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ISEET MOLE CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE #
ISEET MOLE CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE #

ISEET MOLE CONCEPT

LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV

CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE # 1 Basic definition,
CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE # 1 Basic definition,
CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE # 1 Basic definition,
CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE # 1 Basic definition,
CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE # 1 Basic definition,
CONCEPT LECTURE NOTES OF MOLE CONCEPT- I, II, III & IV LECTURE # 1 Basic definition,

LECTURE # 1

Basic definition, amu, N A & Mole, Moles of atoms and molecules :

Introduction :

There are a large number of objects around us which we can see and feel.

Anything that occupies space and has mass is called matter.

Ancient Indian and Greek Philospherís beleived that the wide variety of object around us are made from combination of five basic elements : Earth, Fire, Water, Air and Sky. Ancient Greek Philosphers also believed that all matter was composed of tiny building blocks which were hard and indivisible.The Greek philosphere Democritus named these building blocks as atoms, meaning indivisible.All these people have their philosphical view about matter, they were never put to experimental tests, nor ever explain any scientific truth.It was John Dalton who firstly developed a theory on the structure of matter, later on which is known as Daltonís atomic theory.

I DALTONíS ATOMIC THEORY :

1. Matter is made up of very small indivisible particle called atom.

2. All the atoms of a given element is idenctical in all respect i.e. mass, shape, size, etc.

3. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed by any chemical process or physical process.

4. Atoms of different elements are different in nature.

Classification of matter

Classification of matter on the basis of physical behaviour Solids Liquids Gases III Some Definitions I.
Classification of matter on the basis of physical behaviour Solids Liquids Gases III Some Definitions I.
Classification of matter on the basis of physical behaviour Solids Liquids Gases III Some Definitions I.
Classification of matter on the basis of physical behaviour Solids Liquids Gases III Some Definitions I.

on the basis of physical behaviour

Classification of matter on the basis of physical behaviour Solids Liquids Gases III Some Definitions I.
Classification of matter on the basis of physical behaviour Solids Liquids Gases III Some Definitions I.

Solids

Liquids

Gases

III Some Definitions

I. RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS :

on basis the of chemical behaviour

RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS : on basis the of chemical behaviour Pure substances Element Compound Mixtures It
RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS : on basis the of chemical behaviour Pure substances Element Compound Mixtures It

Pure substances

MASS : on basis the of chemical behaviour Pure substances Element Compound Mixtures It is the
MASS : on basis the of chemical behaviour Pure substances Element Compound Mixtures It is the

Element

Compound

Mixtures

It is the ratio of the mass of 1 atom of a substance and 1/12 of mass of 1 atom of C 12 isotope. For atoms this is done byexpressing mass of one atom with respect to a fixed standard. Dalton used hydrogen as the standard (H = 1). Later on oxygen (O = 16) replaced hydrogen as the reference.

C-12 ISOTOPE OF CARBON IS LATEST CHOSEN STANDARD SINCE 1961 Therefore relative atomic mass is given as

mass of one atom of the element

Relative atomic mass (R.A.M) =

1

12

mass of one C

12

atom

total number of nucleons

massof1nucleon

On Hydrogen scale :

= 1

12

12

massof1nucleon

mass of one atom of the element

Relative atomic mass (R.A.M) =

Oxygen scale :

mass of one H atom

mass of one atom of the element

Relative atomic mass (R.A.M) =

1

16

mass of one O

16 atom

= Total Number of nucleons

II. ATOMIC MASS UNIT (OR AMU)

The atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to one twelfth

1

12

1 amu

1

mass of one C-12 atom

= 12 ~ mass of one neucleon in C-12 atom. = 1.66 10 ñ24 gm or 1.66 10 ñ27 kg

of the mass of one atom of carbon-12 isotope.

one amu is also called one Dalton (Da).TODAY , AMU HAS BEEN REPLACED BY ëuí WHICH IS KNOWN AS UNIFIED MASS

III.

ATOMIC MASS

It is the mass of 1 atom of a substance it is expressed in AMU. Atomic mass = R.A.M 1 amu

Note :

Example :

Relative atomic mass is nothing but the number of nucleons present in the atom.

Find the relative atomic mass of ëOí atom and its atomic mass.

Sol.

The number of neucleons present in ëOí atom is 16.

relative atomic mass of ëOí atom = 16.

Atomic mass = R.A.M 1 amu = 16 1 amu = 16 amu

Q.

Find the relative atomic mass, atomic mass of the following elements.

(i)

Na

(ii) F

(iii) H

(iv) Ca

(v) Ag

Ans.

(i)

23, 23 amu

(ii) 19, 19 amu

(iii) 1, 1.008 amu (iv) 40, 40.078 amu (v) 108, 107.87 amu

Q.

How many neucleons are present in 5 atoms of an element which has atomic mass 14 amu

Ans.

= 70

 

IV. MOLE :THE MASSñNUMBER RELATIONSHIP

Mole is a chemical counting Sunit and defined as follows :

A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many entities (atoms, molecules or other particles) as there are atoms in exactly 0.012 kg (or 12 gm) of the carbon-12 isotope.

From mass spectrometer we found that there are 6.023 10 23 atoms are present in 12 gm of C-12 isotope. The number of entities in 1 mol is so important that it is given a separate name and symbol known as Avogadro constant denoted by N A . i.e. on the whole we can say that 1 mole is the collection of 6.02 10 23 entities. Here entities may represent atoms, ions, molecules or even pens, chair, paper etc also include in this but as this number (N A ) is very large therefore it is used only for very small things.

1 mole x mass of 1 atom of C 12 isotope 1 mole x 12 x mass of one nucleon

1 mole =

1

1.66 x 10

24

= 6.023 x 10 23

= 12g = 12 g

  Alternatively value of N A can be

found in this fashion

Note : In modern practice gram-atom and gram-molecule termed as mole.

V. GRAM ATOMIC MASS :

The atomic mass of an element expressed in gram is called gram atomic mass of the element. For example for oxygen atom :

Atomic mass of ëOí atom = mass of one ëOí atom = 16 amu gram atomic mass = mass of 6.02 10 23 ëOí atoms

= 16 amu 6.02 10 23

= 16 1.66 10 ñ24 g 6.02 10 23 = 16 g (1.66 10 ñ24 6.02 10 23 ~ 1 )

Q. How many atoms of oxygen are their in 16 g oxygen.

x

x =

1.66 x 10

1

24

1.66 x 10

24

= 16 g

=

N A

or

It

is also defined as mass of 6.02 10 23 atoms. or

It

is also defined as the mass of one mole atoms.

Now see the table given below and understand the definition given before.

Element

R.A.M. (Relative Atomic Mass)

Atomic mass (mass of one atom)

Gram Atomic mass/weight

N

14

14

amu

14

gm

He

4

4 amu

4 gm

C

12

12

amu

12

gm

Example :

What is the weight of 3-g atoms of sulphur R.A.M. of s = 32.

Ans.

96 g

Example :

How many g atoms are present in 144 g of sulphur

Ans.

4.5 g atoms

Example :

The ratio of mass of a silver atom to the mass of a carbon atom is 9 : 1. Find the mass of 1 mole of C atom

if molar mass of Ag is 108.

Ans.

12

Example :

Calculate mass of sodium which contains same number of atoms as are present in 4g of calcium.Atomic masses of sodium and calcium are 23 and 40 respectively. Ans. 2.3 g

VI. MOLECULES :

It is the smallest particle of matter which has free existence. Molecules can be further divided into its constituents atoms by physical & chemical process. Number of atoms presents in molecule is called its atomicity. Element : H 2 , O 2 , O 3 etc. Compound : KCl, H 2 SO 4 , KClO 4 etc.

Molecule

KCl

H 2 SO 4

O 3

H 2

Atomicity

2

7

3

2

-

-

-

-

VII. MOLECULAR MASS :

It is the mass of one molecule

Ex.

Molecule

H 2 KCl H 2 SO 4

Molecular mass 2 amu (39 + 35.5) = 74.50 amo (2 + 32 + 64) = 98 amu.

VIII.

GRAM MOLECULAR MASS :

The molecular mass of a substance expressed in gram is called the gram-molecular mass of the substance. or

It

is also defined as mass of 6.02 10 23 molecules or

It

is also defined as the mass of one mole molecules. (molar mass)

For example for ëO 2 í molecule :

Molecular mass of ëO 2 í molecule = mass of one ëO 2 í molecule

= 2 mass of one ëOí atom

= 2 16 amu

= 32 amu

gram molecular mass = mass of 6.02 10 23 ëO 2 í molecules = 32 amu 6.02 10 23

= 32 1.66 10 ñ24 gm 6.02 10 23

= 32 gm

32 1.66 10 ñ 2 4 gm 6.02 10 2 3 = 32 gm Use the

Use the Y-map in the following example.

Example:

Sol.

Find the mass in grams of 3 mol of zinc. (GMM = 65)

Mass

= mol At. wt. = 3 65 gm = 195 gm

Example :

Sol.

How many atoms of copper are present in 0.5 mol of pure copper metal? No. of atoms = no. of moles N A = 0.5 6.02 10 23 = 3.01 10 23

Example :

The molecular mass of H 2 SO 4 is 98 amu. Calculate the number of moles of each element in 294 g of H 2 SO 4 . Solution Gram molecular mass of H 2 SO 4 = 98 gm

moles of H 2 SO 4 =

294

98

H 2 SO 4 One molecule 1 N A one mole

3 mole

= 3 moles

H

2

2 N A atoms 2 mole 6 mole

atom

S one atom 1 N A atoms one mole 3 mole

O 4 atom 4 N A atoms 4 mole 12 mole

Example :

A sample of (C 2 H 6 ) ethane has the same mass as 10 7 molecules of methane. How many C 2 H 6 molecules

does the sample contain ?

Ans.

n = 5.34 10 6

Example :

How many molecules of water are present in 252 mg of (H 2 C 2 O 4 .2H 2 O)

Page No.# 5

Ans. 2.4 10 21

Example :

Ans.

From 48 g of the He sample ,6.023 x 10 23 atoms of He are removed. Find out the moles of He left.Also Calculate the mass of carbon which contains same number of atoms as left over in this sample. 11 mole, 132 g of C.

LECTURE # 2

Laws of chemical combination, Molar volume of ideal gasses at STP, Average molar mass.

II THE LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATION

Atoine Lavoisier, John Dalton and other scientists formulate certain law concerning the composition of matter and chemical reactions.These laws are known as the laws of chemical combination.

1. THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS :( ANTOINE LAVOISIER)

It states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed in chemical reaction i.e . In a chemical change , total mass remains conserved.i.e. mass of all reactants = mass of products after reaction. ( In a closed system )

Example :

Before reaction

After the reaction

H 2 (g)

+

1 mole

0

1

2

1

2 mole

O 2 (g) 

0

1

mass before reaction = mass of 1 mole H 2 (g) + 2

= 2 + 16 = 18 gm mass after reaction = mass of 1 mole water = 18 gm

mole O 2 (g)

H 2 O (l)

1 mole

2. LAW OF CONSTANT OR DEFINITE PROPORTION :{JOSEPH PROUST}

A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by weight irrespective of their

source or method of preparation .

Ex.

In water (H 2 O), Hydrogen and Oxygen combine in 2 : 1 molar ratio, this ratio remains constant whether it

is

tap water, river water or sea water or produced by any chemical reaction.

Ex.

1.80 g of a certain metal burnt in oxygen gave 3.0 g of its oxide. 1.50 g of the same metal heated in steam

Sol.

gave 2.50 g of its oxide. Show that these results illustrate the law of constant proportion. In the first sample of the oxide, Wt. of metal = 1.80 g, Wt. of oxygen = (3.0 ñ 1.80) g = 1.2 g

In

wt.of metal

1.80g

wt.of oxygen

1.2g

1.5

the second sample of the oxide, Wt. of metal = 1.50 g, Wt. of oxygen = (2.50 ñ 1.50) g = 1 g.

wt.of metal

1.50g

wt.of oxygen

1g

1.5

Thus, in both samples of the oxide the proportions of the weights of the metal and oxygen are fixed. Hence,

the results follow the law of constant proportion.

3. THE LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTION : {JOHN DALTON}

When one element combines with the other element to form two or more different compounds, the mass of

Note :

one elements, which combines with a constant mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another. Simple ratio here means the ratio between small natural numbers, such as 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 3, later on this simple ratio becomes the valency and then oxidation state of the element.

Ex.

Carbon and oxygen when combine, can form two oxides viz CO (carbonmonoxide), CO 2 (Carbondioxides)

Note :

In CO, 12 gm carbon combined with 16 gm of oxygen. In CO 2 , 12 gm carbon combined with 32 gm of oxygen. Thus, we can see the mass of oxygen which combine with a constant mass of carbon (12 gm) bear simple ratio of 16 : 32 or 1 : 2 See oxidation number of carbon also have same ratio 1 : 2 in both the oxide.

4.

THE LAW OF RECIPROCAL PROPORTION (RITCHER) :

When two elements combine separatelywith a fixed mass of a third element, then the ratio of their masses in which they do so is either same or some whole number multiple of the ratio in which they combine with each other.

multiple of the ratio in which they combine with each other. The Law of Conservation of

The Law of Conservation of Mass :

In a chemical change total mass remains conserved. i.e., mass before reaction is always equal to mass after reaction.

CONCEPTS RELATED TO DENSITY :

It is of two type.

1. Absolute density

2. Relative density

For liquid and solids

mass Absolute density = volume

specific gravity =

For gases :

density of the substance

density of water at 4 C

Molar massof the gas

Absolute density (mass/volume) = Molar volume of the gas

*

For simplification, we can conclude that the density and specific gravity of any substance is numerically

Ex.

same, but density has a definite unit, but specific gravity has no unit. (dimension less) Specific gravity of a solution is 1.8 then find the mass of 100 ml of solution.

Ans.

180 gm.

RELATIVE DENSITY :

Ex.

It is the density of a substance with respect to any other substance. What is the V.D. of SO 2 with respect to CH 4

V.D. =

M.W. SO

M.W. CH

2

4

V.D =

16 64 = 4

Ex.

Find the density of CO 2 (g) with respect to N 2 O(g).

GAY-LUSSACíS LAW OF COMBINING VOLUME :

Gases combine in a simple ratio of their volumes provided all measurements should be done at the same temperature and pressure

H 2 (g)

+

Cl 2 (g)

 2HCl

1 vol

1 vol

2 vol

AVOGADROíS HYPOTHESIS :

Equal volume of all gases have equal number of molecules (not atoms) at same temperature and pressure condition. mathematically, for ideal gases, V n (CONSTANT T & P)

S.T.P. (Standard Temperature and Pressure):

At S.T.P. / N.T.P. condition :

temperature = 0 C or 273 K pressure = 1 atm = 760 mm of Hg volume of one mole of an ideal gas = 22.4 litres (experimentally determined) NOTE FOR FACULTY : The gas equation PV = nRT should never be used in this chapter.

Ex.

Sol.

Calculate the volume in litres of 20 g hydrogen gas at STP.

No. of moles of hydrogen gas = mass atomic weight =

volume of hydrogen gas at STP = 10 22.4 lt.

20

gm

2 g m

2 gm

= 10 mol

N A  N A Number Mole mol. wt.  At. wt.  mol. wt.
N
A
 N
A
Number
Mole
mol. wt.
 At. wt.
mol. wt.
At. wt.
Mass
22.4 lt
 22.4 lt

Volume at STP

Ex. Calculate the volume in litres of 142 g chlorine gas at STP.

Ans.

Ex. Find the volume at STP occupied by 16 g of ozone at STP.

44.8 lt.

22.4

Ans.

3

= 7.5

Ex.

From 160 g of SO 2 (g) sample, 1.2046 x 10 24 molecules of SO 2 are removed then find out the volume of left

over SO 2 (g) at STP.

Ans.

11.2 Ltr.

Ex.

14 g of Nitrogen gas and 22 g of CO 2 gas are mixed together. Find the volume of gaseous mixture at STP.

Ans.

22.4 Ltr.

Ex.

672 ml of ozonized oxygen (mix of O 2 and O 3 ) at N.T.P. were found to weight one gram. Calculate the volume of ozone in the ozonized oxygen. 56 ml

Ans.

6. AVERAGE/ MEAN ATOMIC MASS :

The weighted average of the isotopic masses of the elementís naturally occuring isotopes.

Ex.

Sol.

Note :

Mathematically, average atomic mass of X (A x ) =

a x

1

1

a

2

x

2

a

n

x

n

100

Naturally occuring chlorine is 75% Cl 35 which has an atomic mass of 35 amu and 25% Cl 37 which has a mass of 37 amu. Calculate the average atomic mass of chlorine -

(A) 35.5 amu (B) 36.5 amu (C) 71 amu

(D) 72 amu

(A) Average atomic mass =

% of isotope x its atoms mass % of I isotope x its atomic mass

100

75 x 35 25 x 37

=

100

= 35.5 amu (a) In all calculations we use this mass. (b) In periodic table we report this mass only.

MEAN MOLAR MASS OR MOLECULAR MASS:

The average molar mass of the different substance present in the container =

Ex.

The molar composition of polluted air is as follows :

n M

1

1

n M

2

2

n

n

M

n

 

n

1

n

2

n

n

Gas

At. wt.

mole percentage composition

Oxygen

16

16%

Nitrogen

14

80%

Carbon dioxide

-

03%

Sulphurdioxide

-

01%

What is the average molecular weight of the given polluted air ? (Given, atomic weights of C and S are 12 and 32 respectively.

Sol.

M avg =

j n

j 1

n M

j

j

j n

j 1

n

j

j n

Here

j 1

M avg =

n

j

= 100

16 x 32 80 x 28 44 x 3 64 x 1 =

512 2240 132 64 =

2948

 

100

100

100

LECTURE#3

= 29.48 Ans.

Empirical formula, % Composition of a given component by mass, % By mole, Minimum molecular mass determination.

EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULA :

We have just seen that knowing the molecular formula of the compound we can calculate percentage composition of the elements. Conversely if we know the percentage composition of the elements initially, we can calculate the relative number of atoms of each element in the molecules of the compound. This gives us the empirical formula of the compound. Further if the molecular mass is known then the molecular formula can easily be determined. Thus, the empirical formula of a compound is a chemical formula showing the relative number of atoms in the simplest ratio, the molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule. The molecular formula is generally an integral multiple of the empirical formula. i.e. molecular formula = empirical formula n

Ex.

Sol.

Ex.

Sol.

molecular formula mass

where

n =

empirical formula mass

Acetylene and benzene both have the empirical formula CH. The molecular masses of acetylene and benzene are 26 and 78 respectively. Deduce their molecular formulae.

Empirical Formula is CH

Step-1

The empirical formula of the compound is CH

Empirical formula mass

= (1 12) + 1 = 13.

Molecular mass = 26

Step-2

To calculate the value of ëní

Molecular mass

26

n = Empirical formula mass

Step-3

To calculate the molecular formula of the compound.

Molecular formula

=

13

= 2

= n (Empirical formula of the compound) = 2 CH = C 2 H 2

Thus the molecular formula is C 2 H 2 Similarly for benzene To calculate the value of ëní

Molecular mass

n = Empirical formula mass

=

78

13

= 6

thus the molecular formula is 6 CH = C 6 H 6 An organic substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen gave the following percentage composition.

C = 40.684% ; H = 5.085% and O = 54.228%

The molecular weight of the compound is 118. Calculate the molecular formula of the compound.

Step-1

To calculate the empirical formula of the compound.

Element

Symbol

Percentage

At. mass

Relative

no. Percentage

of atoms =

Simplest

Simplest whole no. atomic ratio

of element

of element

atomic ratio

   

At. mass

Carbon

C

40.687

12

40.687

= 3.390

3.390

=1

2

12

3.389

Hydrogen

H

5.085

1

5.085

1

= 5.085

5.085

3.389

=1.5

3

Oxygen

O

54.228

16

54.228

16

= 3.389

3.389

3.389

=1

2

Empirical Formula is C 2 H 3 O 2

Step-2

To calculate the empirical formula mass.

The empirical formula of the compound is C 2 H 3 O 2 .

Empirical formula mass = (2 12) + (3 1) + (2 16) = 59.

Step-3

To calculate the value of ëní

Molecular mass

n = Empirical formula mass

Step-4

=

118

59

= 2

To calculate the molecular formula of the salt.

Molecular formula

Thus the molecular formula is C 4 H 6 O 4.

= n (Empirical formula) = 2 C 2 H 3 O 2 = C 4 H 6 O 4

Ex.

An oxide of nitrogen gave the following precentage composition :

 

N = 25.94

 

and

O = 74.06

 

Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.

Ans.

N 2 O 5

Ex.

Hydroquinone, used as a photographic developer, is 65.4%C, 5.5% H, and 29.1%O, by mass. What is the empirical formula of hydroquinone ? Ans. C 3 H 3 O

% PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION :

Here we are going to find out the percentage of each element in the compound by knowing the molecular formula of compound. We know that according to law of definite proportions any sample of a pure compound always possess

Ex.

constant ratio with their combining elements.

Everymolecule of ammonia always has formula NH 3 irrespective of method of preparation or sources. i.e. 1 mole of ammonia always contains 1 mol of N and 3 mole of H. In other wards 17 gm of NH 3 always contains 14 gm of N and 3 gm of H. Now find out % of each element in the compound.

Mass of N in 1mol NH 3 14  100 Mass % of N in
Mass of N in 1mol NH
3
14
 100
Mass % of N in NH 3 =
=
100 = 82.35 %
Massof 1mol of NH
17
3
Mass of H
in 1 mol NH
3
3
 100
Mass % of H in NH 3 =
100 = 17.65 %
Massof 1 mole of NH
3
= 17
Ex.
Ans.
What is the percentage of calcium and oxygen in calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) ?
40%, 48%.
Ex.
Ans.
Acompound of sodium contains 11.5% sodium then find the minimum molar mass of the compound.
200 gm/mole.

LECTURE # 4

Stoichiometry Law of conservation of mass (LOCM) ,Equation based calculations (Elementary Level Single Equation or 2).

CHEMICAL REACTION :

It is the process in which two or more than two substances interact with each other where old bonds are

broken and new bonds are formed.

VI CHEMICAL EQUATION :

All chemical reaction are represented by chemical equations by using chemical formule of reactants and products. Qualitativelya chemical equation simplydescribes what the reactants and products are. However, a balanced chemical equation gives us a lot of quantitative information mainly the molar ratio in which reactants combine and the molar ratio in which products are formed. Example :

When potassium chlorate (KClO 3 ) is heated it gives potassium chloride (KCl) and oxygen (O 2 ).

KClO 3

2KClO 3

KCl + O 2 (unbalanced chemical equation )

2 KCl + 3 O 2 (balanced chemical equation)

Attributes of a balanced chemical equation: (From NCERT PAGE - 17)

(a)

It contains an equal number of atoms of each element on both sides of equation.(POAC)

(b)

It should follow law of charge conservation on either side.

(c)

Physical states of all the reagents should be included in brackets.

(d)

All reagents should be written in their standard molecular forms (not as atoms )

(e)

The coefficients give the relative molar ratios of each reagent.

Balancing a chemical equation

According to the law of conservation of mass, a balanced chemical equation has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. Many chemical equations can be balanced by

trial and error. Let us take the reactions of a few metals and non-metals with oxygen to give oxides

4

Fe(s) + 3O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 (S)

(a) balanced equation

2

Mg(s) + O 2 (g) 2MgO(S)

(b) balanced equation

P

4 (s)

+ O 2 (g)

P 4 O 10 (S)

(c) unbalanced equation

Equations (a) and (b) are balanced since there are same number of metal and oxygen atoms on each side of equations. However equation (c) is not balanced. In this equation. phosphorus atoms are balanced but not the oxygen atoms. To balance it, we must place the coefficient 5 on the left of oxygen

on the left side of the equation to balance the oxygen atoms appearing on the right side of the equation.

P 4 (S) + 5O 2 (g) P 4 O 10 (S)

balanced equation

Now let us take combustion of propane, C 3 H 8 , This equation can be balanced in steps.

Step 1. Write down the correct formulas of reactants and products. Here propane and oxygen are reactants, and carbon dioxide and water are products.

C 3 H 8 (g)

+ O 2 (g) CO 2 (g)

+ H 2 O (l)

unbalanced equation

Step 2. Balance the number of C atoms : Since 3 carbon atoms are in the reactant, therefore, three CO 2 molecules are required on the right side.

C 3 H 8 (g) +

O 2 (g)

3CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l)

Step 3. Balance the number of H atoms : on the left there are 8 hydrogen atoms in the reactants however, each molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms , so four molecules of water will be required for eight hydrogen atoms on the right side.

C 3 H 8 (g)

+ O 2 (g)



3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O (l)

Step 4. Balance the number of O atoms : There are ten oxygen on the right side (3 2 = 6 in CO 2 and 4 1 = 4 in water). Therefore, five O 2 molecules are needed to supply to supply the required ten oxygen atoms.

C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g)

3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O (l)

Step 5. Verify that the number of atoms of each element is balanced in the final equation. Always remember that subscripts in formula of reactants and products cannot be changed to balance an equation.

INTERPRETATION OF BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATIONS :

(STOICHIOMETRY AND STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS, NCERT, PAGE - 17)

3.

Mole-mole analysis :

 

This analysis is verymuch important for quantitative analysis point of view. Students are advised to clearly understand this analysis. Now consider again the decomposition of KClO 3 .

 

2KClO 3  2KCl + 3O 2

 
 

In very first step of mole-mole analysis you should read the balanced chemical equation like 2 moles KClO 3 on decomposition gives you 2 moles KCl and 3 moles O 2. and from the stoichiometry of reaction we can write

 

Moles of KClO 3

Moles of KCl

Moles of O 2

 
 

=

=

 

2

2

3

 

Now for any general balance chemical equation like

a

A + b B



 

c C +

d D

you can write.

 

Mole of Areacted

 

moles of B reacted

 

moles of C reacted

 

moles of D reacted

 

=

=

=

 

a

b

c

d

Ex.

3 moles (367.5 gm) of KClO 3 when heated how many moles KCl and O 2 is produced. The reaction is

 

Sol.

Ex.

2KClO 3  2KCl + 3O 2

Now,

Moles of KClO 3

Moles

of KCl

 

=

2

2

Moles of KClO 3

Moles of O 2

 

=

2 3

mole of O 2 produced =

33 = 4.5 moles

2

Moles of KCl produced = 3

CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O (from NCERT Page - 18) following conclusions can be drawn from above reaction by observing its stoichiometry

One mole of CH 4 (g) reacts with two moles of O 2 (g) to give one mole of CO 2 (g) and two moles of H 2 O (g)

One molecule of CH 4 (g) reacts with 2 molecues of O 2 (g) to give one molecule of CO 2 (g) and 2 molecules of H 2 O (g)

22.4 L of CH 4 (g) reacts with 44.8 L of O 2 (g) to give 22.4L of CO 2 (g) and 44.8 L of H 2 O (g)

16 g CH 4 (g) reacts with 2 32 g of O 2 (g) to give 44 g of CO 2 (g) and 2 18 g of H 2 O (g).

Note : In fact mass-mass and mass-vol analysis are also interpreted in terms of mole-mole analysis you can use following chart also.

Ex.

Sol.

Ex.

At. wt. / Mol. Wt. Mass Mole
At. wt. / Mol. Wt.
Mass
Mole
Mole-mole relationship Mole of equation 22.4 lt Mass Volume at STP mol. wt./At. wt.
Mole-mole
relationship
Mole
of equation
22.4 lt
Mass
Volume at STP
mol. wt./At. wt.

367.5 gm KClO 3 (M = 122.5) when heated (a) How many grams O 2 is produced (b) How many litre of O 2 is produced at STP Now consider the balanced chemical equation

2KClO 3  2KCl + 3O 2

Now go with the above chart

367.5 gm KClO 3
367.5 gm
KClO 3

122.5 gm

3 mole KClO 3
3 mole
KClO 3

Mole of KClO 3

2

=

Mole of O 2

3

(Mole-mole relationship of equation)

(a)

144 gm

(b)

100.8 lt

(mol. wt.) 32 gm 22.4 lt (volume at STP)
(mol. wt.)
32 gm
22.4
lt
(volume at STP)

9/2 mole of O 2

Iron in the form of fine wire burns in oxygen to form iron (III) oxide 4Fe(s) + 3O 2 (g)  2Fe 2 O 3 (s) How many moles of O 2 are needed to produce 5 mol Fe 2 O 3 ?

Ans.

7.5 mol O 2

Ex.

Nitric acid, HNO 3 , is manufactured by the Ostwald process, in which nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , reacts with water.

 

3NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) 

2HNO 3 (aq) + NO(g)

Ans.

How many grams of nitrogen dioxide are required in this reaction to produced 6.3 g HNO 3 ? 6.9g NO 2

Ex.

How many grams of Fe 2 O 3 is formed by heating 18 gm FeO with Oxygen.

 

4FeO + O 2  2Fe 2 O 3

Ans.

20. gm

Ex. How many litre O 2 at N.T.P. is required for complete combustion of 1 mole C 5 H 10 .

Ans.

168 lt.

Ex.

Calculate the weight of residue obtained when CaCO 3 is strongly heated and 5.6 litre CO 2 is produced at

Ans.

N.T.P. 14 gm

Ex.

When sodium bicarbonate is heated 1.806 x 10 24 molecules of water is obtained. Then find the volume of CO 2 (g) obtained at STP and amount of NaHCO 3 needed for this reaction.

Sol.

2NaHCO 3  Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2

So volume of CO 2 = 3 22.4 = 67.2 Lt. Mass of NaHCO 3 needed = 6 84 = 504 gm.

Problem 1.3

(NCERT, Page 18)

Solution :

Calculate the amount of water (g) produced by the combustion of 16 g of methane. The balanced equation for combustion of methane is :

 

CH 4 (g) + 20 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (g)

 
 

(i)

16 g of CH 4 corresponds to one mole.

(ii)

From the above equation, 1 mol of CH 4 (g) gives 2 mol of H 2 O (g)

2 mol of water (H 2 O) = 2 (2 + 16)

=

2 18 = 36 g

Problem 1.4

(NCERT, Page 18)

Solution:

How many moles of methane are required to produce 22 g CO 2 (g) after combustion? According to the chemical equation, CH 4 (g) + 20 2 (g)  CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (g) 44g CO 2 (g) is obtained from 16 g CH 4 (g). [ ] 1mol CO 2 (g) is obtained from 1 mol of CH 4 (g)

mole of CO 2 (g)

1molCO (g)

2

= 22g CO 2 (g) 44gCO (g)

2

= 0.5 mol CO 2 (g) Hence, 0.5 mol CO 2 (g) would be obtained from 0.5 mol CH 4 (g) or 0.5 mol of CH 4 (g) would be required to produce 22 g CO 2 (g).

LECTURE # 5

Limiting Reagent , % Excess , % Yield / Efficiency

LIMITING REAGENT :

The reactant which is consumed first and limits the amount of product formed into the reaction, and is

therefore called limiting reagent. Limiting reagent is present in least stoichiometric amount and therefore controls amount of product.

The remaining or leftout reactant is called the excess reagent. When you are dealing with balanced chemical equation then if number of moles of reactants are not in the ratio of stoichiometric coefficient of balanced chemical equation, then there should be one reactant which should be limiting reactant.

Example :

Three mole of Na 2 CO 3 is reacted with 6 moles of HCl solution. Find the volume of CO 2 gas produced at STP. The reaction is

Sol.

Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl 

2 NaCl + CO 2 + H 2 O

From the reaction :

Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl  2 NaCl + CO 2 + H 2 O

given moles

3 mol

6 mol

given mole ratio

1

:

2

Stoichiometric coefficient ratio

1

:

2

See here given moles of reactant are in stoichiometric coefficient ratio therefore none reactant left over. Now use Mole-mole analysis to calculate volume of CO 2 prdouced at STP

Moles of Na CO

2

3

1

=

Mole of CO Produced

2

1

Moles of CO 2 produced = 3 volume of CO 2 produced at STP = 3 22.4 L = 67.2 L Example :

6 moles of Na 2 CO 3 is reacted with 4 moles of HCl solution. Find the volume of CO 2 gas produced at STP. The reaction is

Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl  2 NaCl + CO 2 + H 2 O

Sol.

From the reaction :

Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl  2 NaCl + CO 2 + H 2 O

given mole of reactant

6

:

4

give molar ratio

3

:

2

Stoichiometric coefficient ratio

1

:

2

See here given number of moles of reactants are not in stoichiometric coefficient ratio. Therefore there should be one reactant which consumed first and becomes limiting reagent. But the question is how to find which reactant is limiting, it is not very difficult you can easily find it according to the following method.

HOW TO FIND LIMITING REAGENT :

Step :

Divide the given moles of reactant by the respective stoichiometric coefficient of that reactant.

Step :

See for which reactant this division come out to be minimum. The reactant having minimum value is limiting reagent for you.

Step : Now once you find limiting reagent then your focus should be on limiting reagent

From Step & 

Na 2 CO 3

HCl

6 = 6

1

4

2

= 2

HCl is limiting reagent From Step 

From

Mole of HCl

2

=

Moles of CO produced

2

1

(division is minimum)

mole of CO 2 produced = 2 moles

volume of CO 2 produced at S.T.P. = 2 22.4 = 44.8 lt.

Examples on limiting reagent :

Ex.

The reaction 2C + O 2  2CO is carried out by taking 24g of carbon and 96g O 2 , find out :

(a)

(b)

(c)

For the reaction 2P + Q R, 8 mol of P and 5 mol of Q will produce

(A) 8 mol of R

Which reactant is left in excess ?

How much of it is left ?

How many mole of CO are formed ?

(B) 5 mol of R

Ex.

(C*) 4 mol of R

(D) 13 mol of R

Ex.

Ans.

Sol.

Ex.

Ans.

Sol.

Ex.

X + Y

Above reaction is carried out by taking 6 moles each of X and Y respectively then

X 3 Y 4

(A)

X is the limiting reagent

(C)

1.5 moles of excess reagent is left behind

(B) 1.5 moles of X 3 Y 4 is formed (D) 75% of excess reagent reacted

X + Y X 3 Y 4 B, C, D

3X

+

4Y 

X 3 Y 4

6

mole

6 mole

6

ñ 4.5

0

1.5

mole

left

A + B

A 3 B 2

1.5 mole

formed

(unbalanced)

A 3 B 2 + C A 3 B 2 C 2 (unbalanced) Above two reactions are carried out by taking 3 moles each of Aand B and one mole of C. Then

(A) 1 mole of A 3 B 2 C 2 is formed

(C*) 1 mole of A 3 B 2 is formed

(B*) 1 2

(D*)

(C*) 1 mole of A 3 B 2 is formed (B*) 1 2 (D*) mole of

mole of AA 3 B 2 C 2 is formed

1 2 mole of AA 3 B 2 is left finally mole of AA 3 B 2 is left finally

B, C, D

 

3A

+

2B 

AA 3 B 2

3

mole

3 mole

1 mole formed

A 3 B 2

+

2C  AA 3 B 2 C 2

1

mole

1 mole

0.5

mole

0

0.5 mole

CS 2 and Cl 2 in the weight ratio 1 : 2 are allowed to react according to equation, find the fraction of excess reagent left behind.

CS 2 + 3Cl 2

 CCl 4 + S 2 Cl 2

mole

w

76

2w

71

L.R. = Cl 2 .

2w

Moles of CS 2 = 71

3

;

w

76

2w

71

3

w

2w

remaining = 76

ñ 213

fraction of Cl 2 left =

w

2w

76

213

w

76

x 100

= 28.6%.

Page No.# 17

Ex.

27 gm Al is heated with 49 ml of H 2 SO 4 (sp. gr = 2) produces H 2 gas. Calculate the volume of

H

2 gas at N.T.P. and % of Al reacted with H 2 SO 4

Ans.

Vol of H 2 = 22.4 litre Al reacted = 66.66%

Ex. Equal weights of carbon and oxygen are heated in a closed vessel producing CO and CO 2 in a

Ans.

: 1 mol ratio. Find which component is limiting and which component left and what is its percentage out of total weight taken. Limiting reagent is O 2 , carbon will left behind, 50%

1

Ex.

Three moles of Phosphorus is reacted with 2 moles of iodine to form P3 according to the reaction

 

P

+ 2 P3

 

P3 formed in the above reaction is further reacted with 27 g of water. According to the reaction.

 

P

3 + H 2 O H 3 PO 3 + H

 

HI formed in the above reaction is collected in the gaseous form.At higher temperature HI dissociated 50%

then find the molecules of H 2 gas liberated H H 2 + 2

Ans.

3/8 N A .

Problem 1.5 (NCERT Page - 19)

Sol.

50.0 kg of N 2 (g) and 10.0 kg of H 2 (g) are mixed to produce NH 3 (g) Calculate the NH 3 (g) formed. Identify the limiting reagent in the production of NH 3 in this situation. Take reaction N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 . A balanced equation for the above reaction is written as follows :

Calculation of moles :

N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)

moles of N 2

= 50.0 kg

N

2

1000gN

2

1kgN

2

1molH

2

28.0g N

2

= 17.86 10 2 mol

moles of H 2

= 10.00 kg H 2

1000gH

2

1kg H

2

1mol H

2

2.016 g H

2

= 4.96 10 3 mol

According to the above equation, 1 mol N 2 (g) requires 3 mol H 2 (g), for the reaction, Hence, for 17.86

10 2 mol of N 2 , the moles of H 2 (g) required would be

3molH (g)

17.86 10 2 mol N 2 1molN (g)

2

2

= 5.36 10 3 mol H 2

But we have only 4.96 10 3 mol H 2 . Hence, dihydrogen is the limiting reagent in this case. So NH 3 (g) would be formed only from that amount of available digydrogen i.e., 4.96 10 3 mol Since 3 mol H 2 (g) gives 2 mol NH 3 (g)

=

If

4.96 10 3 mol H 2 (g)

2molNH (g)

3

3molH (g)

2

3.30 10 3 mol NH 3 (g) is obtained.

they are to be converted to grams, it is done as follows :

17.0gNH (g)

3

3.30 10 3 mol NH 3 (g) 1molNH (g)

3

= 56.1 10 3 g NH 3

= 56.1 kg NH 3

. = 3.30 10 3 17 g NH 3 (g)

PERCENTAGE YIELD DETERMINATION :

If a reaction takes place completely, the amount of product formed will be equal to its theortical amount

(amount determined from the balanced reaction). The percentage yield of any product represents the amount of product formed in comparison to its theoretical amount. The percentage yield of any product will

always be equal to the percentage progress of the reaction.

Ex. When 3.90 gm Al(OH) 3 is reacted with excess of HCl, 6.50 gm AlCl 3 is formed. Determine the percentage yield of product. (Al = 27).

Sol.

Al(OH) 3

+

3HCl 

AlCl 3 + 3H 2 O

1 mole = 78 gm

1 mole = 133.5 gm

78 gm Al(OH) 3 produce 133.5 gm AlCl 3

3.90 gm Al(OH) 3 should produce

133.5

78

3.90 = 6.675 gm AlCl 3 .

6.50

But the amnount formed is only 6.50 gm. Hence, the percentage yield is 6.675

100 = 97.38%.

POAC, Reactions

LECTURE # 6

in sequence, Reactions in parallel , Mixture analysis , % Purity

PRINCIPLE OF ATOM CONSERVATION (POAC) :

POAC is based on law of mass conservation if atoms are conserved, moles of atoms shall also be conserved hence mass of atoms is also conserved. This principle is fruitful for the students when they donít get the idea of balanced chemical equation in the problem. This principle can be under stand by the following example.

Consider the decomposition of KClO 3 (s) KCl (s) + O 2 (g) (unbalanced chemical reaction) Apply the principle of atom conservation (POAC) for K atoms. Moles of K atoms in reactant = moles of K atoms in products or moles of K atoms in KClO 3 = moles of K atoms in KCl. Now, since 1 molecule of KClO 3 contains 1 atom of K or 1 mole of KClO 3 contains 1 mole of K, similarly,1 mole of KCl contains 1 mole of K. Thus, moles of K atoms in KClO 3 = 1 moles of KClO 3 and moles of K atoms in KCl = 1 moles of KCl.

moles of KClO 3 = moles of KCl

or

wt. of KClO

3

in g

wt. of KCl in g

mol. wt. of KClO

=

3 mol. wt. of KCl

The above equation gives the mass-mass relationship between KClO 3 and KCl which is important in stoichiometric calculations. Again, applying the principle of atom conservation for O atoms, moles of O in KClO 3 = 3 moles of KClO 3 moles of O in O 2 = 2 moles of O 2

3 moles of KClO 3 = 2 moles of O 2

or

3

wt. of KClO

3

vol. of O

3 = 2 standard molar vol. (22.4 lt.)

2

at NTP

mol. wt. of KClO

The above equations thus gives the mass-volume relationship of reactants and products.

Q. Write POAC equation for all the atoms in the following reaction. (i) N 2 O + P 4 P 4 O 10 + N 2 (ii) P 4 + HNO 3 H 3 PO 4 + NO 2 + H 2 O

Example :

Page No.# 19

Sol.

Q.1

Ans.

27.6 g K 2 CO 3 was treated by a series of reagents so as to convert all of its carbon to K 2 Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2 . Calculate the weight of the product. [mol. wt. of K 2 CO 3 = 138 and mol. wt. of K 2 Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2 = 698] Here we have not knowledge about series of chemical reactions but we know about initial reactant and final product accordingly

K 2 CO 3

 Several Steps K 2 Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2

Since C atoms are conserved, applying POAC for C atoms,

moles of C in K 2 CO 3 = moles of C in K 2 Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2

1 moles of K 2 CO 3 = 12 moles of K 2 Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2 (1 mole of K 2 CO 3 contains 1 moles of C)

wt. of K

2

CO

3

mol. wt.of K CO

2

3

wt. of the product

= 12 mol. wt.of product

wt. of K 2 Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2 =

27.6

698

138 12

= 11.6 g

0.32 mole of LiAlH 4 in ether solution was placed in a flask and 74 g (1 moles) of t-butyl alcohol was added. The product is LiAlHC 12 H 27 O 3 . Find the weight of the product if lithium atoms are conserved. [Li = 7, Al = 27, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16] 81.28 g

REACTIONS IN SUCCESSION :

In such problems, the amount of any one of the reaction component belonging from a reaction is to be determined from the given amount of some other reaciton component belonging from some other reaction with the help of some common components.

Ex.

Sol.

How many gram of ethylene can be burnt completely by the oxygen gas produced from complete decomposition of 49 gm KClO 3 .

2KClO 3 

2KCl

+

3O

2

C 2 H 4 + 3O 2 

Relate the moles of the component of given amount with the component of required amount, with the help of commom compound, with the help of balanced chemical reactions.

2 mole KClO 3 = 3 mole O 2 = 1 mole C 2 H 4

= 2 122.5 gm

2CO 2 + 2H 2 O

= 28 gm

28

=

49 gm

2

122.5

49 = 5.6 gm.

MIXTURE ANALYSIS OR PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION CALCULATION :

Ex.

When 4 gm of a mixture of NaHCO 3 and NaCl is heated strongly, 0.66 gm CO 2 gas is evolved. Determine

Sol.

the percentage composition of hte original mixture. CO 2 gas will come out only from NaHCO 3 according to the reaction :

2NaHCO 3  Na 2 CO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O

2mole

1mole

= 2 84gm

= 44 gm

44 gm CO 2 is evolved from 2 84 gm NaHCO 3

0.66 gm CO 2 will evolve from

284 0.66 = 2.52 gm NaHCO 3 .

44

Hence, the percentage composition of the mixture is, NaHCO 3 =

and NaCl = 100 ñ 63 =37%.

2.52

4

100 = 63%

Ex. 2 gm of a mixture of CaCO 3 and MgCO 3 requires 2 gm of H 2 SO 4 for complete reaction. Determine the percentage composition of the original mixture. Sol. Let the mixture contains x gm CaCO 3 . Then the weight of MgCO 3 should be (2 ñ x) gm.

CaCO 3 +

H 2 SO 4

 CaSO 4 + CO 2 + H 2 O

1mole

1mole

=

100 gm

=98 gm

100 gm CaCO 3 requires 98 gm H 2 SO 4 .

98

x gm CaCO 3 will react with 100

gm H 2 SO 4

MgCO 3

+

H 2 SO 4



MgSO 4

+

CO 2

+

H 2 O

1mole

1mole

=

84 gm

= 98 gm

84 gm MgCO 3 requires 98 gm H 2 SO 4

98

(2 ñ x) gm MgCO 3 will react with 84 (2 ñ x) gm H 2 SO 4

98

Hence, the total weight of H 2 SO 4 required = 100

x +

98

84

(2 ñ x) gm = 2 gm (from question).

x = 1.78 gm

Hence, the percentage composition of the mixture is

CaCO 3 = 2 x 100 = 89%.

MgCO 3 =

2 ñ x 100 = 11%.

2

PERCENTAGE PURITY CALCULATION :

In such problems, if the impurity is not given, it is always considered as inert material. Only the substance takes part in the chemical reaction.

Ex.

When 1.25 gm of a sample of chalk is strongly heated, 0.44 gm CO 2 gas in produce. Determine the percentage of pure CaCO 3 in the chalk sample.

Sol.

CaCO 3



CaO

+

CO 2

1mole

1mole

=100 gm

= 44 gm

44 gm CO 2 is produced from 100 gm CaCO 3

0.44 gm CO 2 should be produced from

100

44

0.44 = 1.0 gm CaCO 3

1.0

Hence, percentage of pure CaCO 3 in the sample = 1.25

100 = 80%.

Ex.

Calculate the amount of 80% pure NaOH sample required to react completely with 21.3 gm chlroine in hot condition.

Sol.

6NaOH +

3Cl 2  5NaCl + NaClO 3 + 3H 2 O

6mole

3mole

=6 40 gm

=3 71gm

3 71 gm Cl 2 requires 6 40 gm pure NaOH

6  40  21.3 gm Cl 2 will react with 21.3 = 24 gm
6
 40
 21.3 gm Cl 2 will react with
21.3 = 24 gm pure NaOH.
3
 71
100
Hence, the weight of NaOH sample required = 24
= 30 gm.
80

LECTURE # 7

Basics of oxidation number.

CONCEPT OF OXIDATION NUMBER :

Real or imaginary charge present on an element when it goes from its elemental free state to combined state.

Rules governing oxidation number :

The following rules are helpful in calculating oxidation number of the elements in their different compounds. It is remembered that the basis of these rule is the electronegativity of the element .

1. Fluorine atom :

Fluorine is most electronegative atom yet known and it has always oxidation number equal to ñ1 in any compound

2. Oxygen atom :

In general and in the case of its oxide oxygen atom has oxidation number equal to ñ2. In case of peroxide (e.g. H 2 O 2, , Na 2 O 2 ) it is ñ1, In case of super oxide (e.g KO 2 ) and ozonide (KO 3 ) it is ñ1/2 and ñ1/3 , In case of oxygendiflouride OF 2 it is + 2 & in dioxygendiflouride O 2 F 2 it is +1

3. Hydrogen atom :

In general H atom has oxidation number equal to +1 in all its compounds but in case of metallic hydride e.g. NaH, KH it is ñ1

4. Halogen atom :

In general all halogen atom (Cl,Br ,I) has oxidation number equal to ñ1 But if halogen atom is attached with an atom which is more electronegative than halogen atom then it will show positive oxidation number e.g.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

5

5

7

5

,

Metals :

(a) Alkali metal (Li , Na, K, Rb,

(b) Alkaline earth metal (Be , Mg , Ca

Note :- Metal may have negative or zero oxidation number

Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero

K ClO

3

HIO

3

,

HCIO

4

,

KBrO

3

) always have oxidation number +1 in all its compound.

) always have oxidation number +2 in all its compound.

e.g.

0

O

2

0

, S

8

0

, P

4

0

,O

3

Sum of the charges of all elements in a molecule is zero.

Sum of the charges of all elements in an ion is equal to the charge on the Ion .

If the group no. of an element in periodic table is n then its oxidation number may vary from n to