Coning

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 4

Coning

© All Rights Reserved

- Boundary Value Problem
- 3 - Reservoir Deliverability, Pages 29-43
- SPE Comparative Solution Project - dataset 2.pdf
- C4 L
- 00068065.pdf
- A Study to Minimise Bottomw Water Coning in Heavy Oil Reservoirs
- c_MTH133_u2ips_a
- SPE 72598 Carbonate Reservoir Characterization
- Preguntas CFD
- CME Intro
- cfd3
- moyer math - algebra ii - gp 03-31-14
- 1st_order
- ate-40111055
- Radial flow
- After Closure & Acidizing_StimPlan, 2003
- Mathematics Further Paper 1 Summer 2004
- Final_Tugas Hasil Dan Target
- Research of Classic Reservoir Permeability
- CH_2

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT c1

J. P. LETKEMAN ENGINEERING OF CANADA, LTD.

CALGARY, ALTA.

APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 8

R. L. RIDINGS ENGINEERING GROUP, INC.

MEMBERS AIME TULSA, OKLA.

. . -/ -......

- (;”ire-difference model to evaluate

ABSTRACT 1 ne desigfi “. -

coning behavior of gas or water in a singIe well

The numerical simulation o~ coning bebavior bas usually results in a model which uses radial

been one of tbe most difficult applications of coordinates. A two-dimensional single-well model

numerical analysis techniques. Coning simulations is illustrated in Fig. I. This type of model will

have generally exhibited severe saturation often produce finite-difference blocks with pore

instabilities in tbe vicinity o{ tbe well unless volumes less than 1 bbl near rhe wellbore while

time-step sizes were severely restricted. The producing large blocks with pore volumes greater

instabilities were a result of using nobilities based than 1 million bbl near the external radius. If one

on saturations existing at tbe beginning of the time chooses to use a reasonable time-step size of, say,

step. The time-step size limitation, usually tbe 1 ro 10 days, then normal well rates would result

order o~ a /ew minutes, resulted in an excessive in a flow of several hundred pore volumes per time

amount o{ computer time required to simulate step through the blocks near the wellbore. Therefore

coning behavior. the assumption that saturations remain constant,

This paper presents a numerical coning model for the purpose of coefficient evaluation, is not

that exhibits stable saturation and production valid.

behavior during cone formation and after break- Welge and Weberl presented a paper on water

through. Time-step sizes a factor of 100 to 1,000 coning which recognized the limitation of using

times as large as those previously possible may be explicir coefficients and applied an arbitrary

used in tbe simulation. To ensure stability, botb limitation on the maximum saturation change over a

production rates and nobilities are extrapolated time step. While this method is workable for a

implicitly to tbe new time level. The finite- dij{erence certain class of problems, it is not rigorous and is

equations used in tbe model are presented together not generally applicable. In 1968, Coats2 proposed

with the technique {or incorporating the updated a method to solve the gas percolation problem

nobilities and rates, Example calculations wbicb which is similar in that it also results from explicit

indicate tbe magnitude of the time-truncation errors nobilities. This proposal involved adjusting the

are included. Various factors which CZliect coning ~e]ative permeability to gas at the beginning of the

behavior are discussed. time step so that an individual biock wouid not be

over-depleted of gas during a time step. This

INTRODUCTION method is not conveniently extended to two

dimensions nor to coning problems where a block

The usual formulation of numerical simulation

is voided many times during a time step.

models for multiphase flow involves the evaluation

,,. . Blair and Weinaug3 explored the problems

of flow coerrlclefrt . ... beeinning

terms ..*. the “ of a time

re~oiting from explicitly determined coefficients

step and assumes that these terms do not change

and formulated a coning modei with irnpikit

over the time step. These assumptions are valid

nobilities and a solution technique urilizing

only if the values of pressure and saturation in the

Newtonian iteration. While this method is rigorous,

system do not change significantly over the time

achieving convergence on certain problems is

step.

difficult and, in many cases, time-step size is still

severely restricted.

Original manuscript received in Society of Petroleum Engineers

office Jan. 27, 1970. Revised manuscript received July 30, 1970. In addirion to the problems resulting from explicit

Paper (SpE 2812) was presented at Second Symposium on flow-equation coefficients in coning models, the

Numerical Simulation of Reservoir Performance, held in Dallas,

Tex., Feb. 5-6, 1970 @ Copyright 1970 American Institute of specification of rates requires attention to ensure

Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.

that the saturations remain stable in the vicinity of

lRefere”ce9 given at end of paper

the producing block. In reservoir modelling, it is

This paper will be printed in Tr.an.sacfions volume 249, which

-ill !-Over 1970. usual to specify, and hold constant over a rime

.-

. . ...... . . 0,.my,,

APPENDIX E RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AND

CAPILLARY PRESSURE DATA

CALCULATION DATA El

A

k. Pc

This appendix contains data used in the Sw kw Ow Ow

0.1

two different systems. Three-phase relative-

0.2 0.0016 0.875 0.095

permeability and capillary-pressure relationships

0.3 0.0081 0.735 0.072

described in Appendix A of Ref. 4 were used in

0.4 0.0259 0.590 0.061

conjunction with the data for relative permeabilities

and capillary pressures presented below. 0.5 0.0672 0.420 0.051

E.1 represents a laboratory model of one-eighth of 0.6 0.1000 0.210 0.041

a 10-acre five-spot (applicable to Figs. 3 through 0.7 n I Am

“. .=”” 0.070 0.031

7). Prototype dimensions are in parentheses; other 0.8 0.2000 0.016 0.021

prototype properties are the same as laboratory 0.86 0.2500 0.0 0.011

properties. E.2 represents one-eighth of lx-acre k P

s k;

five spot (applicable to Fig.8). 02 0042 Co&?

E.1 E.2 0.410 0.009 0.067

0.2

---- ~ ~~~

k(darcies)(kxky) 132 (1.1) 5 0.3 0.310 V.ujl

+ 0.375 (0.375) 0.33 0.4 0.220 0.062 0.020

L (ft) 3.9 (467) 160 0.5 0.140 0.110 – 0.001

Sand thickness (ft) 0.5, 0.83 (60,100) 26 0.6 0.080 0.190 -0.022

KhR(Btu/ft/DOF) 24 35 0.7 0.030 0.335 -0.043

0.8 0.005 0.570 — 0.064

Kh JBtu/ft/D°F) 12 34

0.89 0.0 1.000 -0.085

(pc~R(Btu/cuft°F) 36 40

(pc)ob(Btu/cuftOF) 30 36 E2

-J_

Ti (°F) 80 55 k Pc

Sw kw 00w Ow

Swi (bottom block) 0.1 0.4

0.24 0.0 0.916 1.6

Sgi (top biotic) 0 0,.4

0.3 n nnkk 0.’495 0.27

U.u””” -----

Tinj (OF) 400 555 0.14

0.4 0.0190 0.197

Pinj (psi) 260 1,100 0.5 0.0420 0.072 0.084

~prod (psi) ~ 190t 100 0.6 0.1060 0.007 0.06

Steam quality 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.2300 0.0 0.04

p (cp) T (°F) s k;

02

50 5,000 500,000

--- ] ~~ ~~g 0,3 0.19 0.0 0.38

1>(J

0.4 0.i2 0.01 o.~8

250 20 41

0.5 0.055 0.04 0.21

350 7.1 8.8

0.6 0.015 0.125 0.16

450 4.0 3.6 0.12

0.7 0.001 0.38

550 2.0 0.76 0.0 0.70 0.11

~

qprod = 1 B/D ( 120 B/D) = constani during expefkefit. * s~

Sg = i—S 02.

‘i r

***

step, rates of oil, gas and water based on conditions

at the beginning of the time step. This explicit

spec~fication of rates in a coning modeI is

unsatisfactory — particularly after breakthrough.

Coning mode is dispiay Fapiri p:es sure arrd

saturation changes in the vicinity of the wellbore—

particularly over the first few time steps after a

rate change. These models aiso are ~kta~teihd

by fiOw coeffieisn.= .- +; - ..c ~. .~W

.. . . V=y by a factor of

l@ from the wellbore to the outer radius. These 1

characteristics of coning models demand that

● P::;, - P:;l ‘~og (Di-Di+l) ‘qoi

special attention be given in the selection and

application of numerical solution techniques. [ I

so

THE

For simplicity

NUMERICAL

in development,

MODEL

=VPi At

()—

00

. . . . . . . . (1)

be derived for a one-dimensional oil-water system. and the water equation may be written as:

Further, it will be assumed that the functions of

pressure (viscosity and formation volume factor) do

not vary significantly over the time step and can be

considered explicitly. This latter assumption is

reasonable since a change in formation volume

factor of 1 percent over a time step would be rare.

However, the saturation change, and the resulting

change in relative permeability, is significant and

will be assumed to be the controlling factor in the

changing mobility.

The difference equation for oil flow, with all

terms included, may be written as:

SW

=Vpi At

()~w

—.........(2)

I

J

1

PRODUCING -2

INTERvAL

{ -3

4

6

7

l] 1 I

8 OIL ZONE

9

13

! 1

7// //// A 77///l/////l//// /7,4’///////

14

/ ////x.L’’//zhM,///M/////J///////

15 / ////zK//// WATER

‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ZONE /

‘ ‘ “)+’’/’///./’’////’’/’/”

lb

17

18

19

20

J

~laoo’-+

rw r. FEETe re

Since

factors

the relative

which are functions

in the changing

~pproximated

permeabilities,

of saturation,

nobilities,

at the new time level,

k,. and k,w,

are the controlling

they will be

n + 1. There are

[

p~i-1-p~i

-flog1[ 1 (Di-Di-]) S~+l-s~

i-‘/2

updated relative permeabilities. The one selected

will depend upon the independent variables which

are selected in the formulation of the difference

equations. If the independent variables for these

equations are ~api]]ary pressure and one of the

phase pressures, the approximations maY be

written as:

and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- (5)

,rW (S~+’ )

[-L,2[’’’’1-P’:1

If rhe independent

the phase pressures

variables are selected

and saturation,

as one of

the followlng

+fw9(Di-Di-1)

1[ + kA

BWUWAX

[1

d kro n

)=kro (S~)+ ~ ‘+’ -s:)

(sO “(*~,/~li-, ‘p~i ‘~wg(Di-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(4a)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4b)

equations, Eqs. 1 and 2, will produce terms

inv~!vin ~Q both independent variables and, thus, ‘Di+1)]+[hfiwAX(%#+1,2[p~i+1

loss of linearity. To our know Iedge, the resulting

equations cannot be solved using current techniques.

However, modified equations which eliminate this

‘PJi

problem have been successfully used. Those

equations take the form:

‘pwg(Di-Di+’)l [sl+’-sLli+Y2+

Sw (6)

qWI.=vpi At

() ~........

for water.

An imporpant point ~Q remember is that mobility

terms should be evaluated at the upstream block.

Accordingly, the slopes of relative permeabili:ies

//(k+&)~~“ “ “ “(8a)

must be evaluated at that point as well as the

appropriate independent variable (either saturation

--- . . d

or capillary

variables

pressure).

indicated

For exampie, the Siop=

in Eqs. 5 and 6 at (i –’%) me

aJJ

“ w

which is the upstream block. While this is not a for oil, and

difficult concept, it becomes a significant compli-

~atien when programming the solution.

Successful solution of these modified equations

depends to a large degree on the proper selection

of the slopes of the relative permeability curves.

From experience, we have found that the best ,[!@+b). . . . ..(*b)

results for coning simulations are obtained using

an average slope for the relative permeability

~~r-{e~ in the ]QW saturation ranges. In applications

for water. The ~~~~cJ SQ ~aiculated prevent the

such as gas percolation, where saturation changes

saturation around the wellbore from becoming

are less severe, slopes based on the saturation exhibiting reversals. The rate

negative or

existing at the beginning of the time-step may be Eqs. 8a and 8b, are included in

approximations,

used successfully.

the flow equations, Eqs. 5 and 6, for the producing

Experience with these modified equations

can be solved blocks and, thus, add to the coefficients determining

indicates that most problems

the saturation in those blocks.

successfully without iterating on the coefficients.

Where distribution of total well production among

An exception to this would be where the assumption

several producing blocks is desired, this is normally

that the relative-permeability slopes remain constant

done based on potential. This rype of distribution

over the time step is not valid. However, reduction

o f rates has been done explicitly with no unusual

in size of time step would probably be more

problems.

satisfactory than iteration in these cases.

Extension of the modei to applications other —..—.. .-

SOLUTION OF EQUA-I-lONS

than coning problems is readily seen. For example,

cross-section models, particularly those in which More than any other type of reservoir simulation

gas percolation is a problem, can be easily solved model, the coning model requires close attention to

with this method. the proper

selection of a numerical solution

technique as well as a good understanding of the

UPDATED RATES selected technique. This understanding extends to

stable saturation solutions the ability to detect problems as they arise and to

In coning problems,

modify the technique to handle those problems.

in blocks near the wellbore require specification of

This kind of expertise is gained only after a great

production rates that are based on the saturation at

deal of experience in both numericai methods arid

the new time level. A common specification is that

in coning problems.

of a total reservoir voidage rate at an individual

Most coning problems appear to be solvable

production block. In this case, the totai production

using variations of line SOR. While SOR converges

is distributed to the individual phases on the basis some other methods, under

For example, ro distribute less rapidly than

of the updated nobilities.

a total rate, qt, between oil and water: o$ptlmum conditions it is easier to use and is less

hkely ro diverge on the class of problems which----it

will handle. ADIP has been found to soive a iarge~

k ~+ krw class of coning problems than SOR. Further, it

— . . .. (7a)

qo’%~ /( U() Uw ) appears that the strongly implicit procedure 4 (SIP)

will converge better than ADIP for many problems.

However, as one Progresses from ‘OR ‘0 ‘DIP ‘0

and s1p, the techniques and convergence problems

become more difficult and more experience is

k kro + krw required to cope with those problems.

—.. . . (7b)

qw=c?t~ /( ~ Uw ) The large gradients and the large variation in

flow coefficients in coning problems make the

selection of a set of convergent iteration parameters

As before, an approximation for the relative

for ADIP or SIP difficult. Generally, the selection

permeabilities at the new time level is made. This of iteration parameters must be done by trial and

is accomplished as follows.

error, since iteration parameter selection techniques

presented in the literature often result in divergence.

n +1 kro .—I d kro (s:+’-s~)

qo =qt =+UO d so A CONING EXAMPLE

[ 1 the practical application of a

TO illustrate

numerical coning model utilizing updated nobilities of line SOR was used for solving the example

and rates, as described in the preceding sections, problem.

a two-dimensional water coning problem was Table 2 shows the calculated performance for

selected. The model data used was selected from the example case using a 5day time step. Fig. z

a coning example of Blair and Weinaug.3 This 9 x 20 shows the movement of the 20-percent water

,, saturation contour with time, and Fig. 3 shows that

DJock mode! hid horizontal permeability of I to 5

darcies and vertical permeability of 100 md. Tiie of the 50-percent contour- The Calculated ‘ariat{on

bottom-water drive system produced 6,OOO bbl of in water saturation at the bottom of the p~edl~clng

reservoir fluid per day. The original oil in place interval using time steps up to 100 days is shown

was about 34 million bbl. A description of the as Fig. 4. Fig. 5 shows the calculated variation in

model is given in Fig. 1 and Table 1. water-oil ratio with the different time-step sizes.

Calculations were made for the example case Estimates of the time truncation errors obtained

which predicted model performance for 2,000 days from Figs. 4 and 5 indicate that the errors introduced

using time steps of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 days. All by the larger time steps have the effect of a time

calculations were performed on the CDC 6600 delay on calculated performance. The precision

computer and solution times varied from 1 to 10 required from the model will depend on the individual

minutes. The solution times varied, based on the application and the relative accuracy of data

time steps used and the number of iterations estimates. Usually, a Uial-and-error approach must

required to converge for each time step. A variant be used to select the optimum time-step for a

particular coning application. Although the larger

time-steps cause a relatively larger error in the

TABLE 1 — PROPERTIES OF CONING MODEL the results are usually

calculated performance,

Oil density 0.826 gmlcc

adequate for engineering purposes. In this case,

Water density 1,0 gmlcc

Oii compressibility 1. x 10-5 vOl\vOl/psi

Water compressibility 3. x 10-6 vOifvOi~psi

Oil viscosity 0.31 Cp

Water viscosity 0.34 Cp

Production rate 6,000 RB/D

Sw K K ro Pc

~

G 0.0000 0.95 1.23

0.2 0.004 0.75 0.66

0.25 0.0102 0.5876 0.54

0.3 0.0166 0.4462 0.48

0.35 0.0232 0.3325 0.42 620

100 OATS

0.4 0.0305 0.2450 0.38

0.45 0.0392 0.1770 0.34

I

0.5 0.0497 0.1200 0,30

0,27 lW

0.55 0.0630 0.0724

0.6 0.0798 0.0374 0.24

180

0.65 0.1000 0.0163 0.21

0.7 0.1244 0.0020 0.17

0.12

200 .,&, .&. &’ 400 500 Soo 700 we ●OO 1000 1100 ‘

0.75 0.1525 0.0001

RADIUS

- FT.

0.8 0.1870 0.0000 -0.22

Radii at block boundaries (ft)

2.5, 3.9, 9.0, 18.5, 38.1, 78.3, 332.0, 663.9, 1,131.5, 1,300

a.

Properties by LGye~

kh (darcy) Depth so

‘h

Layer Thickness (ft)

T 3.75 1,000 = ‘2000 SAYS

2 8.75 1,000 8.1

3 7.50 1,000 16.2

60

4 6.25 1,000 23.1

5 8.75 1,000 30.6

:W

6 10.0 1,000 40.0

7 11.25 1,000 50.6

8 15.0 1,000 63.7

9 18.75 1,000 80.6

10 20.0 1,000 100.0

11 20.0 1,000 120.0

140

12 20.0 1,000 140.0

13 20.0 1,000 160.0

14 21.25 5,000 180.0

15 23.75 5,000 203.1

16 25.0 5,000 227.5

17 25.0 ~,~(?J 252.5 200

100 *OO *OO 400 MO aoo 700 600 ●OO !400 Ilw.

{6 37.5 5,000 284.2 RADIUS

- FT.

19 37.5 5,(X30 321.7

20 25.0 5,000 353.5 FIG 3 — 50 PERCENT H ~0 SATURATION CONTOUR.

60

55 5 DAY STEP

10 DAY STEP

so

\\

4 5

50 DAY STEP >

~.\

\ 50 MY STEP

40 100 D~~S7ZF\ 100OATSTEP

\\

\

35

30.

.?5

I000 140 Iwo 1s00 2300

TIME - DAYS

Isp==

800 I000 >200 14 00 1600 18C0 1,750 to 35,000 times per time step.

600 .-. n.vs

r,uc. .

A number of well history cases have been

FIG. 4 — CALCULATED WATER SATURATION AT studied, using the methods in this paper, in which

BOTTOM PRODUCING BLOCK. actual coning performance was successfully

duplicated~16 These cases, along with the

the engineering value of the results calculated theoretical verification of the methods, tends to

using 20-day time steps is as good as those using uphold the validity of the models.

smaller time steps for any normal application.

A significant point that is brought out by this CONCLUSIONS

example is that the approach to numerical modelling

of coning behavior presented in this paper produces The following conclusions are offered.

stabie soiutions a: large rime steps. It should be 1. The numericaI techniques presented exhibit

noted that the blocks open to production at the stabie saturatiori sricf production behavior during

wellbore contain a total pore volume of 17.5 bbl. cone formation and after breakthrough.

At the production rate of 6,ooO bbl of reservoir 2. Time-step sizes much larger than previously

Producing Water Saturation at

Time Oil Rate Water Rate Water-Oil Ratio Oil Recovery Bottom Producing Block

(days) (STB/D) (B/D) (percent) (percent) (percent)

100 6,107 0 0.00 1,8 15,0

200 6,107 0 0.00 3.6 15.0

300 6,106 0 0.00 5.4 15.0

400 6,106 0 0.00 7.2 15.0

500 6,106 0 0,00 9.0 15.0

600 6,106 0 0.00 10,8 15.1

700 6,105 1 0.02 12.6 15.4

SOQ 6:102 4 0.07 14.4 16,5

900 6,093 13 0.21 16.2 19.0

1,000 6,077 29 0.47 18.0 22. i

1,100 6,055 50 0.82 19.8 25.0

1,200 6,025 79 1.31 21.6 28,3

1,300 5,977 127 2.12 23.4 ~~,A

1,400 5,900 202 3,43 25.1 37.3

1,500 5,782 318 S.50 26.8 42.6

1,600 5,606 492 8.77 28.5 48.1

1,700 5,380 715 13.29 30.1 52.4

1;800 5,154 939 18.21 31.7 55.0

1,900 4,915 i,i75 23,91 33.2 56.9

~g.~

2,000 4,687 1,401 29.89 34,6

possible can now be used in coning simulation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

3. Coning simulation is practical and economical

using the modified equations. The authors wish to express their appreciation

to Mike Blair of Esso Production Research Co. for

NOMENCLATURE furnishing the example data. The assistance of the

ADE staff, especially that of Henry W. Lampe, in

A= cross-sectional area open to flow the preparation of the paper is gratefully

B= formation volume factor, reservoir volumei acknowledged.

standard volume

D= depth, below datum REFERENCES

g= gravitational constant 1. Welge, Henry J. and Weber, A. G.: “Use of TWO-

k= absolute permeability Dimensional Methods for Calculating Well Coning

Behavior”, Sot. Pet. Eng. j. (Dec., 1964) 345-355.

k, = relative permeability

2. Coats, K. H.: I(A Treatment of the Gas Percolation

p= phase pressure Problem in Simulation of Three-Dimensionsl, Three-

Vp = pore volume Phase Fiow- Lf Reservoirs”, SOc. Pet. Eng. J. (Dec.,

1968) 41>419.

Pc = capiliary pressure

3. Blair, P. M. and Weinaug, C. F.: “Solution of TWO-

q= rate of production or injection Phase Flow’ P~~biema Using Implicit Difference

s . saturation Equations”, Sot. pet. Eng. -I. (Dec., 1~~~) d~~-d~~.

mations of Multidimensional Partial Differential

t= time difference operator Equations”, ]. SIAM Numer. Anal. (1968) Vol. 5, No.

p. viscosity 3, 530.

p= density 5. , tPrimarY Reserve Submission, Sylvan Lake Pekisko

B Pool, Hudson’s Bay Oil and Gas Ltd.”, Proc., No.

SUBSCRIPTS AND SUPERSCRIPTS 4865, Oil and Gas Conservation Board (1970).

6. Fi,ghei, W, G:, Tetreau, E. M. and Letkeman, J. P.:

i = spatial index

“Application of Numerical Conirig Modei~ TO

Increase Oil Productivity in the Bellshill Lake

O = Oii

Blairmore Pool”, paper CIM 7038 presented at 21st

w = water Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, Alta. (May 6-8,

1970).

***

.. . . . .. . .

- Boundary Value ProblemЗагружено:Sophie Phan
- 3 - Reservoir Deliverability, Pages 29-43Загружено:ehsan
- SPE Comparative Solution Project - dataset 2.pdfЗагружено:Luiz Cabello
- C4 LЗагружено:shah143
- 00068065.pdfЗагружено:tsar_philip2010
- A Study to Minimise Bottomw Water Coning in Heavy Oil ReservoirsЗагружено:saladinayubi1234
- c_MTH133_u2ips_aЗагружено:Ashley Peters
- SPE 72598 Carbonate Reservoir CharacterizationЗагружено:mejiasid
- Preguntas CFDЗагружено:Anonymous rEpAAK0i
- CME IntroЗагружено:abhisheks5987
- cfd3Загружено:Chandana Karumanchi
- moyer math - algebra ii - gp 03-31-14Загружено:api-247664996
- 1st_orderЗагружено:Jayaraman Baskaran
- ate-40111055Загружено:dharminderarora
- Radial flowЗагружено:onwunalu
- After Closure & Acidizing_StimPlan, 2003Загружено:alizareiforoush
- Mathematics Further Paper 1 Summer 2004Загружено:Wilson Khor
- Final_Tugas Hasil Dan TargetЗагружено:FuadAuliaBahri
- Research of Classic Reservoir PermeabilityЗагружено:Helton Magno
- CH_2Загружено:Bal Krishna
- Waterflood ManualЗагружено:Rama Nathan
- Well TestingЗагружено:Danial Azim
- MBAL_Complete2Загружено:rinabuoy
- C1_08-Jan.pdfЗагружено:Anderson Alfred
- unit plan 1Загружено:api-375352361
- Article Non Slip ConditionЗагружено:Andres Riscanevo
- Abbas Zadeh 1993Загружено:husseinhsh
- Predicting Sand Production - PetroWikiЗагружено:Aizen
- Thesis AndreCaladoЗагружено:karthik
- Lab 2_Turbidity and Solids Updated - CopyЗагружено:MuStafaAbbas

- Petroleum Geology of the Persian Gulf BasinЗагружено:behrangaref
- ch10_1.pdfЗагружено:Binu Kaani
- 17-34-1-SMЗагружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- Water Coning Prediction Review and ControlЗагружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- B2201-G.pdfЗагружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- JSAER2017-04-12-137-148Загружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- Halliburton Cementing Tables.pdfЗагружено:Hoan Hoan
- IRP25 Sanctioned January 2017.pdfЗагружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- e 41213446Загружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- Thomson 2013Загружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- 00066536Загружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- Market Analysis170705053503Загружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- Induction LogЗагружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- IPTC 17039 AbstractЗагружено:RONALDO JEREMY
- ContributorsЗагружено:RONALDO JEREMY

- Numerical Modeling of Propellant Boil-Off CyroЗагружено:jbloggs2007
- Tank Rapid MixЗагружено:vicdejo
- LUGEON TEST INTERPRETATION, REVISITED.pdfЗагружено:Ezequiel Mejia
- Stream Line SimulationЗагружено:Novat
- Principal differences between 2D- and vertically averaged 3D models of topographical tidal rectificationЗагружено:Janneke Krabbendam
- HydraulicsЗагружено:thummadharani6698
- Dam-Break Flow in the Presence of ObstacleЗагружено:Daru Nurisma Pramukti
- power systemЗагружено:electricalconsultant
- CL420 Water Engineering 2 H41 GVF LabЗагружено:David Thomson
- Finite Element Chapter 1Загружено:zetseat
- 18008849-control-valve.pptЗагружено:awanishup
- HydraulicsЗагружено:Mahmoud Ahmed Ali Abdelrazik
- HGL ComputationЗагружено:Kevin Parcon
- Measure Met of Boundary on a Flat PlateЗагружено:MunJiwon
- 3 Steady State DiffusionЗагружено:Shahadat Awan
- CE1208Загружено:Jayavignesh Reddy
- Comprehsive Mechanistic Model of Two Pahse Flow in Deviated Pipes SPEЗагружено:anon_77151103
- Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering,Загружено:osoreneg
- 16therЗагружено:Arun Yoga
- PipeFlow1Single-phaseFlowAssuranceЗагружено:Bryan Kinches
- 7probЗагружено:Serik Fell O Wacko
- DAFTAR PUSTAKAЗагружено:Budi Smith
- Assignments of Transport Phenomena RegЗагружено:indahazhr
- DPBC Question Bank (1)Загружено:shubham
- Evaluate Crude Oil PipelinesЗагружено:ccordovam
- BLADE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF A.pdfЗагружено:sumit_raised
- Chapter 3.1- Heat and Work (Faizal)Загружено:Muhd Asyraaf
- L10 Demonstration of Cavitation Life Extension for Suction Stage in High Energy PunmpЗагружено:Delfinsh
- A FE Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction - 19910007101_1991007101Загружено:EggMan
- L9B.pdfЗагружено:brian