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Area Moments of Inertia by Integration

• Second moments or moments of


inertia of an area with respect to the x
and y axes,
I x   y 2 dA I y   x 2 dA

• Evaluation of the integrals is simplified


by choosing dA to be a thin strip
parallel to one of the coordinate axes

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Area Moments of Inertia
Products of Inertia: for problems involving unsymmetrical cross-sections
and in calculation of MI about rotated axes. It may be +ve, -ve, or zero
• Product of Inertia of area A w.r.t. x-y axes:
I xy   xy dA
x and y are the coordinates of the element of area dA=xy

• When the x axis, the y axis, or both are an


axis of symmetry, the product of inertia is
zero.
• Parallel axis theorem for products of inertia:
I xy  I xy  x yA
- Ixy
+ Ixy

Quadrants
+ Ixy
- Ixy
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Area Moments of Inertia
Rotation of Axes
Product of inertia is useful in calculating MI @ inclined axes.
 Determination of axes about which the MI is a maximum and a minimum
I x '   y ' 2 dA    y cos   x sin   dA
2

I y '   x'2 dA   x cos   y sin   dA


2

I x ' y '   x' y 'dA   x cos   y sin   y cos   x sin  dA


1  cos 2 1  cos 2
sin 2   cos 2  
2 2
sin  cos   1 / 2 sin 2 cos 2   sin 2   cos 2

I x   y 2 dA I y   x 2 dA Ix  Iy Ix  Iy
I x   cos 2  I xy sin 2
I xy   xy dA 2 2
Moments and product of inertia Ix  Iy Ix  Iy
I y   cos 2  I xy sin 2
w.r.t. new axes x’ and y’ ? 2 2
Note: x  x cos  y sin  Ix  Iy
I xy '  sin 2  I xy cos 2
y   y cos  x sin  2
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Area Moments of Inertia
Rotation of Axes Adding first two eqns:
Ix’ + Iy’ = Ix + Iy = Iz  The Polar MI @ O

Angle which makes Ix’ and Iy’ either max or


min can be found by setting the derivative
of either Ix’ or Iy’ w.r.t. θ equal to zero:

I x 
Ix  Iy

Ix  Iy
cos 2  I xy sin 2
dI x'
d
 
 I y  I x sin 2  2 I xy cos 2  0
2 2
Ix  Iy Ix  Iy Denoting this critical angle by α
I y   cos 2  I xy sin 2
2 2 2 I xy
Ix  Iy tan 2 
I xy'  sin 2  I xy cos 2 Iy  Ix
2

 two values of 2α which differ by π since tan2α = tan(2α+π)


 two solutions for α will differ by π/2
 one value of α will define the axis of maximum MI and the other
defines the axis of minimum MI
 These two rectangular axes are called the principal axes of inertia
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Area Moments of Inertia
Rotation of Axes 2 I xy 2 I xy
tan 2   sin 2  cos 2
Iy  Ix Iy  Ix
Substituting in the third eqn for critical value
of 2θ: Ix’y’ = 0
 Product of Inertia Ix’y’ is zero for the
Ix  Iy Ix  Iy Principal Axes of inertia
I x   cos 2  I xy sin 2
2 2
Ix  Iy Ix  Iy Substituting sin2α and cos2α in first two eqns
I y   cos 2  I xy sin 2 for Principal Moments of Inertia:
2 2
Ix  Iy
Ix  Iy
I x  I y 2  4I xy2
I xy'  sin 2  I xy cos 2 1
2
I max  
2 2
Ix  Iy 1
I min 
2

2
I x  I y 2  4I xy2
I xy @   0

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Area Moments of Inertia
Mohr’s Circle of Inertia :: Graphical representation of the MI equations
- For given values of Ix, Iy, & Ixy, corresponding values of Ix’, Iy’, & Ix’y’ may be
determined from the diagram for any desired angle θ.
Ix  Iy Ix  Iy 2 I xy
I x   cos 2  I xy sin 2 tan 2  Ixy
2 2 Iy  Ix
Ix  Iy Ix  Iy
I y   cos 2  I xy sin 2
2 2
Ix  Iy
I xy'  sin 2  I xy cos 2
2
Ix  Iy
I max 
2
1
2
 I x  I y 2  4I xy2 I
Ix  Iy 1
I min 
2

2
I x  I y 2  4I xy2
I xy @   0
• At the points A and B, Ix’y’ = 0 and Ix’
I x  I ave 2  I x2y  R 2 takes the maximum and minimum values
2
Ix  Iy  Ix  Iy  2 I max, min  I ave  R
I ave  R     I xy
2  2 
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Ix  Iy Ix  Iy
I x   cos 2  I xy sin 2
Area Moments of Inertia 2
Ix  Iy
2
Ix  Iy
I y   cos 2  I xy sin 2
2 I xy 2 2
Mohr’s Circle of Inertia: Construction tan 2 
Iy  Ix Ix  Iy
I xy'  sin 2  I xy cos 2
2
Ix  Iy
I max 
2
1
2
 I x  I y 2  4I xy2
Ix  Iy 1
I min 
2

2
I x  I y 2  4I xy2
I xy @   0

Choose horz axis  MI


Choose vert axis  PI
Point A – known {Ix, Ixy}
Point B – known {Iy, -Ixy}
Circle with dia AB
Angle α for Area
 Angle 2α to horz (same
sense)  Imax, Imin
Angle x to x’ = θ
 Angle OA to OC = 2θ
 Same sense
Point C  Ix’, Ix’y’
Point D  Iy’
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Area Moments of Inertia
Example: Product of Inertia
SOLUTION:
• Determine the product of inertia using
direct integration with the parallel axis
theorem on vertical differential area strips
• Apply the parallel axis theorem to
evaluate the product of inertia with respect
to the centroidal axes.

Determine the product of inertia of


the right triangle (a) with respect
to the x and y axes and
(b) with respect to centroidal axes
parallel to the x and y axes.

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Area Moments of Inertia
Examples SOLUTION:
• Determine the product of inertia using direct integration
with the parallel axis theorem on vertical differential
area strips
 x  x
y  h1   dA  y dx  h1  dx
 b  b
 x
xel  x yel  12 y  12 h1  
 b

Integrating dIx from x = 0 to x = b,

12 
b 2
2x
I xy   dI xy   xel yel dA   x h 1   dx
0  b
b 2 b
2 x x x  2 3  x 2 x3 x 4 
h    dx h    2 
 2 b 2b 2 
0   4 3b 8b  0

I xy  24
1 b2h2

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Area Moments of Inertia
Examples SOLUTION

• Apply the parallel axis theorem to evaluate the


product of inertia with respect to the centroidal axes.
x  13 b y  13 h

With the results from part a,


I xy  I xy  x yA
I xy  24  13 h12 bh
1 b2h2  1 b
3

I xy   72
1 b 2h2

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Area Moments of Inertia
Example: Mohr’s Circle of Inertia
SOLUTION:
• Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy).
Construct Mohr’s circle based on the
circle diameter between the points.
• Based on the circle, determine the
orientation of the principal axes and the
The moments and product of inertia principal moments of inertia.
with respect to the x and y axes are Ix = • Based on the circle, evaluate the
7.24x106 mm4, Iy = 2.61x106 mm4, and moments and product of inertia with
Ixy = -2.54x106 mm4. respect to the x’y’ axes.
Using Mohr’s circle, determine (a) the
principal axes about O, (b) the values of
the principal moments about O, and (c)
the values of the moments and product
of inertia about the x’ and y’ axes
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Area Moments of Inertia
Example: Mohr’s Circle of Inertia
SOLUTION:
• Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy). Construct Mohr’s
circle based on the circle diameter between the points.
 
OC  I ave  12 I x  I y  4.925  106 mm4
 
CD  12 I x  I y  2.315  106 mm4

R CD 2  DX 2  3.437  106 mm4

• Based on the circle, determine the orientation of the


I x  7.24  10 mm 6 4
principal axes and the principal moments of inertia.
I y  2.61  106 mm4 tan 2 m 
DX
 1.097 2 m  47.6  m  23.8
CD
I xy  2.54  106 mm4

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Area Moments of Inertia OC  I ave  4.925  106 mm4
R  3.437  106 mm4
Example: Mohr’s Circle of Inertia
• Based on the circle, evaluate the moments and product
of inertia with respect to the x’y’ axes.
The points X’ and Y’ corresponding to the x’ and y’ axes
are obtained by rotating CX and CY counterclockwise
through an angle θ 2(60o) = 120o. The angle that CX’
forms with the horz is f = 120o - 47.6o = 72.4o.

I x'  OF  OC  CX  cos  I ave  R cos 72.4o

I x  5.96  106 mm4

I y '  OG  OC  CY  cos  I ave  R cos 72.4o

I y  3.89  106 mm4

I xy '  FX   CY  sin   R sin 72.4o

I xy  3.28  106 mm4

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Mass Moment of Inertia
• Application in rigid body dynamics
- Measure of distribution of mass of a rigid body w.r.t. the
axis (constant property for that axis)

I = ∫ r2 dm
r = perpendicular distance of the
mass element dm from the axis
O-O

r2Δm :: measure of the inertia of the system

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Mass Moment of Inertia
• About individual coordinate axes

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Mass Moment of Inertia
• Parallel Axis Theorem

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Mass Moment of Inertia
Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates
• For a thin plate of uniform thickness t and homogeneous
material of density r, the mass moment of inertia with
respect to axis AA’ contained in the plate is
I AA   r 2 dm  rt  r 2 dA
 r t I AA,area

• Similarly, for perpendicular axis BB’


which is also contained in the plate,
I BB  r t I BB,area

• For the axis CC’ which is perpendicular to the plate,


I CC   r t J C ,area  r t I AA,area  I BB,area 
 I AA  I BB
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Mass Moment of Inertia
Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates
• For the principal centroidal axes on a rectangular plate,

I AA  r t I AA,area  r t 121 a3b  121 ma 2


I BB  r t I BB,area  r t 12
1 ab 3   1 mb 2
12

I CC  I AA,mass  I BB,mass  12 1 ma 2  b 2 

• For centroidal axes on a circular plate,


 
I AA  I BB  r t I AA,area  r t 14  r 4  14 mr 2

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Mass Moment of Inertia
Moments of Inertia of a 3D Body by Integration
• Moment of inertia of a homogeneous body
is obtained from double or triple
integrations of the form
I  r  r 2 dV

• For bodies with two planes of symmetry,


the moment of inertia may be obtained
from a single integration by choosing thin
slabs perpendicular to the planes of
symmetry for dm.

• The moment of inertia with respect to a


particular axis for a composite body may
be obtained by adding the moments of
inertia with respect to the same axis of the
components.

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Mass Moment of Inertia
MI of some common geometric shapes

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