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Area Moment of Inertia

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inertia of an area with respect to the x

and y axes,

I x y 2 dA I y x 2 dA

by choosing dA to be a thin strip

parallel to one of the coordinate axes

Area Moments of Inertia

Products of Inertia: for problems involving unsymmetrical cross-sections

and in calculation of MI about rotated axes. It may be +ve, -ve, or zero

• Product of Inertia of area A w.r.t. x-y axes:

I xy xy dA

x and y are the coordinates of the element of area dA=xy

axis of symmetry, the product of inertia is

zero.

• Parallel axis theorem for products of inertia:

I xy I xy x yA

- Ixy

+ Ixy

Quadrants

+ Ixy

- Ixy

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 2

Area Moments of Inertia

Rotation of Axes

Product of inertia is useful in calculating MI @ inclined axes.

Determination of axes about which the MI is a maximum and a minimum

I x ' y ' 2 dA y cos x sin dA

2

2

1 cos 2 1 cos 2

sin 2 cos 2

2 2

sin cos 1 / 2 sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 cos 2

I x y 2 dA I y x 2 dA Ix Iy Ix Iy

I x cos 2 I xy sin 2

I xy xy dA 2 2

Moments and product of inertia Ix Iy Ix Iy

I y cos 2 I xy sin 2

w.r.t. new axes x’ and y’ ? 2 2

Note: x x cos y sin Ix Iy

I xy ' sin 2 I xy cos 2

y y cos x sin 2

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 3

Area Moments of Inertia

Rotation of Axes Adding first two eqns:

Ix’ + Iy’ = Ix + Iy = Iz The Polar MI @ O

min can be found by setting the derivative

of either Ix’ or Iy’ w.r.t. θ equal to zero:

I x

Ix Iy

Ix Iy

cos 2 I xy sin 2

dI x'

d

I y I x sin 2 2 I xy cos 2 0

2 2

Ix Iy Ix Iy Denoting this critical angle by α

I y cos 2 I xy sin 2

2 2 2 I xy

Ix Iy tan 2

I xy' sin 2 I xy cos 2 Iy Ix

2

two solutions for α will differ by π/2

one value of α will define the axis of maximum MI and the other

defines the axis of minimum MI

These two rectangular axes are called the principal axes of inertia

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 4

Area Moments of Inertia

Rotation of Axes 2 I xy 2 I xy

tan 2 sin 2 cos 2

Iy Ix Iy Ix

Substituting in the third eqn for critical value

of 2θ: Ix’y’ = 0

Product of Inertia Ix’y’ is zero for the

Ix Iy Ix Iy Principal Axes of inertia

I x cos 2 I xy sin 2

2 2

Ix Iy Ix Iy Substituting sin2α and cos2α in first two eqns

I y cos 2 I xy sin 2 for Principal Moments of Inertia:

2 2

Ix Iy

Ix Iy

I x I y 2 4I xy2

I xy' sin 2 I xy cos 2 1

2

I max

2 2

Ix Iy 1

I min

2

2

I x I y 2 4I xy2

I xy @ 0

Area Moments of Inertia

Mohr’s Circle of Inertia :: Graphical representation of the MI equations

- For given values of Ix, Iy, & Ixy, corresponding values of Ix’, Iy’, & Ix’y’ may be

determined from the diagram for any desired angle θ.

Ix Iy Ix Iy 2 I xy

I x cos 2 I xy sin 2 tan 2 Ixy

2 2 Iy Ix

Ix Iy Ix Iy

I y cos 2 I xy sin 2

2 2

Ix Iy

I xy' sin 2 I xy cos 2

2

Ix Iy

I max

2

1

2

I x I y 2 4I xy2 I

Ix Iy 1

I min

2

2

I x I y 2 4I xy2

I xy @ 0

• At the points A and B, Ix’y’ = 0 and Ix’

I x I ave 2 I x2y R 2 takes the maximum and minimum values

2

Ix Iy Ix Iy 2 I max, min I ave R

I ave R I xy

2 2

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 6

Ix Iy Ix Iy

I x cos 2 I xy sin 2

Area Moments of Inertia 2

Ix Iy

2

Ix Iy

I y cos 2 I xy sin 2

2 I xy 2 2

Mohr’s Circle of Inertia: Construction tan 2

Iy Ix Ix Iy

I xy' sin 2 I xy cos 2

2

Ix Iy

I max

2

1

2

I x I y 2 4I xy2

Ix Iy 1

I min

2

2

I x I y 2 4I xy2

I xy @ 0

Choose vert axis PI

Point A – known {Ix, Ixy}

Point B – known {Iy, -Ixy}

Circle with dia AB

Angle α for Area

Angle 2α to horz (same

sense) Imax, Imin

Angle x to x’ = θ

Angle OA to OC = 2θ

Same sense

Point C Ix’, Ix’y’

Point D Iy’

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 7

Area Moments of Inertia

Example: Product of Inertia

SOLUTION:

• Determine the product of inertia using

direct integration with the parallel axis

theorem on vertical differential area strips

• Apply the parallel axis theorem to

evaluate the product of inertia with respect

to the centroidal axes.

the right triangle (a) with respect

to the x and y axes and

(b) with respect to centroidal axes

parallel to the x and y axes.

Area Moments of Inertia

Examples SOLUTION:

• Determine the product of inertia using direct integration

with the parallel axis theorem on vertical differential

area strips

x x

y h1 dA y dx h1 dx

b b

x

xel x yel 12 y 12 h1

b

12

b 2

2x

I xy dI xy xel yel dA x h 1 dx

0 b

b 2 b

2 x x x 2 3 x 2 x3 x 4

h dx h 2

2 b 2b 2

0 4 3b 8b 0

I xy 24

1 b2h2

Area Moments of Inertia

Examples SOLUTION

product of inertia with respect to the centroidal axes.

x 13 b y 13 h

I xy I xy x yA

I xy 24 13 h12 bh

1 b2h2 1 b

3

I xy 72

1 b 2h2

Area Moments of Inertia

Example: Mohr’s Circle of Inertia

SOLUTION:

• Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy).

Construct Mohr’s circle based on the

circle diameter between the points.

• Based on the circle, determine the

orientation of the principal axes and the

The moments and product of inertia principal moments of inertia.

with respect to the x and y axes are Ix = • Based on the circle, evaluate the

7.24x106 mm4, Iy = 2.61x106 mm4, and moments and product of inertia with

Ixy = -2.54x106 mm4. respect to the x’y’ axes.

Using Mohr’s circle, determine (a) the

principal axes about O, (b) the values of

the principal moments about O, and (c)

the values of the moments and product

of inertia about the x’ and y’ axes

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 11

Area Moments of Inertia

Example: Mohr’s Circle of Inertia

SOLUTION:

• Plot the points (Ix , Ixy) and (Iy ,-Ixy). Construct Mohr’s

circle based on the circle diameter between the points.

OC I ave 12 I x I y 4.925 106 mm4

CD 12 I x I y 2.315 106 mm4

I x 7.24 10 mm 6 4

principal axes and the principal moments of inertia.

I y 2.61 106 mm4 tan 2 m

DX

1.097 2 m 47.6 m 23.8

CD

I xy 2.54 106 mm4

Area Moments of Inertia OC I ave 4.925 106 mm4

R 3.437 106 mm4

Example: Mohr’s Circle of Inertia

• Based on the circle, evaluate the moments and product

of inertia with respect to the x’y’ axes.

The points X’ and Y’ corresponding to the x’ and y’ axes

are obtained by rotating CX and CY counterclockwise

through an angle θ 2(60o) = 120o. The angle that CX’

forms with the horz is f = 120o - 47.6o = 72.4o.

Mass Moment of Inertia

• Application in rigid body dynamics

- Measure of distribution of mass of a rigid body w.r.t. the

axis (constant property for that axis)

I = ∫ r2 dm

r = perpendicular distance of the

mass element dm from the axis

O-O

Mass Moment of Inertia

• About individual coordinate axes

Mass Moment of Inertia

• Parallel Axis Theorem

Mass Moment of Inertia

Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates

• For a thin plate of uniform thickness t and homogeneous

material of density r, the mass moment of inertia with

respect to axis AA’ contained in the plate is

I AA r 2 dm rt r 2 dA

r t I AA,area

which is also contained in the plate,

I BB r t I BB,area

I CC r t J C ,area r t I AA,area I BB,area

I AA I BB

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 17

Mass Moment of Inertia

Moments of Inertia of Thin Plates

• For the principal centroidal axes on a rectangular plate,

I BB r t I BB,area r t 12

1 ab 3 1 mb 2

12

I AA I BB r t I AA,area r t 14 r 4 14 mr 2

Mass Moment of Inertia

Moments of Inertia of a 3D Body by Integration

• Moment of inertia of a homogeneous body

is obtained from double or triple

integrations of the form

I r r 2 dV

the moment of inertia may be obtained

from a single integration by choosing thin

slabs perpendicular to the planes of

symmetry for dm.

particular axis for a composite body may

be obtained by adding the moments of

inertia with respect to the same axis of the

components.

Mass Moment of Inertia

MI of some common geometric shapes

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