0.187 in. (4.75 mm) and under in
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded thickness and 24 in. (610 mm) or more in width.
as the standard. 3.4 strip—any product 0.187 in. (4.75 mm) and under in
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the thickness and less than 24 in. (610 mm) in width.
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the 4. Ordering Information
responsibility of the user of this standard to become familiar
with all hazards including those identified in the appropriate 4.1 Orders for material to this specification shall include the
Material Safety Data Sheet for this product/material as pro- following information:
vided by the manufacturer, to establish appropriate safety and 4.1.1 Alloy (chemical composition) with variations speci-
health practices, and determine the applicability of regulatory fied.
limitations prior to use. 4.1.2 Type (strip, sheet, or plate).
4.1.3 Condition including mechanical properties where ap-
2. Referenced Documents plicable.
2.1 ASTM Standards: 4.1.4 Dimensions.
B 29 Specification for Refined Lead2 4.1.5 Number of Pieces.
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials3 4.1.6 Certification—State if certification is required.
E 10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materi- 4.1.7 Sampling—Type of sampling required and whether
als3 samples product (check) analysis shall be furnished.
E 18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell 4.1.8 Inspection Requirements—If purchaser wishes to wit-
Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials3 ness tests or inspection of material at the place of manufacture,
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to the purchase order must so state indicating which tests or
Determine Conformance with Specifications4 inspections are to be witnessed.
E 37 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Pig Lead5 4.1.9 Optional Requirements:
E 87 Methods for Chemical Analysis of Lead, Tin, Anti- 4.1.9.1 Strip and Sheet—Whether to be furnished in coils or
mony, and Their Alloys (Photometric Methods)6 in cut straight lengths.
E 112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size3 4.1.9.2 Sheet and Plate—Whether to be furnished in spe-
cially flattened condition.
3. Terminology Definitions 4.1.9.3 Wrought Products—Minimum reduction required.
3.1 lot—shall consist of all the lead sheet, strip, or plate of
5. Materials and Manufacture
the same alloy produced by one manufacturer and offered for
5.1 The lead sheet, strip, or plate shall be manufactured by
rolling or extruding the product from a lead work piece of
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on chemical composition specified in Table 1 or other specified
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee composition. The work piece may be prepared by conventional
B02.02 on Refined Lead, Tin Antimony, and Their Alloys.
Current edition approved, June 10, 2003. Published July 2003. Originally casting into a mold or by continuous casting. Lead sheet or
approved in 1985. Last previous edition approved in 1997 as B 749 - 97. strip may also be produced by direct continuous casting to the
2

3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04. desired thickness.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
6
Discontinued—see 1984 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 749 – 03
TABLE 1 Chemical RequirementsA,B TABLE 2 Permissible Thickness Variation
Composition (Weight Percent) NOTE 1—For ordering information, lead 1 in. thick weighs approxi-
Low Bismuth mately 60 lb/ft 2.
Low Silver Refined Pure Pure Lead, Chemical-Copper
Grade Maximum
Pure Lead, Lead, maxD max LeadE
Specified Maximum Maximum Over Alternate,
maxC
Thickness, in. Under, in. Over, in. in. (see section 8.13
Sb 0.0005 0.0005 0.001 0.001 max 8.1.3
As 0.0005 0.0005 0.001 0.001 max
0.015–0.100 0.005 0.005
Sn 0.0005 0.0005 0.001 0.001 max
0.101–0.130 0.006 0.006 0.031
Sb As and Sn ... ... 0.002 0.002 max
0.131–0.150 0.007 0.007 0.031
Cu 0.0010 0.0010 0.0015 0.040–0.080
0.151–0.170 0.008 0.008 0.031
Ag 0.0010 0.0075 0.010 0.020 max
0.171–0.190 0.009 0.009 0.031
Bi 0.0015 0.025 0.05 0.025 max
0.191–0.210 0.010 0.010 0.031
Zn 0.0005 0.001 0.001 0.001 max
0.211–0.230 0.011 0.011 0.031
Te 0.0001 0.0001 ... ...
0.231–0.250 0.012 0.012 0.031
Ni 0.0002 0.0002 0.0005 0.002 max
0.251–0.270 0.013 0.013 0.031
Fe 0.0002 0.001 0.001 0.002 max
0.271–0.290 0.014 0.014 0.031
Lead (min) by 99.995 99.97 99.94 99.90
0.291–0.310 0.015 0.015 0.031
difference
0.311–0.400 0.016 0.020 0.031
UNS Number L50006 L50021 L50049 L51121
0.401–0.500 0.016 0.025 0.031
A
The following applies to all specified limits in Table 1: For the purpose of 0.501–0.600 0.016 0.030 0.031
determining conformance with this specification, an observed value obtained from 0.601–0.630 0.016 0.031 0.031
the analysis shall be rounded off “to the nearest unit” in the last right hand place Above–0.630 0.016 0.031 0.031
of figures used in expressing the limiting value, in accordance with the rounding
method of Practice E 29.
B
By agreement between the purchaser and the supplier, analyses may be
required and limits established for elements or compounds not specified in Table
1. 8.1.3 Alternative Thickness—When specified, lead plate, as
C
This grade is intended for chemical applications where low silver and low
bismuth contents are required. well as strip sheet over 0.100 in. (2.54 mm) shall not vary in
D
E
This grade is intended for lead acid battery applications. thickness by more than + 0.031 in. (0.79 mm) and − 0 in. (0
This grade is intended for applications requiring corrosion protection and
formability.
mm).
8.1.4 Where specified and agreed to between manufacturer
and purchaser, thickness variation looser or tighter than listed
6. Chemical Composition above may be applied.
6.1 Lead sheet, strip, and plate shall conform to the chemi- 8.2 Width and Length:
cal composition limits specified in the purchase order. The 8.2.1 Rolls—lead sheet or strip in rolls shall not vary from
appropriate ASTM or UNS alloy may be designated where the ordered width by more than + 0.250 in. (6.35 mm)
applicable. Table 1 lists the chemical requirements of several or − 0.250 in. (6.35 mm) and for length of 25 ft (8 m) or less
grades of lead for information purposes. shall be within 0.2 % of the ordered length. For length greater
NOTE 1—Soft lead sheet, strip, and plate is generally produced from
than 25 ft (8 m), the length tolerance shall be negotiated
Specification B 29 grade copper-bearing lead. between the producer and the buyer.
8.2.2 Cut Pieces—Lead sheet, strip, or plate in flat cut
6.2 If a product (check) analysis is performed by the
pieces shall not vary from the ordered length or width by more
purchaser, the material shall conform to the product analysis
than 6 0.125 in. (3.18 mm).
variation in chemical composition specified in the purchase
agreement or in the applicable alloy specification. 8.2.3 Slit Strip—Slit strip in coils shall not vary from the
ordered width by more than 0.062 in. (1.59 mm).
7. Mechanical Properties 8.3 Straightness:
7.1 The material shall conform to the mechanical properties 8.3.1 The edgewise curvature (depth of curvature) of flat
specified in the purchase order by way of testing (see Section strip, sheet, or plate shall not exceed 0.05 in. multiplied by the
12). length in feet of the piece (0.04 mm multiplied by the length in
centimeters).
8. Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variations 8.3.2 Straightness of coiled strip material is subject to
8.1 Thickness: agreement between manufacturer and purchaser.
8.1.1 Sheet and Strip—For sheet and strip up to 0.100 in. 8.4 Squareness—For products of all thickness, the angle
(2.54 mm), the variation in thickness shall not be more between adjacent sides shall be 90 6 15° (1⁄16 in. in 24 in.),
than + 0.008 in. (0.200 mm) or − 0.006 in. (0.130 mm) or any (1.59 mm in 610 mm). Alternatively, for cut length 10 ft (3 m)
combination but not less than a range of 0.014 in. (0.330 mm) and less, the length of the diagonals from end to end shall be
from the ordered thickness. For sheet and strip ordered in within 0.25 in. (6.2 mm) of each other.
thickness over 0.100 in., the maximum variation shall not be 8.5 Flatness—Flatness of the product sheet when specified
more than 65 % of the thickness specified as shown in Table shall be as agreed upon between manufacturer and purchaser.
2. 8.6 Any special tolerance other than those specified in the
8.1.2 Plate—The plate shall not vary more than 65 % of above sections shall be agreed upon between manufacturer and
the specified thickness as shown in Table 2. purchaser.

2
B 749 – 03
9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance material shall be determined in cases of disagreement in
9.1 The lead products shall be uniform in quality and accordance with the following methods:
hardness, smooth, commercially straight and flat, and free of 12.1.1 Chemical Analysis—Methods E 37 and E 87.
injurious imperfections such as pits, dents, scratches, lamina- 12.1.2 Tension—Test Methods E 8.
tions, grit, foreign matter, porosity, or waves that may affect the 12.1.3 Hardness:
serviceability of material. 12.1.3.1 Rockwell “R” and Test Methods E 18.
12.1.3.2 Brinell and Test Method E 10.
10. Sampling 12.1.4 Grain Size—Methods E 112.
10.1 A lot shall not exceed 10 000 lb (4540 kg). A lot for
13. Inspection
alloys requiring mechanical testing shall be further limited to
the sheet having the same total material reduction and heat 13.1 Inspection of the material shall be made as agreed upon
treatment (as required) cycles from the same manufacturing or by manufacturer and purchaser as part of the purchase contract.
smelting heat.
14. Rejection and Rehearing
10.1.1 Identification—All material shall be identified by lot
number. Where material cannot be identified by heat, a lot shall 14.1 Material not conforming to any part of this specifica-
consist of not more than 1000 lb (454 kg) in the same thickness tion or to authorized modifications, will be subject to rejection
and condition, except for plates weighing over 1000 lb, in of the entire lot of material.
which case the one piece shall constitute the lot. 14.2 Retests for mechanical properties shall be permitted if
10.2 Test Material Selection: performed within one week of final processing for use.
10.2.1 Chemical Analysis—Representative samples shall be 14.3 Independent Tests—In the event of a dispute arising as
taken either during pouring the casting prior to working or to the compliance of the lead alloy strip, sheet, or plate with the
during subsequent processing, such as rolling or cutting. requirements set forth in this specification, the purchaser may
10.2.1.1 Where required, a product (check) sample shall be require the submission of product (check) samples to an
taken and supplied to the purchaser. The analysis of the product independent laboratory for testing. The costs of such testing
sample is the responsibility of the purchaser. shall be borne by the purchaser.
10.2.2 Mechanical Properties—Samples of the material to
15. Certification
provide test specimens for mechanical properties, hardness,
and grain size shall be taken from such locations in a lot as to 15.1 Upon request of the purchaser in a contract or order, a
be representative of that lot. manufacturer’s certification that the material was manufactured
10.3 Number of Tests: and tested in accordance with this specification, together with
10.3.1 Chemical Analysis—One test per lot. a report of the actual test results from each lot, shall be
10.3.2 Hardness—One test per lot. furnished.
10.3.3 Grain Size—One test per lot.
16. Product Marking
11. Specimen Preparation 16.1 Each bundle or shipping container shall be marked
11.1 Tension test specimens, if required, shall be taken in with the name of the alloy, the condition, this specification
the direction of rolling from the material in the final condition number, the size, thickness, gross, net and tare weight, lot
of rolling and heat treatment or in the case of continuously cast number, consignor and consignee address, contract or purchase
sheet in the casting direction and “as cast”’ state. order number, and any other such information as may be
11.1.1 Tension test specimens shall be any of the standard or defined in the contract or order.
subsize specimens shown in Test Methods E 8. 16.2 Lead plate over 1⁄2 in. thick, when required in the
11.2 Hardness test specimens if required shall be taken from contract or purchase order, shall be marked along one edge
the material in the final condition of rolling and heat treatment. with the alloy designation, manufacturer’s brand name, heat or
Tests shall use Rockwell “R” scale or 10 mm ball and 100 kg lot number, and customer’s number. The markings shall be
load Brinell test. made with nonsoluble ink or point and shall be repeated at
11.2.1 The minimum thickness of a sample for hardness intervals of not greater than 3 ft along the edge of the plate.
testing shall be 10 times the depth of the impression. All
hardness tests must be obtained within 24 h after the final 17. Packaging and Package Marking
processing for use. 17.1 The purchaser must state in the order or contract any
special packaging, crating, or transportation required.
12. Test Methods
12.1 The following test methods for determining chemical 18. Keywords
composition, mechanical properties, and other properties of the 18.1 lead plate; lead sheet; lead strip; wrought lead

3
B 749 – 03
ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 750 – 03

Standard Specification for


GALFAN1 (Zinc-5 % Aluminum-Mischmetal) Alloy in Ingot
Form for Hot-Dip Coatings2
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 750; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope* TABLE 1 GALFAN, Zn-5Al-MM Alloy Ingot Chemical


RequirementsA,B,C,D,E
1.1 This specification covers GALFAN, zinc-5 %
UNS Z38510
aluminum-mischmetal (Zn-5Al-MM) alloy (UNS Z38510)3 in Element
Composition,%
ingot form for remelting for use in the production of hot-dip
AluminumF 4.2–6.2
coatings on steel. Alloy composition is specified in Table 1. Cerium + lanthanum, total 0.03–0.10
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded Iron, max 0.075
Silicon, max 0.015
as the standard. The values stated in parentheses are for LeadG, max 0.005
information only. CadmiumG, max 0.005
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the TinG, max 0.002
OthersH, each, max 0.02
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the OthersH, total, max 0.04
responsibility of the user of this standard to become familiar Zinc Remainder
with all hazards including those identified in the appropriate A
For purposes of acceptance and rejection, the observed value or calculated
Material Data Sheet for this product/material as provided by value obtained from analysis should be rounded to the nearest unit in the last
the manufacturer, to establish appropriate safety and health right-hand place of figures, used in expressing the specified limit, in accordance
with the rounding procedure prescribed in Section 3 of Practice E 29.
practices, and determine the applicability of regulatory limi- B
By agreement between purchaser and supplier, analysis may be required and
tations prior to use. limits established for elements or compounds not specified in the table of chemical
composition.
C
2. Referenced Documents GALFAN, Zn-5Al-MM alloy ingot for hot-dip coatings may contain antimony,
copper, and magnesium in amounts of up to 0.002, 0.1, and 0.05 %, respectively.
2.1 ASTM Standards: No harmful effects have ever been noted due to the presence of these elements
B 899 Terminology Relating to Non-ferrous Metals and up to these concentrations and, therefore, analyses are not required for these
elements.
Alloys4 D
Magnesium may be specified by the buyer up to 0.1 % maximum.
E
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Zirconium and titanium may each be specified by the buyer up to 0.02 %
maximum.
Determine Conformance with Specifications5 F
Aluminum may be specified by the buyer up to 8.2 % maximum.
E 47 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Zinc Die- G
Lead and cadmium, and to a lesser extent tin and antimony, are known to
Casting Alloys6 cause intergranular corrosion in zinc-aluminum alloys. For this reason it is
important to maintain the levels of these elements below the limits specified.
E 88 Practice for Sampling Nonferrous Metals and Alloys H
Except antimony, copper, magnesium, zirconium, and titanium.
in Cast Form for Determination of Chemical Composition7
E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)8
E 1277 Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Zinc–5 % GF-1 Standard Practice for Determination of Cerium and
Aluminum–Mischmetal Alloys by ICP Emission Spec- Lanthanum Compositions in GALFAN Alloy (5 %
trometry7 -0.04 % La-0.04 % Ce-Bal SHG Zn)9
2.2 Other Standard: 3. Terminology
3.1 Terms shall be defined in accordance with Terminology
1
GALFAN is a registered trademark of the GALFAN Information Center, Inc. B 899.
2
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on 3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
3.2.1 mischmetal—a naturally occurring mixture of rare-
B02.04 on Zinc and Cadmium.
Current edition approved June 10, 2003. Published August 2003. Originally earth elements in metallic form, primarily cerium and lantha-
approved in 1985. Last previous edition approved in 1999 as B 750 – 99e1. num.
3
UNS number in conformance with Practice E 527. 3.3 Abbreviations:
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04.
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
6
Withdrawn; see 1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
7 9
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05. Available from International Lead Zinc Research Organization, 2525 Meridian
8
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01. Parkway, P.O. Box 12036, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 – 2036.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 750 – 03
3.3.1 MM—mischmetal. between the center and each end. The width of the saw cut shall
3.3.2 Zn-5Al-MM—zinc-5 % aluminum mischmetal. be sufficient to give the weight of sample prescribed in 7.1.5,
and cuttings from all the ingots shall be mixed thoroughly to
4. Ordering Information form a uniform sample.
4.1 Orders for ingot under this specification shall include 7.1.5 Size of Sample and Storage—The prepared sample
the following information: shall weigh at least 300 g. The properly mixed sample shall be
4.1.1 Quantity in pounds, split into three equal parts, each of which shall be placed in a
4.1.2 Alloy (Table 1), sealed package, one for the manufacturer, one for the pur-
4.1.3 Size, if not manufacturer’s standard, chaser, and one for a referee, if necessary. Tight, leakproof,
4.1.4 Specification number and year of issue, paper sample envelopes or cardboard cartons may be used to
4.1.5 Inspection (Section 9), and hold the sample.
4.1.6 Product marking (Section 12). 7.2 If the alloy is in shapes other than standard ingots, the
sampling procedure shall be agreed upon between the manu-
5. Materials and Manufacture facturer or seller and the purchaser.
5.1 The alloys may be made by any approved process. 7.3 An optimal method of sampling for analysis may be by
5.2 The material covered by this specification shall be free melting together representative portions of each ingot selected,
from dross, slag, or other harmful contamination. and then sampling the liquid composite by casting suitable
specimens for either spectrographic or chemical analysis.
6. Chemical Composition 7.4 Samples for Spectrochemical and Other Methods of
6.1 Limits—The alloys shall conform to the requirements as Analysis—Samples for spectrochemical and other methods of
to chemical composition prescribed in Table 1. Conformance analysis shall be suitable for the form of material being
shall be determined by the producer by analyzing samples analyzed and the type of analytical method used.
taken at the time ingots are made. If the producer has 7.5 Aspects of sampling and sample preparation not covered
determined the chemical composition of the metal during the specifically in this specification shall be carried out in accor-
course of manufacture, he shall not be required to sample and dance with Practice E 88.
analyze the finished product.
8. Analytical Methods
7. Sampling
8.1 Method of Analysis—The determination of chemical
7.1 If the alloy is in the form of standard ingots at the composition shall be made in accordance with suitable chemi-
customer’s plant, the sample for chemical analysis shall be cal (Test Method E 47 for tin), ICP argon plasma spectrometric
taken in accordance with 7.1.1 to 7.1.5, inclusive. (Test Method E 1227) or other methods. In case of dispute, the
7.1.1 Selection of Portion—A portion representative of the results secured by Test Method E 1277 shall be the basis of
total shipment or order shall be selected at random for the final acceptance.
sample. The portion preferably shall be taken during loading or 8.2 A standard practice for X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
unloading. At least one ingot shall be taken from every 10 000 for determination of cerium and lanthanum in a zinc-5 %
lb (4530 kg), or fraction thereof, of each lot of alloy in the aluminum alloy has been established by the International Lead
shipment. From smaller lots, five ingots shall be taken. Zinc Research Organization (Standard Practice GF-1). In case
7.1.2 Preparation of Sample—Each ingot shall be cleaned of dispute, the results secured by Test Method E 1277 shall be
thoroughly to rid the surface of extraneous material and drilled the basis of acceptance.
or sawed, without lubricant in accordance with 7.1.3 or 7.1.4.
The drillings or sawings shall be subjected to the action of a
9. Inspection
strong magnet to remove any adventitious iron with which the
sample may have become contaminated from the drill or saw. 9.1 If the purchaser desires that his representative inspect or
7.1.3 Drilling—Two holes shall be drilled, preferably from witness the inspection and testing of the product prior to
the bottom or brand side of each ingot, at two points located shipment, such agreement shall be made by the purchaser and
along one diagonal of the ingot so that each point is halfway producer or supplier as part of the contract or purchaser order.
between the center and one extremity of the diagonal. If two 9.2 When such inspection or witness of inspection and
holes from each ingot do not yield the weight of sample testing is agreed upon, the producer or supplier shall afford the
prescribed in 7.1.5, a third hole shall be drilled at the center of purchaser’s representative all reasonable facilities to satisfy
each ingot. Each hole shall be bored completely through the him that the product meets the requirements of this specifica-
ingot, care being taken to avoid starting the drill in a depression tion. Inspection and tests shall be conducted so there is no
and to adjust the feed to give drillings 0.010 to 0.020 in. (0.25 unnecessary interference with the producer’s operations.
to 0.51 mm) in thickness. The drill used preferably shall be one
twisted from flat stock. The diameter of the drill shall be 5⁄16 in. 10. Rejection and Rehearing
(7.9 mm). The drillings shall be broken or cut with clean shears 10.1 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of
into pieces not over 1⁄2 in. in length and mixed thoroughly. this specification may be rejected. Rejection should be reported
7.1.4 Sawing—Using, preferably, a heat treated high-speed to the producer or supplier promptly and in writing. In case of
steel saw, make two cuts completely across the ingot from one dissatisfaction with the results of the test, the producer or
long side to the other. Each cut shall be approximately half way supplier may make claim for a rehearing. If the rehearing

2
B 750 – 03
establishes that the material does not conform to the require- 12.2 Each bundle or skid shall be identified with the
ments of this specification, as much of the rejected original producer’s heat, lot, or other identification mark.
material as possible shall be returned to the producer or
supplier. 13. Packaging and Package Marking
11. Certification 13.1 Unless otherwise specified, the ingot shall be packaged
11.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, the to provide adequate protection during normal handling and
manufacturer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished to transportation. Each package shall contain only one alloy
the purchaser stating that samples representing each lot have unless otherwise agreed upon.
been manufactured, tested, and inspected in accordance with
this specification and the requirements have been met. When 14. Keywords
specified in the purchase order or contract, a report of the test
results shall be furnished. 14.1 GALFAN; hot dip coating alloy; zinc alloy; zinc-5 %
aluminum mischmetal alloy
12. Product Marking
12.1 All ingots shall be properly marked for identification
with the producer’s name or brand.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee B02 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue
(B 750 - 99e1) that may impact the use of this standard.

(1) Trade name GALFAN was added to the title, 1.1, Table 1
and Keywords.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

3
Designation: B 752 – 01

Standard Specification for


Castings, Zirconium-Base, Corrosion Resistant, for General
Application1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 752; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 3.2.1 castings—a lot shall consist of all castings produced


1.1 This specification covers zirconium and zirconium-alloy from the same pour.
castings for general corrosion-resistant and industrial applica- 3.2.2 ingot—no definition required.
tions. 3.2.3 rounds, flats, tubes, and wrought powder metallurgical
1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units products (single definition, common to nuclear and non-
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the nuclear standards)—a lot shall consist of a material of the
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each same size, shape, condition, and finish produced from the same
system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall ingot or powder blend by the same reduction schedule and the
be used independently of the other. Combining values from the same heat treatment parameters. Unless otherwise agreed
two systems may result in nonconformance with the specifi- between manufacturer and purchaser, a lot shall be limited to
cation. the product of an 8 h period for final continuous anneal, or to
a single furnace load for final batch anneal.
2. Referenced Documents 3.2.4 sponge—a lot shall consist of a single blend produced
2.1 ASTM Standards: at one time.
A 802/A 802M Practice for Steel Castings, Surface Accep- 3.2.5 weld fittings—definition is to be mutually agreed upon
tance Standards, Visual Examination2 between manufacturer and the purchaser.
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials3
4. Ordering Information
E 10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materi-
als3 4.1 Orders for castings to this specification shall include the
E 18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell following, as required to describe the requirements adequately.
Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials3 4.1.1 Description of the castings by pattern number or
E 23 Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of drawing (dimensional tolerances shall be included on the
Metallic Materials3 casting drawing),
E 94 Guide for Radiographic Testing4 4.1.2 Quantity,
E 142 Method for Controlling Quality of Radiographic 4.1.3 Grade Designation (see Table 1),
Testing4 4.1.4 Options in the specification, and
E 165 Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination4 4.1.5 Supplementary requirements desired, including the
E 446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. standards of acceptance.
(51 mm) in Thickness4 5. Materials and Manufacture
3. Terminology 5.1 Material for this specification shall be melted by con-
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: ventional processes used for reactive metals. Typical methods
3.1.1 pour—shall consist of all material melted and cast at include the consumable electrode and inductoslag melting
one time. processes.
3.2 Lot Definitions: 6. Chemical Composition
1
6.1 Pour Analysis— An analysis of each pour shall be made
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B10 on
Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of
by the producer from a sample such as a casting or test bar that
Subcommittee B10.02 on Zirconium and Hafnium. is representative of the pour. The chemical composition deter-
Current edition approved Nov. 10, 2001. Published January 2002. Originally mined shall conform to the requirements specified for the
published as B 752 – 85. Last previous edition B 752 – 97. relevant grade in Table 1.
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.02.
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01. 6.1.1 The elements listed in Table 1 are intentional alloying
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03. additions of elements which are inherent to the manufacture of

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 752
TABLE 1 Chemical RequirementsA 7. Heat Treatment
Grade Designation, 7.1 Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all castings
Composition, %
will be supplied in the as-cast condition except when post-weld
702C 704C 705C
heat treatment is required.
Zirconium and hafnium, 98.8 97.1 95.1 7.2 If post-weld heat treatment is required, it shall consist of
min.
Hafnium, max 4.5 4.5 4.5 a stress relief performed at 1050 6 50°F [565 6 25°C] for a
Iron and chro- 0.3 0.3 0.3 minimum of 1⁄2h at temperature plus an additional 1⁄2h at
mium, max temperature per inch of thickness for section sizes greater than
Hydrogen, max 0.005 0.005 0.005
Nitrogen, max 0.03 0.03 0.03 1 in. [25 mm]. After heat treatment, the castings should be
Carbon, max 0.1 0.1 0.1 cooled in air or in the furnace to ambient temperature unless
Oxygen, max 0.25 0.3 0.3 otherwise agreed upon between the purchaser and producer.
Phosphorus, max 0.01 0.01 0.01
Tin ... 1.0 to 2.0 ...
Niobium ... ... 2.0 to 3.0
8. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
A
By agreement between the purchaser and the producer, analysis may be 8.1 All castings shall be made in a workmanlike manner and
required and limits established for elements and compounds not specified in this shall conform to the dimensions in drawings furnished by the
table.
purchaser before manufacturing is started. If the pattern is
supplied by the purchaser, the dimensions of the casting shall
primary zirconium, zirconium sponge, mill product or castings. be as predicted by the pattern.
6.1.1.1 Elements other than those listed in Table 1 are 8.2 The surface of the casting shall be free of adhering mold
deemed to be capable of occurring in the grades listed in Table material, scale, cracks, and hot tears as determined by visual
1 by and only by way of unregulated or unanalyzed scrap examination. Other surface discontinuities shall meet the visual
additions to the pour. Therefore, pour analysis for elements not acceptance standards specified in the order. Practice A 802/
listed in Table 1 shall be considered to be in excess of the intent A 802M or other visual standards may be used to define
of this specification. acceptable surface discontinuities and finish. Unacceptable
6.2 When agreed upon by producer and purchaser and surface discontinuities shall be removed, and their removal
requested by the purchaser in his written purchase order, verified by visual examination of the resultant cavities.
chemical analysis shall be completed for specific residual
elements not listed in this specification. 9. Repair by Welding
6.3 Product Analysis— A product analysis may be made by 9.1 If repairs are required, these shall be made using a
the purchaser on a representative casting from any lot. Because welding procedure and operators certified to quality require-
of the possibility of oxygen or other interstitial contamination, ments established by the producer. The procedures developed
samples for oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analysis shall be consistent with standard practices recommended for
shall be taken no closer than 1⁄4in. [6.3 mm] to a cast surface reactive metal alloys. The producer shall maintain documenta-
except that castings too thin for this shall be analyzed on tion on procedure and welder qualifications. Procedure modi-
representative material. The chemical composition determined fications or special arrangements shall be as agreed upon
shall conform to the analysis in Table 1 within the check between the producer and purchaser.
analysis variations shown in Table 2 or shall be subject to 9.2 Weld repairs shall be considered major in the case of a
rejection by the purchaser. casting that has leaked on a hydrostatic test or when the depth
6.4 In the event of disagreement between the manufacturer of the cavity after preparation for repair exceeds 20 % of the
and the purchaser on the conformance of the material to the actual wall thickness or 1 in. [25 mm], whichever is smaller, or
requirements of this specification or any special test specified when the surface area of the cavity exceeds approximately 10
by the purchase, a mutually acceptable referee shall perform in.2 [6500 mm2]. All other weld repairs shall be considered
the tests in question. The results of the referee’s testing shall be minor. Major and minor repairs shall be subject to the same
used in determining conformance of the material to this quality standards as are used to inspect the castings.
specification. 9.3 The composition of the deposited weld metal shall be
within the chemical requirements for each grade established in
TABLE 2 Check Analysis Tolerances Table 1.
Maximum
Permissible 9.4 All castings with major weld repairs shall be stress
Variation relieved after repair in accordance with 7.2. Stress relief after
Element of Range,
in Check
Weight, %
Analysis minor repairs is not required for grades 702C and 704C except
Nitrogen 0.03 + 0.006
by agreement between the producer and the purchaser. Grade
Carbon 0.10 + 0.02 705C must be stress relieved after any weld repair.
Hydrogen 0.005 + 0.001
Iron and chromium 0.30 + 0.06 10. Inspection
Oxygen 0.25 + 0.05
Hafnium 4.50 + 0.50 10.1 The producer shall afford the purchaser’s inspector all
Phosphorus 0.010 + 0.003 reasonable facilities necessary to satisfy him that the material
Tin 1.0 to 2.0 60.02 is being produced and furnished in accordance with this
Niobium 2.0 to 3.0 60.015
Residuals 0.10 + 0.02 specification. Foundry inspection by the purchaser shall not
interfere unnecessarily with the producer’s operations. All tests

2
B 752
and inspections, with the exception of product analysis (6.3), 12.1.1 Castings shall be marked for material identification
shall be made at the place of manufacture, testing, or inspection with the ASTM specification number (B 752) and grade
unless otherwise agreed upon. symbol, that is, 702C, 704C, or 705C.
12.1.2 The producer’s name or identification mark and the
11. Rejection
pattern number shall be cast or stamped using low stress
11.1 Any rejection based on test reports shall be reported to stamps on all castings. Small size castings may be such that
the producer within 60 days from the receipt of the test reports marking must be limited consistent with the available area.
by the purchaser. 12.1.3 The marking of lot numbers on individual castings
11.2 Material that shows unacceptable discontinuities as shall be agreed upon between the producer and the purchaser.
determined by the acceptance standards specified on the order,
12.1.4 Marking shall be in such a position as not to injure
subsequent to acceptance at the producer’s works, will be
the usefulness of the casting.
rejected, and the producer shall be notified within 60 days, or
as otherwise agreed upon.
13. Keywords
12. Product Marking 13.1 castings; corrosion-resistant; zirconium; zirconium al-
12.1 Unless otherwise specified, the following shall apply: loys

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

Supplementary requirements shall be applied only when specified by the purchaser. Details of the
supplementary requirements shall be agreed upon between the producer and purchaser. The specified
tests shall be performed by the producer prior to shipment of the castings.

S1. Radiographic Examination S4. Certification


S1.1 The castings shall be examined for internal defects by S4.1 A test report shall be furnished. The test report shall
means of X rays or gamma rays. The procedure shall be in contain the results of the actual chemical analysis and other
accordance with Guide E 94 and Method E 142, and types and tests specified by the purchaser.
degrees of discontinuities shall be judged by Reference Radio- S4.2 Each test report shall be signed by an authorized agent
graphs E 446. The extent of examination and basis for accep- of the seller or producer.
tance shall be agreed upon between the producer and pur- S4.3 The test report shall be furnished within 5 days of
chaser. shipment of the castings.
S5. Prior Approval of Major Weld Repairs
S2. Liquid Penetrant Examination
S5.1 Major weld repairs as defined and agreed upon be-
S2.1 The castings shall be examined for surface disconti-
tween the producer and purchaser shall be subject to the prior
nuities by means of liquid penetrant examination. The exami-
approval of the purchaser.
nation shall be in accordance with Test Method E 165. Areas to
be inspected, methods and types of liquid penetrants to be used, S6. Tension Test
developing procedure, and basis for acceptance shall be agreed S6.1 Tensile properties shall be determined on material
upon between the producer and purchaser. representing each pour. Properties shall be determined in the
as-cast condition unless the purchase order requires the prop-
S3. Examination of Weld Preparation erties be determined in the final condition after all heat
S3.1 Cavities prepared for welding as a result of surface treatments (including isostatic pressing) have been completed
discontinuities, such as cracks, open porosity, and so forth shall or unless otherwise specified in the purchase order. The results
be examined by means of liquid penetrant examination in order shall conform to the requirements specified in Table 3.
to verify removal of such discontinuities. S6.2 Test bars may be obtained from special test blocks cast
S3.2 Weld repairs that are made to eliminate discontinuities for that purpose or cut from castings processed with a lot.
that are detected by radiography shall be re-radiographed to S6.3 Tensile tests shall be made in accordance with the
verify that unacceptable discontinuities have been removed. requirements of Test Methods E 8. Tensile properties shall be

TABLE 3 Tensile and Hardness Requirements


Tensile Yield Elongation
Hardness,
Strength, Strength, 0.2 % in 1 in. Hardness,
Grade Rockwell,
min Offset, min [51 mm] HB, max
max
ksi MPa ksi MPa length, min, %
702C 55 [380] 40 [276] 12 210 B96
704C 60 [413] 40 [276] 10 235 B99
705C 70 [483] 50 [345] 12 235 B99

3
B 752
determined using a strain rate of 0.003 to 0.007 in./in./min requirements of Test Methods E 10 or E 18.
[0.005 to 0.007 mm/mm/min] through the yield strength.
S6.4 If any test specimen shows defective machining or S8. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
develops flaws, it may be discarded and another specimen S8.1 Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) shall be used to improve
substituted from the same pour. as-cast properties or remove internal defects, or both. Tempera-
S7. Hardness Test ture, time at temperature, and atmosphere shall be agreed upon
between supplier and purchaser.
S7.1 Hardness shall be determined on each lot. Hardness
shall be determined in the as-cast condition unless the purchase S8.2 HIP may be substituted for required thermal treatment
order requires the hardness be determined in the final condition provided all requirements for that treatment are met and
after all heat treatments (including isostatic pressing) have temperatures detrimental to the material properties are not
been completed or unless otherwise specified in the purchase reached.
order. The results shall conform to the requirements specified
in Table 3. S9. Charpy Impact Test
S7.2 Hardness shall be determined on a sample cast for that S9.1 Charpy impact test properties shall be determined on
purpose, or on a casting randomly selected from a lot. If a material representing each lot. Three Charpy V-notch speci-
casting is used for a hardness sample, indentations shall be mens shall be made from a test piece and tested in accordance
made in a surface that will not be subsequently machined. with Test Methods E 23. They shall be tested at room tempera-
Hardness values reported shall be representative of the base ture unless otherwise agreed upon by the manufacturer and
metal of the castings and not of any surface contamination purchaser and reported as absorbed energy. The condition of
caused by mold-metal interactions. the sample material and the acceptance limit shall be agreed to
S7.3 Hardness tests shall be made in accordance with the by both the purchaser and the supplier.

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. RATIONALE (COMMENTARY)

X1.1 This specification is intended for use by purchasers or requirements established and revised by consensus of the
producers, or both, of reactive metal castings for defining the members of the committee.
requirements and ensuring the properties of castings for unique X1.1.2 User requirements considered more stringent may be
corrosion-resistant applications, that is, not for commodity met by the addition to the purchase order of one or more
items which must meet all potential purchasers’ requirements. supplementary requirements, which may include, but are not
X1.1.1 Users are advised to use the specification as a basis limited to, those listed in Sections S1 through S8.
for obtaining castings that will meet minimum acceptance

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 751 – 03

Standard Specification for


General Requirements for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welded
Tube1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 751; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 2. Referenced Documents


1.1 This specification contains various requirements that, 2.1 ASTM Standards:
with the exception of Sections 6 and 7, are mandatory B 880 Specification for General Requirements for Chemical
requirements to the following ASTM nickel and nickel alloy, Check Analysis Limits for Nickel, Nickel Alloys and
longitudinally welded tubular product specifications: Cobalt Alloys2
ASTM E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials4
Title of Specification
Designation2,3 E 18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell
Welded UNS N08020, N08024, and UNS N08026 Alloy Tubes B 468
Welded UNS N08120, UNS N08800, UNS N08810, UNS B 515
Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials4
N08811 Alloy Tubes E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to
Welded Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy (UNS N06600, UNS B 516 Determine Conformance with Specifications5
N06603, UNS N06025, and UNS N06045) Tubes
Welded Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Tube B 626 E 39 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel6
UNS N08904, UNS N08925, and UNS N08926 Welded Tube B 674 E 76 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Copper
UNS N08366 and UNS N08367 Welded Tube B 676 Alloys7
Welded UNS N06625, N06219, and N08825 Alloy Tubes B 704
Ni-Cr-Mo-Co-W-Fe-Si Alloy (UNS N06333) Welded Tube B 726 E 112 Test Methods for Determining the Average Grain
Welded Nickel (UNS N02200/UNS N02201) and Nickel Cop- B 730 Size4
per Alloy (UNS N04400) Tube E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe
1.2 One or more of the test requirements of Section 6 apply and Tubing8
only if specifically stated in the product specification or in the E 273 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of the Weld
purchase order. Zone of Welded Pipe and Tubing8
1.3 In case of conflict between a requirement of the product E 309 Practice for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tu-
specification and a requirement of this general specification, bular Products Using Magnetic Saturation8
only the requirement of the product specification need be E 426 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Exami-
satisfied. nation of Seamless and Welded Tubular Products, Austen-
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded itic Stainless Steel and Similar Alloys8
as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for E 571 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Exami-
information only. nation of Nickel and Nickel Alloy Tubular Products8
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the E 1473 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel,
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the Cobalt, and High-Temperature Alloys7
responsibility of the user of this standard to become familiar 2.2 Other Documents:
with all hazards including those identified in the appropriate SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice for Nondestructive
Material Safety Data Sheet for this product/material as pro- Personnel Qualification and Certification9
vided by the manufacturer, to establish appropriate safety and
health practices, and determine the applicability of regulatory 3. Terminology
limitations prior to use. 3.1 Definitions:

1 4
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
5
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
6
B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Discontinued; See Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
7
Current edition approved June 10, 2003. Published July2003. Originally ap- Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
8
proved in 1985. Last previous edition approved in 2002 as B 751 - 02. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.
2 9
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04. Available from The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), P.O.
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.01. Box 28518, 1711 Arlingate Ln., Columbus, OH 43228-0518.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 751 – 03
3.1.1 average diameter—the average of the maximum and TABLE 2 Permissible Variations in LengthA
minimum outside diameters, as determined at any one cross Outside Diameter, in. (mm) Cut Length, in. (mm)
section of the tube. Over Under
Cold-finished: under 2 (50.8) 18⁄ (3.2) 0
3.1.2 nominal wall—a specified wall thickness with a plus Hot-finished: 2 (50.8) and over 3⁄16 (4.8) 0
and minus tolerance from the specified thickness. all sizes 3⁄16 (4.8) 0
3.1.3 thin wall tube—tube with specified wall thickness 3 % A
These permissible variations in length apply to tube in straight lengths. They
or less of the specified outside diameter. apply to cut lengths up to and including 24 ft (7.3 m). For lengths over 24 ft an
additional over-tolerance of 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm) for each 10 ft (3.0 m) or fraction thereof
3.1.4 welded tube—a hollow product of round or any other shall be permissible up to a maximum additional over-tolerance of 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm).
cross section having a continuous periphery.

4. Dimensions and Permissible Variations


until the distance between the platens is five times the wall
4.1 Diameter and Wall Thickness—Individual measure- thickness. The weld shall be positioned 90° from the direction
ments shall not exceed the tolerances specified in Table 1. The of the applied flattening force.
permissible variation in outside diameter is not sufficient to 6.2.2 The flattened specimen shall not exhibit cracks.
provide for ovality in thin-walled tubes. For thin-walled tubes 6.2.3 Superficial ruptures resulting from surface imperfec-
the maximum and minimum diameters at any cross section tions shall not be a cause for rejection.
shall not deviate from the nominal diameter by more than twice 6.3 Flare Test—The flare test shall consist of flaring a test
the permissible variation in outside diameter given in the table; specimen with an expanding tool having an included angle of
however, the mean diameter at that cross section must still be 60° until the specified outside diameter has been increased by
within the permissible variation. 30 %. The flared specimen shall not exhibit cracking through
4.2 Length—When material is ordered cut-to-length, the the wall.
length shall conform to the permissible variations prescribed in 6.4 Pressure (Leak Test):
Table 2. 6.4.1 Hydrostatic—Each tube with an outside diameter 1⁄8
4.3 Straightness—Material shall be reasonably straight and in. (3 mm) and larger, and with wall thickness of 0.015 in.
free of bends and kinks. (0.38 mm) and over, shall be tested by the manufacturer to an
4.4 Ends—Ends shall be plain or cut and deburred. internal hydrostatic pressure of 1000 psi (6.9 MPa) provided
5. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance that the fiber stress calculated in accordance with the following
equation does not exceed the allowable fiber stress, S, indicated
5.1 The material shall be uniform in quality and temper, as follows:
smooth, and free of imperfections that would render it unfit for
P 5 2St/D (1)
use.
where:
6. Test Requirements P = hydrostatic test pressure, psi (MPa),
6.1 Flange Test: S = allowable fiber stress, for material in the condition
6.1.1 A length of tube not less than three times the specified (temper) furnished as specified in the product speci-
diameter or 4 in. (102 mm), whichever is longer, shall be fication (S is calculated as the lower of 2⁄3 of the
capable of having a flange turned over at a right angle to the specified minimum 0.2 % offset yield strength or 1⁄4 of
body of the tube without cracking or showing imperfections the specified minimum ultimate strength for the ma-
rejectable under the provisions of the product specification. terial),
The width of the flange shall not be less than 15 % of the tube t = minimum wall thickness, in. (mm), equal to the
diameter. specified average wall minus the permissible minus
6.1.2 The flanged specimen shall not exhibit through wall wall tolerance, or the specified minimum wall thick-
cracking or any cracking observable without magnification. ness, and
6.2 Flattening Test: D = outside diameter of the tube, in. (mm).
6.2.1 A length of tube not less than 4 in. (102 mm), shall be 6.4.1.1 The test pressure must be held for a minimum of
flattened under a load applied gradually at room temperature 5 s.

TABLE 1 Permissible Variations for Outside Diameter and Wall Thickness of Welded TubeA,B
Permissible Variations
Thickness of
Specified Outside Diameter Outside Diameter of Thickness of
Specified Minimum Wall,%
Specified Nominal Wall, %
in. (mm) + − + − + −
Over 0.125 (3.2) to ⁄ (16), excl
58 0.004 (0.13) 0.005 (0.10) 12.5 12.5 28 0
5⁄8 (16) to 11⁄2 (38), incl 0.0075 (0.19) 0.0075 (0.19) 12.5 12.5 28 0
Over 11⁄2 (38) to 3 (76), incl 0.010 (0.25) 0.010 (0.25) 12.5 12.5 28 0
Over 3 (76) to 41⁄2 (114), incl 0.015 (0.38) 0.015 (0.38) 12.5 12.5 28 0
Over 41⁄2 (114) to 6 (152), incl 0.020 (0.51) 0.020 (0.51) 12.5 12.5 28 0
A
These permissible variations in outside diameter apply only to material as finished at the mill before subsequent swaging, expanding, bending, polishing, or other
fabricating operations.
B
The ovality provisions of 4.1 apply.

2
B 751 – 03
NOTE 1—Testing at a pressure greater than 1000 psi can be done as 6.5.2.5 A purchaser interested in ascertaining the nature
agreed upon by the purchaser and manufacturer provided that the (type, size, location, and orientation) of discontinuities that can
allowable fiber stress is not exceeded. be detected in the specific application of these examinations
6.4.2 Pneumatic (Air Underwater) Test— Each tube with a should discuss this with the manufacturer of the tubular
nominal wall thickness exceeding 0.025 in. (0.64 mm) shall be products.
tested at a minimum pressure of 150 psi (1.05 MPa). The test 6.5.3 Time of Examination:
pressure for tubes having a nominal wall thickness of 0.025 in. Nondestructive examination for specification acceptance
(0.64 mm) and under shall be 75 psi (0.52 MPa) minimum. The shall be performed after all deformation processing, heat
treating, welding, and straightening operations. This require-
test pressure shall be held for a minimum of 5 s. Visual
ment does not preclude additional testing at earlier stages in the
examination is to be made when the material is submerged and
processing.
under pressure. The full length of material must be examined
6.5.4 Surface Condition:
for leaks.
6.5.4.1 All surfaces shall be free of scale, dirt, grease, paint,
6.4.3 If any tube shows leaks during hydrostatic or pneu- or other foreign material that could interfere with interpretation
matic testing, it shall be rejected. of test results. The methods used for cleaning and preparing the
6.5 Nondestructive Examination: surfaces for examination shall not be detrimental to the base
6.5.1 Each tube shall be examined by a nondestructive metal or the surface finish.
examination method in accordance with Practices E 213, 6.5.4.2 Excessive surface roughness or deep scratches can
E 309, E 426, or E 571. Upon agreement, Practice E 273 shall produce signals that interfere with the test.
be employed in addition to one of the full periphery tests. The 6.5.5 Extent of Examination:
range of tube sizes that may be examined by each method shall 6.5.5.1 The relative motion of the tube and the transduc-
be subject to the limitations in the scope of that practice. In er(s), coil(s), or sensor(s) shall be such that the entire tube
case of conflict between these methods and practices and this surface is scanned, except for end effects as noted in 6.5.5.2.
specification, the requirements of this specification shall pre- 6.5.5.2 The existence of end effects is recognized, and the
extent of such effects shall be determined by the manufacturer,
vail
and, if requested, shall be reported to the purchaser. Other
6.5.2 The following information is for the benefit of the user nondestructive tests may be applied to the end areas, subject to
of this specification. agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
6.5.2.1 Calibration standards for the nondestructive electric 6.5.6 Operator Qualifications:
test are convenient standards for calibration of nondestructive 6.5.6.1 The test unit operator shall be certified in accordance
testing equipment only. For several reasons, including shape, with SNT TC-1-A, or an equivalent documented standard
orientation, width, etc., the correlation between the signal agreeable to both purchaser and manufacturer.
produced in the electric test from an imperfection and from 6.5.7 Test Conditions:
calibration standards is only approximate. A purchaser inter- 6.5.7.1 For examination by the ultrasonic method, the mini-
ested in ascertaining the nature (type, size, location, and mum nominal transducer frequency shall be 2.0 MHz, and the
orientation) of discontinuities that can be detected in the maximum transducer size shall be 1.5 in. (38 mm).
specific application of these examinations should discuss this 6.5.7.2 For eddy current testing, the excitation coil fre-
with the manufacturer of the tubular product. quency shall be chosen to ensure adequate penetration, yet
6.5.2.2 The ultrasonic examination referred to in this speci- provide good signal-to-noise ratio. The maximum coil fre-
quency shall be:
fication is intended to detect longitudinal discontinuities having
Specified Wall Thickness, in. (mm) Maximum Frequency, kHz
a reflective area similar to or larger than the calibration
reference notches specified in 6.5.8. The examination may not <0.050 in. (1.25 mm) 100
detect circumferentially oriented imperfections or short, deep 0.050 to 0.150 (1.25 to 3.80 mm) 50
>0.150 (3.80 mm) 10
defects.
6.5.2.3 The eddy current examination referenced in this 6.5.8 Reference Standards:
specification has the capability of detecting significant discon- 6.5.8.1 Reference standards of convenient length shall be
prepared from a length of tube of the same grade, specified size
tinuities, especially of the short abrupt type. Practices E 309
(outside diameter and wall thickness), surface finish, and heat
and E 426 contain additional information regarding the capa-
treatment condition as the tubing to be examined.
bilities and limitations of eddy-current examination.
6.5.8.2 For eddy current testing, the reference standard shall
6.5.2.4 The hydrostatic test referred to in 6.4.1 is a test contain, at the option of the manufacturer, any one of the
method provided for in many product specifications. This test following discontinuities:
has the capability of finding defects of a size permitting the test (a) Drilled Hole—The reference standard shall contain
fluid to leak through the tube wall and may be either visually three or more holes, equally spaced circumferentially around
seen or detected by a loss of pressure. This test may not detect the tube and longitudinally separated by a sufficient distance to
very tight, through-the-wall defects or defects that extend an allow distinct identification of the signal from each hole. The
appreciable distance into the wall without complete penetra- holes shall be drilled radially and completely through the tube
tion. wall, with care being taken to avoid distortion of the tube while

3
B 751 – 03
drilling. The holes shall no be larger than 0.031 in. (0.8 mm) in or sensor(s) adjusted, and the unit restandardized, but all tubes
diameter. As an alternative, the producer may choose to drill tested since the last acceptable standardization must be re-
one hole and run the calibration standard through the test coil tested.
three times, rotating the tube approximately 120° each time 6.5.10 Evaluation of Imperfections:
More passes with smaller angular increments may be used, 6.5.10.1 Tubing producing a test signal equal to or greater
provided testing of the full 360° of the coil is obtained. For than the lowest signal produced by the reference standard shall
welded tubing, if the weld is visible, one of the multiple holes be designated suspect, shall be clearly marked or identified,
or the single hole shall be drilled in the weld. and shall be separated from the acceptable tubing.
(b) Transverse Tangential Notch—Using a round tool or 6.5.10.2 Such suspect tubing shall be subject to one of the
file with a 1⁄4 in. (6.4 mm) diameter, a notch shall be milled or following three dispositions:
filed tangential to the surface and transverse to the longitudinal (a) The tubes shall be rejected without further examination,
axis of the tube. Said notch shall have a depth not exceeding at the discretion of the manufacturer.
12 1⁄2 % of the specified wall thickness of the tube or 0.04 in. (b) If the test signal was produced by imperfections such as
(0.1 mm), whichever is greater. scratches, surface roughness, dings, straightener marks, loose
(c) Longitudinal Notch—A notch 0.031 in. (0.8 mm) or less ID bead and cutting chips, steel die stamps, stop marks, tube
in width shall be machined in a radial plane parallel to the tube reducer ripple, or chattered flash trim, the tubing shall be
axis on the outside surface of the tube, to have a depth not accepted or rejected depending on visual observation of the
exceeding 12 1⁄2 % of the specified wall thickness of the tube severity of the imperfection, the type of signal it produces on
or 0.004 in. (0.1 mm), whichever is greater. The length of the the testing equipment used, or both.
notch shall be compatible with the testing method. (c) If the test signal was produced by imperfections that
6.5.8.3 For ultrasonic testing, the reference ID and OD cannot be identified, or was produced by cracks or crack-like
notches shall be any one of the three common notch shapes imperfections, the tubing shall be rejected.
shown in Practice E 213, at the option of the manufacturer. The 6.5.10.3 Any tubes with imperfections of the types in
depth of the notches shall not exceed 12 1⁄2 % of the specified 6.5.10.2, (a) and (b), exceeding 0.004 in. (0.1 mm) or 12 1⁄2 %
wall thickness of the tube or 0.004 in. (0.1 mm), whichever is of the specified minimum wall thickness (whichever is greater)
greater. The width of the notch shall not exceed two times the in depth shall be rejected.
depth. For welded tubing, the notches shall be placed in the 6.5.10.4 Rejected tubes may be reconditioned and retested
weld, if the weld is visible. providing the wall thickness is not decreased to less than that
6.5.8.4 More or smaller reference discontinuities, or both, required by this or the product specification. If grinding is
may be used by agreement between the purchaser and the performed, the outside diameter in the area of grinding may be
manufacturer. reduced by the amount so removed. To be accepted, recondi-
6.5.9 Standardization Procedure: tioned tubes must pass the nondestructive examination by
which they were originally rejected.
6.5.9.1 The test apparatus shall be standardized at the
6.6 Chemical Composition:
beginning and end of each series of tubes of the same specified
6.6.1 In case of disagreement, the chemical composition
size (diameter and wall thickness), grade and heat treatment
shall be determined in accordance with Table 3.
condition, and at intervals not exceeding 4 h during the
examination of such tubing. More frequent standardizations
TABLE 3 Chemical Composition
may be performed at the manufacturer’s option or may be
required upon agreement between the purchaser and the UNS No. Prefixes ASTM Method

manufacturer. N02 E 39
N04 E 76
6.5.9.2 The test apparatus shall also be standardized after N06, N08 E 1473
any change in test system settings, change of operator, equip-
ment repair, or interruption due to power loss or shutdown.
6.5.9.3 The reference standard shall be passed through the 6.6.2 The material shall conform to the chemical require-
test apparatus at the same speed and test system settings as the ments prescribed in the individual specification.
tube to be tested, except that, at the manufacturer’s discretion, 6.6.3 The product (check) analysis of the material shall meet
the tubes may be tested at a higher sensitivity. the requirements for the ladle analysis within the tolerance
6.5.9.4 The signal-to-noise ratio for the reference standard limits prescribed in Specification B 880.
shall be 2.5:1 or greater, and the reference signal amplitude for 6.7 Tension Test:
each discontinuity shall be at least 50 % of full scale of the 6.7.1 Tension testing shall be conducted in accordance with
display. In establishing the noise level, extraneous signals from Test Methods E 8.
identifiable surface imperfections on the reference standard 6.7.2 The material shall conform to the tensile properties
may be ignored. When reject filtering is used during UT prescribed in the individual specification.
testing, linearity must be demonstrated. 6.8 Hardness Test—Hardness testing shall be conducted in
6.5.9.5 If, upon any standardization, the reference signal accordance with Test Methods E 18.
amplitude has decreased by at least 29 % (3.0 dB), the test 6.9 Grain Size—The measurement of average grain size
apparatus shall be considered out of standardization. The test may be carried out by the planimetric method, the comparison
system settings may be changed, or the transducer(s), coil(s), method, or the intercept method described in Test Methods

4
B 751 – 03
E 112. In case of dispute, the “referee” method for determining tube shall be tested in full tubular size. When testing in full
average grain size shall be the intercept method. tubular size is not possible, longitudinal strip specimens or the
6.10 For purposes of determining compliance with the largest possible round specimen shall be used. In the event of
specified limits for requirements of the properties listed in the disagreement when full tubular testing is not possible, a
following table, an observed value or a calculated value shall longitudinal strip specimen with reduced gage length as
be rounded in accordance with the rounding method of Practice contained in Test Methods E 8 shall be used.
E 29: 9.2 Hardness Specimen—The hardness specimen shall be
Requirements
Rounded Unit for Observed prepared in accordance with Test Methods E 18. The test shall
or Calculated Value be made on the inside diameter surface of a specimen cut from
Chemical composition nearest unit in the last right-hand place of figures
and tolerances of the specified limit the end or on the inside of the tube near the end, at the option
Tensile strength and yield nearest 1000 psi (7 MPa) of the manufacturer.
strength
Elongation nearest 1 %
9.3 Grain Size—If required, the grain size specimen shall be
a transverse sample representing full wall thickness.
7. Sampling
10. Inspection
7.1 Lot—A lot for chemical analysis shall consist of one
heat. 10.1 Inspection of the material shall be agreed upon by the
7.1.1 A lot for all other testing shall consist of all material purchaser and the supplier as part of the purchase contract.
from the same heat, nominal size (excepting length), and
condition (temper). When final heat treatment is in a batch-type 11. Rejection and Rehearing
furnace, a lot shall include only those tubes of the same size 11.1 Material tested by the purchaser that fails to conform to
and the same heat which are heat-treated in the same furnace the requirements of this specification may be rejected. Rejec-
charge. When the final heat treatment is in a continuous tion should be reported to the producer or supplier promptly
furnace, a lot shall include all tubes of the same size and heat, and in writing. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the
annealed in the same furnace at the same temperature, time at test, the producer or supplier may make claim for a rehearing.
temperature, and furnace speed, except not to exceed 20 000
lb. 12. Certification
7.1.2 Where material cannot be identified by heat, a lot shall
consist of not more than 500 lb (277 kg) of material of the same 12.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
alloy in the same condition (temper) and nominal size (except- manufacturer’s certification shall be furnished to the purchaser
ing length). stating that the material has been manufactured, tested, and
inspected in accordance with this specification, and that the test
NOTE 2—For tension, hardness, flare flattening, and flange test require- results on representative samples meet specification require-
ments, the term lot applies to all tubes prior to cutting. ments. When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
7.2 Test Material Selection: report of the test results shall be furnished.
7.2.1 Chemical Analysis—Representative samples from
each lot shall be taken during pouring or subsequent process- 13. Product Marking
ing. 13.1 Material Marking:
7.2.2 Mechanical and Other Properties— Samples of the 13.1.1 The name or brand of the manufacturer, the name of
material to provide test specimens for mechanical and other the material or UNS number, the letters ASTM, the product
properties shall be taken from such locations in each lot as to specification number, heat number, class and nominal size shall
be representative of that lot. Test specimens shall be taken from be legibly marked on each piece 3⁄4 in. (19.0 mm) and over in
material in the final condition (temper). outside diameter, provided the length is not under 3 ft (914
mm). The material marking shall be by any method that will
8. Retests and Retreatment not result in harmful contamination.
8.1 Retests—If the results of the mechanical tests of any 13.1.2 For material less than 3⁄4 in. (19.0 mm) in outside
group or lot do not conform to the requirements specified in the diameter and material under 3 ft (914 mm) in length, the
individual specification, retests may be made on additional information specified in 13.1.1 shall be either legibly marked
tubes of double the original number from the same group or lot, on each piece or marked on a tag securely attached to the
each of which shall conform to the requirements specified. bundle or box in which the tube is shipped at the option of the
8.2 Retreatment—If the individual tube or the tubes selected manufacturer.
to represent any group or lot fail to conform to the test 13.2 Packaging—The following information shall be
requirements, the individual tubes or the group or lot repre- marked on the material or included on the package, or on a
sented may be reheat treated and resubmitted for test. Not more label or tag attached thereto: The name of the material or UNS
than two reheat treatments shall be permitted. number, heat number, condition (temper), the letters ASTM,
the product specification number, the size, gross, tare and net
9. Specimen Preparation weight, consignor and consignee address, contract or order
9.1 Room Temperature Tensile Specimen— Material shall number, or such other information as may be defined by the
be tested in the direction of fabrication. Whenever possible, the contract or purchase order.

5
B 751 – 03
14. Keywords
14.1 welded tube

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

6
Designation: B 753 – 01

Standard Specification for


Thermostat Component Alloys1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 753; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope that commonly used methods of surface preparation, or pre-


1.1 This specification describes requirements for alloys to bond cleaning will allow bonding of the entire mating surfaces.
be used as components in the manufacture of bonded multi- Since surface condition can vary for different alloys and
component thermostat metal strip. More specifically it de- because bonding practices vary, product surface condition can
scribes alloys having composition, and thermal expansion be agreed upon between supplier and purchaser.
suitable for application in thermostat metal sheet and strip. 5. Chemical Composition
2. Referenced Documents 5.1 The material shall be manufactured to the chemical
2.1 ASTM Standards: compositions shown in Table 1.
A 480 Specification for General Requirements for Flat- 5.2 The manufacturer will insure uniformity of composition
Rolled Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and throughout a heat lot to provide uniform thermal expansion and
Strip2 electrical resistivity properties.
B 63 Test Method for Resistivity of Metallically Conduct- 6. Thermal Expansion Requirements
ing Resistance and Contact Materials3
B 388 Specification for Thermostat Metal Sheet and Strip3 6.1 Samples tested in accordance with 6.2 shall exhibit
E 18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell thermal expansion properties described in Table 2.
Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials4 6.2 One test sample representing each heat lot shall be
E 228 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid machined to a suitable specimen configuration, heat treated in
Materials with a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer5 accordance with instructions in Table 2, and Test Method
E 228.
3. Ordering Information
7. Electrical Resistivity
3.1 Orders for this material under this specification shall
include the following information: 7.1 The electrical resistivity measured at room temperature
3.1.1 Alloy type, as in Test Method B 63 on suitably prepared and annealed
3.1.2 Size, specimens shall conform to Table 3.
3.1.3 Surface finish, 8. Temper
3.1.4 Marking and packaging, and
3.1.5 Certification, if required. 8.1 This product will be supplied in the annealed condition.
8.2 Hardness shall be measured on representative samples
4. General Requirements from each heat treat lot and reported as Rockwell B hardness.
4.1 The material shall be free of scale, slivers, cracks, 8.3 Hardness values shall conform to the requirements in
seams, corrosion and other defects as best commercial practice Table 4 tested as in Test Methods E 18.
will permit. Surfaces shall be uniform and sufficiently clean so 9. Dimensions and Permissible Variations
9.1 Permissible variations in thickness and width shall
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on adhere to those described in Specification A 480. These are
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee shown in Table 5.
B02.10 on Thermostat Metals.
Current edition approved May 10, 2001. Published July 2001.Originally pub-
9.2 Edge camber shall conform to Specification A 480.
lished as B 753 - 86. Last previous edition B 753 - 86 (1998). (Edge camber for widths >1-1⁄2 in. shall be a maximum 1⁄4in. on
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03. any 8-ft length.)
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04. 9.3 Maximum deviation across the width of the strip at a
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02. given location shall not exceed 3 % of the nominal thickness.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 753
9.4 Slitting burr shall be no greater than 10 % of the 11.2 Marking shall contain the following information:
thickness. 11.2.1 Manufacturer’s name,
10. Certification 11.2.2 Alloy type,
10.1 The manufacturer shall provide the purchaser with a 11.2.3 Heat number,
certification containing the following information: 11.2.4 Size,
10.1.1 Alloy type, 11.2.5 Shipped weight, and
10.1.2 Specification number,
11.2.6 Purchaser’s order number.
10.1.3 Dimensions,
10.1.4 Chemical composition by heat number,
12. Investigation of Claims
10.1.5 Coefficient thermal expansion,
10.1.6 Hardness, 12.1 Where any material fails to meet the requirements of
10.1.7 Quantity shipped, the specification, the material so designated shall be handled in
10.1.8 Purchase order number, accordance with a mutual agreement between purchaser and
10.1.9 Resistivity (optional), and seller.
10.1.10 Manufacturer’s name.
11. Packaging and Marking 13. Keywords
11.1 Packaging and unit size shipped shall be subject to 13.1 alloys; chemical composition; components; controlled
agreement between purchaser and supplier. Packaging will be thermal expansion; electrical resistivity; hardness; temper;
sufficient to prevent damage or spoilage in transit. thermostat metal strip

TABLE 1 Suggested Compositions For Thermostat Alloys All Elements Indicated As Weight Percent

NOTE 1—Composition requirements show major elements as being nominal. These nominal requirements indicate they are to be adjusted by the
manufacturer so that the alloys meet the requirements for thermal expansion shown in Table 2. Other elements not shown, may be present in residual
amounts. These shall not be present in sufficient quantity as to significantly affect the performance in the intended application.

Alloy
T-10 T-20 T-22 T-18 T-19 T-14 T-25
Description
Carbon 0.1 max 0.05 max 0.12 nom 0.15 max 0.5 nom 0.5 max 0.15 max
Manganese 72.0 nom 6.5 nom 0.60 max 0.80 max 1.0 nom 9.0 nom 1.0 max
Silicon, max 0.25 0.3 0.30 0.50 0.40 0.30 1.0
Phosphorus, max 0.030 0.02 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025
Sulfur, max 0.030 0.01 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025
Chromium 0.25 max ... 3.0 nom 11.0 nom 2.0 nom ... 8.0 nom
Nickel, nom 10.0 20.0 22.0 18.0 19.0 14.0 25.0
Copper 18.0 nom ... ... ... ... ... ...
Aluminum ... ... ... ... ... 5.0 nom ...
Cobalt ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Iron 1.0 max balance balance balance balance balance balance
Alloy
Description T-50 T-45 T-42 T-40 T-39 T-36 T-99
Carbon, max 0.15 max 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Manganese, max 0.60 max 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.35
Silicon, max 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.35
Phosphorus, max 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.015
Sulfur, max 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.010
Chromium, max 0.50 max 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.50
Nickel, nom 50.0 nom 45.0 42.0 40.0 39.0 36.0 99.5
Copper ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.25 max
Aluminum ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Cobalt, max 0.50 max 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Iron balance balance balance balance balance balance 0.40 max

2
B 753
TABLE 2 Linear Expansion Coefficients For Thermostat Alloys Values Shown Are 10−6/F° From 77°F (25°C) To Temperatures Indicated A

Alloy 200°F 300°F 500°F 700°F


Anneal Temperature °F (°C) C
Description (93°C) (149°C) B (260°C) (371°C)
T-10 15.1 15.4 (64 %) 15.6 16.6 1450 (788)
T-20 10.9 11.1 (61–4 %) 11.4 11.5 1600 (871)
T-22 10.7 10.75 (64.5 %) 10.9 10.9 1600 (871)
T-18 10.0 10.0 (64 %) 10.2 10.4 2000 (1093)
T-19 11.1 10.8 (64 %) 11.2 11.2 1900 (1038)
T-14 9.8 10.4 (64 %) 10.7 10.9 2000 (1093)
T-25 9.8 9.8 (64 %) 10.0 10.1 1800 (982)
T-50 5.7 5.6 (68 %) 5.7 5.6 1600 (871)
T-45 4.4 4.3 (68 %) 4.1 4.0 1600 (871)
T-42 3.1 3.0 (68 %) 2.9 3.0 1600 (871)
T-40 2.0 2.2 (68 %) 2.2 3.0 1600 (871)
T-39 1.3–1.9 1.4–2.0 1.5–2.0 2.8–3.3 1600 (871)
T-36 0.5–1.1 0.8–1.4 2.0–2.7 3.7–4.4 1600 (871)
T-99 7.4 7.5 (64 %) 7.8 8.2 1300 (704)
A
Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficients shown in English units in the above table can be converted to metric units (10−6/°C) by multiplying the value in the table by
1.8.
B
Required thermal expansion coefficient for each alloy class at 300°F (149°C) are shown with allowable tolerance. Values shown at 200°F (93°C). 500°F (260°C) and
700°F (371°C) are typical and are provided for information only.
C
Anneal temperature is shown for each class of alloy to be treated prior to thermal expansion testing. Anneal to be performed in protective atmosphere (Non-oxidizing)
for minimum one (1) hour, using heating rates up to 1000°F/h, (538°C/h) and cooling at rates 100 to 500°F (38 to 260°C) per hour.

TABLE 3 Nominal Electrical Resistivity of Thermostat Alloys Values Shown Are Ohm Circular Mil/Ft. (Microhm-CM)

NOTE 1—When required, electrical resistivity shall meet the nominal values shown, within a tolerance of 64 %.
NOTE 2—Measurements are to be conducted on samples of uniform dimensions in accordance with Test Method B 63, on fully annealed specimens
representing each heat treat lot. Measurements are to be made at room temperature. 68 to 77°F (20 to 25°C).

Alloy Designation
T-10 T-20 T-22 T-18 T-19 T-14 T-25 T-50 T-45 T-42 T-40 T-39 T-36 T-99
1020 472 461 475 468 660 515 245 330 370 380 425 485 51
(170) (78.5) (77) (79) (78) (110) (85.6) (40.7) (54.8) (61.5) (63.2) (70.6) (80.6) (8.5)

TABLE 4 Maximum Rockwell B Hardness Required For Thermostat Alloys

NOTE 1—Hardness (Rb) shall be measured for representative samples from each heat treat lot processed at the same time.

Alloy Designation
T-10 T-20 T-22 T-18 T-19 T-14 T-25 T-50 T-45 T-42 T-40 T-39 T-36 T-99
65 70 66 73 78 90 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 64

3
B 753
TABLE 5 Permissible Variations In Dimensions For Thermostat
Alloy Strip A

NOTE 1—Thickness measurements are taken at least 3⁄8 in. (9.52 mm) in from edge of the strip. Tolerances are applicable to measurements at all
locations.

Permissible Variations In Thickness Values Shown Over And Under, in. (mm)
Widths
Specified Thickness 3 / 16 (4.76) to 6 (152.4) to
6 (152.4) 13 (330.2)
0.035 (0.89) to 0.050 (1.27) incl 0.0025 (0.064) 0.0035 (0.089)
0.050 (1.27) to 0.069 (1.75) incl 0.003 (0.08) 0.0035 (0.089)
0.069 (1.75) to 0.100 (2.54) incl 0.003 (0.08) 0.004 (0.10)
0.100 (2.54) to 0.125 (3.18) incl 0.004 (0.10) 0.0045 (0.114)
0.125 (3.18) to 0.161 (4.09) incl 0.0045 (0.114) 0.0045 (0.114)
0.161 (4.09) to 0.187 (4.76) incl 0.005 (0.13) 0.005 (0.13)

Permissible Variations In Width, No. 3 Slit Edge Strip Values


Shown Over And Under, in. (mm)
Widths
Specified Thickness 0.5 (12.7) to 6 (152.4) to 9 (228.6) to
6 (152.4) 9 (228.6) 13 (330.2)
0.068 (1.73) and under 0.005 (0.13) 0.005 (0.13) 0.010 (0.25)
0.099 (2.51) to 0.069 (1.75) incl 0.008 (0.20) 0.010 (0.25) 0.010 (0.25)
0.160 (4.06) to 0.100 (2.54) incl 0.010 (0.25) 0.016 (0.41) 0.016 (0.41)
0.1875 (4.76) to 0.161 (4.09) incl 0.016 (0.41) 0.020 (0.51) 0.020 (0.51)
A
This table is from Specification A 480. For sizes not listed in the table above, refer to appropriate table in Specification A 480.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 754 – 89 (Reapproved 1999)e1

Standard Test Method for


Measuring and Recording the Deviations from Flatness in
Copper and Copper Alloy Strip1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 754; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

e1 NOTE—Editorial changes were made throughout this standard in March 2000.

1. Scope * 2.1.5 wavy edges (waves—edge wave)—a continuous pat-


1.1 This test method describes a procedure for the measure- tern of waves or wrinkles along the edges of the strip, with a
ment of distortions in thin metal strip and the application of relatively flat center portion.
these measurements to an equation that will indicate the 3. Significance and Use
deviation from flatness.
1.2 The distortions to be measured in this test method are 3.1 This test method is intended for measuring distortion in
dish, wavy edges, buckle, longitudinal corrugation, and her- strip used for making close tolerance parts. Since distortion in
ringbone. this strip would influence the shape of the part being produced
1.3 This test method is not intended to include the measure- and cause difficulties in feeding through close-fitting dies and
ment of coil set or longitudinal curl, camber or edgewise other manufacturing equipment, it is important that this mate-
curvature, or twist. rial be flat.
1.4 This test method is limited to metal strip 0.003 to 0.020 3.2 This test method provides a universal procedure for
in. (0.08 to 0.50 mm) thick and not more than 6.0 in. (150.0 measuring the irregularities that cause the deviation from
mm) wide. flatness.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are the standard. 3.3 This test method allows the purchaser and manufacturer
The values given in parentheses are for information only. to inspect strip with a standard technique to a mutually agreed
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the upon and acceptable percentage deviation from flatness.
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the 4. Apparatus
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- 4.1 Surface Plate, to be used as a reference flat. It must have
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. a large enough surface area to accommodate the maximum size
test specimen. It shall be flat within 0.0002 in. (0.005 mm) per
2. Terminology 1 in. (25 mm).
2.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 4.2 Micrometer, for measuring metal thickness. It shall be
2.1.1 buckle (center bulge or oil can)—alternate bulges and graduated in 0.0001-in. (0.0025-mm) increments.
hollows recurring along the length of a strip with the edges 4.3 Height Gage, for measuring the height of irregularities.
remaining relatively flat. The arm of this gage must be long enough to extend beyond the
2.1.2 dish (cross or transverse bow)—the departure from center of the widest strip to be measured. It shall be graduated
flatness across the full width of the strip in the form of a single in 0.001-in. (0.025-mm) increments.2
arc, excluding burrs. 4.4 Steel Rule, for measuring the lengths of the irregulari-
2.1.3 herringbone—a series of long continuous waves run- ties. It shall be graduated in 0.02-in. (0.50-mm) increments.
ning at various angles to the rolling direction. 5. Test Specimens
2.1.4 longitudinal corrugation—a condition similar to dish
except that the sense of curvature changes sign at least once 5.1 The test specimen shall be the full-finished slit width of
across the width of the strip. the strip and cut long enough so that measurement will not be
influenced by the distortions referred to in 1.3.
5.2 When cutting specimens, caution must be taken to
prevent additional distortion.
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B05 on Copper
and Copper Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B05.06 on
Methods of Test.
2
Current edition approved June 30, 1989. Published August 1989. Originally An electronic touch sensitive system, which will not distort the sample, has
published as B 754 – 86. Last previous edition B 754 – 89 (1994)e1. been found to be acceptable.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 754 – 89 (1999)e1
6. Procedure H2T
Deviation from flat, % 5 L 3 100 (1)
6.1 Measure the thickness of the specimen at six locations,
near each corner and at midwidth at each end, to the nearest Compare the results to the agreed upon limits. The larger the
0.001 in. (0.03 mm) using the micrometer. The average of these percentage, the greater the deviation from flat.
six readings will be used as T.
6.2 Place the test strip unrestrained on the surface plate. If 8. Report
the specimen is not flat, compare the irregularities observed 8.1 The nominal thickness, width, temper, alloy number,
with the illustrations shown in Figs. 1-5 to determine the type and form of product should be reported.
of distortion and how it should be measured. 8.2 The number and type of distortions measured and the
6.3 Using the height gage, measure the highest point H of thickness, height, length, and percent deviation from flatness
each of the irregularities to the nearest 0.001 in. (0.03 mm). See for each should be reported.
Figs. 1-6.
6.4 Using the steel rule, measure the length L between the 9. Precision and Bias
points where the outer radii of the most significant irregularity
9.1 The precision of this test method is dependent upon the
touches the surface plate, to the nearest 0.02 in. (0.50 mm). See
sensitivity of the measuring apparatus.
Figs. 1-7.
9.2 This test method has no bias because the values of
6.5 Repeat this procedure as often as necessary to satisfy
deviation from flatness are direct measurements based on the
quality level requirements, recording each measurement.
accuracy of the test apparatus and the observations of the
7. Calculation or Interpretation of Results inspector.
7.1 Apply the values for T, H, and L obtained for each
irregularity to the following equation to determine the percent- 10. Keywords
age of deviation from flat. 10.1 flatness measurement; strip flatness

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee B05 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue of B 754 - 89
(Reapproved 1994)e1 that may impact the use of this standard.

(1) No technical changes have been made to this standard.


Incidental wording changes have been inserted to comply with
the new Outline of Form.

FIG. 1 Dish

2
B 754 – 89 (1999)e1

FIG. 2 Wavy Edges

NOTE 1—For illustration only. Section to show measuring.


FIG. 3 Buckle

FIG. 4 Longitudinal Corrugation

3
B 754 – 89 (1999)e1

FIG. 5 Herringbone

FIG. 6 Measuring Height of Irregularity With Height Gage

FIG. 7 Measuring Length of Irregularity With Steel Rule

4
B 754 – 89 (1999)e1
ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

5
Designation: B 756 – 00

Standard Specification for


Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy (UNS
N06110) Rod and Bar1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 756; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope TABLE 1 Mechanical Properties

1.1 This specification covers nickel-chromium- Yield


Elongation
Condition and Diameter Tensile Strength
molybdenum-tungsten (UNS N06110)2 in the form of hot- or Distance Between Strength (0.2%
in 2 in.
or 50 mm
worked rod and bar and cold-worked rod in the conditions Parallel Surfaces in. min, ksi Offset),
or 4D, min,
shown in Table 1. (mm) (MPa) min, ksi
%
(MPa)
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded
Cold-worked rods and
as the standards. The SI units in parentheses are provided for hot-worked rod and bar,
information only. annealed:
Up to 4 (102), incl 95 (655) 45 (310) 60
2. Referenced Documents Over 4 (102) to 10 (254), incl 90 (621)
A
40 (276)
A
50
A
Forging quality (all sizes)
2.1 ASTM Standards: A
Forging quality is furnished to chemical requirements and surface inspection
B 755 Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum- only. No tensile properties are required.
Tungsten Alloys (UNS N06110) Plate, Sheet, and Strip3
B 880 Specification for General Requirements for Chemical
Check Analysis Limits for Nickel, Nickel Alloys, and 4. Ordering Information
Cobalt Alloys3
4.1 It is the responsibility of the purchaser to specify all
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials4
requirements that are necessary for the safe and satisfactory
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to
performance of material ordered under this specification.
Determine Conformance with Specifications5
Examples of such requirements include, but are not limited to,
E 1473 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel,
the following:
Cobalt, and High–Temperature Alloys6
4.1.1 ASTM Designation.
3. Terminology 4.1.2 UNS Number.
4.1.3 Section—Rod (round) or bar (square or rectangular).
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
4.1.4 Dimensions—Dimensions including length.
3.1.1 bar—material of rectangular (flats) or square solid
4.1.5 Condition (see Appendix).
section up to and including 10 in. (254 mm) in width and 1⁄8 in.
4.1.6 Finish (Section 8).
(3.2 mm) and over in thickness in straight lengths.
4.1.7 Quantity—Feet, (or metres) or number pieces.
DISCUSSION — Hot-worked rectangular bar in widths 10 in.
4.1.8 Certification— State if certification is required (see
and under may be furnished as hot-rolled plate with sheared or
Section 15).
cut edges in accordance with Specification B, provided the
4.1.9 Samples for Product (Check)Analysis—State whether
mechanical property requirements of Specification B are met.
samples for product (check) analysis should be furnished (see
3.1.2 rod—material of round solid section furnished in
5.2).
straight lengths.
4.1.10 Purchaser Inspection (see Section 13)—If purchaser
wishes to witness test or inspection of material at place of
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on manufacture, the purchase order must so state indicating which
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee test or inspections are to be witnessed.
B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys.
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 2000. Published November 2000. Originally 5. Chemical Composition
published as B 756 – 86. Last previous edition B 756 – 98a.
2
New designation established in accordance with ASTM E527 and SAE J1086, 5.1 The material shall conform to the composition limits
Recommended Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS).
3
specified in Table 2.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04.
4 5.2 If a product (check) analysis is performed by the
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02. purchaser, the material shall conform to the product (check)
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.06. analysis variations per B 880.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 756
TABLE 2 Chemical Requirements TABLE 4 Permissible Variations in Diameter or Distance
Composition Between Parallel Surfaces of Hot-Worked Rod and Bar
Element Limits, Permissible Variations from
% Specified Dimension, in. (mm)A Specified Dimensions, in. (mm)
C 0.15 max + −
Mn 1.0 max
Si 1.0 max Rod and bar, hot-worked:
P 0.015 max 1 (25.4) and under 0.016 (0.41) 0.016 (0.41)
S 0.015 max Over 1 (25.4) to 2 (50.8), incl 0.031 (0.79) 0.016 (0.41)
Cr 28.0 min Over 2 (50.8) to 4 (101.6), incl 0.047 (1.19) 0.031 (0.79)
33.0 max Over 4 (101.6) 0.125 (3.18) 0.063 (1.60)
Cb 1.0 max Rod, rough-turned or ground:
Co (if determined) 1.0 max Under 1 (25.4) 0.005 (0.13) 0.005 (0.13)
Mo 9.0 min 1 (25.4) and over 0.031 (0.79) 0
12.0 max Forging quantity rod:B
Fe 1.0 max Under 1 (25.4) 0.005 (0.13) 0.005 (0.13)
Al 1.0 max 1 (25.4) and over 0.031 (0.79) 0
Ti 1.0 max A
Dimensions apply to diameter of rods, to distance between parallel surfaces of
W 1.0 min squares, and separately to width and thickness of rectangles.
4.0 max B
Spot grinding is permitted to remove minor surface imperfections. The depth
NiA 51.0 min of these spot ground areas shall not exceed 3 % of the diameter of the rod.
Cu 0.50 max
A
Element shall be determined arithmetically by difference.
7.5 Straightness:
7.5.1 The permissible variations in straightness of cold-
6. Mechanical and Other Properties worked rod as determined by the departure from straightness
6.1 Mechanical Properties—The material shall conform to shall be as prescribed in Table 7.
the mechanical properties specified in Table 1. 7.5.2 The permissible variations in straightness of hot-
worked rod and bar as determined by the departure from
7. Dimensions and Permissible Variations straightness shall be as specified in Table 8.
7.1 Diameter, Thickness, or Width—The permissible varia-
8. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
tions from the specified dimensions of cold worked rod shall be
as prescribed in Table 3, and of hot-worked rod and bar as 8.1 The material shall be uniform in quality and condition,
prescribed in Table 4. smooth, commercially straight or flat, and free of injurious
7.2 Out-of-Round— Hot-worked rods and cold-worked rods imperfections.
(except forging quality) all sizes, in straight lengths, shall not
9. Sampling
be out-of-round by more than one half the total permissible
variations in diameter shown in Table 3 and Table 4, except for 9.1 Lot Definition:
hot-worked rods 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) in diameter and under, which 9.1.1 A lot for chemical analysis shall consist of one heat.
may be out-of-round by the total permissible variations in 9.1.2 A lot for mechanical properties testing shall consist of
diameter shown in Table 4. all material from the same heat, nominal diameter or thickness,
7.3 Machining Allowances for Hot-Worked Materials— and condition.
When the surfaces of hot-worked products are to be machined, 9.1.2.1 Where material cannot be identified by heat, a lot
the allowances prescribed in Table 5 are recommended for shall consist of not more than 500 lb (227 kg) of material in the
normal machining operations. same size and condition except that a single piece weighing
7.4 Length—The permissible variations in length of cold- over 500 lb shall be considered as one lot.
worked and hot-worked rod and bar shall be as prescribed in 9.2 Test Material Selection:
Table 6. 9.2.1 Chemical Analysis—Representative samples from
7.4.1 Rods and bars ordered to random or nominal lengths each lot shall be taken during pouring or subsequent process-
will be furnished with either cropped or saw-cut ends; material ing.
ordered to cut lengths will be furnished with square saw-cut or 9.2.1.1 Product (check) analysis shall be wholly the respon-
machined ends. sibility of the purchaser.
9.2.2 Mechanical Properties—Samples of the material to
provide test specimens for mechanical properties shall be taken
TABLE 3 Permissible Variations in Diameter of Cold-Worked Rod
from such locations in each lot as to be representative of that
Permissible Variations from Specified lot.
Specified Dimensions, Dimension, in. (mm)
in. (mm)
+ − 10. Number of Tests
⁄ (1.6) to ⁄ (4.8), excl
1 16 3 16 0 0.002 (0.05) 10.1 Chemical Analysis—One test per lot.
3⁄16 (4.8) to 1⁄2 (12.7), excl 0 0.003 (0.08)
1⁄2 (12.7) to 15⁄16 (23.8), incl 0.001 (0.03) 0.002 (0.05) 10.2 Tension—One test per lot.
Over 15⁄16(23.8) to 115⁄16(49.2), 0.0015 (0.04) 0.003 (0.08)
incl 11. Specimen Preparation
Over 115⁄16 (49.2) to 21⁄2(63.5), 0.002 (0.05) 0.004 (0.10)
incl 11.1 Tension test specimens shall be taken from material in
the final condition and tested in the direction of fabrication.

2
B 756
TABLE 5 Normal Machining Allowances for Hot-Worked Material
Normal Machining Allowance,
in. (mm)
Finished-Machined Dimensions for
Finishes as Indicated Below, Distance For Rectangular Bar
in. (mm)A On Diameter, Between Parallel
for Rods Surfaces of On On
Square Bars Thickness Width

Hot-workedB
Up to 7⁄8(22.2), incl ⁄ (3.2)
18 18⁄ (3.2) ⁄ (3.2)
18 ⁄ (4.8)
3 16

Over 7⁄8 to 1 7⁄8(22.2 to 47.6), incl ⁄ (3.2)


18 ⁄
3 16 (4.8) ⁄ (3.2)
18 ⁄ (4.8)
3 16

Over 17⁄8 to 27⁄8 (47.6 to 73.0), incl 3⁄16 (4.8) 1⁄4(6.4) ... 3⁄16 (4.8)

Over 27⁄8 to 313⁄16 (73.0 to 96.8), incl 1⁄4 (6.4) ... ... 3⁄16 (4.8)

Over 313⁄16 (96.8) 1⁄4 (6.4) ... ... 3⁄8 (9.5)

Hot-worked rods, rough-turned or rough


ground:C
15⁄16 to 4 (23.8 to 101.6), incl in diameter ⁄ (1.6)
1 16 ... ... ...
Over 4 to 12 (101.6 to 304.8), incl in ⁄ (3.2)
18 ... ... ...
diameter
A
Dimensions apply to diameter of rods, to distance between parallel surfaces of square bar, and separately to width and thickness of rectangular bar.
B
The allowances for hot-worked material in Table 5 are recommended for rods machined in lengths of 3 ft (0.91 m) or less and for bars machined in lengths of 2 ft (0.61
m) or less. Hot-worked material to be machined in longer lengths should be specified showing the finished cross-sectional dimension and the length in which the material
will be machined in order that the manufacturer may supply material with sufficient oversize, including allowance for out-of-straightness.
C
Applicable to 3 ft (0.91 m) max length.

TABLE 6 Permissible Variations in Length of Rods and Bars


Random Mill Lengths:
Hot-worked—6 to 24 ft (1.83 to 7.31 m) long with not more than 25 weight % between 6 and 9 ft (1.83 and 2.74 m)A
Cold-worked—6 to 20 ft (1.83 to 6.1 m) long with not more than 25 weight % between 6 and 10 ft (1.83 and 3.05 m).
Multiple lengths—Furnished in multiples of a specified unit length, within the length limits indicated above. For each multiple, an allowance of 1⁄4 in. (6.4 mm) will
be made for cutting, unless otherwise specified. At the manufacturer’s option, individual specified unit lengths may be furnished.
Nominal lengths—Specified nominal lengths having a range of not less than 2 ft (610 mm) with no short lengths allowedB
Cut lengths:
A specified length to which all rods and bars will be cut with a permissible variation of plus 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm), minus 0 for sizes 8 in. (203 mm) and less in diameter
or distance between parallel surfaces. For larger sizes, the permissible variation shall be + 1⁄4 in. (6.4 mm), − 0.
A
For hot-worked sections weighing over 25 lb/ft (37 kg/m) and for smooth forged products, all sections, short lengths down to 2 ft (610 mm) may be furnished.
B
For cold-worked rod under 1⁄2in. (12.7 mm) in diameter ordered to nominal or stock lengths with a 2-ft (610-mm) range, at least 93 % of such material shall be within
the range specified; the balance may be in shorter lengths but in no case shall lengths less than 4 ft (1220 mm) be furnished.

TABLE 7 Permissible Variations in Straightness of Cold-Worked TABLE 8 Permissible Variations in Straightness of Hot-Worked
Rods Rods and BarsA
Specified Diameter, Permissible Variations, Permissible Variations,
Finish
in. (mm)A in. (mm) in./ft (mm/m)B
Depth of Chord: Rods and bars, hot-worked 0.050 (4.2)C
0.030 (0.76) per ft Rounds-hot-worked, rough 0.050 (4.2)C
⁄ (12.7) to 2 1⁄2 (63.5), incl
12 (305 mm) of length ground or rough turned
A
Not applicable to forging quality.
A B
Material under 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) shall be reasonably straight and free of sharp Material under 1⁄2in. (12.7 mm) shall be reasonably straight and free of sharp
bends and kinks. bends and kinks.
C
The maximum curvature (depth of chord) shall not exceed the values indicated
11.1.1 All rod and bar shall be tested in full cross section multiplied by the length in feet.

size when possible. When a full cross section size test cannot
be performed, the largest possible round specimen shown in
Test Methods E 8 shall be used. Longitudinal strip specimens Test ASTM Designation
shall be prepared in accordance with Test Methods E 8 for
Chemical analysis E 1473
rectangular bar up to 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm), inclusive, in thicknesses Tension E8
that are too wide to be pulled full size. Rounding procedure E 29

12. Test Methods 12.2 For purposes of determining compliance with the
12.1 The chemical composition, mechanical, and other specified limits for requirements of the properties listed in the
properties of the material as enumerated in this specification following table, an observed value or a calculated value shall
shall be determined in case of disagreement, in accordance be rounded as indicated below, in accordance with the round-
with the following methods: ing method of Practice E 29:

3
B 756
Test Rounded Unit for Observed Or 15. Certification
Calculated Value
Chemical composition and tolerance nearest unit in the last right-hand 15.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
(when expressed in decimals) place of figures of the specified producer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished to the
limit. If two choices are possible, purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled, tested,
as when the digits dropped are
exactly a 5, or a 5 followed only and inspected in accordance with this specification and has
by zeros, choose the one ending been found to meet the requirements. When specified in the
in an even digit with zero de- purchase order or contract, a report of the test results shall be
fined as an even digit.
Tensile strength and yield strength nearest 1000 psi (6.9 MPa) furnished.
Elongation nearest 1 %
16. Product Marking
13. Inspection
13.1 Inspection of the material shall be made as agreed upon 16.1 The following information shall be marked on the
between the manufacturer and the purchaser as part of the material or included on the package, or on a label or tag
purchase contract. attached thereto: The name of the material or UNS, heat
number, condition (temper), this specification number, the size,
14. Rejection and Rehearing gross, tare and net weight, consignor and consignee address,
14.1 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of contract or order number, or such other information as may be
this specification may be rejected. Rejection should be reported defined in the contract or order.
to the producer or supplier promptly and in writing. In case of
dissatisfaction with the results of the tests, the producer or 17. Keywords
supplier may make the claim for a rehearing. 17.1 rod; bar; N06110

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. PROCURABLE CONDITIONS AND FINISHES

X1.1 The various conditions and finishes in which rod and to a bar peeling operation and thus may not be straight.
bar are procurable are as follows: Intended generally for machining where an overhauled surface
X1.1.1 Hot-worked, annealed—soft, with a tightly adherent is desired, essentially for machined step down shafts or part
dark oxide. machined in short lengths of 3 ft (0.91 m) or less.
X1.1.2 Hot-worked, annealed, and pickled—Same as X1.1.5 Hot-worked, forging quality—Rough turned and
X1.1.1 except descaled for removal of mill oxide. Provides for spot ground, as necessary, for sizes 1 in. (25.4 mm) in
better surface inspection than does hot-worked, annealed diameter; rough ground and spot ground for sizes under 1 in. in
material and often employed where welding is involved where diameter. Material is selected from heats of known, good hot
removal of mill oxide is desired. malleability.
NOTE X1.2—For sizes 21⁄2 in. (63.5 mm) in diameter and less, cold-
NOTE X1.1—Annealing prior to pickling may be required in order to
worked rod may be used also for forging by virtue of the fact such rod
reduce the mill oxide since uniform pickling of an unreduced oxide is
have been overhauled for removal of mechanical surface defect prior to
difficult.
cold-working. In such cases, the user should run pilot forging tests to
X1.1.3 Hot-worked, annealed, and rough ground—Similar ensure himself that such material has the desired hot malleability range.
to X1.1.1 except rough ground. X1.1.6 Cold-worked, annealed, and pickled hot-worked,
X1.1.4 Hot-worked, annealed, and rough-turned—Sim ilar overhauled, cold-worked, annealed, descaled, and straightened.
to X1.1.1 except rough turned with a broad nosed tool similar Annealed for softness and with a dull matte finish.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
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United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
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(www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 755 – 00

Standard Specification for


Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloys (UNS
N06110) Plate, Sheet, and Strip1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 755; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 4.1.1 ASTM designation.


1.1 This specification covers rolled nickel-chromium- 4.1.2 Alloy name or UNS number.
molybdenum-tungsten alloys (UNS N06110)2 plate, sheet, and 4.1.3 Condition—Table 2 and Appendix X1.
strip. 4.1.4 Finish—Appendix X1.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded 4.1.5 Dimensions—Thickness, width, and length.
as the standard. The SI units in parentheses are provided for 4.1.6 Quantity.
information only. 4.1.7 Optional Requirements:
4.1.7.1 Sheet and Strip—Whether to be furnished in coil, in
2. Referenced Documents cut straight lengths, or in random straight lengths, and
2.1 ASTM Standards: 4.1.7.2 Plate—How plate is to be cut (Table 3 and Table 4).
B 756 Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum- 4.1.8 Certification—State if certification is required (see
Tungsten Alloy (UNS N06110) Rod and Bar3 Section 15).
B 880 Specification for General Requirements for Chemical 4.1.9 Samples for Product (Check) Analysis—Whether
Check Analysis Limits for Nickel, Nickel Alloys and samples for product (check) analysis should be furnished (see
Cobalt Alloys3 5.2).
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials4 4.1.10 Purchaser Inspection—If the purchaser wishes to
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to witness tests or inspection of material at place of manufacture,
Determine Conformance with Specifications5 the purchase order must so state indicating which tests or
E 1473 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel, inspections are to be witnessed (see Section 13).
Cobalt, and High-Temperature Alloys6
5. Chemical Composition
3. Terminology 5.1 The material shall conform to the composition limits
3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: specified in Table 5.
3.1.1 The terms given in Table 1 shall apply. 5.2 If a product (check) analysis is performed by the
purchaser, the material shall conform to the product (check)
4. Ordering Information analysis variations per B 880.
4.1 It is the responsibility of the purchaser to specify all
6. Mechanical Properties
requirements that are necessary for the safe and satisfactory
performance of material ordered under this specification. 6.1 The material shall conform to the mechanical properties
Examples of such requirements include, but are not limited to, specified in Table 2.
the following:
7. Dimensions and Permissible Variations
7.1 Thickness and Weight:
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on 7.1.1 Plate—For plate up to 2 in. (50.8 mm), inclusive, in
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee thickness, the permissible variation under the specified thick-
B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys.
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 2000. Published November 2000. Originally ness and permissible excess in overweight shall not exceed the
published as B 755 – 86. Last previous edition B 755 – 98a. amounts prescribed in Table 6.
2
New designation established in accordance with ASTM E527 and SAE J1086, 7.1.1.1 For use with Table 6, plate shall be assumed to
Recommended Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS).
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04.
weigh 0.303 lb/in.3(8.386 g/cm3).
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.06.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 755
TABLE 1 Product Description
Product Thickness, in. (mm) Width, in. (mm)
Hot-rolled plateA ⁄ (4.8)
3 16 and over (Table 4 and Table 5) (Table 7)B
Hot-rolled sheetA 0.018 to 0.250 (0.46 to 6.4), incl (Table 6) (Table 9)
Cold-rolled sheetC 0.018 to 0.250 (0.46 to 6.4), incl (Table 6) (Table 9)
Cold rolled stripC 0.005 to 0.250 (0.13 to 6.4), incl (Table 6) (Table 9)
A
Material 3⁄16 to 1⁄4 in. (4.8 to 6.4 mm), incl, in thickness may be furnished as sheet or plate provided the material meets the specification requirements for the condition
ordered.
B
Hot-rolled plate, in widths 10 in. (254 mm) and under, may be furnished as hot-finished rectangles with shared or cut edges in accordance with Specification B 446
provided the mechanical property requirements of this specification are met.
C
Material under 48 in. (1219 mm) in width may be furnished as sheet or strip provided the material meets the specification requirements for the condition ordered.

TABLE 2 Mechanical Properties for Plate, Sheet, and Strip (All 7.6 Squareness (Sheet)—For sheets of all thicknesses, the
Thicknesses and Sizes Unless Otherwise Indicated) angle between adjacent sides shall be 90 6 0.15° (1⁄16 in. in 24
Yield strengthA Elongation in 2 in. in.) 1.6 mm in 610 mm).
Condition Tensile strength,
(0.2% offset), min, or 50 mm (or 4D)
(Temper) min, ksi (MPa)
ksi (MPa) min,%B
7.7 Flatness—Standard flatness tolerances for plate shall
conform to the requirements of Table 11.
Hot-Rolled PlateC
Annealed 95 (655) 45 (310) 50
Hot-Rolled Sheet 8. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
Annealed 95 (655) 45 (310) 50
Cold-Rolled Sheet
8.1 The material shall be uniform in quality and temper,
Annealed 95 (655) 45 (310) 50 smooth, commercially straight or flat, and free of injurious
Cold-Rolled Strip imperfections.
Annealed 95 (655) 45 (310) 50
A
Yield strength requirementc do not apply to material under 0.020 in. (0.51 mm) 9. Sampling
in thickness.
B
Not applicable for thicknesses under 0.010 in. (0.25 mm). 9.1 Lot Definition:
C
Applicable to 2.75 in. (70 mm) thickness and below. 9.1.1 A lot for chemical analysis shall consist of one heat.
9.1.2 A lot for mechanical testing shall consist of all
material from the same heat, nominal thickness, and condition.
7.1.2 Plate—For plate over 2 in. (50.8 mm) in thickness, the 9.1.2.1 Where material cannot be identified by heat, a lot
permissible variations over the specified thickness shall not shall consist of not more than 500 lb (227 kg) of material in the
exceed the amounts prescribed in Table 7. same thickness and condition, except for plates weighing over
7.1.3 Sheet and Strip—The permissible variations in thick- 500 lb in which case only one specimen shall be taken.
ness of sheet and strip shall be as prescribed in Table 8. The 9.2 Test Material Selection:
thickness of strip and sheet shall be measured with the 9.2.1 Chemical Analysis—Representative samples from
micrometer spindle 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) or more from either edge each lot shall be taken during pouring or subsequent process-
for material 1 in. (25.4 mm) or over in width and at any place ing.
on the strip under 1 in. in width. 9.2.1.1 Product (check)Analysis—Product analysis shall be
7.2 Width or Diameter: wholly the responsibility of the purchaser.
7.2.1 Plate—The permissible variations in width or rectan- 9.2.2 Mechanical Properties—Samples of the material to
gular plates and diameter of circular plates shall be as provide test specimens for mechanical properties shall be taken
prescribed in Table 3 and Table 9. from such locations in each lot as to be representative of that
7.2.2 Sheet and Strip—The permissible variations in width lot.
for sheet and strip shall be as prescribed in Table 10.
7.3 Length: 10. Number of Tests
7.3.1 Sheet and strip of all sizes may be ordered to cut 10.1 Chemical Analysis—One test per lot.
lengths, in which case a variation of 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm) over the 10.2 Mechanical Properties—One test per lot.
specified length shall be permitted.
7.3.2 Permissible variations in length of rectangular plate 11. Specimen Preparation
shall be as prescribed in Table 4. 11.1 Tension test specimens shall be taken from material in
7.4 Straightness: the final condition (temper) and tested transverse to the
7.4.1 The edgewise curvature (depth of chord) of flat sheet, direction of rolling when width will permit.
strip, and plate shall not exceed 0.05 in. multiplied by the 11.2 Tension test specimens shall be any of the standard or
length in feet (0.04 mm multiplied by the length in centime- subsize specimens shown in Test Methods E 8.
ters). 11.3 In the event of disagreement, referee specimens shall
7.4.2 Straightness for coiled material is subject to agree- be as follows:
ment between the manufacturer and the purchaser. 11.3.1 Full thickness of the material, machined to the form
7.5 Edges: and dimensions shown for the sheet-type specimen in Test
7.5.1 Sheet and strip shall have sheared or slit edges. Methods E 8 for material under 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) in thickness.
7.5.2 Plate shall have sheared or cut (machines, abrasive 11.3.2 The largest possible round specimen shown in Test
cut, powder cut, or inert arc cut) edges, as specified. Methods E 8 for material 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) and over.

2
B 755
TABLE 3 Permissible Variations in WidthA of Sheared, Plasma Torch-Cut, and Abrasive-Cut Rectangular PlateBC
Permissible Variations in Widths for Widths Given, in. (mm)
Over 30 to Over 72 to Over 108 to Over 144
Up to 30 72 108 144 to 160
Specified Thickness
(760), incl (760 to 1830), (1830 to 2740), (2740 to 3660), (3660 to 4070),
incl incl incl incl
+ – + – + – + – + –
Inches
Sheared:D
3⁄16 to 5⁄16, excl ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
14 ⁄
18 ⁄
38 ⁄
18 ⁄
12 ⁄
18 ... ...
5⁄16 to 1⁄2, excl ⁄
14 ⁄
18 ⁄
38 ⁄
18 ⁄
38 ⁄
18 ⁄
12 ⁄
18 ⁄
58 ⁄
18

1⁄2 to 3⁄4, excl 3⁄8 1⁄8 3⁄8 1⁄8 1⁄2 1⁄8 5⁄8 1⁄8 3⁄4 1⁄8

3⁄4 to 1, excl 1⁄2 1⁄8 1⁄2 1⁄8 5⁄8 1⁄8 3⁄4 1⁄8 7⁄8 1⁄8

1 to 11⁄4, incl 5⁄8 1⁄8 5⁄8 1⁄8 3⁄4 1⁄8 7⁄8 1⁄8 1 1⁄8

Abrasive-cut:E,F
3⁄16 to 11⁄4, incl 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18

Over 11⁄4 to 23⁄4, incl ⁄


3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18

Plasma torch-cut:G
3⁄16 to 2, excl 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0
2 to 23⁄4, incl 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0
Millimetres
Sheared:D
4.8 to 7.9, excl 4.8 3.2 6.4 3.2 9.5 3.2 12.7 3.2 ... ...
7.9 to 12.7, excl 6.4 3.2 9.5 3.2 9.5 3.2 12.7 3.2 15.9 3.2
12.7 to 19.1, excl 9.5 3.2 9.5 3.2 12.7 3.2 15.9 3.2 19.1 3.2
19.1 to 25.4, excl 12.7 3.2 12.7 3.2 15.8 3.2 19.1 3.2 22.2 3.2
25.4 to 31.8, incl 15.9 3.2 15.9 3.2 19.1 3.2 22.2 3.2 25.4 3.2
Abrasive-cut:E,F
4.8 to 31.8, incl 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2
Over 31.8 to 69.8, incl 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2
Plasma torch-cut:G
4.8 to 50.8, excl 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0
50.8 to 69.8, incl 15.9 0 15.9 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0
A
Permissible variations in width for powder- or inert arc-cut plate shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
B
Permissible variations in machined, powder-, or inert arc-cut circular plate shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
C
Permissible variations in plasma torch-cut sketch plates shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
D
The minimum sheared width is 24 in. (610 mm).
E
The minimum abrasive-cut width is 2 in. (50.8 mm) and increases to 4 in. (101.6 mm) for thicker plates.
F
These tolerances are applicable to lengths of 240 in. (6100 mm), max. For lengths over 240 in., an additional 1⁄16 in. (1.6 mm) is permitted, both plus and minus.
G
The tolerance spread shown for plasma torch cutting may be obtained all on the minus side, or divided between the plus and minus side if so specified by the purchaser.

12. Test Methods 13. Inspection


12.1 The chemical composition, mechanical, and other 13.1 Inspection of the material shall be made as agreed upon
properties of the material as enumerated in this specification between the manufacturer and the purchaser as part of the
shall be determined, in case of disagreement, in accordance purchase contract.
with the following methods:
Test ASTM Designation 14. Rejection and Rehearing
Chemical analysis E 1473
Tension E8 14.1 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of
Rounding procedure E 29
this specification may be rejected. Rejection should be reported
12.2 For purposes of determining compliance with the to the producer promptly and in writing. In case of dissatisfac-
specified limits for requirements of the properties listed in the tion with the results of the test, the producer or supplier may
following table, an observed value or a calculated value shall make claim for a rehearing.
be rounded in accordance with the rounding method of Practice
E 29. 15. Certification
Rounded Unit for Observed or
Test
Calculated Value 15.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, a
Chemical composition, and Nearest unit in the last right-hand place of fig-
tolerances (when expressed ures of the specified limit. If two choices are
producer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished to the
in decimals) possible, as when the digits dropped are ex- purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled, tested,
actly a 5, or a 5 followed only by zeros, and inspected in accordance with this specification and has
choose the one ending in an even digit, with
zero defined as an even digit. been found to meet the requirements. When specified in the
Tensile strength and yield nearest 1000 psi (6.9 MPa) purchase order or contract, a report of the test results shall be
strength
Elongation nearest 1 %
furnished.

3
B 755
TABLE 4 Permissible Variations in LengthA of Sheared, Plasma-Torch-Cut,B and Abrasive-Cut Rectangular PlateC
Permissible Variation in Length for Lengths Given, in. (mm)
Over 60 Over 96 Over 120 Over 240 Over 360 Over 450
Up to 60 to 96 to 120 to 240 to 360 to 450 to 540 Over 540
Specific Thickness
(1520), incl (1520 to 2440), (2440 to 3050), (3050 to 6096), (6096 to 9144), (9144 to (11 430 to (13 716)
incl incl incl incl 11 430), incl 13 716), incl
Plus Minus Plus Minus Plus Minus Plus Minus Plus Minus Plus Minus Plus Minus Plus Minus
Inches
Sheared:D
3⁄16 to 5⁄16, excl ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
14 ⁄
18 ⁄
38 ⁄
18 ⁄
12 ⁄
18 ⁄
58 ⁄
18 ⁄
34 ⁄
18 ⁄
78 ⁄
18 ... ...
5⁄16 to 1⁄2, excl ⁄
38 ⁄
18 ⁄
12 ⁄
18 ⁄
12 ⁄
18 ⁄
12 ⁄
18 ⁄
58 ⁄
18 ⁄
34 ⁄
18 ⁄
78 ⁄
18 1 ⁄
18

1⁄2 to 3⁄4, excl 1⁄2 1⁄8 1⁄2 1⁄8 5⁄8 1⁄8 5⁄8 1⁄8 3⁄4 1⁄8 7⁄8 1⁄8 11⁄8 1⁄8 13⁄8 1⁄8

3⁄4 to 1, excl 5⁄8 1⁄8 5⁄8 1⁄8 5⁄8 1⁄8 3⁄4 1⁄8 7⁄8 1⁄8 11⁄8 1⁄8 13⁄8 1⁄8 15⁄8 1⁄8

1 to 11⁄4, incl 3⁄4 1⁄8 3⁄4 1⁄8 3⁄4 1⁄8 7⁄8 1⁄8 11⁄8 1⁄8 13⁄8 1⁄8 15⁄8 1⁄8 ... ...
Abrasive-cut:E
3⁄16 to 11⁄4, incl 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 18 ⁄ ⁄
18 ... ... ... ...
over 11⁄4 to 23⁄4, incl ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ⁄
3 16 ⁄
18 ... ... ... ...
Plasma-torch-cut:E
3⁄16 to 2, excl 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 12 ⁄ 0 ⁄
12 0 ⁄
12 0
2 to 23⁄4, incl 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 58 ⁄ 0 ⁄
58 0 ⁄
58 0
Millimetres
Sheared:D
4.8 to 7.94, excl 4.8 3.2 6.4 3.2 9.5 3.2 12.7 3.2 15.9 3.2 19.0 3.2 22.2 3.2 ... ...
7.94 to 12.7, excl 9.5 3.2 12.7 3.2 12.7 3.2 12.7 3.2 15.9 3.2 19.0 3.2 22.2 3.2 25.4 3.2
12.7 to 19.0, excl 12.7 3.2 12.7 3.2 15.9 3.2 15.9 3.2 19.0 3.2 22.2 3.2 28.6 3.2 34.9 3.2
19.0 to 25.4, excl 15.9 3.2 15.9 3.2 15.9 3.2 19.0 3.2 22.2 3.2 28.6 3.2 34.9 3.2 41.3 3.2
25.4 to 31.8, incl 19.0 3.2 19.0 3.2 19.0 3.2 22.2 3.2 28.6 3.2 34.9 3.2 41.3 3.2 ... ...

Abrasive-cut:E
4.8 to 31.8, incl 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 ... ... ... ...
over 31.8 to 69.9, incl 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.8 3.2 ... ... ... ...
Plasma-torch-cut:F
4.8 to 50.8, excl 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0 12.7 0
50.8 to 69.8, incl 15.9 0 15.9 0 15.9 0 15.9 0 15.9 0 15.9 0 15.9 0 15.9 0
A
Permissible variations in length for powder- or inert arc-cut plate shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
B
The tolerance spread shown for plasma torch cutting may be obtained all on the minus side or divided between the plus and minus sides if so specified by the purchaser.
C
Permissible variations in machined, powder- or inert arc-cut circular plate shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
D
The minimum sheared length is 24 in. (610 mm).
E
Abrasive cut applicable to a maximum length of 144 to 400 in. (3658 to 10 160 mm) depending on the thickness and width ordered.
F
The tolerance spread shown for plasma torch-cut sketch plates shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

TABLE 5 Chemical Requirements


Composition
Element
Limits, %
C 0.15 max
Mn 1.0 max
Si 1.0 max
P 0.015 max
S 0.015 max
Cr 28.0 min
33.0 max
Cb 1.0 max
W 1.0 min
4.0 max
Mo 9.0 min
12.0 max
Fe 1.0 max
Al 1.0 max
Ti 1.0 max
NiA 51.0 min
Cu 0.50 max
A
Element shall be determined arithmetically by difference.

16. Product Marking 17. Keywords


16.1 Each bundle or shipping container shall be marked 17.1 plate; sheet; strip; N06110
with the name of the material or UNS number; condition
(temper); this specification number; the size; gross, tare, and
net weight; consignor and consignee address; contract or order
number.

4
B 755
TABLE 6 Permissible Variations in Thickness and Overweight of Rectangular Plates

NOTE 1—All plates shall be ordered to thickness and not to weight per square foot. No plate shall vary more than 0.01 in. (0.3 mm) under the thickness
ordered, and the overweight of each lotA in each shipment shall not exceed the amount given in the table. Spot grinding is permitted to remove surface
imperfections, such as spots not to exceed 0.01 in. under the specified thickness.
Permissible Excess in Average WeightB,C per Square Foot of Plates for Widths Given in Inches (Millimetres) Expressed in
Percentage of Nominal Weights
Specified Thickness,
in. (mm) 48 to 60 60 to 72 72 to 84 84 to 96 96 to 108 108 to 120 120 to 132 132 to 144 144 to 160
Under 48
(1220 to (1520 to (1830 to (2130 to (2440 to (2740 to (3050 to (3350 to (3660 to
(1220)
1520), excl 1830), excl 2130), excl 2440, excl 2740), excl 3050), excl 3350), excl 3660), excl 4070), excl
⁄ to 5⁄16 (4.8 to 7.9), excl
3 16 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 ... ...
⁄ to 3⁄8 (7.9 to 9.5), excl
5 16 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 ... ...
3⁄8 to 7⁄16 (9.5 to 11.1), excl 7.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5
7⁄16 to 1⁄2 (11.1 to 12.7), excl 6.0 7.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0
1⁄2 to 5⁄8 (12.7 to 15.9), excl 5.0 6.0 7.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5
5⁄8 to 3⁄4 (15.9 to 19.1), excl 4.5 5.5 6.0 7.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0
3⁄4 to 1 (19.1 to 25.4), excl 4.0 4.5 5.5 6.0 7.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5
1 to 2 (25.4 to 50.8), incl 4.0 4.0 4.5 5.5 6.0 7.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0
A
The term “lot” applied to this table means all of the plates of each group width and each group thickness.
B
The permissible overweight for lots of circular and sketch plates shall be 25 % greater than the amounts given in this table.
C
The weight of individual plates shall not exceed the nominal weight by more than 11⁄4times the amount given in the table and Footnote B.

TABLE 7 Permissible Variations in Thickness for Rectangular Plates Over 2 in. (51 mm) in Thickness

NOTE 1—Permissible variation under specified thickness, 0.01 in. (0.3 mm).
Permissible Variations, in. (mm), over Specified
Thickness for Widths Given, in. (mm)
36 to 60 (915 to 60 to 84 (1520 to 84 to 120 (2130 to 120 to 132 (3050 to 132 (3350 and
Specified Thickness, in. (mm) To 36 (915), excl
1520), excl 2130), excl 3050), excl 3350), excl over)
Over 2 to 23⁄4 (51 to 69.8), incl ⁄
1 16 (1.6) 3⁄32 (2.4) 7⁄64 (2.8) 1⁄8(3.2) 1⁄8 (3.2) 9⁄64 (3.6)

TABLE 8 Permissible Variations in Thickness of Sheet and Strip


(Permissible Variations, Plus and Minus, in Thickness, in. (mm), for Widths Given in in. (mm))
SheetA
Hot-Rolled Cold-Rolled
Specified Thickness,
in. (mm), incl Over 48 to 60 Over 48 to 60
48 (1220) and 48 (1220) and
(1220 to 1520), (1220 to 1520),
Under Under
incl incl
0.018 to 0.025 (0.5 to 0.6) 0.003 (0.08) 0.004 (0.10) 0.002 (0.05) 0.003 (0.08)
Over 0.025 to 0.034 (0.6 to 0.9) 0.004 (0.10) 0.005 (0.13) 0.003 (0.08) 0.004 (0.10)
Over 0.034 to 0.043 (0.9 to 1.1) 0.005 (0.13) 0.006 (0.15) 0.004 (0.10) 0.005 (0.13)
Over 0.043 to 0.056 (1.1 to 1.4) 0.005 (0.13) 0.006 (0.15) 0.004 (0.10) 0.005 (0.13)
Over 0.056 to 0.070 (1.4 to 1.8) 0.006 (0.15) 0.007 (0.18) 0.005 (0.13) 0.006 (0.15)
Over 0.070 to 0.078 (1.8 to 1.9) 0.007 (0.18) 0.008 (0.20) 0.006 (0.15) 0.007 (0.18)
Over 0.078 to 0.093 (1.9 to 2.4) 0.008 (0.20) 0.009 (0.23) 0.007 (0.18) 0.008 (0.20)
Over 0.093 to 0.109 (2.4 to 2.8) 0.009 (0.23) 0.010 (0.25) 0.007 (0.18) 0.009 (0.23)
Over 0.109 to 0.125 (2.8 to 3.2) 0.010 (0.25) 0.012 (0.31) 0.008 (0.20) 0.010 (0.25)
Over 0.125 to 0.140 (3.2 to 3.6) 0.012 (0.31) 0.014 (0.36) 0.008 (0.20) 0.010 (0.25)
Over 0.140 to 0.171 (3.6 to 4.3) 0.014 (0.36) 0.016 (0.41) 0.009 (0.23) 0.012 (0.31)
Over 0.171 to 0.187 (4.3 to 4.8) 0.015 (0.38) 0.017 (0.43) 0.010 (0.25) 0.013 (0.33)
Cold-Rolled StripA,B
Specified Thickness, in. (mm), incl Widths 12 in. (305 mm) and under, plus
and minus
Up to 0.050 (1.27), incl 0.0015 (0.038)
Over 0.050 to 0.093 (1.27 to 2.39) 0.0025 (0.063)
Over 0.093 to 0.125 (2.39 to 3.18) 0.004 (0.11)
A
Measured 3⁄8 in. (9.5 mm) or more from edge except for strip under 1 in. (25.4 mm) in width which is measured at any place.
B
Standard sheet tolerances apply for thickness over 0.125 in. (3.2 mm) and for all thicknesses of strip over 12 in. (305 mm) wide.

5
B 755
TABLE 9 Permissible Variations in Diameter for Circular Plates
Sheared Plate
Permissible Variations Over Specified Diameter
Specified Diameter, in. (mm) for Thickness Given, in. (mm)A
To 3⁄8 (9.5), incl
20 to 32 (508 to 813), excl 1⁄4 (6.4)

32 to 84 (813 to 2130), excl 5⁄16 (7.9)

84 to 108 (2130 to 2740), excl 3⁄8 (9.5)

108 to 140 (2740 to 3580), incl 7⁄16 (11.1)

Plasma Torch-Cut PlateB


Permissible Variations in Specified Diameter
for Thickness Given, in. (mm)C
Specified Diameter, 3 16⁄ to 2 (4.8 to 50.8), 2 to 23⁄4 (50.8 to 69.8),
in. (mm)A Thickness max, excl incl
in. (mm)
Plus Minus Plus Minus
19 to 20 (483 to 508), excl 2 ⁄ (69.8)
34 ⁄
12 (12.7) 0 ⁄ (15.9)
58 0
20 to 22 (508 to 559), excl 23⁄4 (69.8) ⁄
12 (12.7) 0 ⁄ (15.9)
58 0
22 to 24 (559 to 610), excl 21⁄2 (63.5) ⁄
12 (12.7) 0 ⁄ (15.9)
58 0
24 to 28 (610 to 711), excl 21⁄4 (57.3) 1⁄2 (12.7) 0 5⁄8 (15.9) 0
28 to 32 (711 to 812), excl 2 (50.8) 1⁄2 (12.7) 0 5⁄8 (15.9) 0
32 to 34 (812 to 864), excl 13⁄4 (44.5) 1⁄2 (12.7) 0 ... ...
34 to 38 (864 to 965), excl 11⁄2 (38.1) 1⁄2 (12.7) 0 ... ...
38 to 40 (965 to 1020), excl 11⁄4 (31.8) 1⁄2 (12.7) 0 ... ...
40 to 140 (1020 to 3560), incl 23⁄4 (69.8) 1⁄2 (12.7) 0 5⁄8 (15.9) 0
A
No permissible variations under.
B
Permissible variations in plasma torch-cut sketch plates shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
C
The tolerance spread shown may also be obtained all on the minus side or divided between the plus and minus sides if so specified by the purchaser.

TABLE 10 Permissible Variations in Width of Sheet and Strip


Permissible Variations
Specified Thickness, Specified Width, in Specified Width,
in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm)
Plus Minus
Sheet
Up to 0.250 (6.35) All 0.125 (3.18) 0
Strip
Under 0.075 (1.9) Up to 12 (305), incl 0.007 (0.18) 0.007 (0.18)
Over 12 to 48 (305 to 1219), incl 0.062 (1.6) 0
0.075 to 0.100 (1.9 to 2.5), incl Up to 12 (305), incl 0.009 (0.23) 0.009 (0.23)
Over 12 to 48 (305 to 1219), incl 0.062 (1.6) 0
Over 0.100 to 0.125 (2.5 to 3.2), incl Up to 12 (305), incl 0.012 (0.30) 0.012 (0.30)
Over 12 to 48 (305 to 1219), incl 0.062 (1.6) 0
Over 0.125 to 0.160 (3.2 to 4.1), incl Up to 12 (305), incl 0.016 (0.41) 0.016 (0.41)
Over 12 to 48 (305 to 1219), incl 0.062 (1.6) 0
Over 0.160 to 0.187 (4.1 to 4.7), incl Up to 12 (305), incl 0.020 (0.51) 0.020 (0.51)
Over 12 to 48 (305 to 1219), incl 0.062 (1.6) 0

6
B 755
TABLE 11 Permissible Variations From Flatness of Rectangular, Circular, and Sketch Plates

NOTE 1—Permissible variations apply to plates up to 12 ft (3.66 m) in length, or to any 12 ft of longer plates.
NOTE 2—If the longer dimension is under 36 in. (914 mm) the permissible variation is not greater than 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm).
NOTE 3—The shorter dimension specified is considered the width, and the permissible variation in flatness across the width does not exceed the tubular
amount of that dimension.
NOTE 4—The maximum deviation from a flat surface does not customarily exceed the tabular tolerance for the longer dimension specified.
Permissible Variations from a Flat Surface for Thickness and Widths Given, in. (mm)
Specified To 48 48 to 60 60 to 72 72 to 84 84 to 96 96 to 108 108 to 120 120 to 144 144
Thickness (1220), (1220 to (1520 to (1830 to (2130 to (2440 to (2740 to (3050 to (3660)
excl 1520), excl 1830), excl 2130), excl 2440), excl 2740), excl 3050), excl 3660), excl and over
Inches
⁄ to ⁄ , excl
3 16 14 1⁄
12 2⁄18 2⁄12 23⁄4 31⁄4 31⁄4 ... ... ...
⁄ to 3⁄8, excl
14 13⁄8 11⁄2 17⁄8 21⁄4 23⁄4 27⁄8 31⁄8 33⁄4 ...
3⁄8 to 1⁄2, excl 1 11⁄8 13⁄8 11⁄2 17⁄8 21⁄4 21⁄2 27⁄8 31⁄2
1⁄2 to 3⁄4, excl 1 11⁄8 11⁄4 11⁄4 15⁄8 21⁄4 21⁄4 21⁄4 23⁄4
3⁄4 to 1, excl 1 11⁄8 11⁄4 11⁄4 11⁄2 15⁄8 17⁄8 2 21⁄4
1 to 2, excl 1 11⁄8 11⁄8 11⁄8 13⁄8 13⁄8 13⁄8 11⁄2 2
2 to 23⁄4, incl 1⁄2 5⁄8 3⁄4 7⁄8 1 11⁄8 11⁄4 11⁄2 13⁄4
Millimetres
4.8 to 6.4, excl 38.1 54.0 63.5 69.8 82.6 82.6 ... ... ...
6.4 to 9.5, excl 34.9 38.1 47.6 57.2 69.8 73.0 79.4 95.2 ...
9.5 to 12.7, excl 25.4 28.6 34.9 38.1 47.6 57.2 63.5 73.0 88.9
12.7 to 19.0, excl 25.4 28.6 31.8 31.8 41.3 57.2 57.2 57.2 69.8
19.0 to 25.4, excl 25.4 28.6 31.8 31.8 38.1 41.3 47.6 50.8 57.2
25.4 to 50.8, excl 25.4 28.6 28.6 28.6 34.9 34.9 34.9 38.1 50.8
50.8 to 70.0, incl 12.7 15.9 19.0 22.2 25.4 28.6 31.8 38.1 44.4

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. CONDITIONS AND FINISHES NORMALLY SUPPLIED

X1.1 Scope X1.3 Sheet


X1.1.1 This appendix lists the conditions and finishes in X1.3.1 Hot-rolled, annealed, and descaled.
which plate, sheet, and strip are normally supplied. These are X1.3.2 Cold-rolled, annealed, and descaled or bright an-
subject to change and the manufacturer should be consulted for nealed.
the latest information available.
X1.2 Plate X1.4 Strip
X1.2.1 Hot-rolled, annealed, and descaled. X1.4.1 Cold-rolled, annealed, descaled, or bright annealed.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
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(www.astm.org).

7
Designation: B 757 – 00

Standard Specification for


Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten-Alloys (UNS
N06110) Welded Pipe1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 757; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope E 571 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Exami-


1.1 This specification covers welded UNS N061102 pipe in nation of Nickel and Nickel Alloy Tubular Products6
the annealed condition (temper) for general corrosion applica- 2.2 ANSI Standards:
tions. B2.1 Pipe Threads9
1.2 This specification covers pipe sizes in schedules shown B36.19 Stainless Steel Pipe9
in Table 1.
3. Classification
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded
as the standard. The SI units in parentheses are provided for 3.1 Class 1—Welded, cold-worked, annealed, and nonde-
information only. structively tested in accordance with 11.4.1.
1.4 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the 3.2 Class 2—Welded, cold-worked, annealed, and nonde-
test method portion, Section 13, of this specification: This structively tested in accordance with 11.4.2.
standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, 4. Ordering Information
if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user
of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health 4.1 Orders for material to this specification shall include the
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limita- following information:
tions prior to use. 4.1.1 Alloy Name or UNS number.
4.1.2 ASTM Designation.
2. Referenced Documents 4.1.3 Dimensions:
2.1 ASTM Standards: 4.1.3.1 Pipe size (see Table 1).
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials3 4.1.3.2 Length (specific or random).
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to 4.1.4 Class (see 11.4).
Determine Conformance with Specifications4 4.1.5 Quantity (feet or number of pieces).
E 38 Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Chromium 4.1.6 Certification—State if certification is required (see
and Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys5 Section 16).
E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe 4.1.7 Samples for Product (Check) Analysis—State whether
and Tubing6 samples for product (check) analysis should be furnished
E 354 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of High- (10.2).
Temperature, Electrical, Magnetic, and Other Similar Iron, 4.1.8 Purchaser Inspection—If purchaser wishes to witness
Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys7 tests or inspection of material at place of manufacture, the
E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)8 purchase order must so state indicating which tests or inspec-
tions are to be witnessed (see Section 14).
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on 5. Materials and Manufacture
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee 5.1 Pipe shall be made from flat-rolled alloy by an auto-
B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys.
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 2000. Published November 2000. Originally
matic welding process with no addition of filler metal. Subse-
published as B 757-90. Last previous edition B 757-99. quent to welding and prior to final annealing, the material shall
2
New designation established in accordance with ASTM E527 and SAEJ 1086, be cold-worked in either the weld metal only or both weld and
Recommended Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS). base metal.
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
5
Discontinued—see 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.
7 9
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05. Available from American National Standards Institute, 11 W. 42nd St., 13th
8
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01. Floor, New York, NY 10036.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 757
TABLE 1 Dimensions of Welded PipeA

NOTE 1—The following table is a partial reprint of Table 1 of the American National Standard for Stainless Steel Pipe (ANSI B36.19).
NOTE 2—The decimal thicknesses for the respective pipe sizes represent their nominal wall dimensions.
Nominal Wall Thickness, in. (mm)
Nominal Pipe Outside Diameter
Size in. in. (mm) Schedule Schedule Schedule
5SA 10S 40S

18 0.405 (10.29) ... 0.049 (1.25) 0.068 (1.73)

14 0.540 (13.72) ... 0.065 (1.65) 0.088 (2.24)
3⁄8 0.675 (17.15) ... 0.065 (1.65) 0.091 (2.31)
1⁄2 0.840 (21.34) 0.065 (1.65) 0.083 (2.11) 0.109 (2.77)
3⁄4 1.050 (26.67) 0.065 (1.65) 0.083 (2.11) 0.113 (2.87)
1 1.315 (33.40) 0.065 (1.65) 0.109 (2.77) 0.133 (3.38)
11⁄4 1.660 (42.16) 0.065 (1.65) 0.109 (2.77) 0.140 (3.56)
11⁄2 1.900 (48.26) 0.065 (1.65) 0.109 (2.77) 0.145 (3.68)
2 2.375 (60.33) 0.065 (1.65) 0.109 (2.77) 0.154 (3.91)
21⁄2 2.875 (73.03) 0.083 (2.11) 0.120 (3.05) ...
3 3.500 (88.90) 0.083 (2.11) 0.120 (3.05) ...
31⁄2 4.000 (101.6) 0.083 (2.11) 0.120 (3.05) ...
4 4,500 (114.3) 0.083 (2.11) 0.120 (3.05) 0.237 (6.02)
5 5.563 (141.3) 0.109 (2.77) 0.134 (3.40) ...
6 6.625 (168.3) 0.109 (2.77) 0.134 (3.40) ...
A
Schedules 5S and 10S wall thicknesses do not permit threading in accordance with the American National Standard for Pipe Threads (ANSI B2.1).

TABLE 3 Product (Check) Analysis Chemical Composition


5.2 Pipe shall be furnished with oxide removed. When Variations
bright annealing is used, descaling is not necessary.
Variation Under min or
Specified Limit of Over max of the
6. Chemical Composition Element
Element, % incl Specified
Limit of Elements
6.1 The material shall conform to the composition limits
specified in Table 2. Ni over 40.0 to 60.0 0.35
Cr over 25.0 to 35.0 0.25
6.2 If a product (check) analysis is performed by the Fe up to 1.0 0.05
purchaser, the material shall conform to the product (check) Mo over 9.0 to 12.0 0.15
analysis variations in Table 3. W over 1.0 to 4.0 0.07
C over 0.0 to 0.20 0.01
Mn up to 1.0 0.05
7. Mechanical and Other Requirements Si over 0.25 to 1.0 0.05
P up to 0.04 0.005
7.1 Mechanical Properties—The material shall conform to S up to 0.02 0.003
the mechanical properties specified in Table 4. over 0.02 to 0.06 0.005
7.2 Flattening Test—A section of pipe not less than 4 in. Al over 0.10 to 1.0 0.05
Ti over 0.10 to 0.50 0.03
(102 mm) in length shall be capable of withstanding, without over 0.50 to 1.0 0.04
cracking, flattening under a load applied gradually at room over 1.0 to 2.0 0.05
temperature until the distance between the platens is five times Cb over 0.1 to 1.0 0.04
Cu up to 0.50 0.03
the wall thickness. The weld shall be positioned 90° from the
direction of the applied flattening force.
7.2.1 Superficial ruptures resulting from surface imperfec- TABLE 4 Mechanical Property Requirements
tions shall not be a cause for rejection.
Yield strength Elongation
Tensile strength 0.2 % offset in 2 in. or
Alloy
min, psi (MPa) min, psi 50 mm,
TABLE 2 Chemical RequirementsA (MPa) min, %
Composition Limits,% UNS N06110 95000 (655) 45000 (310) 60
UNS
N06110
Ni 51.0 min 7.3 Nondestructive Test Requirements—Tube shall be sub-
Cr 28.0–33.0 jected to a pressure test or nondestructive electric test at the
Fe 1.0 max
Mo 9.0–12.0
manufacturer’s option (see 13.2).
W 1.0–4.0 7.3.1 Acceptance and Rejection—Material producing a sig-
C 0.15 max nal equal to or greater than the calibration imperfection shall be
Mn 1.0 max
Si 1.0 max
subject to rejection.
P 0.015 max 7.3.1.1 Test signals produced by imperfections that cannot
S 0.015 max be identified or produced by cracks or crack-like imperfections
Al 1.0 max
Ti 1.0 max
shall result in rejection of the pipe, subject to rework and retest.
Cu 0.5 max To be accepted, the material shall pass the same electric test to
Cb 1.0 max which it was originally subjected provided that the dimensional
A
Element may be determined arithmetically by difference. requirements are met.

2
B 757
7.3.1.2 If the imperfection is judged as injurious, the pipe TABLE 6 Permissible Variations in LengthsA
shall be rejected but may be reconditioned and retested Outside diameter in. Cut length, in. (mm)
providing the dimensional requirements are met. To be ac- (mm) Over Under
Under 2 (50.8) ⁄ (3)
18 0
cepted, retested material shall meet the original electric test 2 (50.8) and over 3⁄16 (5) 0
requirements. A
These permissible variations in length apply to pipe before bending. They
7.3.1.3 If the imperfection is explored to the extent that it apply to cut lengths up to and including 24 ft (7.3 m). For lengths over 24 ft, an
can be identified as noninjurious, the material may be accepted additional over-tolerance of 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) for each 10 ft (3.0 m) or fraction thereof
shall be permissible up to a maximum additional over-tolerance of 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm).
without further test provided the imperfection does not en-
croach on the minimum wall thickness.
10.1.2 A lot for mechanical properties and flattening testing,
8. Dimensions and Permissible Variations shall consist of all material from the same heat, nominal size
8.1 Diameter and Wall Thickness—Outside diameter and (excepting length), and condition (temper).
nominal wall thickness shall not exceed the permissible varia- 10.2 Test Material Selection:
tions prescribed in Table 5. 10.2.1 Chemical Analysis—Representative samples from
8.1.1 Material having a specified wall thickness that is 3 % each lot shall be taken during pouring or subsequent process-
or less of the outside diameter cannot be straightened properly ing.
without a certain amount of ovality resulting in the diameter. 10.2.1.1 Product (check) analysis shall be wholly the re-
The limits to this ovality are stated in Footnote C to Table 5. sponsibility of the purchaser.
8.2 Straightness— Material shall be reasonably straight and 10.2.2 Mechanical Properties and Flattening Testing—
free of bends or kinks. Samples of the material to provide test specimens shall be
8.3 Length—Variations from the specified length shall not taken from such locations in each lot as to be representative of
exceed the amounts prescribed in Table 6. that lot.

9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance 11. Number of Tests


9.1 The material shall be uniform in quality and temper, 11.1 Chemical Analysis—One test per lot.
smooth, commercially straight, and free of injurious imperfec- 11.2 Mechanical Properties—One test per lot.
tions. 11.3 Flattening—One test per lot.
11.4 Nondestructive:
10. Sampling 11.4.1 Class 1—Each piece in each lot shall be subjected
to one of the following four tests, hydrostatic, pneumatic (air
10.1 Lot Definition: underwater), eddy current, or ultrasonic.
10.1.1 A lot for chemical analysis shall consist of one heat. 11.4.2 Class 2—Each piece in each lot shall be subjected
to a leak test and an electric test as follows:
TABLE 5 Permissible Variations in Outside DiameterA and Wall 11.4.2.1 Leak Test—Hydrostatic or pneumatic (air under-
ThicknessB water).
Permissible Variations in Outside 11.4.2.2 Electric Test—Eddy current or ultrasonic.
IPS Diameter, in. (mm)C 11.4.3 The manufacturer shall have the option to test to
+ − Class 1 or 2 and select the nondestructive test methods, if not

18 0.005(0.13) 0.005(0.13) specified by the purchaser.
1⁄4 0.005(0.13) 0.005(0.13)
3⁄8 0.0075(0.19) 0.0075(0.19) 12. Specimen Preparation
1⁄2 0.0075(0.19) 0.0075(0.19)
3⁄4 0.010(0.25) 0.0075(0.19) 12.1 Tension test specimens shall be taken from material in
1 0.010(0.25) 0.0075(0.19) the final condition (temper) and tested in the direction of
11⁄4 0.010(0.25) 0.010(0.25)
11⁄2 0.015(0.38) 0.010(0.25)
fabrication.
2 0.018(0.46) 0.010(0.25) 12.1.1 Whenever possible, all material shall be tested in full
21⁄2 0.018(0.46) 0.010(0.25) tubular size. When testing in full tubular size is not possible,
3 0.025(0.64) 0.010(0.25)
31⁄2 0.025(0.64) 0.015(0.38)
longitudinal strip specimens shall be used. In the event of
4 0.025(0.64) 0.015(0.38) disagreement when full tubular testing is not possible, a
5 0.025(0.64) 0.020(0.51) longitudinal strip specimen with reduced gage length as
6 0.025(0.64) 0.030(0.76)
contained in Test Methods E 8 shall be used.
A
These permissible variations in outside diameter apply only to material as
finished at the mill before subsequent swaging, expanding, bending, polishing, or 13. Test Methods
other fabricating operations.
B
Wall thickness variation shall not exceed 612 % of the nominal wall thickness. 13.1 The chemical composition, mechanical, and other
C
Ovality is the difference between maximum and minimum outside diameter
measured at any one cross section. There is no additional tolerance for ovality on
properties of the material as enumerated in this specification
material having a nominal wall thickness of more than 3 % of the outside diameter. shall be determined, in case of disagreement, in accordance
On this material, the average of maximum and minimum outside diameter with the following methods:
measurements will fall within the outside diameter tolerance shown in the table
above. An additional ovality allowance of twice the outside diameter tolerance Test ASTM Designation
spreads shown above, applied one half plus and one half minus, is allowed for Chemical analysis E 38, E 354A
material having nominal wall thickness of 3 % or less of nominal outside diameter. Tension E8

3
B 757
Rounding proce- E 29 13.3 For purposes of determining compliance with the
dure specified limits for requirements of the properties listed in the
A
Methods E 38 is to be used only for elements not covered by Test Methods following table, an observed value, or a calculated value shall
E 354. be rounded as indicated below, in accordance with the round-
13.2 Nondestructive Tests: ing method of Practice E 29:
13.2.1 Hydrostatic Test—Test each piece at a pressure not Rounded unit for observed or
Test
exceeding 1000 psi (6.9 MPa), calculated as follows: calculated value
Chemical Composition Nearest unit in the last right-hand place of figures
P 5 2St/D, or (1) and tolerances (when of the specified limit. If two choices are possible, as
expressed in dec when the digits dropped are exactly a 5 or a 5 fol-
S 5 PD/2t (2)
imals). lowed only by zeros, choose the one ending in an
even digit, with zero defined as an even digit.
where: Tensile strength, yield Nearest 1000 psi (6.9 MPa)
P = hydrostatic test pressure, psi or MPa; strength
S = allowable fiber stress as follows: UNS N06110-35000 Elongation Nearest 1 %
psi (242 MPa);
t = specified wall thickness, in. or mm; and 14. Inspection
D = specified outside diameter, in. or mm. 14.1 Inspection of the material shall be agreed upon be-
13.2.1.1 Hold the test pressure for a minimum of 5 s. tween the purchaser and the supplier as part of the purchaser
13.2.1.2 Make visual examination when the material is contract.
under pressure. Examine the full length of material for leaks. If
any pipe shows leaks during the hydrostatic test, reject it. 15. Rejection and Rehearing
13.2.2 Pneumatic (Air Underwater) Test—Test each piece 15.1 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of
at a pressure of 150 psi (1.05 MPa). this specification may be rejected. Rejection should be reported
13.2.2.1 Hold the test pressure for a minimum of 5 s. to the producer or supplier promptly and in writing. In case of
13.2.2.2 Make visual examination when the material is dissatisfaction with the results of the test, the producer or
submerged and is under pressure. Examine the full length of supplier may make claim for a rehearing.
material for leaks. If any piece shows leaks during the test,
reject it. 16. Certification
13.2.3 Electric Test—Give each pipe an electric test in
16.1 Upon request of the purchaser in the contract or order,
accordance with either Practice E 213 or Practice E 571. For
a manufacturer’s certification that the material was manufac-
eddy-current testing, the calibration pipe shall contain, at the
tured and tested in accordance with this specification together
option of the producer, any one of the following discontinuities
with a report of the test results shall be furnished.
to establish a minimum sensitivity level for rejection. The
discontinuity shall be placed in the weld if visible.
17. Product Marking
13.2.3.1 Drill Hole—Drill a hole, not larger than 0.031 in.
(0.79 mm) in diameter, radially and completely through the 17.1 Material—The name or brand of the manufacturer, the
wall, taking care to avoid distortion of the material while trade name of the material or UNS number, the letters ASTM,
drilling. the specification number, heat number, class, and nominal size
13.2.3.2 Transverse Tangential Notch—Using a round file shall be legibly stenciled on each piece 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) and
or tool with a 1⁄4-in. (6.4 mm) diameter, file or mill a notch over in outside diameter, provided the length is not under 3 ft
tangential to the surface and transverse to the longitudinal axis (914 mm). The material marking shall be by any method that
of the material. Said notch shall have a depth not exceeding will not result in harmful contamination.
121⁄2 % of the specified wall thickness of the material or 0.004 17.1.1 For material less than 1⁄2 in. in outside diameter and
in. (0.102 mm), whichever is greater. material under 3 ft in length, the information specified in 17.1
13.2.3.3 Longitudinal Notch—Machine a notch 0.031 in. shall be either stenciled or marked on a tag securely attached to
(0.79 mm) or less in width in a radial plane parallel to the the bundle or box in which the pipe is shipped.
material axis on the outside surface of the pipe to have a depth
not exceeding 121⁄2 % of the specified wall thickness of the 18. Packaging and Package Marking
material or 0.004 in. (0.102 mm), whichever is greater. The 18.1 Each bundle or shipping container shall be marked
length of the notch shall be compatible with the testing method. with the name or brand of the manufacturer, the trade name of
13.2.3.4 For ultrasonic testing, a longitudinal calibration the material or UNS number, the letters ASTM, the specifica-
notch shall be on the outside diameter and inside diameter. The tion number, heat number, class and nominal size; gross, tare,
depth of the notch shall not exceed 121⁄2 % of the specified wall and net weight; consignor and consignee address; contract or
thickness of the material or 0.004 in. (0.10 mm), whichever is order number; or such other information as may be defined in
greater. Place the notch in the weld if visible. the contract or order.

4
B 757
ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
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This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
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(www.astm.org).

5
Designation: B 758 – 00

Standard Specification for


Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloys (UNS
N06110) Welded Tube1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 758; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)8


1.1 This specification covers welded UNS N061102 tube in E 571 Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Exami-
the annealed condition (temper) for general corrosion applica- nation of Nickel and Nickel Alloy Tubular Products6
tions. 3. Classification
1.2 This specification covers outside diameter and nominal
wall tube. 3.1 Class 1—Welded, cold-worked, annealed, and nonde-
1.2.1 The tube sizes covered by this specification are 1⁄8 to 5 structively tested in accordance with 11.5.1.
in. (3.2 to 127 mm) in outside diameter and 0.015 to 0.148 in. 3.2 Class 2—Welded, cold-worked, annealed, and nonde-
(0.4 to 3.8 mm), inclusive, in wall thickness. structively tested in accordance with 11.5.2.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded 4. Ordering Information
as the standard. The SI units in parentheses are provided for
information only. 4.1 Orders for material conforming to this specification
1.4 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the shall include the following information:
test method portion, Section 13, of this specification: This 4.1.1 Alloy name or UNS number.
standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, 4.1.2 ASTM designation and year of issue.
if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user 4.1.3 Dimensions:
of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health 4.1.3.1 Outside diameter and nominal wall thickness.
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limita- NOTE 1—Tube produced to outside diameter and minimum wall may be
tions prior to use. furnished upon agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
4.1.3.2 Length (specific or random).
2. Referenced Documents
4.1.4 Class (see 11.5).
2.1 ASTM Standards: 4.1.5 Quantity (feet or number of pieces).
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials3 4.1.6 Certification—State if certification is required (Sec-
E 29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to tion 16).
Determine Conformance with Specifications4 4.1.7 Samples for Product (Check) Analysis—State
E 38 Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Chromium whether samples for product (check) analysis should be fur-
and Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys5 nished (10.2).
E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe 4.1.8 Purchaser Inspection—If purchaser wishes to wit-
and Tubing6 ness tests or inspection of material at place of manufacture, the
E 354 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of High- purchase order must so state indicating which tests or inspec-
Temperature, Electrical, Magnetic, and Other Similar Iron, tions are to be witnessed (Section 14).
Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys7
5. Material and Manufacture
1
5.1 Tube shall be made from flat-rolled alloy by an auto-
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee matic welding process with no addition of filler metal. Subse-
B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. quent to welding and prior to final annealing, the material shall
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 2000. Published November 2000. Originally be cold-worked in either the weld metal only or both weld and
published as B 758 – 86. Last previous edition B 758 – 99.
2 base metal.
New designation established in accordance with ASTM E527 and SAE J1086,
Recommended Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS). 5.2 Tube shall be furnished with oxide removed. When
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01. bright annealing is used, descaling is not necessary.
4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.
5
Discontinued—see 1989 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05.
6
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.
7 8
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.05. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 758
6. Chemical Composition TABLE 2 Product (Check) Analysis Chemical Composition
Variations
6.1 The material shall conform to the composition limits
Variation under
specified in Table 1. min or over
Specified Limit of
6.2 If a product (check) analysis is performed by the Element
Element %
max of the
purchaser, the material shall conform to the product (check) Specified Limit
of Element
analysis variations in Table 2.
Nickel over 20.00 to 30.00, incl 0.25
over 30.00 to 40.00, incl 0.30
7. Mechanical and Other Properties Tungsten over 1.00 to 4.00, incl 0.04
7.1 Mechanical Properties—The material shall conform to Iron over 0.75 to 2.50, incl 0.05
Manganese up to 1.00, incl 0.03
the mechanical properties specified in Table 3. Carbon up to 0.20, incl 0.01
7.2 Flattening Test—A section of tube not less than 4 in. Silicon over 0.25 to 0.50, incl 0.03
(102 mm) in length shall be capable of withstanding, without over 0.50 to 1.00, incl 0.05
Sulfur up to 0.02, incl 0.003
cracking, flattening under a load applied gradually at room Chromium over 25.00 to 35.00, incl 0.25
temperature until the distance between the platens is five times Aluminum over 0.10 to 0.50, incl 0.05
the wall thickness. The weld shall be positioned 90° from the over 0.50 to 1.00, incl 0.10
Titanium over 0.10 to 0.50, incl 0.03
direction of the applied flattening force. over 0.50 to 1.00, incl 0.04
7.2.1 Superficial ruptures resulting from surface imperfec- Columbium + up to 1.0, incl 0.04
tions shall not be a cause for rejection. Tantalum
Molybdenum over 5.0 to 20.0, incl 0.15
7.3 Flange Test—A section of tube shall be capable of Phosphorus up to 0.04, incl 0.005
having a flange turned over at a right angle to the body of the
tube without through-wall cracking. The width of the flange
shall not be less than 15 % of the tube diameter. TABLE 3 Mechanical Property Requirements
7.4 Nondestructive Test Requirements— Tube shall be sub- Yield Strength Elongation
Tensile Strength
jected to nondestructive tests (see 13.2) at the manufacturer’s Alloy min, psi
0.2 % offset in 2 in. or
option. min, psi 50 mm,
(MPa)
(MPa) min, %
7.4.1 For ultrasonic testing, a longitudinal calibration notch UNS N06110 95 000 (655) 45 000 (310) 60
shall be made on the outside diameter and inside diameter. The
depth of the notch shall not exceed 121⁄2 % of the specified wall
thickness of the material or 0.004 in. (0.10 mm), whichever is
To be accepted, the material shall pass the same electric test to
greater. Place the notch in the weld if visible.
which it was originally subjected provided that the dimensional
7.4.2 Acceptance and Rejection—Material producing a sig-
requirements are met.
nal equal to or greater than the calibration imperfections shall
7.4.2.2 If the imperfection is judged as injurious, the tube
be subject to rejection.
shall be rejected but may be reconditioned and retested
7.4.2.1 Test signals produced by imperfections that cannot
providing the dimensional requirements are met. To be ac-
be identified or produced by cracks or crack-like imperfections
cepted, retested material shall meet the original electric test
shall result in rejection of the tube, subject to rework and retest.
requirements.
7.4.2.3 If the imperfection is explored to the extent that it
TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements
can be identified as noninjurious, the material may be accepted
Product (Check) without further test provided the imperfection does not en-
Analysis Varia-
Composition tions under min croach on the minimum wall thickness.
Element
Limits, % or over max, of
the Specified 8. Dimensions and Permissible Variations
Limit of Element
8.1 Diameter and Wall Thickness—Outside diameter and
C 0.15 max 0.01
Mn 1.0 max 0.05 nominal wall thickness shall not exceed the permissible varia-
Si 1.0 max 0.05 tions prescribed in Table 4.
P 0.015 max 0.005 8.1.1 Material having a specified wall thickness that is 3 %,
S 0.015 max 0.003
Cr 28.0 min 0.25 or less, of the outside diameter cannot be straightened properly
33.0 max 0.25 without a certain amount of ovality resulting in the diameter.
Cb 1.0 max 0.05 The limits to this ovality are stated in Footnote B to Table 4.
Co (if determined) 1.0 max 0.05
Mo 9.0 min 0.15 8.2 Straightness—Material shall be reasonably straight and
12.0 max 0.15 free of bends or kinks.
Fe 1.0 max 0.07 8.3 Length—Variations from the specified length shall not
Al 1.0 max 0.05
Ti 1.0 max 0.05 exceed the amounts prescribed in Table 5.
W 1.0 min 0.10
4.0 max 0.10 9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
NiA 51.0 min 0.35
Cu 0.5 max 0.03 9.1 The material shall be uniform in quality and temper,
A
Element shall be determined arithmetically by difference. smooth, commercially straight, and free of injurious imperfec-
tions.

2
B 758
TABLE 4 Permissible Variations in Outside DiameterA and Wall Thickness
Permissible Variations
Specified Outside Diameter, in.
Outside Diameter, in. (mm)B Wall Thickness, %
(mm)
Plus Minus Plus Minus
⁄ (3.2) to 5⁄8 (15.9), excl
18 0.005 (0.13) 0.005 (0.13) 12.5 12.5
5⁄8(15.9) to 11⁄2 (38.1), incl 0.0075 (0.19) 0.0075 (0.19) 10.0 10.0
Over 11⁄2 (38.1) to 31⁄2 (88.9), incl 0.010 (0.25) 0.010 (0.25) 10.0 10.0
Over 31⁄2 (88.9) to 41⁄2 (114.3), incl 0.015 (0.38) 0.015 (0.38) 10.0 10.0
Over 41⁄2 (114.3) to 5 (127), incl 0.020 (0.51) 0.020 (0.51) 12.5 12.5
A
These permissible variations in outside diameter apply only to material as finished at the mill before subsequent swaging, expanding, bending, polishing, or other
fabricating operations.
B
Ovality is the difference between maximum and minimum outside diameter measured at any one cross section. There is no additional tolerance for ovality on material
having a nominal wall thickness of more than 3 % of the outside diameter. On this material, the average of maximum and minimum outside diameter measurements will
fall within the outside diameter tolerance shown in the table above. An additional ovality allowance of twice the outside diameter tolerance spreads shown above, applied
one half plus and one half minus, is allowed for material having nominal wall thickness of 3 % or less of nominal outside diameter.

TABLE 5 Permissible Variations in LengthA 12. Specimen Preparation


Cut Length, in. 12.1 Tension test specimens shall be taken from material in
Outside Diameter
(mm)
in. (mm)
Over Under the final condition (temper) and tested in the direction of
Under 2 (50.8) ⁄ (3)
18 0 fabrication.
2 (50.8) and over 3⁄16 (5) 0 12.1.1 Whenever possible, all material shall be tested in full
A
These permissible variations in length apply to tube before bending. They apply tubular size. When testing in full tubular size is not possible,
to cut lengths up to and including 24 ft (7.3 m). For lengths over 24 ft, an additional
over-tolerance of 1⁄8 in. (3 mm) for each 10 ft (3.0 m) or fraction thereof shall be longitudinal strip specimens shall be used. In the event of
permissible up to a maximum additional over-tolerance of 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm). disagreement when full tubular testing is not possible, a
longitudinal strip specimen with reduced gage length as
contained in Test Methods E 8 shall be used.
10. Sampling
10.1 Lot Definition: 13. Test Methods
10.1.1 A lot for chemical analysis shall consist of one heat. 13.1 The chemical composition, mechanical, and other
10.1.2 A lot for mechanical properties, flattening, and flange properties of the material as enumerated in this specification
testing shall consist of all material from the same heat, nominal shall be determined, in case of disagreement, in accordance
size (excepting length), and condition (temper). with the following methods:
10.2 Test Material Selection: Test ASTM Designation
10.2.1 Chemical Analysis—Representative samples from Chemical analysis E 38, E354A
Tension E8
each lot shall be taken during pouring or subsequent process- Rounding procedure E 29
ing. A
Methods E 38 is to be used only for elements not covered by Test Methods
10.2.1.1 Product (check) analysis shall be wholly the re- E 354.
sponsibility of the purchaser. 13.2 Nondestructive Tests:
10.2.2 Mechanical Properties, Flattening, and Flange 13.2.1 Hydrostatic Test—Test each piece at a pressure not
Testing—Samples of the material to provide test specimens exceeding 1000 psi (6.9 MPa), calculated as follows:
shall be taken from such locations in each lot as to be
P 5 2St/D, or (1)
representative of that lot.
S 5 PD/2t (2)
11. Number of Tests
where:
11.1 Chemical Analysis—One test per lot. P = hydrostatic test pressure, psi or MPa;
11.2 Mechanical Properties—One test per lot. S = allowable fiber stress as follows: UNS N06110-35000
11.3 Flattening—One test per lot. psi (242 MPa);
11.4 Flange—One test per lot. t = specified wall thickness in. or mm; and
11.5 Nondestructive Tests: D = specified outside diameter, in. or mm.
11.5.1 Class 1—Each piece in each lot shall be subjected to 13.2.1.1 Hold the test pressure for a minimum of 5 s.
one of the following four tests: hydrostatic, pneumatic (air 13.2.1.2 Make visual examination when the material is
underwater), eddy current, or ultrasonic. under pressure. Examine the full length of material for leaks. If
11.5.2 Class 2—Each piece in each lot shall be subjected to any tube shows leaks during the hydrostatic test, reject it.
a leak test and an electric test as follows: 13.2.2 Pneumatic (Air Underwater) Test— Test each piece
11.5.2.1 Leak Test—Hydrostatic or pneumatic (air underwa- at a pressure of 150 psi (1.05 MPa).
ter). 13.2.2.1 Hold the test pressure for a minimum of 5 s.
11.5.2.2 Electric Test—Eddy current or ultrasonic. 13.2.2.2 Make visual examination when the material is
11.5.3 The manufacturer shall have the option to test to submerged and is under pressure. Examine the full length of
Class 1 or 2 and select the nondestructive test methods, if not material for leaks. If any piece shows leaks during the test,
specified by the purchaser. reject it.

3
B 758
13.2.3 Electric Test—Give each tube an electric test in 15. Rejection and Rehearing
accordance with either Practice E 213 or Practice E 571. For
15.1 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of
eddy-current testing, the calibration tube shall contain, at the
this specification may be rejected. Rejection should be reported
option of the producer, any of the following discontinuities to
to the producer or supplier promptly and in writing. In case of
establish a minimum sensitivity level for rejection. The dis-
continuity shall be placed in the weld if visible. dissatisfaction with the results of the test, the producer or
13.2.3.1 Drilled Hole—Drill a hole, not larger than 0.031- supplier may make claim for a rehearing.
in. (0.79-mm) diameter radially and completely through the
wall, taking care to avoid distortion of the material while 16. Certification
drilling. 16.1 Upon request of the purchaser in the contract or order,
13.2.3.2 Transverse Tangential Notch—Using a round file a manufacturer’s certification that the material was manufac-
or tool with a 1⁄4-in. (6.4 mm) diameter, file or mill a notch tured and tested in accordance with this specification together
tangential to the surface and transverse to the longitudinal axis with a report of the test results shall be furnished.
of the material. Said notch shall have a depth not exceeding
121⁄2 % of the specified wall thickness of the material or 0.004 17. Product Marking
in. (0.102 mm), whichever is greater.
13.2.3.3 Longitudinal Notch—Machine a notch 0.031 in. 17.1 Material—The name or brand of the manufacturer, the
(0.79 mm) or less in width in a radical plane parallel to the trade name of the material or UNS number, the letters ASTM,
material axis on the outside surface of the tube to have a depth the specification number, heat number, class and nominal size
not exceeding 121⁄2 % of the specified wall thickness of the shall be legibly stenciled on each piece 1⁄2 in. (12.7 mm) and
material or 0.004 in. (0.102 mm), whichever is greater. The over in outside diameter, provided the length is not under 3 ft
length of the notch shall be compatible with the testing method. (914 mm). The material marking shall be by any method that
13.3 Rounding Method—For the purpose of determining will not result in harmful contamination.
compliance with the specified limits for requirements of the 17.1.1 For material less than 1⁄2 in. in outside diameter and
properties listed in the following table, an observed value, or a material under 3 ft in length, the information specified in 17.1
calculated value, shall be rounded as indicated below, in
shall be either stenciled or marked on a tag securely attached to
accordance with the rounding method of Practice E 29:
the bundle or box in which the tube is shipped.
Rounded Unit for Observed or
Test 17.2 Packaging—Each bundle or shipping container shall
Calculated Value
be marked with the name or brand of the manufacturer, the
Chemical composition and toler- Nearest unit in the last right-hand place of
ances (when expressed in deci- figures of the specified limit. If two choices trade name of the material or UNS number, the letters ASTM,
mals) are possible, as when the digits dropped are this specification number, heat number, class, and nominal size;
exactly a 5 or a 5 followed only by zeros,
choose the one ending in an even digit, with
gross, tare, and net weight; consignor and consignee address;
zero defined as an even digit. contract or order number; or such other information as may be
Tensile strength, yield strength Nearest 1000 psi (6.9 MPa) defined in the contract or order.
Elongation Nearest 1 %

14. Inspection 18. Keywords


14.1 Inspection of the material shall be agreed upon be-
18.1 nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten; UNS
tween the purchaser and the supplier as part of the purchaser
N06110; welded tube
contract.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 759 – 00

Standard Specification for


Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloys (UNS
N06110) Pipe and Tube1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 759; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope TABLE 1 Mechanical Properties

1.1 This specification2 cover nickel-chromium- Tensile Yield Strength Elongation


Strength, (0.2 % offset), in 2 in. or
molybdenum-tungsten alloys (UNS N06110)3 in the form of Condition min, ksi min, ksi 50 mm (or
cold-worked seamless pipe and tube in the conditions shown in (MPa) (MPa) 4D), min,
Table 1. %
Cold-worked annealed 95 (655) 45 (310) 60
1.2 Hot-worked material is available. Properties and per-
missible tolerances are to be agreed upon between the manu-
facturer and purchaser. 3.1.4 Finish.
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded 3.1.5 Dimensions.
as the standard. The SI units in parentheses are provided for 3.1.5.1 Tube—Specify outside diameter and nominal or
information only. minimum wall.
1.4 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the 3.1.5.2 Pipe—Specify standard pipe size and schedule.
test method portion, Section 8, of this specification: This 3.1.5.3 Length—Cut to length or random.
standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, 3.1.6 Quantity—Feet (or metres) or number of pieces.
if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user 3.1.7 Hydrostatic Pressure Requirements—Specify test
of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health pressure if other than required by 8.1.
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limita- 3.1.8 Certification— State if certification is required.
tions prior to use. 3.1.9 Samples for Product (Check) Analysis—State whether
2. Referenced Documents samples for product (check) analysis should be furnished (see
4.2).
2.1 ASTM Standards: 3.1.10 Purchaser Inspection—If purchaser wishes to wit-
E 8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials3 ness tests or inspection of material at place of manufacture, the
B 829 Spec for General Req. for Nickel and Nickel Alloys purchase order must so state indicating which tests or inspec-
Seamless Pipe and Tube3 tions are to be witnessed (Section 9).
3. Ordering Information 3.1.11 Small-Diameter and Light-Wall Tube (Converter
Sizes).
3.1 It is the responsibility of the purchaser to specify all
requirements that are necessary for the safe and satisfactory 4. Chemical Composition
performance of material ordered under this specification. 4.1 The material shall conform to the composition limits
Examples of such requirements include, but are not limited to, specified in Table 2.
the following: 4.2 If a product (check) analysis is performed by the
3.1.1 Alloy name or UNS number. purchaser, the material shall conform to the product (check)
3.1.2 ASTM Designation. analysis variations in B 829.
3.1.3 Condition.
5. Mechanical and Other Properties
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B02 on 5.1 Mechanical Properties—The material shall conform to
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee the tensile properties specified in Table 2.
B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. 5.2 Pressure and Nondestructive Electric Test—Each pipe
Current edition approved Oct. 10, 2000. Published November 2000.
2 and tube shall be subjected to either a pressure test or the
For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code application, see related Specifi-
cation SB-167 in Section II of that Code. nondestructive electric test at the manufacturer’s option. The
3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.04. purchaser may specify which test is to be used.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 759 – 00
TABLE 2 Chemical Requirements turer to an internal hydrostatic pressure of 1000 psi (6.9 MPa)
Element
Composition provided that the fiber stress calculated in accordance with the
Limits, % following equation does not exceed the allowable fiber stress S,
C 0.15 max indicated as follows:
Mn 1.0 max
Si 1.0 max P 5 2St/D (1)
P 0.015 max
S 0.015 max where:
Cr 28.0 min/33.0 max P = hydrostatic test pressure, psi (or MPa),
Cb 1.0 max
W 1.0 min/4.0 max
S = allowable fiber stress, for material in the condition
Mo 9.0 min/12.0 max (temper) furnished as follows: Cold worked annealed:
Fe 1.0 max 30 000 psi (242 MPa)
Al 1.0 max
Ti 1.0 max
t = minimum wall thickness, in. (or mm), equal to the
NiA 51.0 min specified nominal wall minus the permissible minus
Cu 0.50 max wall tolerance, or the specified minimum wall thick-
A
Element shall be determined arithmetically by difference. ness, and,
D = outside diameter of the pipe or tube, in. (or mm).
5.2.1 Any leaking areas may be cut out and the pipe retested 8.1.1 When so agreed upon by the manufacturer and the
as above. purchaser, pipe or tube may be tested to 11⁄2 times the
5.2.2 Test signals produced by imperfections such as the allowable fiber stress given in 8.1.
following, may be judged as injurious or noninjurious, depend- 8.2 Pneumatic Test:
ing on visual observation of their severity or the type of signal 8.2.1 With no foreign material or moisture on the internal
they produce on the testing equipment used, or both. surface, pressurize the tube internally to 150 psi (1034 Pa)
5.2.2.1 Dinges, minimum with uncontaminated compressed air while submerg-
5.2.2.2 Straightener marks, ing it in water of a clarity that permits unobstructed examina-
5.2.2.3 Scratches, tion of the tube.
5.2.2.4 Steel die stamps, and 8.2.2 The tube shall be well-lighted, preferably by under-
5.2.2.5 Stop marks. water illumination.
8.2.3 Correct any evidence of air leakage of the pneumatic
6. Sampling couplings prior to testing.
6.1 Test Material Selection: 8.2.4 After holding the pressure for not less than 5 s after the
6.1.1 Chemical Analysis—Representative samples from surface of the water has become calm, inspect the entire length
each lot shall be taken during pouring or subsequent process- of the tube.
ing. 8.3 Nondestructive Electric Test:
6.1.1.1 Product (check) analysis shall be wholly the respon- 8.3.1 Test each tube with a nondestructive electric test in
sibility of the purchaser. accordance with Practice E 426. It is the intent of this test to
reject tube containing injurious defects.
7. Number of Tests 8.3.2 The calibration tube shall contain, at the option of the
7.1 Chemical Analysis—One test per lot. producer, either of the following discontinuities to establish a
7.2 Tension—One test per lot. minimum sensitivity level for rejection.
7.3 Pressure and Nondestructive Electric Test—Each tube 8.3.3 Drilled Hole— Drill a hole not larger than 0.031 in.
shall be subjected to either a pressure test or the nondestructive (0.79 mm) diameter radially and completely through the tube
electric test at the manufacturer’s option. The purchaser may wall, taking care to avoid distortion of the tube while drilling.
specify which test is to be used. 8.3.4 Transverse Tangential Notch—Using a round tool or
file with a 1⁄4 in. (6.4 mm) diameter, file or mill a notch
8. Test Methods tangential to the surface and transverse to the longitudinal axis
8.1 Hydrostatic Test— Each pipe or tube with an outside of the tube. Said notch shall have a depth not exceeding 121⁄2 %
diameter 1⁄8in. (3 mm) and larger and with wall thickness of of the specified wall thickness of the tube or 0.004 in. (0.102
0.015 in. (0.38 mm) and over shall be tested by the manufac- mm), whichever is greater.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

2
B 759 – 00

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

3
Designation: B 760 – 86 (Reapproved 1999)

Standard Specification for


Tungsten Plate, Sheet, and Foil1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 760; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope TABLE 1 Chemical Composition/Check Analysis

1.1 This specification covers unalloyed tungsten plate, Composition, Permissable Variations in
Element
max, % Check Analysis, %
sheet, and foil.
C 0.010 60.002
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded O 0.010 + 10 % relative
as the standard. N 0.010 + 0.0005
Fe 0.010 + 0.001
2. Terminology Ni 0.010 + 0.001
Si 0.010 + 0.001
2.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
2.1.1 foil—any product less than 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) in
thickness. requirements of the chemical composition prescribed in Table
2.1.2 plate—any product 3⁄16 in. (4.75 mm) or more in 1.
thickness. 5.2 Check Analysis:
2.1.3 sheet—any product 0.187 in. (4.75 mm) or less in 5.2.1 Check analysis is an analysis made by the purchaser or
thickness, to a minimum of 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) in thickness. the manufacturer of the metal after it has been processed into
finished mill forms, and is either for the purpose of verifying
3. Ordering Information the composition of a heat or lot, or to determine variations in
3.1 Orders for material under this specification shall include the composition within a heat or lot.
the following information: 5.2.2 Check analysis tolerances do not broaden the specified
3.1.1 Material identification and temper designation, heat analysis requirements but cover variations between labo-
3.1.2 Product form (Section 2), ratories in the measurement of chemical content.
3.1.3 Chemical requirements (Table 1), 5.2.3 The manufacturer shall not ship material that is
3.1.4 Tolerances (Section 6, Table 2, and Fig. 1), outside the limits specified in Table 1, with the exception of
3.1.5 Workmanship and quality level requirements (Section oxygen and nitrogen, whose percentage may vary with the
7), method of manufacture.
3.1.6 Packaging (Section 13), 5.2.4 Check analysis limits shall be as specified in Table 1.
3.1.7 Marking (Section 12),
6. Permissible Variations in Dimensions
3.1.8 Certification and reports (Section 11), and
3.1.9 Disposition of rejected material (Section 10). 6.1 The thickness tolerances on tungsten products covered
by this specification shall be as specified in Table 2.
4. Materials and Manufacture 6.2 The width tolerances shall be as agreed upon between
4.1 The various tungsten flat products covered by this the manufacturer and the purchaser. In general, shearing
specification shall be produced using common rolling, forging, tolerance will be6 1⁄16 in. (61.6 mm) and slitting tolerance will
or extrusion equipment, as normally found in primary mill be61⁄32 in. (60.8 mm).
product plants. The ingot metal is consolidated employing 6.3 The length and camber tolerances shall be as agreed
either the powder metallurgy or vacuum-arc-casting process. upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser. In general,
length and camber tolerances will show a maximum deviation
5. Chemical Composition of + 1⁄16 in., − 0/ft (1.6 mm/m) of length.
5.1 The tungsten ingots or billets for conversion to finished 6.4 Flatness tolerances on tungsten flat products shall be as
products covered by this specification shall conform to the follows:
Flatness Deviation,
Thickness, in.(mm) max,%
0.005–0.187 (0.13–4.75) 4
1 3/16–5/8 (4.75–15.9) 5
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on
Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloysand is the direct responsibility of 6.4.1 Determine flatness deviation (Fig. 1) as follows:
Subcommittee B10.04on Molybdenum and Tungsten.
Current edition approved Feb. 28, 1986. Published April 1986. Flatness deviation, % 5 ~H/L! 3 100

Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 760
TABLE 2 Permissible Thickness Variations
Specified Width, Specified Thickness, Thickness Tolerance,A
in. (mm) in. (mm) in. (mm)
12 (305) and under 0.005–0.010 (0.13–0.25), incl 60.001 (60.0254)
over 0.010–0.020 (0.25–0.51), incl 60.002 (60.0508)
over 0.020 (0.51) 610 %
Over 12–24 (305–610), over 0.010–0.025 (0.25–0.64), incl 60.0025 (60.0635)
incl over 0.025 (0.64) 610 %
A
Tolerances for foil shall be as agreed upon between the producer and the purchaser.

Flatness Deviation, % 5 (H/L) x 100

H 5 maximum distance between flat surface and lower surface of sheet.


L 5 minimum distance between highest point on sheet and point of contact with flat surface.
FIG. 1 Plate and Sheet Flatness Tolerances

where: with the methods approved for referee purposes by ASTM.


H 5 maximum vertical distance between a flat reference Where such methods are not available, methods of analysis as
surface and the lower surface of the flat product, and mutually agreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser
L 5 minimum horizontal distance between the highest shall be employed.
point of the flat product where H is determined, and the
point of contact of the lower surface of the flat product 10. Rejection
with a flat reference surface. 10.1 Material not conforming to this specification or to
authorized modifications shall be subject to rejection. Unless
7. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance otherwise specified, rejected material may be returned to the
7.1 Tungsten plate, sheet, and foil shall be free of injurious manufacturer at the manufacturer’s expense unless the pur-
external and internal imperfections of a nature that will chaser receives, within 4 weeks of notice of rejection, other
interfere with the purpose for which it is intended. instructions for disposition.
7.2 Material may be supplied with as-rolled, as-cleaned,
as-machined, or as-ground finish. 11. Certification
7.3 The manufacturer shall be permitted to remove surface 11.1 If requested, the manufacturer shall supply at least
imperfections provided such removal does not reduce the three copies of a report of the chemical analysis of each heat or
dimensions below the minimum permitted by the tolerances for powder metallurgy product from the powder lot represented in
that dimension. the shipment, and reports of the result of tests of each size of
each heat or powder lot to determine properties.
8. Sampling 11.2 The report shall include the purchase order number,
8.1 Care shall be exercised to ensure that the sample heat or powder lot number, this specification number, type and
selected for testing is representative of the material and form temper condition, nominal thickness, and quantity and number
and is not contaminated by the sampling procedure. of items covered by the shipment.

9. Methods of Chemical Analysis 12. Product Marking


9.1 The chemical composition enumerated in this specifica- 12.1 Unless otherwise specified, each plate or sheet shall be
tion shall in case of disagreement, be determined in accordance legibly and conspicuously marked or tagged with the number

2
B 760
of this specification, material type and temper condition, heat this specification must be packaged by box or other suitable
or lot number, manufacturer’s identification, and the nominal protective containers and shall be so marked as to indicate the
thickness gage in inches. All markings must withstand ordinary nature of any special handling required.
handling and shall be capable of removal with standard
cleaning solvents. 14. Keywords
12.2 Coiled sheet and foil shall be similarly marked at the
outside end of each coil. 14.1 foil; plate; sheet; tungsten

13. Packaging and Package Marking


13.1 Unless otherwise specified, material purchased under

The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection
with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your
views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at
610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org).

3
Designation: B 762 – 90 (Reapproved 1999)

Standard Test Method of


Variables Sampling of Metallic and Inorganic Coatings1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 762; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope MIL-STD-105 Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspec-


1.1 This test method provides sampling plans that are tion by Attributes3
intended for use in the inspection of metallic and inorganic MIL-STD-414 Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspec-
coatings on products for the purpose of deciding whether tion by Variables for Percent Defective3
submitted lots of coated products comply with the specifica- 2.3 Other:
tions applicable to the coating. ANSI/ASQC Z1.9-1979 Sampling Procedures and Tables
1.2 The sampling plans are variables plans. In plans of this for Inspection by Variables for Percent Non-
type, several articles of product are drawn from a production Conformance4
lot. A characteristic of the coating on the drawn articles is ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-1981 Sampling Procedures and Tables
measured. The values obtained are used to estimate the number for Inspection by Attributes4
of articles in the lot that do not conform to a numerical limit, 3. Terminology Definitions
for example a minimum thickness. The number is compared to
a maximum allowable. 3.1 destructive test—a test that destroys the tested article or
1.3 Variables plans can only be used when the characteristic makes it nonconforming to a requirement.
of interest is measurable, the test method gives a numerical 3.2 nondestructive test—a test that neither destroys the
measure of the characteristic, and the specification places a tested article nor makes it nonconforming to a requirement.
numerical limit on the measured value. It is also necessary that 3.3 inspection lot—a collection of articles of the same kind
the variation of the characteristic from article to article in a that is submitted to inspection for acceptance or rejection as a
production lot be normally distributed (see Appendix X2). group.
Each article must be tested in the same way (for example, 3.4 sample—articles randomly selected from an inspection
coating thickness must be measured at the same location, see lot whose quality is used to decide whether or not the
X2.7) so that the values from article to article are comparable. inspection lot is of acceptable quality.
If one or more of these conditions are not met, a variables plan 3.5 standard deviation—a measure of dispersion equal to
cannot be used. Instead, an attributes plan must be used. These the square root of the mean of the squares of the deviations
are given in Test Method B 602 and Guide B 697. from the arithmetic mean of the distribution (see 9.2.6).
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the 4. Summary of Test Method
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 4.1 The plans in this test method provide the same protec-
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- tion as the attributes plans in Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 of
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. Test Method B 602 and are interchangeable with them when
the conditions necessary for variables sampling exist. This
2. Referenced Documents method has no plan comparable to Table 4 of Test Method
2.1 ASTM Standards: B 602, because variables plans are subject to an excessive
B 602 Test Method for Attribute Sampling of Metallic and probability of error when the number of nonconforming
Inorganic Coatings2 articles in a lot is expected to be approximately 1% or less as
B 697 Guide for Selection of Sampling Plans for Inspection it is for the Table 4 plan. Also for this reason, comparable
of Electrodeposited Metallic and Inorganic Coatings2 variables plans are not given for the smallest lot sizes of Table
2.2 Military Standards: 1 and Table 2 of Test Method B 602. The plans of Table 4,
Table 1, and Table 2 in Test Method B 602 are described as
Level I, Level II, and Level III respectively. For consistency,
Table 1 and Table 2 of this method are described as Level II
1
This method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-8 on Metallic and
Inorganic Coatingsand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B08.10on
3
General Test Methods. Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700
Current edition approved Oct. 15, 1990. Published November 1990. Originally Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn: NPODS.
4
published as B 762 – 86. Last previous edition B 762 – 86. Available from the American National Standards Institute, 11 W. 42nd St., 13th
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05. Floor, New York, NY 10036.

Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 762
TABLE 1 Level II—Sampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests, TABLE 4 Level III—Sampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests,
Standard Deviation KnownA Standard Deviation UnknownA
Inspection 50/50 Inspection 50/50
n k AQL LQL AOQL n k AQL LQL AOQL
Lot Size Point Lot Size Point
91 through 7 1.664 1.1 12 4.8 2.4 51 through 12 1.433 1.7 19 7.6 3.8
280 150
281 through 12 1.649 1.7 10 5.0 2.6 151 through 19 1.410 2.6 16 7.9 3.7
500 280
501 through 16 1.712 1.7 8.2 4.4 2.3 281 through 29 1.470 2.8 13 7.1 3.8
1 200 500
1 201 through 25 1.704 2.1 7.4 4.4 2.5 501 through 48 1.494 3.3 11 6.7 3.8
3 200 1 200
3 201 through 36 1.778 2.0 5.9 3.8 2.2 1 201 through 66 1.551 3.2 9.4 6.0 3.5
10 000 3 200
10 001 through 52 1.829 2.0 4.9 3.4 2.1 3 201 through 102 1.618 3.1 7.7 5.3 3.2
35 000 16 000
Over 35 000 82 1.893 1.9 4.0 2.9 1.9 16 001 through 159 1.680 3.0 6.4 4.6 3.0
A 35 000
The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent.
Over 35 000 248 1.717 3.0 5.6 4.3 2.9
A
The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent.
TABLE 2 Level II—Sampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests,
Standard Deviation UnknownA
Inspection 50/50
4.3 Generally, thickness is the only characteristic of a
n k AQL LQL AOQL
Lot Size Point coating that meets the conditions of a variables plan given in
91 through 16 1.663 1.0 12 4.8 2.4 1.3. For that reason, the plans in this method are designed to be
280 used when the specification for the characteristic in question is
281 through 29 1.649 1.7 10 5.0 2.6
500
a minimum value, which is the usual case for coating thickness.
501 through 40 1.713 1.7 8.2 4.3 2.2 Variables plans can be used when the limit is a maximum and
1 200 when there are both a minimum and a maximum. Plans for
1 201 through 61 1.704 2.1 7.4 4.4 2.5
3 200
these cases are given in the references.
3 201 through 92 1.778 2.0 5.9 3.8 2.2 4.4 The sampling plans in Table 1 and Table 2 of this
10 000 method are considered to be standard for nondestructive testing
10 001 through 137 1.825 2.0 4.9 3.4 2.0
35 000
and will be used unless the buyer specifies otherwise. Table 5
Over 35 000 223 1.893 1.9 4.0 3.0 1.9 and Table 6 will be used for destructive testing; these plans use
A
The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent. smaller samples to reduce the cost of inspection with a
resultant reduction of the ability to distinguish between con-
forming and nonconforming lots.
since they are comparable to Table 1 of Test Method B 602, 4.5 Additional variables plans are given in Appendix X3.
and Table 3 and Table 4 are described as Level III. Also found there are instructions for the calculation of plans for
4.2 The main advantage of a variables sampling plan over needs that are not covered.
an attributes plan is that fewer articles need to be inspected to
obtain the same protection. For example, a sample of 12 using 5. Significance and Use
variables can give the same protection as a sample of 50 using 5.1 Sampling inspection permits the estimation of the over-
attributes. On the other hand, more expensive test methods may all quality of a group of product articles through the inspection
be required to yield the measurements required by variables of a relatively small number of product articles drawn from the
sampling. group.
5.2 The specification of a sampling plan provides purchas-
TABLE 3 Level III—Sampling Plans for Nondestructive Tests, ers and sellers a means of identifying the minimum quality
Standard Deviation KnownA level that is considered to be satisfactory.
Inspection 50/50 5.3 Because sampling plans yield estimates of the quality of
n k AQL LQL AOQL
Lot Size Point a product, the results of the inspection are subject to error.
51 through 6 1.432 1.8 18 7.6 3.8 Through the selection of a sampling plan, the potential error is
150 known and controlled.
151 through 10 1.411 2.7 16 7.9 4.1
280 5.4 Sampling inspection is used when a decision must be
281 through 14 1.470 2.8 13 7.1 3.5 made about what to do with a quantity of articles. This quantity
500
501 through 23 1.492 3.3 11 6.8 3.8
1 200 TABLE 5 Sampling Plans for Destructive Tests, Standard
1 201 through 30 1.551 3.2 9.4 6.0 3.5 Deviation KnownA
3 200
50/50
3 201 through 44 1.618 3.1 7.7 5.3 3.2 Inspection Lot Size n k AQL LQL
Point
16 000
16 001 through 66 1.680 3.0 6.4 4.6 3.0 26 through 1 200 5 1.262 2.3 25 10
35 000 1 201 through 35 000 10 1.411 2.7 16 7.9
Over 35 000 103 1.719 3.0 5.6 4.4 2.9 Over 35 000 14 1.519 2.5 12 6.5
A A
The AQL, LQL, 50/50 Point, and AOQL are in percent. The AQL, LQL, and 50/50 Point are in percent.

2
B 762
TABLE 6 Sampling Plans for Destructive Tests, Standard that the sample will indicate that the lot is unacceptable. If
Deviation UnknownA every article in an inspection lot is nonconforming, a sample
50/50 will always indicate that the lot is unacceptable.
Inspection Lot Size n k AQL LQL
Point
26 through 1 200 9 1.181 2.8 27 12 NOTE 1—Throughout this method, it is assumed that no mistakes are
1 201 through 35 000 19 1.412 2.5 16 7.9 made in sampling, measurement, and calculation.
Over 35 000 34 1.497 2.8 12 6.7
A
5.11 The probability of accepting an inspection lot that
The AQL, LQL, and 50/50 Point are in percent.
contains nonconforming items is often described in terms of
the Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) and the Limiting Quality
may be a shipment from a supplier, articles that are ready for Level (LQL). The AQL is the quality level that is considered to
a subsequent manufacturing operation, or articles ready for be acceptable. The LQL is a quality level that is considered to
shipment to a customer. be barely tolerable. A sampling plan is selected that has a high
5.5 In sampling inspection, a relatively small number of probability of accepting lots of AQL quality and of rejecting
articles (the sample) is selected randomly from a larger number lots of LQL quality. In this method, the AQL given for a
of articles (the inspection lot); the sample is inspected for sampling plan is the quality level of lots (expressed as the
conformance to the requirements placed on the articles. Based percentage of nonconforming articles) that have a 95 % prob-
on the results, a decision is made whether or not the lot ability of being accepted. The LQL is the quality level of lots
conforms to the requirements. that have a 10 % probability of being accepted or, in other
5.6 Since only a portion of a production lot is inspected, the words, a 90 % probability of being rejected. The tables in this
quality of the uninspected articles is not known. The possibility method give the AQL and LQL of each plan. They also give the
exists that some of the uninspected articles are nonconforming. 50/50 point, the quality level of a lot that is just as likely to be
Therefore, basic to any sampling inspection plan is the will- accepted as rejected.
ingness of the buyer to accept lots that contain some noncon- 5.12 The disposition of nonconforming inspection lots is
forming articles. The number of nonconforming articles in beyond the scope of this method because, depending on the
accepted lots is controlled by the size of the sample and the circumstances, lots may be returned to the supplier, kept and
criteria of acceptance that are placed on the sample. used, put to a different use, scrapped, reworked, or dealt with
5.7 Acceptance sampling plans are used for the following in some other way. An alternative is rectifying inspection in
reasons: which rejected lots are screened and used.
5.7.1 When the cost of inspection is high and the conse- 5.13 In rectifying inspection, when an inspection lot is
quences of accepting a nonconforming article are not serious. rejected, all of the articles in the lot are inspected and
5.7.2 When 100 % inspection is fatiguing and boring and, nonconforming ones are removed. They may be replaced with
therefore, likely to result in errors. conforming articles. The now 100 % conforming lot is ac-
5.7.3 When inspection requires a destructive test, sampling cepted. With this practice, the average quality level for a series
inspection must be used. of lots taken as a whole will be better because of the addition
5.8 In acceptance sampling by variables, the coating char- of the 100 % conforming lots. When the incoming lots are of a
acteristic of each article in the sample is measured. Using the good quality level, the average quality level of a series of lots
arithmetic mean of these values, the standard deviation of the will be even better when the rejected lots are screened and
process, and the factor k that is found in the Tables, a number resubmitted. When incoming lots are of a poor quality level,
is calculated (see 9.3). If this number equals or exceeds the the average quality of a series of accepted lots will again be
specified minimum, the inspection lot conforms to the require- good because many of the incoming lots will be rejected and
ments. If it is less, the lot does not conform. If the standard upgraded. At intermediate quality levels of incoming lots, the
deviation of the process is not known, the standard deviation of average quality level of a series of accepted lots will again be
the sample is calculated and used. improved, but it will not be improved as much as in either of
5.9 The use of a sampling plan involves the balancing of the the above cases; and there will be an intermediate quality level
costs of inspection against the consequences of accepting an where the degree of improvement is the least. This improved
undesirable number of nonconforming articles. There is always quality level is called the Average Outgoing Quality Limit
a risk that a random sample will not describe correctly the (AOQL). It is the worst condition that can occur under
characteristics of the lot from which it is drawn, and that an rectifying inspection. The tables give the AOQL for each plan.
unacceptable lot will be accepted or an acceptable lot will be There is no AOQL for the plans used with destructive tests
rejected. The larger the sample, the smaller this risk but the because destructive tests cannot be used to screen rejected lots.
larger the cost of inspection.
5.10 To understand the risks, consider that if every article in NOTE 2—The AOQLs given in the tables are strictly correct only when
the sample is small with respect to the lot. If this is not the case, the correct
an inspection lot conforms to its requirements, every article in
AOQL will be smaller than the tabulated value. The correct values are
the sample will conform also. Such lots will be accepted (Note obtained by multiplying the tabulated values by the following equation:
1). If only a few articles in an inspection lot are nonconform-
1 2 sample size/lot size (1)
ing, the sample probably will indicate that the lot is acceptable;
but there is a small probability that the sample will indicate that 5.14 Rectifying inspection will substantially increase the
the lot is unacceptable. The larger the proportion of noncon- cost of inspection if the incoming lots are much worse than
forming articles in an inspection lot, the more likely it will be AQL quality.

3
B 762
5.15 Rectifying inspection is used only when required by tionship to the other articles. Random sampling procedures are
the purchaser. given in the Appendixes.
6. Ordering Information 9. Calculations
6.1 Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, the sam- 9.1 Calculate the arithmetic mean of the measured charac-
pling plans given in Table 1 and Table 2 will be used for teristic by adding the values obtained for the articles and
nondestructive testing, and the plans given in Table 5 and Table dividing the number of articles that were tested using the
6 for destructive testing. following equation:
6.2 When either a nondestructive or a destructive test can be
n
used to inspect an article for conformance to a particular
(
i51
Xi
requirement, the purchaser should specify which test is to be X̄ 5 (2)
used. When a test is neither clearly nondestructive nor destruc- n
tive, the purchaser should specify which it is considered to be. where:
NOTE 3—The nature of a destructive test can be such that the tested X̄ 5 arithmetic mean of the measured values,
article can be reclaimed, for example by stripping and reapplying the Xi 5 measured value,
coating. Other tests can destroy the coating in nonessential locations, in n
5 sum of the measured values, and
which case the article can still be functional. In these instances, the ( Xi
i51
purchaser needs to decide and state whether the tests are to be considered
destructive or nondestructive.
6.3 Rectifying inspection will be used only when specified n 5 number of articles tested.
by the purchaser. When rectifying inspection is used, noncon- 9.2 If the standard deviation of the coating process is
forming articles will be replaced with conforming ones only known, continue the calculations as directed in 9.3. The
when specified by the purchaser. symbol for the standard deviation for the process is s. If the
standard deviation for the process is not known, calculate an
7. Formation of Inspection Lot estimated value from the measurements obtained from the
7.1 An inspection lot shall be formed from articles that are sample as directed in 9.2.1 through 9.2.6. The symbol for this
of the same kind, that have been produced to the same estimated standard deviation is s.
specification, and that have been coated by a single supplier at 9.2.1 Subtract the arithmetic mean from the first measured
one time or at approximately the same time under essentially value using the following equation:
identical conditions. X1 2 X̄ (3)
NOTE 4—These requirements are intended to ensure that the lot is
9.2.2 Calculate the square of the difference obtained in 9.2.1
homogeneous and that variations between articles in the lot are the result
only of the inherent variation of the production process (see Appendix using the following equation:
X1). ~X1 2 X̄!2 (4)
8. Sampling 9.2.3 Repeat 9.2.1 and 9.2.2 for each measured value.
8.1 General—A sample shall be selected randomly from the 9.2.4 Add all of the squares obtained in 9.2.2 and 9.2.3
inspection lot. If the test method to be used is nondestructive, using the following equation:
the sample size shall be that directed in 8.2. If the test method n

is destructive, the sample size shall be that directed in 8.3. ~X1 2 X̄!2 1 ~X2 2 X̄!2 1 ... 1 ~X n 2 X̄! 2 5 ( ~X1 2 X̄!2
i51
(5)
8.2 Nondestructive Tests—For nondestructive testing, the
9.2.5 Divide the sum obtained in 9.2.4 by one less than the
size of the sample shall be that specified for the sampling plan
number of articles that were tested using the following equa-
level that is required by the purchaser. The sampling plans are
tion:
given for Level II in Table 1 and Table 2 and for Level III in
n
Table 3 and Table 4. If the purchaser does not specify the level,
Level II shall be used. The plans in Table 1 and Table 3 shall
( ~Xi 2 X̄!2
i51
n21 (6)
be used when the standard deviation of the coating process is
known. Table 2 and Table 1 plans shall be used when the 9.2.6 Calculate the square root of the value obtained in
standard deviation is not known and must be estimated from 9.2.5 using Eq 6. This is standard deviation, s.

Œ
the sample values. n
8.3 Destructive Tests—For destructive testing, the size of ( ~Xi 2 X̄!2
the sample shall be that specified in Table 5 when the standard i51
s5 n21 (7)
deviation of the process is known and Table 6 when it is not
known. NOTE 5—The following equation can also be used:

Œ
8.4 The sample shall be drawn randomly from the inspec-
tion lot, that is, in a manner that ensures each article an equal ~ (Xi! 2
(X i 2 2
chance of being selected regardless of other considerations n
s5 n21 (8)
such as location in the inspection lot, appearance, quality,
location on a fixture during coating, and chronological rela- 9.3 Using the k that is in the table and the standard deviation

4
B 762
from 9.2, calculate the following number when the standard 10.2 Lot Classification:
deviation is known: 10.2.1 The number calculated in 9.3 shall be compared to
X̄ 2 ks (9) the minimum number stated in the coating specification. If the
number in 9.3 equals or exceeds the specified minimum, the lot
or, calculate the following when the standard deviation is not
known: conforms to the requirements. If it is less than the specified
minimum, the lot does not conform.
X̄ 2 ks (10)
10.2.2 When specified by the purchaser, nonconforming lots
10. Inspection and Lot Classification shall be 100 % inspected, and nonconforming articles shall be
removed. When required by the purchaser, the nonconforming
10.1 Inspection—Each article in the sample shall be in-
articles shall be replaced with conforming articles.
spected as directed in the applicable coating standard.

APPENDIXES

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. DRAWING OF SAMPLES

X1.1 The success of acceptance sampling is totally depen- second 06 is rejected because it has already appeared. The
dent on the sample being drawn from the lot at random. sample then consists of articles numbered 31, 20, 8, 26, 53, 65,
Random sampling means that the selection of an article for the 64, 46, 22, 6, 41, and 67.
sample is totally by chance and that every article in the lot is
equally likely to be selected. If the articles in the inspection lot X1.4 When product items are arranged in an order without
are thoroughly mixed, such as barrel-plated articles, a sample regard to quality, such as articles in a tray, a sample can be
drawn from anywhere in the lot will be random (see X2.5). drawn by using the constant interval procedure. Here, a
Rack-plated articles cannot be sampled this way unless thor- constant interval is maintained between the items drawn for the
ough mixing is done before sampling, otherwise a random sample. For example, every 9th, 19th, or 24th unit is selected.
sampling procedure must be used. Methods of random sam- The first item drawn from the lot can be determined from the
pling are described in the following paragraphs. table of random numbers. All other items are then drawn at a
constant interval following the first item. The constant interval
X1.2 When random numbers are used to select a sample, is determined by dividing the lot size by the sample size.
each article in the lot is identified by a different number. If the
units have serial numbers, the serial numbers can be used. The X1.5 As an example, assume that a lot of 3000 items is to
numbers of the articles that are to be inspected are selected be inspected. In accordance with Table 3, a sample of 30 items
from a table of random numbers such as Table X1.1. Other is to be drawn. The constant interval is 100 (3000 divided by
tables of random numbers can be obtained from books on 30). A random number from 1 to 100 is selected either from a
statistics. Some pocket calculators are designed to generate table or by another appropriate method. After the first item is
random numbers. taken, the remaining items in the required sample are drawn by
selecting every 100th item from the lot until 30 are selected.
X1.3 As an example, assume that a sample of 12 articles is
to be selected from an inspection lot of 80 articles. The articles X1.6 References (1 through 10)5 give additional informa-
are numbered 1 through 80. A pencil is allowed to fall blindly tion and procedures on random sampling.
at some number in Table X1.1. Starting at this point, a coin is
tossed to decide whether to go up or down the column; heads, X1.7 The numbers of a random sample can be generated by
up; tails, down. If the pencil falls on column 10, line 11, and the following microsoft BASIC computer program:
the coin is tails; the decision is to read down the column until
12 numbers are chosen. Take the first two digits in each group
of five digits. The selection of random numbers is made as 5
The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references appended to
follows: the 85’s are rejected because they are over 80, and the this method.

5
B 762
10 REM—Program to select random samples for testing 180 PRINT “MATRIX LOADED”
30 PRINT “ENTER LOT SIZE” 190 PRINT “FOR A LOT SIZE OF ”;L:LPRINT “FOR A LOT SIZE OF”;L
40 INPUT L 200 PRINT “AND A SAMPLE SIZE OF”;S:LPRINT “AND A SAMPLE SIZE OF
50 PRINT “ENTER SAMPLE SIZE” ”;S
60 INPUT S 205 PRINT “THE SAMPLE NUMBERS ARE:”:LPRINT “THE SAMPLE NUM-
70 DIM A(L) BERS ARE:”
80 FOR K 5 1 TO L 210 FOR R 5 1 TO S
90 A(K) 5 0 220 M 5 INT(L*RND(1) + 1)
100 NEXT K 230 IF A(M) 5 0 THEN 220
110 PRINT “MATRIX ZEROED” 240 PRINT A(M);“,”;:LPRINT A(M);“,”;
120 RANDOMIZE PEEK(11) 250 NEXT R
130 FOR K 5 1 TO L 260 PRINT “END OF SAMPLE LIST”:LPRINT “END OF SAMPLE LIST”
140 N 5 INT(L*RND(1) + 1) 270 END
150 IF A(N)<>0 THEN 140
160 A(N) 5 K
170 NEXT K

TABLE X1.1 Table of Random Numbers

Column
Line
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)
1 10480 15011 01536 02011 81647 91646 69179 14194 62590 36207 20969 99570 91291 90700
2 22368 46573 25595 85393 30995 89198 27982 53402 93965 34095 52666 19174 39615 99505
3 24130 48360 22527 97265 76393 64809 15179 24830 49340 32081 30680 19655 63348 58629
4 42167 93093 06243 61680 07856 16376 39440 53537 71341 57004 00849 74917 97758 16379
5 37570 39975 81837 16656 06121 91782 60468 81305 49684 60672 14110 06927 01263 54613
6 77921 06907 11008 42751 27756 53498 18602 70659 90655 15053 21916 81825 44394 42880
7 99562 72905 56420 69994 98872 31016 71194 18738 44013 48840 63213 21069 10634 12952
8 96301 91977 05463 07972 18876 20922 94595 56869 69014 60045 18425 84903 42508 32307
9 89579 14342 63661 10281 17453 18103 57740 84378 25331 12566 58678 44947 05585 56941
10 85475 36857 53342 53988 53060 59533 38867 62300 08158 17983 16439 11458 18593 64952
11 28918 69578 88231 33276 70997 79936 56865 05859 90106 31595 01547 85590 91610 78188
12 63553 40961 48235 03427 49626 69445 18663 72695 52180 20847 12234 90511 33703 90322
13 09429 93969 52636 92737 88974 33488 36320 17617 30015 08272 84115 27156 30613 74952
14 10365 61129 87529 85689 48237 52267 67689 93394 01511 26358 85104 20285 29975 89868
15 07119 97336 71048 08178 77233 13916 47564 81056 97735 85977 29372 74461 28551 90707
16 51085 12765 51821 51259 77452 16308 60756 92144 49442 53900 70960 63990 75601 40719
17 02368 21382 52404 60268 89368 19885 55322 44819 01188 65255 64835 44919 05944 55157
18 01011 54092 33362 94904 31273 04146 18594 29852 71585 85030 51132 01915 92747 64951
19 52162 53916 46369 58586 23216 14513 83149 98736 23495 64350 94738 17752 35156 35749
20 07056 97628 33787 09998 42698 06691 76988 13602 51851 46104 88916 19509 25625 58104
21 48663 91245 85828 14346 09172 30168 90229 04734 59193 22178 30421 61666 99904 32812
22 54164 58492 22421 74103 47070 25306 76468 26384 58151 06646 21524 15227 96909 44592
23 32639 32363 05597 24200 13363 38005 94342 28728 35806 06912 17012 64161 18296 22851
24 29334 27001 87637 87308 58731 00256 45834 15398 46557 41135 10367 07684 36188 18510
25 02488 33062 28834 07351 19731 92420 60952 61280 50001 67658 32586 86679 50720 94953
26 81525 72295 04839 96423 24878 82651 66566 14778 76797 14780 13300 87074 79666 95725
27 29676 20591 68086 26432 46901 20849 89768 81536 86645 12659 92259 57102 80428 25280
28 00742 57392 39064 66432 84673 40027 32832 61362 98947 96067 64760 64584 96096 98253
29 05366 04213 25669 26422 44407 44048 37937 63904 45766 66134 75470 66520 34693 90449
30 91921 26418 64117 94305 26766 25940 39972 22209 71500 64568 91402 42416 07844 69618
31 00582 04711 87917 77341 42206 35126 74087 99547 81817 42607 43808 76655 62028 76630
32 00725 69884 62797 56170 86324 88072 76222 36086 84637 93161 76038 65855 77919 88006
33 69011 65795 95876 55293 18988 27354 26575 08625 40801 59920 29841 80150 12777 48501
34 25976 57948 29888 88604 67917 48708 18912 82271 65424 69774 33611 54262 85963 03547
35 09763 83473 73577 12908 30883 18317 28290 35797 05998 41688 34952 37888 38917 88050
36 91567 42595 27958 30134 04024 86385 29880 99730 55536 84855 29080 09250 79656 73211
37 17955 56349 90999 49127 20044 59931 06115 20542 18059 02008 73708 83517 36103 42791
38 46503 18584 18845 49618 02304 51038 20655 58727 28168 15475 56942 53389 20562 87338
39 92157 80634 94824 78171 84610 82834 09922 25417 44137 48413 25555 21246 35509 20468
40 14577 62765 35605 81263 39667 47358 56873 56307 61607 49518 89656 20103 77490 18062
41 98427 07523 33362 64270 01638 92477 66969 98420 04880 45585 46565 04102 46880 45709
42 34914 63976 88720 82765 34476 17032 87589 40836 32427 70002 70663 88863 77775 69348
43 70060 28277 39475 46473 23219 53416 94970 25832 69975 94884 19661 72828 00102 66794
44 53976 54914 06990 67245 68350 82948 11398 42878 80287 88267 47363 46634 06541 97809
45 76072 29515 40980 07391 58745 25774 22987 80059 39911 96189 41151 14222 60697 59583
46 90725 52210 83974 29992 65831 38857 50490 83765 55657 14361 31720 57375 56228 41546
47 64364 67412 33339 31926 14883 24413 59744 92351 97473 89286 35931 04110 23726 51900
48 08962 00358 31662 25388 61642 31072 81249 35648 56891 69352 48373 45578 78547 81788
49 95012 68379 93526 70765 10592 04542 76463 54328 02349 17247 28865 14777 62730 92277
50 15664 10493 20492 38391 91132 21999 59516 81652 27195 48223 46751 22923 32261 85653
51 16408 81899 04153 53381 79401 21438 83035 92350 36693 31238 59649 91754 72772 02338
52 18629 81953 05520 91962 04739 13092 97662 24822 94730 06496 35090 04822 86774 98289
53 73115 35101 47498 87637 99016 71060 88824 71013 18735 20286 23153 72924 35165 43040
54 57491 16703 23167 49323 45021 33132 12544 41035 80780 45393 44812 12515 98931 91202

6
B 762

TABLE X1.1 Continued


Column
Line
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)
55 30405 83946 23792 14422 15059 45799 22716 19792 09983 74353 68668 30429 70735 25499
56 16631 35006 85900 98275 32388 52390 16815 69298 82732 38480 73817 32523 41961 44437
57 96773 20206 42559 78985 05300 22164 24369 54224 35083 19687 11052 91491 60383 19746
58 38935 64202 14349 82674 66523 44133 00697 35552 35970 19124 63318 29686 03387 59846
59 31624 76384 17403 53363 44167 64486 64758 75366 76554 31601 12614 33072 60332 92325
60 78919 19474 23632 27889 47914 02584 37680 20801 72152 39339 34806 08930 85001 87820
61 03931 33309 57047 74211 63445 17361 62825 39908 05607 91284 68833 25570 38818 46920
62 74426 33278 43972 10119 89917 15665 52872 73823 73144 88662 88970 74492 51805 99378
63 09066 00903 20795 95452 92648 45454 09552 88815 16553 51125 79375 97596 16296 66092
64 42238 12426 87025 14267 20979 04508 64535 31355 86064 29472 47689 05974 52468 16834
65 16153 08002 26504 41744 81959 65642 74240 56302 00033 67107 77510 70625 28725 34191
66 21457 40742 29820 96783 29400 21840 15035 34537 33310 06116 95240 15957 16572 06004
67 21581 57802 02050 89728 17937 37621 47075 42080 97403 48626 68995 43805 33386 21597
68 55612 78095 83197 33732 05810 24813 86902 60397 16489 03264 88525 42786 05269 92532
69 44657 66999 99324 51281 84463 60563 79312 93454 68876 25471 93911 25650 12682 73572
70 91340 84979 46949 81973 37949 61023 43997 15263 80644 43942 89203 71795 99533 50501
71 91227 21199 31935 27022 84067 05462 35216 14486 29891 68607 41867 14951 91696 85065
72 50001 38140 66321 19924 72163 09538 12151 06878 91903 18749 34405 56087 82790 70925
73 65390 05224 72958 28609 81406 39147 25549 48542 42627 45233 57202 94617 23772 07896
74 27504 96131 83944 41575 10573 08619 64482 73923 36152 05184 94142 25299 84387 34925
75 37169 94851 39117 89632 00959 16487 65536 49071 39782 17095 02330 73401 00275 48280
76 11508 70225 51111 38351 19444 66499 71945 05422 13442 78675 84081 66938 93654 59894
77 37449 30362 06694 54690 04052 53115 62757 95348 78662 11163 81651 50245 34971 52924
78 46515 70331 85922 38329 57015 15765 97161 17869 45349 61796 66345 81073 49106 79860
79 30986 81223 42416 58353 21532 30502 32305 86482 05174 07901 54339 58861 74818 46942
80 63798 64995 46583 09785 44160 78128 83991 42865 92520 83531 80377 35909 81250 54238
81 82486 84846 99254 67632 43218 50076 21361 64816 51202 88124 41870 52689 51275 83556
82 21885 32906 92431 09060 64297 51674 64126 62570 26123 05155 59194 52799 28225 85762
83 60336 98782 07408 53458 13564 59089 26445 29789 85205 41001 12535 12133 14645 23541
84 43937 46891 24010 25560 86355 33941 25786 54990 71899 15475 95434 98227 21824 19585
85 97656 63175 89303 16275 07100 92063 21942 18611 47348 20203 18534 03862 78095 50136
86 03299 01221 05418 38982 55758 92237 26759 86367 21216 98442 08303 56613 91511 75928
87 79626 06486 03574 17668 07785 76020 79924 25651 83325 88428 85076 72811 22717 50585
88 85636 68335 47539 03129 65651 11977 02510 26113 99447 68645 34327 15152 55230 93448
89 18039 14367 61337 06117 12143 46609 32989 74014 64708 00533 35398 58408 13261 47908
90 08362 15656 60627 36478 65648 16764 53412 09013 07832 41574 17639 82163 60859 75567
91 79556 29068 04142 16268 15387 12856 66227 38358 22478 73373 88732 09443 82558 05250
92 92608 82674 27072 32534 17075 27698 98204 63863 11951 34648 88022 56148 34925 57031
93 23982 25835 40055 67006 12293 02753 14827 23235 35071 99704 37543 11601 35503 85171
94 09915 96306 05908 97901 28395 14186 00821 80703 70426 75647 76310 88717 37890 40129
95 59037 33300 26695 62247 69927 76123 50842 43834 86654 70959 79725 93872 28117 19233
96 42488 78077 69882 61657 34136 79180 97526 43092 04098 73571 80799 76536 71255 64239
97 46764 86273 63003 93017 31204 36692 40202 35275 57306 55543 53203 18098 47625 88684
98 03237 45430 55417 63282 90816 17349 88298 90183 36600 78406 06216 95787 42579 90730
99 86591 81482 52667 61582 14972 90053 89534 76036 49199 43716 97548 04379 46370 28672
100 38534 01715 94964 87288 65680 43772 39560 12918 86537 62738 19636 51132 25739 56947

X2. NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

X2.1 Articles produced by a manufacturing process are variation and, thus, of little consequence.
never identical. Minor variations in the process occur that
X2.2 Along the horizontal, X axis in Fig. X2.1 is plotted the
affect the characteristics of the articles. Such variations often
numerical value of the characteristic that is being considered,
occur at random and tend to cancel each other out. Under these
for example, the thickness of the coating. The area beneath the
conditions, the articles are quite similar to each other. Less
curve and above the X axis represents all of the articles in a
often, the chance variations do not cancel out as expected and
production lot. The arithmetic mean thickness is X̄, which is at
some articles will differ from the typical. As a result, it often is
the middle of the curve. The vertical line at X̄ divides the curve
the case that most of the articles produced by a controlled
in half so that half of the area is to the left, thicknesses less than
process are closely grouped around an average condition, while
the mean, and half is to the right, thicknesses greater than the
smaller numbers deviate more from the average, and the
mean. It can be seen that if a plating thickness specification is
greater the deviation the fewer articles there are. Frequently
given as a minimum value, and if the mean thickness of the lot
this distribution of the articles can be closely described by a
equals the specification value, the thickness of the plating on
mathematical equation which, when plotted, gives the bell-
half of the parts will be below the specification limit; that is,
shaped curve shown in Fig. X2.1. This is called a normal or
half of the article will be nonconforming. Usually, it is required
Gaussian distribution.
that most of the articles be conforming, which means that the
NOTE X2.1—There is also a random variation introduced by the mean thickness has to exceed the specified minimum. The
measurement method. This normally is small relative to the product standard deviation can be used to determine by how much.

7
B 762

FIG. X2.1 Normal Distribution

X2.3 If the mean thickness is one standard deviation higher results. Therefore, statistical tests should be made of a process
than the specified minimum thickness, the thickness will be to confirm that the product characteristic is approximately
less than the specified minimum on 16 % of the articles. If the normally distributed before a variables plan is used in the
mean is two standard deviations above the specification value, sampling inspection of the product. Tests for normality are
there will be about 2.3 % nonconforming articles in the lot. described in Ref. (9).
Hence, if the standard deviation of the process is known, a
mean thickness can be calculated that will ensure that no more X2.5 The distribution of plating thickness on barrel-plated
than a given percentage (for example, the AQL) of a lot will be articles tends to be normal, provided good barrel plating
nonconforming. Once a lot of articles is produced, a random practices are observed. A production lot that consists of several
sample of the articles can be inspected and their mean barrel loads will also be normal if the loads are produced under
calculated. If the mean is equal to or larger than the required essentially the same conditions. But if two or more loads that
mean, it is known that the percentage of nonconforming have different average thicknesses are mixed, the mixed lot
articles in the lot is no more than the AQL. Actually, the mean may not conform to the normal distribution.
of the sample can be different from that of the lot. In variables
plans, an additional factor is placed in the calculation to allow X2.6 The distribution of coating thickness on products that
for this. In processes where the standard deviation is not known are processed on racks may or may not be normal. Tests of
and the sample standard deviation is used in the calculation, normality are required to determine if a variables plan can be
there is another potential error. This is guarded against by using used in these cases.
larger samples.
X2.7 The thickness of the coating must be measured at the
X2.4 It is important to remember that variables sampling same location on every article in the sample. If this is not done,
plans are based on the normal curve. If the product of a the variation in thickness that occurs naturally over the surface
manufacturing process is not distributed normally, the use of a of a product will result in invalid values for the average and the
variables plan based on the normal curve will give invalid standard deviation.

X3. ADDITIONAL SAMPLING PLANS

TABLE X3.1 Sampling Plans, Standard Deviation Known


AQL, %
LQL, 1 2 5 10
%
50/50 50/50 50/50 50/50
n k AOQL n k AOQL n k AOQL n k AOQL
Point Point Point Point
5 18 1.943 2.6 1.4 51 1.824 3.4 2.1 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
10 8 1.740 4.1 2.0 14 1.619 5.3 2.8 65 1.441 7.5 4.9 ... ... ... ...
15 5 1.600 5.5 2.8 8 1.481 6.9 3.5 23 1.303 9.6 5.6 142 1.144 13 9.5
20 4 1.493 6.8 3.4 6 1.373 8.5 4.3 13 1.193 12 6.3 44 1.034 15 9.9
25 3 1.396 8.1 4.2 5 1.283 10 5.0 7 1.009 14 6.9 23 0.940 17 11

8
B 762
X3.1 Table X3.1 and Table X3.2 provide additional sam- X3.2 The plans in Table X3.1 and Table X3.2 provide
pling plans that may be useful in situations where the standard AQL’s of 1, 2, 5, and 10 % and LQL’s of 5, 10, 15, 20, and
plans of Tables 2-6 are unsuitable. The plans of Table X3.1 are 25 %. To select a plan, go to the table, find the column headed
to be used when the standard deviation of the process is known. with the desired AQL, read down to the row headed by the
The plans of Table X3.2 are to be used when the standard desired LQL, and note the sample size (n) and k.
deviation is not known.
TABLE X3.2 Sampling Plans, Standard Deviation Unknown
AQL, %
LQL, 1 2 5 10
%
50/50 50/50 50/50 50/50
n k AOQL n k AOQL n k AOQL n k AOQL
Point Point Point Point
5 53 1.943 2.6 1.4 136 1.824 3.4 2.1 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
10 20 1.739 4.1 2.1 33 1.620 5.3 2.7 132 1.441 7.5 4.9 ... ... ... ...
15 14 1.601 5.5 2.7 17 1.482 6.9 3.5 43 1.303 9.6 5.6 236 1.144 13 9.5
20 8 1.492 6.8 3.5 11 1.372 8.5 4.3 23 1.193 12 6.3 68 1.034 15 10
25 6 1.398 8.1 4.3 8 1.278 10 5.0 15 1.099 14 7.1 34 0.940 17 11

X4. CALCULATIONS OF VARIABLES SAMPLING PLANS

X4.1 The equations in this appendix can be used to X4.3 Using z1 and z2, calculate n and k. Round the value of
calculate the sample size ( n) and the k value of variables n to the nearest whole number. Use Eq X4.1 and Eq X4.2 when
sampling plans where: the standard deviation is known and Eq X4.3 and Eq X4.4
X4.1.1 The coating requirement is stated as a lower limit; when the standard deviation is not known. The equations are
X4.1.2 The probability of accepting product of AQL quality derived in Ref (9), Chapters 11 and 12.
is 0.95 (95 %); and X4.3.1 Standard deviation known:
X4.1.3 The probability of accepting product of LQL quality h 5 8.564/~z1 2 z 2!2 (X4.1)
is 0.10 (10 %).
k 5 ~=n~z1 1 z 2! 2 0.3633!/2=n (X4.2)
X4.2 First, select the AQL and LQL values. Next, go to Use the rounded value of n to calculate k.
Table X4.1 and find the values of z that correspond to the AQL X4.3.2 Standard deviation unknown:
and LQL. For AQL’s and LQL’s that are not given in the table, k 5 0.4379 z1 1 0.5621 z 2 (X4.3)
the z’s can be calculated by interpolation. The z corresponding 2 2
to the AQL is z1, and the one corresponding to the LQL is z2. n 5 4.2822 ~2 1 k !/~z1 2 z 2! (X4.4)
X4.4 Sample calculations are as follows:
Desired AQL 5 2 %
TABLE X4.1 Values of z Used in Designing Variables Sampling
Plans Desired LQL 5 10 %
AQL or LQL
Standard Deviation of Process Known
z Select z’s from Table X4.1
%Nonconforming
1 2.326
For AQL of 2 % z1 5 2.054
2 2.054 For LQL of 10 % z2 5 1.282
3 1.889
4 1.751 X4.4.1 Calculate n as follows:
5 1.645
6 1.555 n 5 8.564/~2.054 5 1.282! 2 5 14.4 (X4.5)
7 1.476 Round to 14.
8 1.405
9 1.341 X4.4.2 Calculate k as follows:
10 1.282
12.5 1.150
k 5 ~=14 ~2.054 1 1.282! 2 0.3633!/2=14 5 1.619 (X4.6)
15 1.036 X4.4.3 Note that these are the values of n and k given in
20 0.8416
25 0.6745 Table X4.1 for an AQL of 2 %, an LQL of 10 %, and a known
standard deviation.

9
B 762
REFERENCES

(1) Military Handbook MIL-HDBK-53, “Guide for Sampling Inspection.” (7) Dodge, H. F., and Romig, H. G., Sampling Inspection Tables, Single
(2) General Services Administration Handbook FSS P4440.1, Guide for and Double Sampling, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New
the Use of MIL-STD-105. York, NY, 1959.
(3) Duncan, Acheson J., “Acceptance Sampling Plans,” Standardization (8) Bowker, A. H., and Goode, H. P., Sampling Inspection by Variables,
News, ASTM, Vol 3, No. 9, September 1975, pp. 8–9. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY, 1952.
(4) Duncan, Acheson, J., “An Introduction to Acceptance Sampling
Plans,” ibid, pp. 10–14. (9) Duncan, Acheson, J., Quality Control and Industrial Statistics, 4th
(5) Duncan, Acheson, J., “What Sampling Plan to Use,” ibid, pp. 15–19. Edition, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, IL, 1976.
(6) Reynolds, John, H., “Sampling Plans for Mandatory Standards,” (10) Manual on Presentation of Data and Control Chart Analysis, ASTM
Standardization News, ASTM, Vol 5, No. 3, March 1977, pp. 8–12. STP15D, ASTM, 1983.

The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection
with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
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This standard is copyrighted by ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
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10
Designation: B 761 – 02

Standard Test Method for


Particle Size Distribution of Metal Powders and Related
1
Compounds by X-Ray Monitoring of Gravity Sedimentation
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 761; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope *
1.1 This test method covers the determination of particle D = the diameter of the largest particle expected to be
size distributions of metal powders. Experience has shown that present,
this test method is satisfactory for the analysis of elemental r = the particle density,
tungsten, tungsten carbide, molybdenum, and tantalum pow- r0 = the suspending liquid density,
ders, all with an as-supplied Fisher number of 6 µm or less, as g = the acceleration due to gravity, and
determined by Test Method B 330. Other metal powders (for h = is the suspending liquid viscosity.
example, elemental metals, carbides, and nitrides) may be
analyzed using this test method with caution as to significance A table of the largest particles that can be analyzed with
until actual satisfactory experience is developed (see 7.2). The Reynolds number of 0.3 or less in water at 35°C is given for a
procedure covers the determination of particle size distribution number of metals in Table 1. A column of the Reynolds number
of the powder in the following two conditions: calculated for a 30–µm particle sedimenting in the same liquid
1.1.1 As the powder is supplied (as-supplied), and system is given for each material also.
1.1.2 After the powder has been deagglomerated by rod 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the
milling as described in Practice B 859. safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
1.2 This test method is applicable to particles of uniform responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
density and composition having a particle size distribution priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
range of 0.1 up to 100 µm. bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard
1.2.1 However, the relationship between size and sedimen- information is given in Section 7.
tation velocity used in this test method assumes that particles 2. Referenced Documents
sediment within the laminar flow regime. This requires that the
2.1 ASTM Standards:
particles sediment with a Reynolds number of 0.3 or less.
B 330 Test Method for Average Particle Size of Powders of
Particle size distribution analysis for particles settling with a
Refractory Metals and Their Compounds by the Fisher
larger Reynolds number may be incorrect due to turbulent flow.
Sub-Sieve Sizer2
Some materials covered by this test method may settle with
B 821 Guide for Liquid Dispersion of Metal Powders and
Reynolds number greater than 0.3 if particles greater than 25
Related Compounds for Particle Size Analysis2
µm are present. The user of this test method should calculate
B 859 Practice for De-agglomeration of Refractory Metal
the Reynolds number of the largest particle expected to be
Powders and Their Compounds Prior to Particle Size
present in order to judge the quality of obtained results.
Analysis2
Reynolds number (Re) can be calculated using the flowing
E 456 Terminology Related to Quality and Statistics3
equation
E 691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to
D3~r – r0!r0g Determine the Precision of a Test Method3
Re 5 (1)
18h2
3. Summary of Test Method
3.1 A carefully dispersed homogeneous suspension of the
where
powder is permitted to settle in a cell scanned by a collimated
X-ray beam of constant intensity. The net X-ray signal is
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B09 on Metal
inversely proportional to the sample concentration in the
Powders and Metal Powder Products and is the direct responsibility of Subcom-
mittee B09.03 on Refractory Metal Powders.
2
Current edition approved Nov. 10, 2002. Published December 2002. Originally Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.05.
3
approved in 1986. Last previous edition approved in 1998 as B 761 – 98. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 14.02.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 761 – 02
TABLE 1 Maximum Diameter of Metal Powders and Related Compounds That Can Be Analyzed with Reynolds Number of 0.3 or Less in
Water at 35°C
Particle Composition Particle Density Maximum Particle Diameter Reynolds Number for 30 µmA
Cobalt 8.90 33.19 0.22
Copper 8.92 33.16 0.22
Iron 7.86 34.79 0.19
Molybdenum 10.20 31.55 0.26
Nickel 8.90 33.19 0.22
Tantalum 16.60 26.46 0.44
Tantalum carbide 13.90 28.19 0.36
Titanium carbide 4.93 41.88 0.11
Tungsten 19.35 25.06 0.51
Tungsten carbide 15.63 27.03 0.41
Vanadium 6.11 38.37 .014
Vanadium carbide 5.77 39.26 0.13
A
Reynolds number calculated for 30 µm particle sedimenting in water at 35°C, with a density of 0.9941 g/cm3 and viscosity of 0.7225 cp.

dispersing medium, and the particle diameter is related to the provided it is first ascertained that the reagent is of sufficiently
position of the X-ray beam relative to the top of the cell. high purity to permit its use without lessening the accuracy of
Cumulative mass percent versus equivalent spherical diameter the determination.
are recorded to yield a particle size distribution curve. 6.2 Dispersing Medium—Dissolve 0.10 g of sodium hex-
ametaphosphate [(NaPO3)6] in 1000 mL of distilled or deion-
4. Significance and Use ized water.
4.1 This test method is useful to both suppliers and users of 6.3 Cleaning Solution—Dissolve 0.5 g of laboratory deter-
powders, as outlined in 1.1 and 1.2, in determining particle size gent in 1000 mL of distilled or deionized water, or prepare a
distribution for product specifications, manufacturing control, 0.1 % solution by volume of Triton X-100 using distilled or
development, and research. deionized water.5
4.2 Users should be aware that sample concentrations used
in this test method may not be what is considered ideal by some 7. Hazards
authorities, and that the range of this test method extends into 7.1 Precautions applying to the use of low intensity X-ray
the region where Brownian movement could be a factor in units should be observed.
conventional sedimentation. Within the range of this test 7.2 Most carbides and nitrides are brittle materials and may
method, neither the sample concentration nor Brownian move- be partially deagglomerated or fractured, or both, during the
ment are believed to be significant. manufacturing process. Different manufacturing processes or
4.3 Reported particle size measurement is a function of both changes in the process may affect the apparent particle size
the actual particle dimension and shape factor as well as the distribution as determined by this test method. Thus, caution
particular physical or chemical properties being measured. should be used in evaluating the results, especially for brittle
Caution is required when comparing data from instruments materials.
operating on different physical or chemical parameters or with
different particle size measurement ranges. Sample acquisition, 8. Sample Preparation
handling, and preparation can also affect reported particle size 8.1 For the as-supplied particle size distribution determina-
results. tions, this step is not needed.
8.2 For laboratory-milled particle size distribution determi-
5. Apparatus nations, use the rod milling technique as outlined in Practice
5.1 Gravitational sedimentation particle size analyzer utiliz- B 859.
ing X-ray extinction to determine particle concentration.
9. Procedure
6. Reagents and Materials 9.1 See the manufacturer’s manual for general operating
6.1 Purity of Reagents—Reagent grade chemicals shall be instructions.
used in all tests. Unless otherwise indicated, it is intended that 9.2 Set up the instrument in the “percent finer than” mode if
all reagents conform to the specifications of the Committee on necessary. Ensure proper operating conditions by periodically
Analytical Reagents of the American Chemical Society where performing base line scan and beam split test if necessary.
such specifications are available.4 Other grades may be used, 9.3 Add appropriate sample weight to the amount of dis-
persing medium suggested in analyzer instruction manual.
NOTE 1—Suggested approximate starting weights for tungsten and
4
Reagent Chemicals, American Chemical Society Specifications, American tungsten carbide are listed in Table 2.
Chemical Society, Washington, DC. For suggestions on the testing of reagents not
listed by the American Chemical Society, see Analar Standards for Laboratory
Chemicals, BDH Ltd., Poole, Dorset, U.K., and the United States Pharmacopeia
5
and National Formulary, U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. (USPC), Rockville, Triton X-100 is a trademarked product of Rohm & Haas, Philadelphia, PA and
MD. is available from a number of laboratory supply companies.

2
B 761 – 02
TABLE 2 Suggested Approximate Starting Weights for Tungsten 11. Precision and Bias
or Tungsten Carbide
Nominal Fisher Number According
11.1 Precision—The results of an interlaboratory study to
WeightA, g per 25 mL of determine the precision of this test method are available in
to B 330 of As-Supplied Powder,
Dispersing Medium
µm Research Report No. B09–1011,6 which is a report on a study
1 0.21 done in nine laboratories on two tungsten carbide powders in
2 0.23
the rod-milled condition. Although this is not in conformance
3 0.26
4 0.28 with the requirements of Practice E 691 (three materials are
5 0.30 required; six or more recommended), the user of this test
6 0.33
method may infer its precision from this interlaboratory study.
A
The amount of sample required will vary. Increase or decrease the sample The pertinent conclusions are presented below:
weight as needed to provide the level of X-ray attenuation recommended in
analyzer instruction manual. 11.1.1 The within-laboratory repeatability limit, r, for the
median particle size (r as defined by Terminology E 456), was
9.4 Sample Dispersion—Follow procedure recommended in found to be estimated by the following equation:
Guide B 821.
r — 0.133M – 0.009 (2)
9.5 Temperature Adjustment:
9.5.1 If the temperature of the solution is above that of the where
cell chamber after ultrasonic dispersion, cool the solution to
within 1°C of the cell chamber prior to the introduction into the
cell chamber by stirring and pumping outside the cell chamber M = the measured median particle size (µm), in the range of
(see Note 2). This cooling must be accomplished as soon as 1.4 to 4.2 µm (r = 0.15 to 0.55 µm in this range).
possible. Duplicate median particle size results from the same laboratory
should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more
NOTE 2—It may be convenient to use a separate magnetic stirrer and than r.
stirring rod.
11.1.2 The between-laboratory reproducibility limit, R, for
9.5.2 If the temperature is below the cell chamber tempera- the median particle size (R as defined by Terminology E 456)
ture, load the sample into the cell or sample chamber of the was found to be estimated by the following equation:
analyzer and allow sample to circulate until sample tempera-
R 5 0.482M – 0.489 (3)
ture is within 1°C of the cell chamber.
9.6 Load the prepared sample into analyzer according to where
analyzer instruction manual.
9.7 Follow analyzer instruction manual to begin analysis of
sample. Be sure to include the use of any necessary sedimen- M = the measured median particle size (µm) in the range of
tation parameters where necessary. 1.4 to 4.2 µm (R = 0.19 to 1.54 µm in this range).
Median particle size results from two different laboratories
NOTE 3—Be aware that bubbles may need to be removed from the should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more
analysis cell prior to analysis. Some instrumentation perform an automatic
than R.
scan for bubbles and, if detected, follow with a bubble elimination routine.
NOTE 4—It is recommended that the stirrer be turned off simulta- 11.2 Bias—No absolute method of determining powder
neously with activation of the instrument. particle size exists, nor are there any universally recognized
9.8 Rinse the sedimentation cell and sample chamber thor- standard or reference powders for this measurement. There-
oughly three times with fresh dispersing medium, according to fore, it is not possible to discuss the bias results by this test
analyzer instruction manual. If it is necessary to clear the cell method.
further at this time, rinse three times with the dilute cleaning
solution, followed by an additional cycle of rinses with fresh 12. Keywords
dispersing medium. 12.1 metal powders; particle size; particle size distribution;
9.9 It is advised that a repeat analysis be performed on a powdered metals; refractory metal powders; sedimentation
separately weighed portion of the sample, thus providing two particle size distribution
distributions on the same powder.
10. Report
10.1 A copy of all the data, either in graphical or tabular 6
Supporting data have been filed at ASTM International Headquarters and may
form, shall be supplied. be obtained by requesting Research Report RR: B09–1011.

3
B 761 – 02
SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee B09 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (B 761 – 98)
that may impact the use of this standard.

(1) A precaution concerning Reynolds number of sedimenting (3) Documents referenced in the revised section 11 were added
particles was added to the Scope in paragraph 1.2.1. Rationale: to the list of referenced documents in Section 2.
Since the quality of the results of this test method depend on (4) Reynolds numbers for 30 µm particles and maximum
the use of conditions that provide sedimentation within a diameter sedimenting with Reynolds number of 0.3, are given
laminar flow regime, it is important that the user of the test for a number of materials in Table 1. Rationale: Since the
method be able to determine when such conditions exist. quality of the results of this test method depend on the use of
Paragraph 1.2.1 facilitates this determination. conditions that provide sedimentation within a laminar flow
(2) Section 11, Precision and Bias, was revised as a result of a
regime, it is important that the user of the test method be able
completed interlaboratory study. Rationale: Results of the
to determine when such conditions exist. Table 1 facilitates this
completed interlaboratory study allowed calculation of ex-
determination.
pected precision of this technique.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,
United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above
address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website
(www.astm.org).

4
Designation: B 763 – 98

Standard Specification for


Copper Alloy Sand Castings for Valve Application1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 763; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope * E 10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materi-


1.1 This specification establishes requirements for copper als4
alloy sand castings for valve applications. Nominal composi- E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)5
tions of the alloys defined by this specification are shown in 3. General Requirements
Table 1.2
3.1 The following sections of Specification B 824 form a
NOTE 1—This specification does not cover Copper Alloy UNS Nos. part of this specification.
C83600, C92200, C96200, and C96400. These alloys are also used in
3.1.1 Terminology (Section 3),
valve applications. They are covered by the following specifications:
3.1.2 Other Requirements (Section 6),
C83600, B 62
C92200, B 61 3.1.3 Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variations (Sec-
C96200, B 369 tion 7),
C96400, B 369 3.1.4 Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance (Section 8),
1.2 The castings produced under this specification are used 3.1.5 Sampling (Section 9),
in products which may be manufactured in advance and 3.1.6 Number of Tests and Retests (Section 10),
supplied for sale from stock by the manufacturer. 3.1.7 Specimen Preparation (Section 11),
1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded 3.1.8 Test Methods (Section 12),
as the standard. SI values given in parentheses are for infor- 3.1.9 Significance of Numerical Limits (Section 13),
mation only. 3.1.10 Inspection (Section 14),
3.1.11 Rejection and Rehearing (Section 15),
2. Referenced Documents 3.1.12 Certification (Section 16),
2.1 The following documents in the current issue of the 3.1.13 Test Report (Section 17),
Book of Standards form a part of this specification to the extent 3.1.14 Product Marking (Section 18),
referenced herein: 3.1.15 Packaging and Package Marking (Section 19),
2.2 ASTM Standards: 3.1.16 Supplementary Requirements.
B 61 Specification for Steam or Valve Bronze Castings3
B 62 Specification for Composition Bronze or Ounce Metal 4. Ordering Information
Castings3 4.1 Orders for castings under this specification should
B 208 Practice for Preparing Tension Test Specimens for include the following information:
Copper-Base Alloys for Sand, Permanent Mold, Centrifu- 4.1.1 Specification title, number, and year of issue,
gal, and Continuous Castings3 4.1.2 Quantity of castings,
B 369 Specification for Copper-Nickel Alloy Castings3 4.1.3 Copper Alloy UNS Number and temper (as-cast,
B 824 Specification for General Requirements for Copper heat-treated, etc.),
Alloy Castings3 4.1.4 Pattern or drawing number and condition (as-cast,
machined, etc.),
1
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-5 on Copper 4.1.5 When castings are purchased for agencies of the U.S.
and Copper Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B05.05 on Government, the Supplementary Requirements of Specifica-
Castings and Ingots for Remelting.
Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published January 1999. Originally
tion B 824 may be specified.
published as B 763 – 86. Last previous edition B 763 – 96. 4.2 The following requirements are optional and should be
2
The UNS system for copper and copper alloys (see Practice E 527) is a simple specified in the purchase order when required.
expansion of the former standard designation system accomplished by the addition
of a prefix “C” and a suffix “00”. The suffix can be used to accommodate
4
composition variations of the base alloy. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01.
3 5
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.01. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


Copyright © ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 763
TABLE 1 Nominal Compositions
Alumi- Man- Sili-
Classification Copper Alloy UNS No. Commercial Designation Copper Tin Lead Zinc Nickel Iron Bismuth
num ganese con
Leaded red brass C83450 88 21⁄2 2 61⁄2 1 ... ... ... ... ...
C83800 83-4-6-7 or commercial red brass 83 4 6 7 ... ... ... ... ... ...
Leaded semi-red brass C84400 81-3-7-9 or valve composition 81 3 7 9 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C84800 76-21⁄2-61⁄2-15, or semi-red brass 76 21⁄2 61⁄2 15 ... ... ... ... ... ...
Leaded yellow brass C85200 high-copper yellow brass 72 1 3 24 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C85400 commercial No. 1 yellow brass 67 1 3 29 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C85700 leaded naval brass 61 1 1 37 ... ... ... ... ... ...
High-strength yellow brass C86200 high-strength manganese bronze 63 ... ... 27 ... 3 4 3 ... ...
C86300 high-strength manganese bronze 61 ... ... 27 ... 3 6 3 ... ...
C86400 leaded manganese bronze 58 1 1 38 ... 1 1⁄2 1⁄2 ... ...
C86500 No. 1 manganese bronze 58 ... ... 39 ... 1 1 1 ... ...
C86700 leaded manganese bronze 58 1 1 34 ... 2 2 2 ... ...
Silicon bronze and silicon C87300 silicon bronze 95 ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 4 ...
brass C87400 silicon brass 82 ... 1⁄2 14 ... ... ... ... 31⁄2 ...
C87500 silicon brass 82 ... ... 14 ... ... ... ... 4 ...
C87600 silicon bronze 89 ... ... 6 ... ... ... ... 5 ...
C87610 silicon bronze 92 ... ... 4 ... ... ... ... 4 ...
Bismuth semi-red brass C89844 bismuth brass 841⁄2 4 ... 8 ... ... ... ... ... 3
Tin bronze and leaded tin C90300 88-8-0-4, or modified “G” bronze 88 8 ... 4 ... ... ... ... ... ...
bronze
C90500 88-10-0-2, on “G” bronze 88 10 ... 2 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C92300 87-8-1-4, or Navy PC 87 8 1 4 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C92600 87-10-1-2 87 10 1 2 ... ... ... ... ... ...
High-lead tin bronze C93200 83-7-7-3 83 7 7 3 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C93500 85-5-9-1 85 5 9 1 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C93700 80-10-10 80 10 10 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C93800 78-7-15 78 7 15 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C94300 71-5-24 71 5 24 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Nickel-tin bronze and C94700 nickel-tin bronze grade “A” 88 5 ... 2 5 ... ... ... ... ...
leaded nickel-tin bronze C94800 leaded nickel-tin bronze grade “B” 87 5 1 2 5 ... ... ... ... ...
C94900 leaded nickel-tin bronze grade “C” 80 5 5 5 5 ... ... ... ... ...
Aluminum bronze C95200 Grade A 88 ... ... ... ... 3 9 ... ... ...
C95300 Grade B 89 ... ... ... ... 1 10 ... ... ...
C95400 Grade C 85 ... ... ... ... 4 11 ... ... ...
C95410 84 ... ... ... 2 4 10 ... ... ...
Silicon aluminum bronze C95600 Grade E 91 ... ... ... ... ... 7 ... 2 ...
Nickel aluminum bronze C95500 Grade D 81 ... ... ... 4 4 11 ... ... ...
C95800 81.3 ... ... ... 4.5 4 9 1.2 ... ...
Leaded nickel bronze C97300 12 % leaded nickel silver 57 2 9 20 12 ... ... ... ... ...
C97600 20 % leaded nickel silver 64 4 4 8 20 ... ... ... ... ...
C97800 25 % leaded nickel silver 66 5 2 2 25 ... ... ... ... ...
Special alloys C99400 87 ... ... 4.4 3.0 3.0 1.6 ... 1.0 ...
C99500 87 ... ... 1.5 4.5 4.0 1.7 ... 1.3 ...

4.2.1 Chemical analysis of residual elements (6.3), may vary by manufacturer.


4.2.2 Pressure test or soundness requirements (Specification 5.3 Separately cast test bar coupons representing castings
B 824), made in Copper Alloy UNS Nos. C94700HT, C95300HT,
4.2.3 Approval of weld repair and records of repair (Section C95400HT, C95410HT, and C95500HT shall be heat treated
9), with the castings.
4.2.4 Certification (Specification B 824),
4.2.5 Foundry test report (Specification B 824),
6. Chemical Composition
4.2.6 Witness inspection (Specification B 824),
4.2.7 Product marking (Specification B 824), 6.1 The castings shall conform to the requirements for
4.2.8 Castings for seawater service (5.1). major elements shown in Table 2.
5. Materials and Manufacture 6.2 These specification limits do not preclude the presence
of other elements. Limits may be established and analysis
5.1 For better corrosion resistance in sea water applications,
required for unnamed elements agreed upon between the
castings in Copper Alloy UNS No. C95800 shall be given a
manufacturer or supplier and the purchaser. Copper or zinc
temper anneal heat treatment at 1250 6 50°F (675 6 10°C) for
may be given as remainder and may be taken as the difference
6-h minimum. Cooling shall be by the fastest means possible
that will not cause excessive distortion or cracking. between the sum of all elements analyzed and 100 %. When all
5.2 Copper Alloy UNS Nos. C94700, C95300, C95400, named elements in Table 2 are analyzed, their sum shall be as
C95410, and C95500 may be supplied in the heat-treated specified in Table 3.
condition to obtain the higher mechanical properties shown in 6.3 It is recognized that residual elements may be present in
Table 4. Suggested heat treatments for these alloys and copper cast copper-base alloys. Analysis shall be made for residual
alloy UNS No. C95520 are given in Table 5. Actual practice elements only when specified in the purchase order.

2
TABLE 2 Chemical Requirements
Composition, % max Except as Indicated

Copper Major Elements Residual Elements


Alloy Nickel Nickel
UNS Alu- Manga- Sili- Bis- Anti- Phos- Alu- Manga- Sili-
Copper Tin Lead Zinc Iron incl Iron incl Sulfur Lead
No. minum nese con muth mony phorus minum nese con
Cobalt Cobalt
C83450 87.0–89.0 2.0–3.5 1.5–3.0 5.5–7.5 ... 0.75–2.0 ... ... ... ... 0.30 0.25 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C83800 82.0–83.8 3.3–4.2 5.0–7.0 5.0–8.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.30 0.25 ... 0.08 0.03 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C84400 78.0–82.0 2.3–3.5 6.0–8.0 7.0–10.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.40 0.25 ... 0.08 0.02 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C84800 75.0–77.0 2.0–3.0 5.5–7.0 13.0–17.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.40 0.25 ... 0.08 0.02 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C85200 70.0–74.0 0.7–2.0 1.5–3.8 20.0–27.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.6 0.20 1.0 0.05 0.02 0.005 ... 0.05 ...
C85400 65.0–70.0 0.50–1.5 1.5–3.8 24.0–32.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.7 ... 1.0 ... ... 0.35 ... 0.05 ...
C85700 58.0–64.0 0.50–1.5 0.8–1.5 32.0–40.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.7 ... 1.0 ... ... 0.55 ... 0.05 ...
C86200 60.0–66.0 0.20 0.20 22.0–28.0 2.0–4.0 ... 3.0–4.9 2.5–5.0 ... ... ... ... 1.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C86300 60.0–66.0 0.20 0.20 22.0–28.0 2.0–4.0 ... 5.0–7.5 2.5–5.0 ... ... ... ... 1.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C86400 56.0–62.0 0.50–1.5 0.50–1.5 34.0–42.0 0.40–2.0 ... 0.50–1.5 0.10–1.0 ... ... ... ... 1.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C86500 55.0–60.0 1.0 0.40 36.0–42.0 0.40–2.0 ... 0.50–1.5 0.10–1.5 ... ... ... ... 1.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C86700 55.0–60.0 1.5 0.50–1.5 30.0–38.0 1.0–3.0 ... 1.0–3.0 1.0–3.5 ... ... ... ... 1.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...
C87300 94.0 min ... 0.20 0.25 ... ... ... 0.8–1.5 3.5–5.0 ... 0.20 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C87400 79.0 min ... 1.0 12.0–16.0 ... ... ... ... 2.5–4.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.80 ... ... ...
C87500 79.0 min ... 0.50 12.0–16.0 ... ... ... ... 3.0–5.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.50 ... ... ...
C87600 88.0 min ... 0.50 4.0–7.0 ... ... ... ... 3.5–5.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C87610 90.0 min ... 0.20 3.0–5.0 0.20 ... ... ... 3.0–5.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.25 ... ...
C89844 83.0–86.0 3.0–5.0 ... 7.0–10.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... 2.0–4.0 0.30 0.25 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 0.2
C90300 86.0–89.0 7.5–9.0 0.30 3.0–5.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.20 0.20 ... 0.05 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C90500 86.0–89.0 9.0–11.0 0.30 1.0–3.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.20 0.20 ... 0.05 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C92300 85.0–89.0 7.5–9.0 0.30–1.0 2.5–5.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.25 0.25 ... 0.05 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 ...

3
C92600 86.0–88.5 9.3–10.5 0.8–1.5 1.3–2.5 ... 0.7A ... ... ... ... 0.20 0.25 ... 0.05 0.03 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C93200 81.0–85.0 6.3–7.5 6.0–8.0 2.0–4.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.20 0.35 ... 0.08 0.15 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C93500 83.0–86.0 4.3–6.0 8.0–10.0 2.0 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.20 0.30 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
B 763

C93700 78.0–82.0 9.0–11.0 8.0–11.0 0.8 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.15 0.50 ... 0.08 0.15 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C93800 75.0–79.0 6.3–7.5 13.0–16.0 0.8 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.15 0.80 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C94300 67.0–72.0 4.5–6.0 23.0–27.0 0.8 ... 1.0A ... ... ... ... 0.15 0.80 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 ... 0.005 ...
C94700 85.0–90.0 4.5–6.0 0.10B 1.0–2.5 ... 4.5–6.0 ... ... ... ... 0.25 0.15 ... 0.05 0.05 0.005 0.20 0.005 ...
C94800 84.0–89.0 4.5–6.0 0.30–1.0 1.0–2.5 ... 4.5–6.0 ... ... ... ... 0.25 0.15 ... 0.05 0.05 0.005 0.20 0.005 ...
C94900 79.0–81.0 4.0–6.0 4.0–6.0 4.0–6.0 ... 4.0–6.0 ... ... ... ... 0.30 0.25 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 0.10 0.005 ...
C95200 86.0 min ... ... ... 2.5–4.0 ... 8.5–9.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C95300 86.0 min ... ... ... 0.80–1.5 ... 9.0–11.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C95400 83.0 min ... ... ... 3.0–5.0 1.5 10.0–11.5 0.50 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C95410 83.0 min ... ... ... 3.0–5.0 1.5–2.5 10.0–11.5 0.50 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C95500 78.0 min ... ... ... 3.0–5.0 3.0–5.5 10.0–11.5 3.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C95600 88.0 min ... ... ... ... 0.25 6.0–8.0 ... 1.8–3.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C95800 79.0 min ... 0.03 ... 3.5–4.5C 4.0–5.0C 8.5–9.5 0.80–1.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0.10 ...
C97300 53.0–58.0 1.5–3.0 8.0–11.0 17.0–25.0 1.5 11.0–14.0 ... ... ... ... ... 0.35 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 0.50 0.15 ...
C97600 63.0–67.0 3.5–4.5 3.0–5.0 3.0–9.0 1.5 19.0–21.5 ... ... ... ... ... 0.25 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 1.0 0.15 ...
C97800 64.0–67.0 4.0–5.5 1.0–2.5 1.0–4.0 1.5 24.0–27.0 ... ... ... ... ... 0.20 ... 0.08 0.05 0.005 1.0 0.15 ...
C99400 remainder ... 0.25 0.5–5.0 1.0–3.0 1.0–3.5 0.5–2.0 0.5 0.5–2.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
C99500 remainder ... 0.25 0.5–2.0 3.0–5.0 3.5–5.5 0.5–2.0 0.5 0.5–2.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

A
In determining copper minimum copper may be calculated as copper plus nickel.
B
It is possible that the mechanical requirements of Copper Alloy UNS No. C94700 (heat treated) will not be obtained if the lead content exceeds 0.01 %.
C
Iron content shall not exceed the nickel content.
B 763
TABLE 3 Sum of all Known Elements Analyzed C95500, C95600, C95800, C99400, and C99500 test bar
Copper Alloy UNS No. Copper Plus Known Elements, % min castings shall be cast to the form and dimensions shown in
C83450 99.3 Figs. 1 or 2 of Practice B 208. For all other alloys listed in this
C83800 99.3 specification test bars shall be cast to the form and dimensions
C84400 99.3
C84800 99.3
shown in Figs. 2, 3 or 4 of Practice B 208.
C85200 99.1
C85400 98.9 9. Test Methods
C85700 98.7
C86200 99.0 9.1 Analytical chemical methods are given in Specification
C86300 99.0 B 824 (Section 12).
C86400 99.0 9.2 Brinell hardness readings, if specified on the purchase
C86500 99.0
C86700 99.0 order, shall be taken in the grip end of the tension test bar and
C87300 99.5 shall be made in accordance with Test Method E 10, with the
C87400 99.2
exception that a 3000-kg load shall be used.
C87500 99.5
C87600 99.5
C87610 99.5 10. Casting Repair
C89844 99.3
C90300 99.4 10.1 Copper Alloy UNS Nos. C95200, C95300, C95400,
C90500 99.7 C95410, C95500, C95600, and C95800 included in this speci-
C92300 99.3 fication are generally weldable. Weld repairs may be made at
C92600 99.3
C93200 99.2 the manufacturer’s discretion provided each excavation does
C93500 99.4 not exceed 20 % of the casting section or wall thickness or 4 %
C93700 99.0 of the casting surface area.
C93800 98.9
C94300 99.0 10.2 Excavations that exceed those described in 10.1 may
C94700 99.3 be made at the manufacturer’s discretion except that when
C94800 99.3 specified in the purchase order (4.1.8) the weld procedure shall
C94900 99.2
C95200 99.0 be approved by the purchaser and the following records shall
C95300 99.0 be maintained:
C95400 99.5 10.2.1 A sketch or drawing showing the dimensions, depth,
C95410 99.5
C95500 99.5 and location of excavations,
C95600 99.0 10.2.2 Post-weld heat treatment, when applicable,
C95800 99.5 10.2.3 Weld repair inspection results,
C97300 99.0
C97600 99.7 10.2.4 Casting identification number,
C97800 99.6 10.2.5 Weld procedure identification number,
C99400 99.7
C99500 99.7
10.2.6 Welder identification, and
10.2.7 Name of inspector.
10.3 The casting shall not be impregnated without approval
7. Mechanical Properties of the purchaser.
7.1 Mechanical properties shall be determined from sepa- 10.4 The castings shall not be plugged.
rately cast test bars, and shall meet the requirements shown in 10.5 Other Copper Alloy UNS Numbers in this specification
Table 4. are not weldable.

8. Sampling 11. Keywords


8.1 Copper Alloy UNS Nos. C86200, C86300, C86400, 11.1 copper alloy castings; copper-base alloy castings; valve
C86500, C86700, C95200, C95300, C95400, C95410, castings

4
B 763
TABLE 4 Mechanical Requirements

Copper Alloy Tensile Strength, min Yield Strength,A min Elongation in 2 in. or
Brinell Hardness
No.B (3000-kg
UNS No. ksiC MPaD ksiC MPaD 50 mm, min, %
Load), min
C83450 30 207 14 97 25 ...
C83800 30 207 13 90 20 ...
C84400 29 200 13 90 18 ...
C84800 28 193 12 83 16 ...
C85200 35 241 12 83 25 ...
C85400 30 207 11 76 20 ...
C85700 40 276 14 97 15 ...
C86200 90 621 45 310 18 ...
C86300 110 758 60 414 12 ...
C86400 60 414 20 138 15 ...
C86500 65 448 25 172 20 ...
C86700 80 552 32 221 15 ...
C87300 45 310 18 124 20 ...
C87400 50 345 21 145 18 ...
C87500 60 414 24 165 16 ...
C87600 60 414 30 207 16 ...
C87610 45 310 18 124 20 ...
C89844 28 193 13 90 15 ...
C90300 40 276 18 124 20 ...
C90500 40 276 18 124 20 ...
C92300 36 248 16 110 18 ...
C92600 40 276 18 124 20 ...
C93200 30 207 14 97 15 ...
C93500 28 193 12 83 15 ...
C93700 30 207 12 83 15 ...
C93800 26 179 14 97 12 ...
C94300 24 165 ... ... 10 ...
C94700 45 310 20 138 25 ...
C94700(HT) 75 517 50 345 5 ...
C94800 40 276 20 138 20 ...
C94900 38 262 15 103 15 ...
C95200 65 450 25 170 20 110
C95300 65 450 25 170 20 110
C95300(HT) 80 550 40 275 12 160
C95400 75 515 30 205 12 150
C95400(HT) 90 620 45 310 6 190
C95410 75 515 30 205 12 150
C95410(HT) 90 620 45 310 6 190
C95500 90 620 40 275 6 190
C95500(HT) 110 760 60 415 5 200
C95600 60 415 28 195 10 ...
C95800E 85 585 35 240 15 ...
C97300 30 207 15 103 8 ...
C97600 40 276 17 117 10 ...
C97800 50 345 22 152 10 ...
C99400 60 414 30 207 20 ...
C99500 70 483 40 276 12 ...
A
Yield strength shall be determined as the stress producing an elongation under load of 0.5 %, that is 0.01 in. (0.254 mm) in a gage length of 2 in. (50.8 mm).
B
For information only.
C
ksi 5 1000 psi.
D
See appendix.
E
As cast or temper annealed.

5
B 763
TABLE 5 Suggested Heat Treatments Copper Alloy
Solution Treatment Annealing Treatment
Copper Alloy
(not less than 1 h followed (not less than 2 h followed by
UNS No.
by water quench), °F (°C) air cool), °F (°C)
C95300 1585–1635 1150–1225
(860–890) (620–660)
C95400
C95410 1600–1675 1150–1225
C95500 (870–910) (620–660)
Solution Treatment (not Precipitation Hardening
less than 2 h followed (5 h)
by water quench)
C94700 1425–1475 580–620
(775–800) (305–325)

APPENDIX

(Nonmandatory Information)

X1. METRIC EQUIVALENTS

X1.1 The SI unit for strength properties now shown is in stress is the newton per square metre (N/m2), which has been
accordance with the International System of Units (SI). The named the pascal (Pa) by the General Conference on Weights
derived SI unit for force is the newton (N), which is defined as and Measures. Since 1 ksi 5 6 894 757 Pa the metric equiva-
that force when applied to a body having a mass of one lents are expressed as megapascal (MPa) which is the same as
kilogram gives it an acceleration of one metre per second MN/m2 and N/mm2.
squared (N 5 kg · m/s2). The derived SI unit for pressure or

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee B-5 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (B 763 – 96)
that may impact the use of this standard.

(1) Added Alloy C89844, bismuth semi-red brass, to Table 1, (2) Added “Bismuth” column to Table 1.
Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4. (3) Added “Bismuth” and “Lead” columns to Table 2.

The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection
with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
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views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

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6
Designation: B 764 – 04

Standard Test Method for


Simultaneous Thickness and Electrode Potential
Determination of Individual Layers in Multilayer Nickel
Deposit (STEP Test)1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 764; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 3.2 Coulometric thickness testing instruments are based on


1.1 This test method closely estimates the thickness of the anodic dissolution (stripping) of the deposit at constant
individual layers of a multilayer nickel electrodeposit and the current, while the time is measured to determine thickness. As
potential differences between the individual layers while being commonly practiced, the method employs a small cell that is
anodically stripped at constant current density.2,3 filled with an appropriate electrolyte, and the test specimen
1.2 This test method does not cover deposit systems other serves as the bottom of the cell. To the bottom of the cell is
than multilayer electroplated nickel deposits. attached a rubber or plastic gasket whose opening defines the
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the measuring (stripping, anodic) area. If a metallic cell is used, the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the rubber gasket also electrically insulates the test specimen from
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- the cell. With the specimen as the anode and the cell or agitator
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- tube as the cathode, a constant direct current is passed through
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. the cell until the nickel layer is dissolved. A sudden change in
voltage between the electrodes occurs when a different metallic
2. Referenced Documents layer starts to dissolve.
2.1 ASTM Standards: 4 3.3 Each different metal or species of the same metal
B 456 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Cop- requires a given voltage to keep the current constant while
per Plus Nickel Plus Chromium and Nickel Plus Chro- being stripped. As one nickel layer is dissolved away and the
mium next layer becomes exposed, there will be a voltage change
B 504 Test Method for Measurement of Thickness of Me- (assuming a constant current and difference in the electro-
tallic Coatings by the Coulometric Method chemical characteristics of the two nickel layers). The elapsed
D 1193 Specification for Reagent Water time at which this voltage change occurs (relative to the start of
the test or previous voltage change) is a measure of the deposit
3. Summary of Test Method thickness.
3.1 This procedure is a modification of the well-known 3.4 At the same time, the amplitude of the voltage change
coulometric method of thickness testing (Test Method B 504). can be observed. That is, the ease (or difficulty) with which one
It is also known as the anodic dissolution or electrochemical layer can be dissolved or stripped with reference to another
stripping method. layer can be compared. The lower the voltage needed the more
active the metal or the greater the tendency to corrode
preferentially to a more noble metal adjacent to it.
3.5 Where the metallic layers are of such a similar nature
1
This method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B08 on Metallic and that change of the stripping voltage is small, there can be
Inorganic Coatings and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B08.10 on Test
Methods.
problems in detecting this change if the voltage between the
Current edition approved April 1, 2004. Published April 2004. Originally deplating cell (cathode) and the sample (anode) is measured.
approved in 1986. Last previous edition approved in 2003 as B 764 – 94 (2003). As the sample is dissolved anodically, cathodic processes are
2
For discussion of this test, see Harbulak, E. P., “Simultaneous Thickness and occurring on the deplating cell (cathode) surface that can also
Electrochemical Potential Determination of Individual Layers in Multilayer Nickel
Deposits,” Plating and Surface Finishing, Vol 67, No. 2, February 1980, pp. 49–54. give rise to voltage changes, due to alterations of the cathode
3
U.S. Patent 4,310,389. Assignee: The Chrysler Corp., Highland Park, MI surface, thus obscuring the anode voltage change. This diffi-
48203.
4
culty can be avoided by measuring the potential of the
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
dissolving anodic sample with respect to an unpolarized third
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on electrode (reference) placed in the cell. By recording this
the ASTM website. potential any difference in electrochemical activity between

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

1
B 764 – 04
layers is more readily detected. The equipment may be 5.3 Electrolyte Agitation Source—All commercial coulom-
calibrated against standards with known STEP values. etric thickness testers incorporate a means to agitate the
3.6 The thickness of any specific nickel layer may be solution. It is possible to purchase these types of units
calculated from the quantity of electricity used (current multi- separately, if so desired, to be used externally in conjunction
plied by time), area dissolved, electrochemical equivalent of with other power supplies.
nickel, anode efficiency, and density of the nickel layer. 5.4 Recorder—Any time-based recorder with an input im-
3.7 Commercial instruments using this principle are avail- pedance of at least 1.0 MV and capable of running at
able. They are usually a combination coulometric and STEP approximately 0.5 mm/s (3 cm/min) can be used.
instrument. Reference standards are available to calibrate the 5.5 Deplating Cell—The cell may be similar in construction
instrument. The STEP Test, as is the Coulometric Test, is rapid to commercially available coulometric deplating cells. It is
and destructive to the coating. usually a cup-shaped cell of either 316 stainless steel, copper-
nickel alloy, or plastic that engages a round rubber or plastic
4. Significance and Use gasket to the work piece or sample. The opening through the
4.1 The ability of a multilayer nickel deposit to enhance cell and gasket allows contact of the electrolyte to the test
corrosion resistance is a function of the difference in the specimen and defines the stripping area.
electrode potentials of the nickel layers (as measured individu-
NOTE 2—A coulometric deplating cell could be constructed of plastic
ally at a fixed current density in a given electrolyte versus a using a cylindrical stainless steel or copper-nickel alloy sheet cathode
reference electrode) and the thicknesses of the layers. The located in the larger upper area of the cup. The advantages of such a cell
potential differences must be sufficient to cause the bright are the prevention of whisker growth and the choking off of the small bore
nickel or top layer to corrode preferentially and sacrificially opening, and the ease of cathode removal for cleaning or replacement.
with respect to the semi-bright nickel layer beneath it.
5.6 Reference Electrode—Either silver or platinum wire of
4.2 This test procedure allows the measurement of these
approximately 1.5 mm in diameter can be used. Silver is
potential differences directly on an electroplated part rather
probably the better choice due to its ability to form a
than on separate foil specimens in such a way that time
silver-silver chloride electrode when used in a chloride con-
determines the thickness of each layer, while the potential
taining electrolyte. The tip of the reference electrode should
difference between nickel layers is an indication of the corro-
extend so that the distance between the tip of the electrode and
sion resistance of the total nickel deposit.
the bottom of the agitator tube is approximately 5 mm.
4.3 The interpretation and evaluation of the results of this
test should be by agreement between the purchaser and the NOTE 3—It is necessary to condition the silver electrode before using in
manufacturer. order to form the silver-silver chloride surface. This is easily done by
anodically treating approximately a 75-mm length of wire in 1 N
NOTE 1—This test may be used as a quality assurance test of the hydrochloric acid solution for 10 to 15 s using 35-mA anodic current. This
multilayer nickel coatings applied in production. It should be understood will form a gray film on the wire, which should always be present. Once
that due to many factors that influence the progress of corrosion during the gray film is formed, it is not necessary to repeat the conditioning
actual use of the part, the performance of different multilayer nickel treatment unless the film has been removed. It may be advisable, however,
deposits in the test cannot be taken as an absolute indicator of the relative to recondition the electrode after a prolonged period of inactivity or when
corrosion resistance of these deposits in service. the electrode has been allowed to remain dry for an extended period of
time. Drying off the electrode should be avoided by immersion in either
5. Apparatus the hydrochloric acid conditioning solution, the step test solution, or
5.1 Composition of the Electrolyte5: distilled water when not in use.
NOTE 4—A ceramic junction reference electrode that does not require
Nickel Chloride (NiCl2·6H2O) 300g/L conditioning is available commercially.
Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 50g/L
Boric Acid (H3BO3) 25g/L 5.7 Millivolt Meter (optional)—When using a sensitive and
pH 3.0A well-calibrated recorder, a millivolt meter is not necessary. If
A
one is desired, however, any sensitive, high-input impedance
The pH may be adjusted with diluted hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide, as
required, and is more critical than the composition of the electrolyte. meter can be used. A standard pH meter with a millivolt setting
Prepared in Purified Water—Type IV or better as specified would be satisfactory. The meter should have a range from 0 to
in Specification D 1193. 2000 mV. If a millivolt meter is used which has low-output
5.2 Constant Current Source—This should supply a con- impedance facilities, it can be used in parallel to drive the
stant current that can be varied between 0 and 50 mA (typical recorder and will serve as a buffer amplifier. Most laboratory
25 to 35 mA). A current of 30 mA corresponds to a stripping pH meters have such output terminals.
rate of 7.8 µm/min at 100 % current efficiency when used with
a gasket providing 0.08 cm2 stripping area. (This is achieved 6. Procedure
with the solution stated in 5.1.) Most commercial coulometric 6.1 Set up equipment as recommended by the manufacturer.
thickness testers can be used as the current source. If necessary, turn on the recorder and the millivolt meter and
allow them to warm up.
6.2 If chromium is present on the nickel surface, remove it
5
Electrolyte can be obtained commercially that meets the requirements of this with concentrated hydrochloric acid. Make sure the nickel
test. surface is clean. Rinse well and dry off the surface.

2
B 764 – 04
NOTE 5—Chromium can be removed by using the coulometric deplat- Example: if the constant current source produces 30 mA, the
ing cell as is done on many commercial coulometric testers. If this is done, recorder time base is 30 mm/min, and the deplating area is 0.08
secure the cell and gasket to the test piece as in 6.3 and 6.4 but do not cm2, it would take 19.2 s to deplate 2.5 µm of nickel. The chart
insert the electrode assembly. Fill the cell with a common test stripping
solution for chromium (Test Method B 504) and hook up only the cell and
would travel 9.6 mm. A general equation that may be used is as
test piece to the power supply. Apply the current until all the chromium follows:
has been removed. A dense blanket of bubbles on the surface of the sample ~SL! ~A! ~I!
indicates that all the chromium is removed. Remove the stripping solution 5T (1)
~0.303! S
from the cell without moving or disturbing the seal of the gasket to the test
surface. Wash the cell three times with purified water (Type IV or better where:
as specified in Specification D 1193) and once with the step test solution. SL = chart scan length, mm,
Proceed to 6.5. S = chart speed, mm/min,
6.3 Position the test specimen in a secure horizontal position I = cell current, mA,
so that the chromium-stripped nickel surface is directly beneath A = deplating area, cm,
the cell gasket. T = nickel thickness, µm, and
0.303 = constant calculated from the electrochemical
6.4 Lower the coulometric deplating cell assembly; secure equivalent and density of nickel.
by sealing the gasket to the nickel surface. A flat test area of
approximately 10 mm in diameter is desirable but not required. NOTE 7—Commercial units are available that will modify and may
The criterion is that there be no leakage of the electrolyte. If simplify the above procedure.
leakage does occur, discontinue test and start a new one.
7. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of the Method
6.5 Fill the coulometric deplating cell to the appropriate
level with the step test solution making sure that no air is 7.1 Excessive Metal Build-Up in Coulometric Deplating
trapped within the solution. Cell—Excessive buildup of deposited nickel or the formation
of “whiskers” on the inside of the coulometric deplating cell
6.6 Lower the reference electrode assembly into the coulo-
(cathode), especially near the gasket hole, can cause erratic
metric deplating cell, if necessary. The positioning of the
results and produce “noisy” curves. When buildup is observed,
reference electrode should be such that the distance from the
remove it completely according to the manufacturer’s instruc-
end of the electrode to the test specimen is reproducible to
tions or as follows:
within 1 mm and be held constant throughout the test.
7.1.1 If a metallic cell is used as a cathode:
NOTE 6—The insertion depth of the electrolyte agitation tube which 7.1.1.1 Ream with a round, fine file. (A drill or reamer may
includes the reference electrode is important and should always be the be used.)
same. The difference of potential rather than the absolute potential is the 7.1.1.2 Soak for 15 to 20 s in a solution of four parts
important measurement. concentrated sulfuric acid and one part concentrated nitric acid.
6.7 Check all electrical connections. Make sure all connec- If 316 stainless steel is used for the cell, it may be soaked in
tions are secure and that no corrosion exists at the contact concentrated nitric acid until all nickel is dissolved.
points and that all contact points are secure. 7.1.1.3 Rinse in water (Type IV or better as specified in
6.8 Start the recorder (turn on milliampere meter, if used). Specification D 1193) and dry.
The recorder must be calibrated in order to determine the 7.1.1.4 Repeat 7.1.1.1 to 7.1.1.3 as many times as necessary
thickness of the nickel layers. This may be accomplished by to remove all metallic buildup. This cleaning process should be
using commercially available thickness standards or by apply- done after every ten tests or more frequently, if necessary.
ing Faraday’s Law. The latter requires information about the NOTE 8—It has been found that giving the coulometric deplating cell
current, corroding area, electrochemical equivalent of nickel, (cathode) a nickel strike prior to using will help prevent erratic buildup or
density of nickel, efficiency, and the time base of the recorder treeing around the gasket hole and cleaning will not be required as often.
(see 6.11). 7.1.2 If a metallic agitator tube is used as a cathode:
6.9 Turn on the constant current source and agitator, which 7.1.2.1 Place a stainless steel or nickel plate under the
in turn will start the deplating reaction. Continue recording gasket, lower the cell, and rinse it with DI water.
until the surface underlying the nickel is reached. This end 7.1.2.2 Fill the cell with 2 to 2.5 M H2SO4, reverse the
point can be recognized graphically by a sudden change in polarity of the current and strip the nickel from agitator tube. A
voltage. If the basis metal is zinc, iron, or steel, the voltage will cleaning current of about 55 mA for about 45 s should suffice.
decrease; if it is copper or brass, the voltage will increase. If the nickel is not completely removed, drain the cell, refill it
6.10 Stop the test by turning off the agitator, constant with H2SO4, and repeat the cleaning.
current source, recorder, and milliampere meter. Remove the 7.1.2.3 Wash the cell thoroughly with water.
electrode assembly, if necessary, and empty the cell of the 7.1.2.4 If the tube still looks coated, remove the coating by
stripping solution. Wash the cell three times with purified water rubbing the agitation tube with a soft rubber eraser, followed
(Type IV or better as specified in Specification D 1193) before by washing with water.
continuing to the next test. 7.2 Reference Electrode Preparation—If the electrode has
6.11 This test is based on a measured current-time relation- not been used for a day or has been allowed to dry for a period
ship necessary to remove a given amount of nickel from a of time, one or two conditioning runs will have to be made
specific area. prior to running a meaningful test. (See Note 2.)

3
B 764 – 04
7.3 Cleanliness of Test Surface—Make sure the surface area after each test to insure that all the nickel has been dissolved
to be tested is free of water breaks, foreign material, etc. Nickel from the test area. If nickel is present, rerun the test until the
surfaces that have been exposed to air for some time may have test area does not contain any nickel.
become passive. Abrade lightly prior to testing to remove any
8. Interpretation of Results
oxide films present. (Abrading mildly with an eraser usually
suffices: if not, clean with dilute sulfuric acid.) 8.1 The data obtained from this test will be shown on the
7.4 Anode Area Variation—Use only enough pressure on recorded graph, which plots the thickness (stripping time) of
the gasket to seal it to the test area without solution leaks. nickel on the X-axis versus the millivolt (potential) of the
Excess pressure can distort the gasket and change the anode nickel layers on the Y-axis. The thicknesses of the individual
area affecting the thickness results. If test results vary signifi- layers (or time differential) is measured between the steps or
cantly, examine the resulting deplated area with a magnifying breaks in the curve along the x-axis while the electrode
glass to determine if the area has varied in size. Small potential difference is determined by the change in amplitude
variations in the anodic area can give large variations in test of the curve on the Y-axis. It is desirable that at least two tests,
results. The area defined by the gasket can vary significantly within 6 to 8 mm of each other, be made on each test area and
between gaskets. When a different gasket is used, recalibrate the results averaged.
the instrumentation. 8.2 Interpretation of Curve—Referring to Fig. 1, it can be
7.5 Electrical Noise—To obtain good, smooth curves, seen that there are steps or breaks (changing potential) or steps
eliminate all electrical noise caused by extraneous voltage in the curve when moving left to right (increasing thickness).
fluctuations. Using a buffer amplifier with the shortest leads NOTE 9—The values given in Fig. 1 are included only to simplify the
possible to the cell to drive the recorder may be required to discussion for the Interpretation of Results. The actual values obtained
obtain usable results. Shielding the leads to the test cell will during testing will depend on the nature of the equipment, experimental
also help. If the curves are extremely noisy (erratic), make at technique, the specific characteristics of the electroplating processes used
least two curves on the same area to determine if the results are to produce the multilayer coatings and other details. It is emphasized that
the curve in Fig. 1 is an idealization of an actual result. Although the
meaningful and consistent. It may be necessary to insert an
potential differences are reproducible, the values of the individual poten-
electrical filter in the line source ahead of the constant current tials may shift depending on the experimental results.
supply.
7.6 Insertion Depth of Agitation Tube—If the agitation tube 8.2.1 Microdiscontinuous Nickel —The first break or step, A
contains the reference electrode, insert the tube in the cell to to C, in the solid curve is small and occurs at a nickel thickness
the same depth each time (see 6.6), but not so deep as to“ of approximately 3 µm in Fig. 1. The deposit represented by
shield” or interfere with the area being stripped. this curve, from 0 to 3 µm, is a nickel strike which might be
7.7 Incomplete Dissolution of the Nickel—Even though an used to induce microdiscontinuity in the chromium deposited
apparent end point is observed, the nickel may not be com- over this strike, see Note 10. In Fig. 1, the difference in activity
pletely dissolved. There may be small islands of nickel left, or between this nickel strike deposit, B (750 mV), and the bright
the periphery of the depleted area may be irregular or uneven. nickel deposit, C (730 mV), is 20 mV. This makes the deposit
This may be associated with a tilt of the cell relative to the less active (cathodic) than the bright nickel deposit.
coating surface. Examine the test area with a magnifying lens NOTE 10—This nickel deposit is referred to as microdiscontinuous

FIG. 1 T-Shaped Reference Electrode Assembly

4
B 764 – 04
nickel when it contains inert particles (particle nickel) to produce NOTE 11—The step in the curve is never a straight perpendicular line.
micro-porous chromium or when it is microcracked (stressed nickel As the bright nickel is dissolved, the plotted potential is associated only
deposit) to produce microcracked chromium. When the nickel strike with the bright nickel until the semi-bright nickel is exposed and starts to
deposit is not used to produce discontinuities in the chromium, it can be dissolve. At this point, the measured potential increases and continues to
referred to as 9noble nickel9 if its electrode potential (millivolt activity) is increase until only semi-bright nickel is exposed except for bright nickel
more noble (less active) than the adjacent bright nickel deposit. on the walls of the pit formed by dissolution of the nickel. From this point
on the recorded potential is due primarily to the semi-bright nickel.
8.2.2 Bright Nickel—After the first section of the curve NOTE 12—Most corrosion studies have demonstrated that for the best
ending at about 3 µm, the curve in Fig. 1 experiences another corrosion results, if a nickel strike is used between the chromium deposit
break or step at the 15 µm thickness mark in the figure, point and the bright nickel, it should have an electrochemical electrode potential
D. This represents at least 12 µm of bright nickel (see 8.2.4) equal to, or preferably more noble (less active) than the bright nickel
with a potential of 730 mV. deposit. The semi-bright nickel deposit should also be more noble (less
8.2.3 High Potential Nickel Strike —The line D to F in Fig. active) than the bright nickel deposit (see Specification B 456).
1 between 15 µm and 18 µm represents the shape of the curve 8.2.5 Substrate—The line after at about 40 µm in Fig. 1
of a high potential nickel strike that in this case is 3 µm thick. represents the direction the curve will take if a steel substrate
For it to be classified as a high potential strike, it must have an is under the semi-bright nickel deposit. The curve would turn
electrode potential more active than the adjacent bright nickel up if a copper substrate was used.
deposit. In this example, the 705 mV (E) high potential nickel 8.2.6 Thickness and STEP Measurements—Since the rise of
strike is 25 mV more active than the 730 mV bright nickel the actual STEP curve is normally not a nearly straight line as
deposit (D). depicted in Fig. 1, it is best to read the thickness at the midpoint
8.2.4 Semi-bright Nickel—In Fig. 1, a large potential change on the rising portion of the curve (see Fig. 2 and 8.4) if it is
occurs, F to H. This slope is the result of the cell transitioning difficult to assign a millivolt reading due to the shape of the
from dissolving the last of the higher activity bright nickel and curve, see 8.4 and Notes 13 and 14.
starting to dissolve the lower activity semi-bright nickel 8.3 When a STEP value is referenced, such as in a standard,
deposits. In Fig. 1, the semi-bright nickel has an electrode it refers to the electrode potential in millivolts between the
potential that is 145 mV less active (cathodic) than the bright bright nickel and the semi-bright nickel deposits. In Fig. 1, the
nickel deposit. This is the STEP value for this multi-layered STEP is 145 mV. When additional STEP values are presented,
nickel coating. Determining the thickness of the bright and they must include the deposit being referenced and its relative
semi-bright nickel deposits, as in Fig. 1, normally involves activity to the deposit in which it is paired. In Fig. 1, the STEP
making an estimate. Since the distance along the x-axis for the high potential nickel strike is 25 mV more active than
between points F and H is when the cell is transiting between the bright nickel deposit.
the bright and the semi-bright nickel deposits, assigning half of 8.4 In some instances, the obtained curves may show
the thickness to both deposits is usually an acceptable proce- irregularities such as drift (deviation from a straight line) in the
dure. This thickness is usually very small compared to the plot for the semi-bright nickel, the bright nickel deposit, or
thickness between C and D for the bright and H and I for the both. The drift may be more noticeable with thick multilayer
semi-bright nickels. Alternative procedures are presented in deposits. The curve also may exhibit a greater than normal drift
8.2.6 and 8.4. or elongation of the step (rising portion of the plot). In order to

FIG. 2 Midpoint Nickel Thickness Curve

5
B 764 – 04
minimize error in interpreting this type of curve, the millivolt difference between semi-bright and bright nickel can be mea-
reading for the bright nickel is taken 2 µm before the rise of the sured with a standard deviation of 63.7 mV with a variance of
curve, point A on Fig. 2 (the point at which the semi-bright 2.6 %.
nickel is first exposed in the cell), and the mV reading for the NOTE 15—The relatively high variance in the thickness measurements,
semi-bright nickel is taken 2 µm after the rise of the curve, 9.2 %, was due to actual variation in coating thickness at various points on
point B on Fig. 2 (the point at which the potential reading is the panel. This was confirmed by measuring thickness by the microscopi-
due predominantly to the exposure of only the semi-bright cal method at points close or adjacent to the spots used in the STEP tests.
nickel). Where the multilayer nickel contains a thin layer of a The results were in close agreement, that is, the variation in local thickness
high potential deposit, the potential of the bright nickel will be displayed in the STEP test measurements was also observed in the
microscopical measurements. Also, the electrode potential results from
taken at a point 2 µm before the dip in the curve attributed to
tests made at different current-density locations on a single sample can
the high potential layer. Use of an indicating (digital display) vary greatly due to the different characteristics of nickel electroplated at
meter is helpful if the chart is periodically annotated (every 15 different current densities.
to 30 s) with the display reading.
9.2 Measurements made on primary standard reference
NOTE 13—Due to the much thinner 9microdiscontinuous nickel9 and materials6 that certify the thickness, thickness uniformity, and
9high potential nickel9 strikes, compared to the bright and semi-bright the potential difference between the semi-bright and bright
nickel deposits, an estimate of their potentials and thickness is sometimes nickel layer showed that thickness could be measured with a
all that is obtainable.
standard deviation of 60.5 µm with a variance of 2.1 %. The
NOTE 14—Another method is to determine the point of inflection of the
curve, which is the point of maximum slope. If it is not evident to the eye, potential difference was measured with a standard deviation of
the use of a straight edge can be helpful. The straight edge is lined up with 60.82 mV with a variance of 0.7 %.
the step portion of the curve as shown in Fig. 2. The segment of the plot 9.3 3 Determination of the bias or accuracy of the method
with the maximum slope should be of finite length, line C-D in Fig. 2, and has not been studied in detail. Note 12 suggests, however, that
the midpoint of the segment can be taken. the STEP test provides as accurate a determination of the local
9. Precision and Bias nickel thickness as does the microscopical method.
9.1 In the case of multilayer nickel coatings, the measure- 10. Keywords
ment uncertainty or precision of the method has been studied 10.1 potential; STEP; thickness
on electroplated panels. Results based on measurements made
in three laboratories showed that the thickness of semi-bright 6
Primary Standard Reference Material (SRM) Number 2350 for calibrating this
and bright nickel layers can be determined with a standard method is available from the National Bureau of Standards, Office of Standard
deviation of 61.65 µm with a variance of 9.2 %. The potential Reference Materials, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.

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6
Designation: B 766 – 86 (Reapproved 2003)

Standard Specification for


Electrodeposited Coatings of Cadmium1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation B 766; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope products on the surface. This allows for proper functioning


1.1 This specification covers the requirements for electrode- during corrosive exposure of moving parts, threaded assem-
posited cadmium coatings on products of iron, steel, and other blies, valves, and delicate mechanisms without jamming with
metals. debris.
NOTE 1—Cadmium is deposited as a coating principally on iron and 2. Referenced Documents
steel products. It can also be electrodeposited on aluminum,