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Design &

Fabrication of
Automatic Tyre
Inflation System
PROJECT ON VEHICLE AUTOMATION

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Lokmanya Tilak College Of Engineering
Koparkhairane, Navi Mumbai – 400 709.

PROJECT REPORT ON

DESIGN & FABRICATION OF AUTOMATIC TYRE


INFLATION SYSTEM

SUBMITTED BY:

RAHUL SHINDE
NAYEEM SHAIKH
SURAJ SINGH
MOHD. TARIQ SHAIKH

PROJECT GUIDE: PROF. MRS. SHWETA MATEY

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Lokmanya Tilak College Of Engineering
Koparkhairane, Navi Mumbai – 400 709

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the following project group members

1. Rahul Shinde
2. Nayeem Shaikh
3. Suraj Singh
4. Mohd. Tariq Shaikh

Of B.E. Mechanical Engineering in the academic year 2012-2013 has


satisfactorily and successfully doing their project on :

Design and Fabrication of Automatic Tyre Inflation System.

Submitted in partial fulfilment of requirement for B.E in Mechanical


Engineering.

Prof. Mrs. Shweta Matey

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INDEX:

TITLE PAGE NO

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 ABSTRACT

2. OBJECTIVES

3. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

4. METHODOLOGY

5. SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION

6. ADVANTAGES AND FUTURE SCOPE

REFERENCE

APPENDIX

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 ABSTRACT
Driven by studies that show that a drop in tyre pressure by just a few PSI can

result in the reduction of gas mileage, tire life, safety, and vehicle performance,

we have developed an automatic, self-inflating tire system that ensures that tyres

are properly inflated at all times. Our design proposes and successfully

implements the use of a portable compressor that will supply air to all four tyres

via hoses and a rotary joint fixed between the wheel spindle and wheel hub at

each wheel. The rotary joints effectively allow air to be channeled to the tyres

without the tangling of hoses. With the recent oil price hikes and growing

concern of environmental issues, this system addresses a potential improvement

in gas mileage; tyre wear reduction; and an increase in handling and tyre

performance in diverse conditions.

The most important factors in tyre care are :

Proper Inflation Pressure


Proper Vehicle Loading
Proper Tyre Wear
Regular Inspection
Good Driving Habits
Vehicle Condition

1.2 TYRE-INFLATION BASICS

According to AAA, about 80 percent of the cars on the road are driving with one or more
tires under inflated. Tyres loose air through normal driving (especially after hitting pot holes
or curbs), permeation and seasonal changes in temperature. They can lose one or two psi

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(pounds per square inch) each month in the winter and even more in the summer. And, you
can't tell if they're properly inflated just by looking at them. You have to use a tire pressure
gauge. Not only is under inflation bad for your tyres but it's also bad for your gas mileage,
affects the way your car handles and is generally unsafe. When tires are under inflated, the
tread wears more quickly. According to Goodyear, this equates to 15 percent fewer miles you
can drive on them for every 20 percent that they're under inflated. Under inflated tires also
overheat more quickly than properly inflated tyres, which cause more tire damage. The faded
areas below indicate areas of excessive tread wear.

Because tyres are flexible, they flatten at the bottom when they roll. This contact patch
rebounds to its original shape once it is no longer in contact with the ground. This rebound
creates a wave of motion along with some friction. When there is less air in the tire, that wave
is larger and the friction created is greater -- and friction creates heat. If enough heat is
generated, the rubber that holds the tyre's cords together begin to melt and the tyre fails. See
how tyre works to learn more. Because of the extra resistance an under inflated tyre has when
it rolls, your car's engine has to work harder. AAA statistics show that tyres that are under
inflated by as little as 2 psi reduce fuel efficiency by 10 percent. Over a year of driving, that
can amount to several hundred dollars in extra gas purchases.

1.2 PROJECT MOTIVATION

Improperly inflated tyres are fairly common problems on passenger vehicles. In fact, 80% of
passenger vehicles on the road have at least one under-inflated tire and 36% of passenger cars
have at least one tyre that is 20% or more under-inflated . Often pressure loss in tires is a
result of natural permeation of the gas through the elastic rubber, road conditions (such as
potholes), and seasonal changes in temperature (According to Weissler of Popular
Mechanics, for every drop of 10 ºF, tyre pressure drops by1 psi ). Most vehicle owners are
unaware of the fact that their tyres are not at the correct pressures because it is difficult to
determine the tyre pressure visually; a tyre that is properly inflated to the correct pressure
looks very similar to one that is either over-inflated or under-inflated (Fig). According to the
Rubber Manufacturing Association (RMA) survey, 80% of people are unsure of how to check
their tyre pressures. Thus, from the viewpoint of passenger vehicle owners, they are losing
money due to increased tyre wear and decreased fuel efficiency, and a solution needs to be
found to correct this issue. From the viewpoint of the designers, however, the root cause of
improperly-inflated tyres is due to vehicle owners not knowing proper tire pressures for
certain conditions, difficulty finding an air pump, lack of pressure measuring device, and a
general lack of concern. Thus, the combination of the user and expert viewpoints will be used
to make decisions in our design process of this product.

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Figure :Difficult to Notice Under-Inflated Tyre
In this case, the tyre on the left is 31% under-inflated from
the tyre that is at nominal pressure on the right.

1.3 Tyre Wear, Fuel Economy, Performance, and Safety

An under-inflated tyre can have dramatic effects on tyre wear. Since the contact patch of the
tyre has a larger wave pattern, friction and heat increase cause the contact patch to wear out
more quickly than if the tyre was inflated properly. “Goodyear estimated that a tyre’s average
tread life would drop to 68 percent of the expected tread life if tire pressure dropped from 35
psi to 17 psi and remained there”. According to an unpublished study by Goodyear, the
average cost for a tire $61.00, and the average tread life is 45,000 miles. Thus, at an average
cost of $61.00/tire, and given as a circumstance that the owner keeps a vehicle for 100,000
miles, the owner will have to change the tires three times instead of twice. The owner would
then be paying $244 more for tires, and in both situations, the most-recently installed tires
will only have approximately 10,000 miles of use. Doran Manufacturing offers more statistics
regarding the effects of under-inflated tires:
• 20% under-inflation can reduce tyre life by 30%
• 20% under-inflation can increase tyres wear by 25%
Fuel economy is also greatly affected by under-inflated tyres. According to fueleconomy.gov,
an under inflation of 1 psi in all four tires on a passenger vehicle reduces efficiency by 0.4%.
Based on average gas prices, there is a potential of 3.3% in savings, which translates to $0.09
per gallon.
As vehicle speeds increase, the tire pressures should also increase accordingly to reduce
rolling resistance (which improves fuel economy) and to limit damage due to the increased
frequency of tire profile deflections. Since highways are typically smoother than local roads,
increasing the tire pressure will not negatively impact ride quality in terms of noise and
vibrations.
Properly inflated tires also have a significant effect on safety; the reduction in tire wear and
increase in vehicle safety are strongly correlated. 660 deaths and approximately 33,000
injuries per year are associated with under-inflated tires according to National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Worn out tyres have a significant negative impact
on traction in all weather conditions. Under-inflated tires also increases the stopping distance
of vehicles on both dry and wet roads . At the same time, drivers would also “find a
noteworthy loss of steering precision and cornering stability” .Additionally, heat build-up and

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the wear of the tyre structure can cause a sudden unexpected blowout on the highways, which
is a common cause of many accidents.

Chapter 2: OBJECTIVES

DESIGN OBJECTIVES:

The overall goal of our design project is to develop a product that will decrease tire wear
while improving fuel economy, performance and safety of a passenger vehicle through
dynamically-adjustable tire pressures. However, there are several key objectives that the team
has targeted our design to meet, and these objectives include both design characteristics and
business objectives.

2.1 Ability to Provide Proper Tire Pressure

The ideal functional objective of our design is its capability to adjust the pressures in all four
tires of a Passenger vehicle to obtain the proper pressure for varying road/driving conditions.
Specifically, it is desired that:
• Cold tire pressure is maintained during vehicle use to account for slow leaks and
Fluctuating tire temperatures
• As vehicle speed increases, tyre pressures increases
• As vehicle speed decreases, tyre pressures decreases
• As vehicle load increases, tyre pressures increase
• As vehicle load decreases, tyre pressures decrease
Based on more detailed research on the components necessary for the system, it was
discovered that a specialized rotary joint must be designed to support this process. This
design consideration required additional product development time that was not originally
anticipated. Therefore, the ideal functional objectives have been modified to account for this
design requirement. Specifically, the new objectives require that:
• Cold tire pressure (35 psi) is maintained by ensuring that the rotary joint-shaft system
Does not fail structurally
• Cold tire pressure (35 psi) is maintained by ensuring that the rotary-joint shaft system
Does not leak excessively

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• Cold tire pressure (35 psi) is maintained by ensuring that the entire system (compressor,
Air tubes, rotary joint, etc.) can provided sufficient flow rate.

2.2 Minimize Negative Visual Aesthetics

Another design objective is to ensure that the product will not have a negative effect on
current vehicle Aesthetics. All components should be located as inconspicuously as possible
and should only be seen when servicing the unit. However, in the case of the rotary joints,
which may still be visible through the Wheel rims, an attempt must be made to minimize its
visibility around the brake disks. Specifically, it is desired that Where Visible is the visible
area of the rotary joint and Disk is the visible area of the brake disk.

2.3 Ability to Provide Automatic System

A third objective is to provide all of the said benefits to the user through an automatic system,
thus minimizing user intervention. Specifically, it is desired that the system automatically
increase or decrease the tire pressures for the given road conditions. However, since this
objective is closely linked with the ideal objectives in maintaining the proper tire pressure,
and thus unattainable due to time constraints, this objective will not be pursued.
Chapter 3: HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

3.1 LAYOUT OF TYRE INFLATION SYSTEM:

FIG : TYRE INFLATION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

1. PORTABLE COMPRESSOR

12V Car Electric Air Compressor Tyre Pump - Tyre Inflator also for Bikes, Cycles, Boats,
Inflatable Toys 100% Brand New 12V Air Compressor/Tyre Infiltrator Simply use this for
fast & easy inflation of car tires" No strength required for pumping air as it is all electronic &

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is powered directly from your car battery Perfect for anyone who wants a ease while
inflating a tyre Time saving as compared to mechanical pump .Quick operation, very
Compact and easy to store in car dickey SUITABLE For:- Auto tyres, Car/ bike tyres, rubber
rafts balls Inflates car tyres, bicycle tyres, rafts and sports equipment such as Basketball,
Soccer fast and easily. Also inflates boats, pools, air bed, balloon, etc.

2. PRESSURE GAUGE

Pressure gauges and switches are among the most often used instruments in a plant. But
because of their great numbers, attention to maintenance--and reliability--can be
compromised. As a consequence, it is not uncommon in older plants to see many gauges
and switches out of service. This is unfortunate because, if a plant is operated with a failed
pressure switch, the safety of the plant may be compromised. Conversely, if a plant can
operate safely while a gauge is defective, it shows that the gauge was not needed in the
first place. Therefore, one goal of good process instrumentation design is to install fewer
but more useful and more reliable pressure gauges and switches.

One way to reduce the number of gauges in a plant is to stop installing them on the basis
of habit (such as placing a pressure gauge on the discharge of every pump). Instead,
review the need for each device individually. During the review one should ask: "What
will I do with the reading of this gauge?" and install one only if there is a logical answer to
the question. If a gauge only indicates that a pump is running, it is not needed, since one
can hear and see that. If the gauge indicates the pressure (or pressure drop) in the process,
that information is valuable only if one can do something about it (like cleaning a filter);
otherwise it is useless. If one approaches the specification of pressure gauges with this
mentality, the number of gauges used will be reduced. If a plant uses fewer, better gauges,
reliability will increase.

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3. ROTARY JOINT

We are designing this device for common passenger vehicles, and the main challenge is the
presence of the axle shaft that runs straight into the centre of the wheel forcing us to find an
alternative method of routing the air. Our proposed solution to this challenge is to place
rotary joint that has one half spinning with the drive axle hub and the other half stationary
with the spindle. Within this rotary joint will be an air chamber that will allow air to pass
from the stationary half of the joint into the half that is rotating.

The main criteria for our rotary joint design were the following:
• Must have approx. 40mm hole in the center to allow for the axle to either pass through or
support the joint.
• Air inlets and outlets must be located at the outer radius to allow the hoses on the outside of
the joint to clear the vehicle spindle and hub.
• Overall thickness of the joint must be no greater than 25mm to so as not to interfere with the
vehicle driveline or suspension components.
• Ball bearing system must be used to reduce contact friction between the two rotating halves
both axial and planar.

4. RELAY

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a


switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are
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used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be
controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits,
repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were
used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

5. CAR BATTERY 12 V

An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an


automobile. Usually this refers to an SLI battery (starting, lighting, ignition) to power the
starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine.

CENTRAL TIRE INFLATION SYSTEM (CTIS)

The idea behind the CTIS is to provide control over the air pressure in each tire as a way to
improve performance on different surfaces. For example, lowering the air pressure in a tire
creates a larger area of contact between the tire and the ground and makes driving on softer
ground much easier. It also does less damage to the surface. This is important on work sites
and in agricultural fields. By giving the driver direct control over the air pressure in each tire,
maneuverability is greatly improved. Another function of the CTIS is to maintain pressure in

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the tires if there is a slow leak or puncture. In this case, the system controls inflation
automatically based on the selected pressure the driver has set. There are two main
manufacturers of the CTIS: U.S.-based Dana Corporation and France-based Syegon (a
division of GIAT). Dana Corporation has two versions, the CTIS for military use (developed
by PSI) and the Tire Pressure Control System (TPCS) for commercial, heavy machinery use.
In the next section, we'll take a look at the inner workings of a basic CTIS setup.

A wheel valve is located at each wheel end. For dual wheels, the valves are typically
connected only to the outer wheel so the pressure between the two tires can be balanced. Part
of the wheel valve's job is to isolate the tire from the system when it's not in use in order to let
the pressure off of the seal and extend its life. The wheel valve also enables on-demand
inflation and deflation of the tires. An electronic control unit (ECU) mounted behind the
passenger seat is the brain of the system. It processes driver commands, monitors all signals
throughout the system and tells the system to check tire pressures every 10 minutes to make
sure the selected pressure is being maintained. The ECU sends commands to the pneumatic
control unit, which directly controls the wheel valves and air system. The pneumatic control
unit also contains a sensor that transmits tire-pressure readings to the ECU. An operator
control panel allows the driver to select tire-pressure modes to match current conditions. This
dash-mounted panel displays current tire pressures, selected modes and system status. When
the driver selects a tyre-pressure setting, signals from the control panel is send to the
electronic control unit then to the pneumatic control unit and to the wheel valves. When
vehicles are moving faster (like on a highway), tire pressure should be higher to prevent tire
damage. The CTIS includes a speed sensor that sends vehicle speed information to the
electronic control unit. If the vehicle continues moving at a higher speed for a set period of
time, the system automatically inflates the tires to an appropriate pressure for that speed. This
type of system uses air from the same compressor that supplies air to the brakes. A pressure
switch makes sure the brake system gets priority, preventing the CTIS from taking air from
the supply tank until the brake system is fully charged.

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CHAPTER 5

MATERIAL SELECTION

The proper selection of material for the different part of a machine is the main
objective in the fabrication of machine. For a design engineer it is must that he be familiar
with the effect, which the manufacturing process and heat treatment have on the properties of
materials. The Choice of material for engineering purposes depends upon the following
factors:
1. Availability of the materials.
2. Suitability of materials for the working condition in service.
3. The cost of materials.
4. Physical and chemical properties of material.
5. Mechanical properties of material.
The mechanical properties of the metals are those, which are associated with the ability of the
material to resist mechanical forces and load. We shall now discuss these properties as
follows:

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1. Strength : It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied
forces
2. Stress: Without breaking or yielding. The internal resistance offered by a part to an
externally applied force is called stress.
3. Stiffness: It is the ability of material to resist deformation under stresses. The modules
of elasticity of the measure of stiffness.
4. Elasticity: It is the property of a material to regain its original shape after deformation
when the external forces are removed. This property is desirable for material used in
tools and machines. It may be noted that steel is more elastic than rubber.
5. Plasticity: It is the property of a material, which retain the deformation produced
under load permanently. This property of material is necessary for forging, in
stamping images on coins and in ornamental work.
6. Ductility: It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn into wire with the
application of a tensile force. A ductile material must be both strong and plastic. The
ductility is usually measured by the terms, percentage elongation and percent
reduction in area. The ductile materials commonly used in engineering practice are
mild steel, copper, aluminum, nickel, zinc, tin and lead.
7. Brittleness: It is the property of material opposite to ductile. It is the
Property of breaking of a material with little permanent distortion. Brittle materials
when subjected to tensile loads snap off without giving any sensible elongation. Cast
iron is a brittle material.
8. Malleability: It is a special case of ductility, which permits material to be rolled or
hammered into thin sheets, a malleable material should be plastic but it is not essential
to be so strong. The malleable materials commonly used in engineering practice are
lead, soft steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminum.
9. Toughness: It is the property of a material to resist the fracture due to high impact
loads like hammer blows. The toughness of the material decreases when it is heated.
It is measured by the amount of absorbed after being stressed up to the point of
fracture. This property is desirable in parts subjected to shock an impact loads.
10. Resilience: It is the property of a material to absorb energy and to resist rock and
impact loads. It is measured by amount of energy absorbed per unit volume within
elastic limit. This property is essential for spring material.

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11. Creep: When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature for long
period of time, it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation called creep. This
property is considered in designing internal combustion engines, boilers and turbines.
12. Hardness: It is a very important property of the metals and has a wide
verity of meanings. It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear
scratching, deformation and mach inability etc. It also means the ability of the metal to
cut another metal. The hardness is usually expressed in numbers, which are dependent on
the method of making the test. The hardness of a metal may be determined by the
following test.
a) Brinell hardness test
b) Rockwell hardness test
c) Vickers hardness (also called diamond pyramid) test and
d) Share scaleroscope.
The science of the metal is a specialized and although it overflows in to realms of knowledge
it tends to shut away from the general reader. The knowledge of materials and their properties
is of great significance for a design engineer. The machine elements should be made of such
a material which has properties suitable for the conditions of operations. In addition to this a
design engineer must be familiar with the manufacturing processes and the heat treatments
have on the properties of the materials. In designing the various part of the machine it is
necessary to know how the material will function in service. For this certain characteristics or
mechanical properties mostly used in mechanical engineering practice are commonly
determined from standard tensile tests. In engineering practice, the machine parts are
subjected to various forces, which may be due to either one or more of the following.
1. Energy transmitted
2. Weight of machine
3. Frictional resistance
4. Inertia of reciprocating parts
5. Change of temperature
6. Lack of balance of moving parts
The selection of the materials depends upon the various types of stresses that are set up
during operation. The material selected should with stand it. Another criteria for selection of
metal depend upon the type of load because a machine part resist load more easily than a live
load and live load more easily than a shock load.

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Selection of the material depends upon factor of safety, which in turn depends upon the
following factors.
1. Reliabilities of properties
2. Reliability of applied load
3. The certainty as to exact mode of failure
4. The extent of simplifying assumptions
5. The extent of localized
6. The extent of initial stresses set up during manufacturing
7. The extent loss of life if failure occurs
8. The extent of loss of property if failure occurs

Material used
Mild steel
Reasons:
1. Mild steel is readily available in market
2. It is economical to use
3. It is available in standard sizes
4. It has good mechanical properties i.e. it is easily machinable
5. It has moderate factor of safety, because factor of safety results in unnecessary
wastage of material and heavy selection. Low factor of safety results in unnecessary
risk of failure
6. It has high tensile strength
7. Low co-efficient of thermal expansion
PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL:
M.S. has a carbon content from 0.15% to 0.30%. They are easily wieldable thus can be
hardened only. They are similar to wrought iron in properties. Both ultimate tensile and
compressive strength of these steel increases with increasing carbon content. They can be
easily gas welded or electric or arc welded. With increase in the carbon percentage weld
ability decreases. Mild steel serve the purpose and was hence was selected because of the
above purpose
BRIGHT MATERIAL:
It is a machine drawned. The main basic difference between mild steel and bright metal is
that mild steel plates and bars are forged in the forging machine by means is not forged. But
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the materials are drawn from the dies in the plastic state. Therefore the material has good
surface finish than mild steel and has no carbon deposits on its surface for extrusion and
formation of engineering materials thus giving them a good surface finish and though
retaining their metallic properties

RAW MATERIAL & STANDARD 25000

SR NO PART NAME RATE QTY TOTAL

1 FRAME 35/ kg 30kg 1050


ANGEL25X25X5mm
2 FLYWHEEL 35/ kg 35kg 1225
3 SHAFT 55/kg 16 880
4 GEAR 8/teeth 209teeth 1672
5 PULLEY ------- 2 370
6 DYNAMO 800 1 800
7 BELT ------ 2 250
8 CHANNEL 35/ kg 1 35
9 SPRING 260 1 260
10 RACK 800 1 800
11 HANDEL 35/kg 5 175
12 NUT BOLT WASHER -------- ------- 250

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13 PLY ---------- 1 350
14 FREE WHEEL 100 1 100
15 WELDING ROD 5 /pcs 25 125
16 COLOUR 300/lit 0.75 lit 225

TOTAL 8567/-

Chapter 4: SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION

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FLOW CHART :

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN METHODS

Introduction : This chapter describes some of the mathematical technique

used by designers of complex structures. Mathematical models and analysis are

briefly describe and detail description is given of the finite – element method of

structural analysis. Solution techniques are presented for static, dynamic & model

analysis problems. As part of the design procedure the designer must be analyses the

entire structure and some of its components. To perform this analysis the designer

will develop mathematical models of structure that are approximation of the real

structure, these models are used to determine the important parameters in the design.

The type of structural model the designer uses depends on the information that is

needed and the type of analysis the designer can perform.

Three types of structural models are

1. Rigid Members: The entire structure or parts of the structure are considered

to be rigid, hence no deformation can occur in these members.

2. Flexible members : The entire structure or parts of the structure are modeled

by members that can deform, but in limited ways. Examples of this members

trusses, beams and plates.

3. Continuum : A continuum model of structure is the most general, since few if

any mathematical assumptions about the behaviour of the structure need to be

made prior to making a continuum model. A continuum member is besed on the

full three – dimensional equations of continuum models.

In selecting a model of the structure, the designer also must consider type of analysis

to be performed. Four typical analysis that designers perform are :

1. Static equilibrium : In this analysis the designer is trying to the determine

the overall forces and moments that the design will undergo. The analysis is

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usually done with a rigid members of model of structure and is the simplest

analysis to perform.

2. Deformation : This analysis is concerned with how much the structure will

move when operating under the design loads. This analysis is usually done with

flexible members.

3. Stress : In this analysis the designers wants a very detailed picture of where

and at what level the stresses are in the design. This analysis usually done with

continuum members.

4. Frequency : This analysis is concerned with determining the natural

frequencies and made shape of a structure. This analysis can be done with either

flexible members of a structure. This analysis can be done with either flexible

members or continuum members but now the mass of the members is included in

the analysis.

The subject of MACHINE DESIGN deals with the art of designing machine of structure. A
machine is a combination of resistance bodies with successfully constrained relative motions
which is used for transforming other forms of energy into mechanical energy or transmitting
and modifying available design is to create new and better machines or structures and
improving the existing ones such that it will convert and control motions either with or
without transmitting power. It is the practical application of machinery to the design and
construction of machine and structure. In order to design simple component satisfactorily, a
sound knowledge of applied science is essential. In addition, strength and properties of
materials including some metrological are of prime importance. Knowledge of theory of
machine and other branch of applied mechanics is also required in order to know the velocity.
Acceleration and inertia force of the various links in motion, mechanics of machinery involve
the design.

CONCEPT IN M.D.P.

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Consideration in Machine Design

When a machine is to be designed the following points to be considered: -

i) Types of load and stresses caused by the load.

ii) Motion of the parts and kinematics of machine. This deals with the

type of motion i.e. reciprocating . Rotary and oscillatory.

iii) Selection of material & factors like strength, durability, weight,

corrosion resistant, weld ability, machine ability are considered.

iv) Form and size of the components.

v) Frictional resistances and ease of lubrication.

vi) Convince and economical in operation.

vii) Use of standard parts.

viii) Facilities available for manufacturing.

ix) Cost of making the machine.

x) Number of machine or product are manufactured.

GENERAL PROCEDURE IN MACHINE DESIGN

The general steps to be followed in designing the machine are as followed.

i) Preparation of a statement of the problem indicating the purpose of

the machine.

ii) Selection of groups of mechanism for the desire motion.

iii) Calculation of the force and energy on each machine member.

iv) Selection of material.

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v) Determining the size of component drawing and sending for

Manufacture.

vi) Preparation of component drawing and sending for manufacture.

vii) Manufacturing and assembling the machine.

viii) Testing of the machine and for functioning.

DC GEARED MOTOR

DESIGN OF DC MOTOR

Power of motor = 0.5 H.P = 746 x 0.5 = 373 N- m /s


Rpm of motor = 1800 rpm
Out put rpm required = 7.2rpm
Design torque = 300 X 103 N mm
Number of stage in gear box = 2
25
Ratio of gearing =1 : 74.8

CALCULATION FO FINAL SPEED & TORQUE OF MOTOR

Power of motor = P =0.5 hp = 0.5 x 746 = 373 watt.

2π N T
P = -----------------
60

Where, N→ Rpm of motor = 1800

T →Torque transmitted

2π x 1800 x T
373 = ----------------------
60

T = 1.97N-m

T = 1979.8 N-mm

T = 1979.8 N-mm

CALCULATION OF TORQUE OBTAIN BY GEAR BOX

In put torque of gear box = 1980 N- mm


In put rpm of gear box = 1800 rpm

Torque & rpm obtain at gearing

81 rpm
Worm wheel
out put
N = 44 teeth
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D=6 D=1
0 6m
mm m
D = 46 mm

1800 rpm
Main motor shaft
N = 8 spiral

As reduction ratio is 1:22


So,

Out put rpm of gear box is

N 2 = N 1 / 22

N2 = 1800
22

N 2 = 81.8 rpm

N 2 = 82 rpm

TORQUE AT GEAR BOX OUT PUT

N1 T2
=
N2 T1

1800 x
=
82 1980
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x = 1800 x 1980
82

x = 43463 N-mm

T2 = 43463.4N-mm

As out put of gearing system is insufficient to develop torque required to lift


the oil skimmer belt so further more speed reduction is required to increase the
torque value.

We use spur gearing having reduction ratio = 1 : 3.4

So torque at out put speed of spur gearing

As reduction ratio is 1:3.4

D=60 mm D=16mm
N = 34 N = 10

N 2 = N 1 / 3.4

N2 = 82
3. 4

N2 = 24.1 rpm

N2 = 24 rpm

TORQUE AT GEAR BOX OUT PUT


28
N1 T2
=
N2 T1

82 x
=
24 43463
x = 82 x 43463
24

x = 148498.5 N-mm

T2 = 148499 N-mm
As out put of gearing system is insufficient to develop torque required to lift
the oil skimmer belt so further more speed reduction is required to increase the
torque value.

For further speed reduction we use chain drive

Teeth 1 = 12

Teeth 2 = 40

Ratio = 1 : 3.3

N 2 = N 1 / 3.3

N2 = 24
3.3

N2 = 7.2 rpm

N2 = 7.2 rpm

29
TORQUE AT GEAR BOX OUT PUT

N1 T2
=
N2 T1

24 T2
=
7.2 148499

T2 = 24 x 148499
7.2

x = 494996 N-mm

T2 = 494996 N-mm

TORQUE REQUIRED FOR SKIMMING TR = 300 X 103 N mm

SO OUTPUT TORQUE OF SYSTEM TS= 494 X 103 N-mm

Tr < Ts

As out put torque is more than required torque value so design of transmission
system is safe.

DESIGN OF CHAIN & SPROCKET


We know ,
TRANSMISSION RATIO = Z2 / Z1 = 40/12 = 3.33
For this transmission ratio number of teeth on pinion sprocket is in the range of
21 to 10 , so we select number of teeth on pinion sprocket as 12 teeth.

30
So , Z1 = 12 teeth

SELECTION OF PITCH OF SPROCKET


The pitch is dicided on the basis of RPM of sprocket.
RPM of pinion sprocket is variable in normal condition it is = 7.2 rpm
For this rpm value we select pitch of sprocket as 6.35mm from table.
P = 6.35mm
CALCULATION OF MINIMUM CENTER DISTANCE BETWEEN SPROCKETS

THE TRANSMISSION RATIO = Z2 / Z1 = 40/12 = 3.33 which is less than 5


So from table,
MINIMUM CENTER DISTANCE = C’ + (80 to 150 mm)
Where C’ = Dc1 + Dc2
2
C’ = 80 + 25
2
C’ = 52.5 mm
MINIMUM CENTER DISTANCE = 52.5 + (30 to 150 mm )
MINIMUM CENTER DISTANCE = 150 mm
CALCULATION OF VALUES OF CONSTANTS K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6
Load factor K1 = 1.25 ( Load with mild shock )

Factor for distance regulation K2 = 1.25 ( Fixed center distance)


Factor for center distance of sprocket K3 =0.8
Factor for position of sprocket K4 = 1
Lubrication factor K5 = 1.5 (periodic)
Rating factor K6 = 1.0 (single shift)

CALCULATION OF VALUE OF FACTOR OF SAFETY


For pitch = 6.35 & speed of rotation of small sprocket = 7.2 rpm
FACTOR OF SAFETY = 8.55
CALCULATION OF VALUE OF ALLOWABLE BEARING STRESS
31
For pitch = 6.35 & speed of rotation of small sprocket = 7.2 rpm
ALLOWABLE BEARING STRESS = 2.87 kg / cm2
= 2.87 * 981 / 100 =28 N /mm2

CALCULATION OF COEFFICENT OF SAG K


For horizontal position coefficient of sag K = 6
CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM TENSION ON CHAIN
As we know maximum torque on shaft = Tmax = T2 = 494996 N-mm
Where ,
T1 = Tension in tight side
T2 = Tension in slack side
O1,O2 = center distance between two shaft
From fig.
Sin  = R1 - R2
O1O2
Sin  = 40 - 12.5
150
Sin  = 0.18
 = 10.36

TO FIND 
 = (180 –2 ) X 3.14/180
 = (180 –2*10.36 ) X 3.14/180
 = 2.7 rad
we know that, T1/T2 = e
T1/T2 = e0.35 x 2.7
T1 = 2.57T2
We have,
T = ( T1 – T2 ) X R
494996 = ( 2.57 T2 – T2 ) X 40

32
T2 = 7882 N
T1 = 2.57 X 7882
T1 = 20256 N
So tension in tight side = 20256 N
We know ,
Stress = force / area
Stress induced = 20256/ ( 3.14 * 82 / 4 )
Stress induced = 430 N /mm2
As induced stress is less than allowable stress = 650 N /mm2design of sprocket is
safe .
Design pending:
Shaft

T2 = 494996 N-mm

T = 3.14/16 x fs x Ds3

494996 = 3.14/16 x 370 x Ds3

Ds = 18.96 mm

The nearby size of bearing available in market is for shaft dia 17 mm and 20 mm so for safer

side we select upper size of shaft dia 20 mm

For 20 mm shaft dia the available bearing number is 6204. It is plane ball bearing for

mounting purpose we select pedestal bearing no P204.

33
CHAPTER – 14

COST ESTIMATION

The machine tool designer must furnish the management with an idea of how much
tooling will cost, and how much money the productions methods save over a specified run.
This information is generally furnished in a form of cost worksheets. By referring to the cost
worksheets the final cost of machine is calculated.
Cost estimation is defined as the process of forecasting expenses that are incurred to
manufacture a product. These expenses take into account all expenditure involved in
designing and manufacturing with all the related service facilities such as material handling,
heat treatment and surface coating, as well as portion of general administrative and selling
costs.

NEED OF COST ESTIMATION :

1) Determine the selling price of a product for a quotation or contract, so as to ensure a


reasonable profit to the company.
2) Check the quotations supplied by the vendors.

34
3) Decide whether a part or assembly is economical to be manufactured in the plant or is
to be purchased from outside.
4) Determine the most economical process or material to manufacture a product.
5) Initiate means of cost reduction in existing production facilities by using new
materials which result in savings due to lower scrap loss and revised methods of
tooling and processing.
6) To determine standards of production performance that may be used to control costs.

35
ELEMENTS OF COST ENCOUNTERED IN THE PROJECT :

The cost encountered in this project are material cost, labour cost, cost of
standard parts, designing cost and cost of indirect expenses.

1) DESIGN COST :

The designing cost is calculated by considering the amount taken by


the designer (if so) and the cost of designing material.

2) MATERIAL COST :
The material cost can be calculated by finding the total volume of the material

used and the weight of the material. For calculation the value and the weight, the

following procedure is adopted :

a) In actual procedure, there are some holes and shapes cut. But they are considered to
be solid while calculation the total volume of material used.
b) While calculation the volume the triangle shaped parts and the T shaped parts are
considering as rectangular or square plates.
c) The weight of the parts is calculation by multiplying the total volume and the density
of the material (M.S.) which is equal to 7.76665x10 –3 Kg/Cc.
d) The total cost can be obtained by multiplying the total weight by the rate of material.

36
A) RAW MATERIAL & STANDARD MATERIAL COST

SR NO PART NAME RATE QTY TOTAL

1 FRAME 35/ kg 30kg 1050


ANGEL25X25X5mm
2 FLYWHEEL 35/ kg 35kg 1225
3 SHAFT 55/kg 16 880
4 GEAR 8/teeth 209teeth 1672
5 PULLEY ------- 2 370
6 DYNAMO 800 1 800
7 BELT ------ 2 250
8 CHANNEL 35/ kg 1 35
9 SPRING 260 1 260
10 RACK 800 1 800
11 HANDEL 35/kg 5 175
12 NUT BOLT WASHER -------- ------- 250
13 PLY ---------- 1 350
14 FREE WHEEL 100 1 100
15 WELDING ROD 5 /pcs 25 125
16 COLOUR 300/lit 0.75 lit 225

TOTAL 8567/-

37
B ) DIRECT LABOUR COST
Sr.no. Rate per
Operation Hours Amount
hour
1.
Turning 10 150 1500
2.
Milling 2 150 300
3.
Drilling 7 100 700
4.
Welding 16 175 2800
5.
Grinding 3 60 180
6.
Tapping 3 40 120
7.
Cutting 8 40 320
8.
Gas cutting 8 50 400
9.
Assembly 2 100 200
10.
Painting 2 100 200

TOTAL 6720/-

38
INDIRECT COST

Transportation cost = 500/-

Coolent & lubricant = 100/-

Drawing cost = 500/-

Project report cost = 2000/-

TOTAL INDIRECT COST = 2100/-

TOTAL COST

Raw Material Cost + Std Parts Cost + Direct Labour Cost +Indirect Cost

Total cost of project = 8567 + 6720 +2100

Total cost of project = 17387 /-

39
Chapter 5: METHODOLOGY

Compressed air is given to the 2/2 solenoid valve inlet. The pressure switch is used to sense
the tyre pressure. The required tyre pressure is setted by the pressure switch reading. This
pressure switch is used to sense the current pressure and this output signal is given to the
solenoid valve.

Whenever the tyre pressure is below the setted valve the pressure switch activate the solenoid
valve. The compressed air is goes to the tyre with the help of quick release coupling which is
used to rotating the wheel freely. The required pressure is filled then the pressure switch will
be deactivated the solenoid valve so that the tyre pressure will be maintained in constant
level.

40
Chapter 6: ADVANTAGES AND FUTURE SCOPE
ADVANTAGES:

The dynamically-self-inflating tyre system would be capable of succeeding as a

new product in the automotive supplier industry. It specifically addresses the

needs of the consumers by maintaining appropriate tire pressure conditions for:

• Reduced tyre wear

• Increased fuel economy

• Increased overall vehicle safety

Because such a product does not currently exist for the majority of passenger

vehicles, the market conditions would be favorable for the introduction of a

self-inflating tire system.

Through extensive engineering analysis, it has also been determined that the

self-inflating tire system would actually function as desired. In particular, the

product would be capable of:

• Providing sufficient airflow to the tire with minimal leakage

41
• Withstanding the static and dynamic loading exerted on the rotary joints Note

that likewise, this system would not produce any negative dynamic effects (such

as CV joint failure due to resonance) on surrounding systems. Most

significantly, the self-inflating tire system would be a successful product

because of its economic benefits to investors. Specifically, the final product

would:

• Sell at about $450/unit, with total first year profit and sales of nearly $2.1

million and 58,000units, respectively

• Experience 12% annual market growth each year for the first five years of the

product, bringing total sales up to 370,000 units

• Break-even on the capital investment in just under three years For further

development of this product, we recommend increasing the capability of the

system by adding the following features:

• Pressure adjustment based on increasing vehicle speed

• Pressure adjustment based on increasing vehicle load

• Adaptability for recreational use (inflating rafts, sports balls, etc.)

• Implementation of interactive display

• Creation of universal design for aftermarket use.

FUTURE SCOPE:

As previously mentioned, the main beneficiaries of this advancement in technology that will
allow for tyre pressure to be adjusted for driving conditions will be the vehicle owners.
Despite an initial investment in the technology, they will experience a reduction in tire wear
and an increase in fuel economy; both of which will result in saving money in the long run.

42
It is plausible to say that society as a whole will benefit from the resulting design. The
reduction in tyre disposal in landfills and decrease the rate of consumption of natural
resources will truly benefit society. Also, the improvement in vehicle safety will benefit all
people who drive a vehicle on the roadways. However, not everyone will benefit from this
technology. Both tire manufacturers and the petroleum industry will be negatively affected by
this resulting design. Tire manufacturers will be negatively affected since this product is
being designed with the reduction of tire wear in mind. The demand for their products will
decrease as tires last longer and fewer replacements are needed. This is similarly true for the
petroleum industry since this product results in an increase in fuel economy for passenger
vehicles, and the demand for oil will go down

43
CHAPTER NO
MAINTENANCE

No machine in the universe is 100% maintenance free machine. Due to its


continuous use it is undergoing wear and tear of the mating and sliding components. Also due
to the chemical reaction takes place when the material comes in the contact with water,
makes its corrosion and corrosion. Hence it is required to replace or repair. This process of
repairing and replacing is called as maintenance work.

AUTONOMOUS MAINTAINENCE ACTIVITY:-


1) Conduct initial cleaning & inspection.
2) Eliminate sources of dirt debris excess lubricants.
3) Improve cleaning maintainability.
4) Understand equipment functioning.
5) Develop inspection skills.
6) Develop standard checklists
7) Institute autonomous inspection
8) Organize and manage the work environment
9) Manage equipment reliability.

CLAIR  CLEANING , LUBRICATING , ADJUSTMENT, INSPECTION

CLEANING
Why cleaning ?
Prevent or eliminate contamination.
Find ways to simplify the cleaning process.
Facilitates through inspection when done by knowledgeable operators and \ or maintainers.
CLEANING IS INSPECTION….

44
Clean equipment
thoroughly

Look at and touch every Free equipment from


area on the equipment contamination

Detect Identify Remarkable Normal


deterioration and difficulties to sources of Or
defective parts in clean areas contamination abnormal
equipment

Expose hidden
defects

CLEANING PROCESS

 What to look for when cleaning.


 Missing part
 Wear
 Rust and corrosion
 Noise
 Cracks
 Proper alignment
 Leaks
 Play or sloppiness

VISUAL AIDS TO MAINTAIN CORRECT EQUIPMENT CONDITION

 Match marks on nut and bolts


 Color marking of permissible operating ranges on dials and gauges
 Marking of fluid type and flow direction of pipes
 Marking at open / closed position on valves
 Labeling at lubrication inlets and tube type

45
 Marking minimum / maximum fluid levels
 Label inspection sequences

ADJUST & MINOR REPAIR


Minor repairs if
 Trained
 Experienced
 Performs safety
 Simple tool required
 Not longer than 20/30 minutes

CHRONIC DEFECTS

CHRONIC
LOSSES

LOSS IS LOSS IS
UNRECOGNISED RECOGNISED

Remedial action Remedial action Remedial action


unsuccessful Can not be taken is not taken

CRONIC DEFECTS
EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENT
1. Restore obvious deterioration throughout.
2. Establish plan select pilot area , determine bottleneck.
3. Study and understand the production process.
4. Establish goals for improvement.
5. Clarify the problem, collect the reference manuals contact resources.
6. Conduct evaluation through such techniques as RCM analysis, FMECA, FTA
(Root cause failure analysis).
7. Determine improvement priorities, costs and benefits.

46
8. Execute improvement in pilot area standardize technique and document what you
have done.
9. Monitor results and optimize based on those results.
10. Implement plant wide

EQUIPMENT RESPONSIBILITIES OF OPERATOR


Operation with the proper standard procedure.
Failure prevention.
Failure resolution.
Inspection.
Equipment up keep.
Cleaning.
Lubricating.
Lightning fasteners.
Minor repairs.
Trouble shooting.

47
MANUFACTURING

The process of conversion of raw material in to finished products using the

three resources as Man, machine and finished sub-components.

Manufacturing is the term by which we transform resource inputs to create

Useful goods and services as outputs. Manufacturing can also be said as an

intentional act of producing something useful . The transformation process is

Shown below-

Input conventional process out put

Element Transformation Useful product


Material Machines Products
Data Interpretation Knowledge
Energy Skill Services
Variable cost Fixed cost Revenue

It s the phase after the design. Hence referring to the those values we will plan

The various processes using the following machines:-

i) Universal lathe
ii) Milling machine
iii) Grinding machine
iv) Power saw
v) Drill machine
vi) Electric arc welding machine

48
COMPONENT: FRAME

MATERIAL:- M.S. ANGLE

QUANTITY : - 1

SR. DESCRIPTION MACHINE CUTTING MEASUREMENT TIME


NO OF USED
OPERATION
1 Cutting the Gas Gas Steel rule 15min.
angle in to cutting cutter
length as per machine
dwg
2 Cutting the Gas Gas Steel rule 15min.
angle in to cutting cutter
number of machine
piece as per
dwg
3 Filing
operation can Bench Try square 15 min.
be performed vice
File
on cutting
side and bring
it in
perpendicular
C.S.
4 Weld the Electric ------- Try square 20 min
angles to the arc
required size welding
as per the machine
drawing
5 Drilling the Radial Twist Vernier calliper 10 min.
frame at drill drill
required machine
points as per
the drawing.

49
NAME OF THE PART – SHAFT

MATERIAL – BRIGHT STEEL

QUANTITY – 1

SR.NO. DETAIL M/C. TOOL ACCES MEA.INST.


OPER. USED USED
1. Marking on - - - Scale
shaft

2. Cutting as Power Hock saw Jig & Scale


per dwg hack saw blade fixtures
3. Facing both Lathe Single Chuck Vernier
side of shaft machine point caliper
cutting
tool
4. Turning as - - - -
per dwg size

5. Key way on Milling Milling - Vernier


end of shaft m/c. cutter caliper

6. Filling on Flat file Vice -


both end

50
COMPONENT: sprocket

MATERIAL:- ms
QUANTITY – 2

SR. DESCRIPTION MACHINE CUTTING MEASUREMENT TIME


NO OF USED
OPERATION
1 Take standard ------ ---------- ------------- ---------
sprocket as
per design
2 Face both side Lathe Single Vernier caliper 15 min.
of hub portion
machine point
cutting
tool
3 Hold it in Lathe Single Vernier caliper 20 min.
three jaw
machine point
chuck & bore
inner dia as cutting
per shaft size tool
4 Drilling the Radial Twist Vernier calliper 10 min.
hub at drill drill
required machine
points as per
the drawing
5 Tap the hub at Hand tap Tap Vernier calliper 10 min.
drill area. set

51
REFERENCES :
1. http://www.roadtransport.com/Articles/2008/03/06/130054/continentaloutlines-correct-
tyre-pressure-benefits.html

2. http://www.tyreinflaors.in

3. for pressure sensors- http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/h35.pdf

4. Keep Your Tires at Proper Inflation.” Doran MFG LLC. from


http://www.doranmfg.com/industry_studies.htm.

5. NPRM on TIRE PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEM. From


http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/rulings/TPMS_FMVSS_No138/.

6. http://www.firestonetrucktires.com/us_eng/load/index.asp

7. http://www.pressureguard.com

52
APPENDIX
Time Line Chart
Month Nature of work done

July Group formation & search for appropriate project.

August Finalization of project and discussion with project co-


ordinator.

September Submission of synopsis & data collection.

October Started working on circuit.

November Finalization of circuit & search for component.

January Starting fabrication & component mounting.

February Completion of hardware & started working on software.

March Software completion & testing of project.

April Completion of project & working on project report.

53

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