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Adaptation is a concerned with whole coursebook, adaptation concerns the parts that

make up that whole. Match or congruence is how to maximize the appropriacy of teaching
materials in context by changing some of internal chracteristics of a coursebook to make our
particular circumstance better. In a process of matching there are two criteria. The first
criteria is criteria, and the second one is external criteria. External criteria comprize both of
the overt claims made about materials and the charcteristics of particular teaching situations.
For example like learners characteristics, pysical environment, resources and class size.
Internal criteria are concerned with content, organization and consistency. For example like
choice a topic, skills covered, proficiency level and grading of exercise.

This is most likely to be expressed in terms of a need to personalize, individualize,

localize and modernize. I will explain what we need to do matcing. Personalize here refer to
increasing the relevance of content in relation learners interests and their academi,
educational, or professional needs. Individualize will adress the learning sytle both of
individuals of the members of a class working together. Localize take into account the
international geography of English language teachingand recognize that what my work well
in Indonesia country may not do so in another country like Korea and Japan. Madsem and
Bowen in 1978 include further category of modernize that English usage sometimes not only
out of date or misleading but even incorrect.

Techniques can be used individually or in combination with others, so the scale of

posibilities clearly range from straightforward to rather complex. All these points will be
raised again in the explanation of individual techniques :

a. Adding
b. Deleting
c. Modifying
d. Simplifying
e. Reordering

Adding is implifying that materials are supplemented by putting more into them, while
taking into accountthe practical effect on time allocation. We can add in this simple,
quantitative way by techniques of extending. The point to note is that adding by extension is
to supply more of the same. It means that the techinques are being applied within the
methodological frameworkof the original materials. Finally it is pointing out that additions do
not always have to be made onto the end of something. Deleting is clearly the opposite
process to that of addition and as such needs to further clarification as a term. Again as with
addition the techniques can be used on a small scale for example like an exercise or
coursebook. Modyfing is a very general term in the language applying to any kind of change.
It can be subdividedunder two related healings. The first is rewriting when someof the
linguistic content needs modification. The second is restructuring which apply to classroom
management. Rewriting therefore many relate activities more closely to a lerners own
background and interests introduce models of authentic language or set more purposeful,
problem –solving tasks where the answersare not always known before the teacher asks the
The example of restructuring is the materials may contains role – play activities for groups of
certain size. Simplifying is one type of modification, namely a rewriting activity. Many
elementsof language course can be simplified including the instructions and explainations
that accompany exercise and activities and even the visual layout of materials so that it
becomes easier to see how different parts fit togeteher. And the contents areas of the match
are language practice, texts, skills and classroom management.


Adaptation is a very practical activity carried out mainly by teachers in order to make their
work more relevant to the learner with whom they are in day – to – day contact. Not just an
exercise done in self – contained methodologycal isolation. Adaptation is linked to issues of
administration and the whole management of education, in so far as it derives from decisions
taken about material to be adopted. Adaptation can only be carried out effectively if it
develops from understanding of the possible design features of syllabuses and materials.