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Glossary

A
Accumulator: A record used in programming, where the data that is processed by
the Logical Arithmetic Unit is temporarily stored.
Alphanumeric: Characteristic that indicates a set of characters that includes
letters, numbers and punctuation marks.
Algorithm: Logical-mathematical procedure, applied to solve a problem.
Arithmetic: It is the part of a processor that contains the circuits that perform the
arithmetic and logical operations.

B
Backup: Copies of files, replacement equipment or alternative procedures
available to be used in case of emergencies caused by total or partial failures of a
computer system.
Data bank: Collection of data files, of historical type, used for specific queries of a
particular subject.
Broadband: High capacity data transmission system. It allows transmitting millions
of bits and integrating services of telephony, Internet and data in general and
television.

C
Card or Sound Card: It is an expansion card for computers that allows the input
and output of audio under the control of a computer program.
Central Processing Unit (CPU): The Central Processing Unit (CPU) (Central
Processing Unit) is the unit where the program instructions are executed and the
operation of the various components of the computer is monitored. It is usually
integrated in a chip called microprocessor.
Computer: Term used in Spain and in some Latin American countries to refer to a
computer.
Control unit: It is the part of a processor that performs the appropriate recovery,
the interpretation of each instruction and the application of the necessary signals
for the arithmetic and logic unit and other parts of the computer.
C ++: Object-oriented programming language, based on the C language.
I / O channel (input / output): Physical line that allows independent and
simultaneous communication between the main memory and one of the input /
output devices

D
Fact: Representation of a fact or idea that can be manipulated and to which it can
be assigned a meaning.
Debugging: See Debugging.
Default: Default settings. What will happen if nothing changes.

E
Emulation: The process by which one computer is operated as if it were another,
to accept the same type of data, to execute the same programs and to obtain equal
results.
File extensions: A string of characters appended to the name of a file, usually
preceded by a period. Its main function is to differentiate the format of the file, so
that the operating system has the corresponding procedure to execute or interpret
it.

F
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions): Information documents that collect the
answers to questions most frequently asked by the users of a given service.
Fiber Optic: Fiberglass composite cable that carries light instead of electrical
signals, providing a higher level of speed and reliability.
FORTR: The first high-level programming language designed to perform
mathematical calculations.

G
Gigabyte (GB): 1,024 Megabytes, or approximately one billion bytes (1,024 x
1,024 x 1,024 bytes).
GNU: Project started in 1984 by Richard Stallman that at present offers the
possibility to solve, almost, all the problems of computer treatment with free
software. This includes from games to the core of the operating system. The most
well-known core of the GNU project is Linux. GNU stands for GNU's Not Unix.

H
Handheld: A small laptop whose main feature is that it has a touch screen, which
allows you to enter information directly through it.
Hardware: The physical components of the computer, as well as its peripherals.
Hypertext: System of organization and consultation of information in a non-
sequential way. The information is linked through links that allow you to link
documents or parts of documents together through "jumps".

I
Icon: A symbol representing a program, file or application and used to execute it.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network): Combines network transmission
technology for voice, data and images. It is often used in "call centers" to avoid the
cost of long distance calls.

J
Joystick: Literally, joystick. Used to move an object around the screen. It consists
of a base from which comes a vertical lever, with which the movement is controlled
and also usually include several buttons.

K
Key: Key used to access data protected by encryption.
Kilobyte (KB): Measure of information. Contains 1,024 bytes.

M
Machine language: the code system directly interpretable by a micro
programmable circuit, such as the microprocessor of a computer or other electronic
device from industrial robots to cell phones. This language is composed of a set of
instructions that determine actions to be taken by the machine
Macro: Instruction of a source program that performs a set of operations in another
program that contains it.
Megabyte (MB): Information measure equivalent to 1,024 kilobytes.
Memory: Primary storage of a computer, such as RAM or ROM.
Mouse: Also known as mouse. Hand-held pointer to manipulate the cursor on the
screen. Especially useful in GUI.

N
Net: Apocopate of Internet.
NetBEUI: Communication protocol used in local area networks (LAN).
Netiquette: Rules of behavior in the use of a network. It is a version of "good
manners" in the virtual world and, as in any society, deal with respect for others.

O
OCR (Optical Character Recognition): Optical Character Recognition. Technique
for recording and reading characters or other symbols in a bitmap image file.
Output: Output. Result of processing.

Offline: Devices or devices that are not in direct communication or off.


Online: Equipment or devices that are in direct communication or turned on.

P
Programming language: Set of statements used to write sequences of
instructions to be executed on a computer.
PASCAL: Programming language especially suitable for building structured
programs. Designed by Niklaus Wirth at the ETH Zürich Institute (Switzerland)
around 1968, the first implementation was available in 1970.
Password: Password used to enter a network or a system securely. Set of
alphanumeric characters required to access a certain network, system, application
or resource.

R
RAM: A computer's primary memory. On PCs it is accessible by the processor
through the North Chipset Bridge.
Reserved word: Word that cannot be used for purposes other than those
established by the program in use.

S
Server: A computer or program that provides resources and services to computers
connected to a network and at the same time manages the use of that network.
Shareware: Software provided by its creator in order to be used on a trial basis
and paid if the user finds it useful.

T
TCP / IP: Set of protocols that govern the transmission of information on the
Internet.
Teleprocessing: Activity involving data transmission and processing functions.
Data are collected at one or more points of origin transmitted to a central location,
processed and their results distributed to one or more points of use.

V
Window: Part of the screen used independently of the rest.
VGA: A video adapter that represents a standard of resolution and graphic
presentation on the computer screen.
Videoconference: Communication system that, through a network of computers,
allows several participants to see and speak in real time.

W
WAN (Wide Area Network): Connection between several physically distant local
area networks. The best known example is the Internet.
Weblog: Blog. Web page containing a series of articles sorted sequentially by
date.
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network): Wireless local area network.

X
X Window: It is the one in charge to visualize the graphic information, in a system
type UNIX, and it is totally independent of the operating system. The X Window
System distributes application processing by specifying client-server links. The
server provides services to access the screen, keyboard and mouse, while the
clients are the applications that use these resources for user interaction.

Z
Zip: Removable magnetic disk that allows to store 100 or 250 Mb of information, of
great stability and duration.
Zip drive: Input / output peripheral that handles Zip disks. It has remote control
and high transfer speed. It can be external (interfaces: serial, parallel, SCSI or
USB) or internal (EIDE or SCSI).