0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

12 просмотров70 страницporject done ro scoer markss

Feb 25, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

porject done ro scoer markss

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

12 просмотров70 страницporject done ro scoer markss

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 70

Communications Systems

A Report submitted

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

B.Tech

in

Avionics

by

(SC10B115)

Krunal Kolhatkar

(SC10B134)

Department of Avionics

Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology

Thiruvananthapuram

May-2014

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this project report entitled “Application of Statistical Esti-

mation Techniques to Various Problems in Design of OFDM based Communi-

cations Systems” submitted to Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology,

Thiruvananthapuram, is a bonafide record of work done by Chervi Vivek Sai and

Krunal Kolhatkar under my supervision from 06-01-2014 to 20-04-2014.

Asst. Professor

Dept. of Avionics

IIST.

Dr. N.Selvaganesan

HOD

Dept. of Avionics

IIST

Place: Thiruvananthapuram

Date:

Declaration by Authors

This is to declare that this report has been written by us. No part of the report is

plagiarized from other sources. All information included from other sources have

been duly acknowledged. We aver that if any part of the report is found to be

plagiarized, we shall take full responsibility for it.

SC10B115

Krunal Kolhatkar

SC10B134

Place: Thiruvananthapuram

Date:

Acknowledgments

We express our sincere thanks to all concerned who have contributed either di-

rectly or indirectly for the successful completion of our project on OFDM Commu-

nication Systems.

We are highly indebted to our project guide Dr. R.Lakshminarayan for his sup-

port and constant supervision during the course of our work. We truly appreciate

and value his esteemed guidance and encouragement from the beginning till the end

of the project. We are indebted to him for having helped us shape the problem and

providing insight towards the solution.

We thank Lily Srujana for the guidance and support. We thank Dr. K. S. Das

Gupta, Director - IIST for providing this opportunity. We extend our sincere grati-

tude to Dr. N. Selvaganesan, HOD Avionics, for allowing us to take up this project.

We extend my sincere thanks to one and all of IIST family for helping us at the right

times.

Abstract

tion technique in Rayleigh fading and AWGN channels. Channel estimation was

done using LS, MMSE and kalman estimators and the results obtained using MAT-

LAB simulations were compared. Various techniques to estimate parameters in an

OFDM receiver like SNR, frequency and timing offset were studied and the results

obtained were verified.

Contents

ABBREVIATIONS iv

List Of Figures v

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Aim and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 Basics of OFDM 3

2.1 Introduction to OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.2 Multicarrier transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.3 OFDM as a multicarrier transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.4 Basic principles of OFDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.4.1 Principle of orthogonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.5 Transmission Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.5.1 OFDM modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.5.2 Implementation using FFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.6 OFDM modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.7 OFDM and the usage of guard intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.7.1 Effects of Multipath fading on OFDM Symbols . . . . . . . 10

2.7.2 Cyclic Extension of OFDM symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.7.3 Cyclic Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.7.4 Zero Padding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

i

3 FADING CHANNEL 13

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.2 Simulation Algorithms of Flat Fading Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3.2.1 Modified Smiths Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.3 Auto regressive Model for Fading Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3.3.1 Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3.3.2 AR modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.4.1 Simulation of Flat Fading Channels by Single IDFT Algo-

rithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4 CHANNEL ESTIMATION 23

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4.2 Pilot Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.2.1 Block Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.2.2 Comb Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.3 System definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.4 Estimation techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.4.1 Least Square Estimator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4.4.2 MMSE channel estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4.5 Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.2 Scalar Kalman Filter Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.2.1 Problem Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

5.2.2 The Kalman Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.2.3 Kalman Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

5.3 Kalman Filter for Channel Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

5.3.1 Defining the System Matrices and Noise Covariance Matrices 33

5.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

ii

6 OFDM RECEIVER PARAMETERS ESTIMATION 40

6.1 Time and Frequency Offset Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

6.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

6.1.2 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

6.1.3 ML estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

6.2 SNR and Noise power Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

6.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

6.2.2 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

6.2.3 Noise power Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.3 Optimum Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

6.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

6.3.2 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

REFERENCES 56

APPENDIX 58

iii

ABBREVIATIONS

AR — Auto regressive

AWGN — Additive white Guassian noise

FDM — Frequency division multiplexing

OFDM — Orthogonal Frequency division multiplexing

FFT — Fast Fourier transform

IFFT — Inverse Fast Fourier transform

DFT — Discrete Fourier transform

IDFT — Inverse Discrete Fourier transform

CP — Cyclic Prefix

LS — Least Squares

MMSE — Minimum mean square error

PSK — Phase shift keying

QPSK — Quadrature phase shift keying

QAM — Quadrature amplitude modulation

ML — Maximim likelihood

BER,SER — Bit error rate, Symbol error rate

SNR — Signal to noise ratio

CSI — Channel state information

iv

List of Figures

2.2 Carrier spectrum of OFDM and FDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.3 Outline of OFDM transmission scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.4 OFDM System implemented using IDFT/FFT pair . . . . . . . . . 6

2.5 Principle of OFDM modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.6 OFDM modulation using IFFT processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.7 OFDM demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.8 OFDM Symbols with cyclic prefix [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.9 OFDM Symbol with Zero Padding [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

3.2 Simulated Fading Signal Envelope, fd = 10 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.3 Simulated Fading Signal Envelope, fd = 100 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.4 PDF of the Fading Signal, fd = 10 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.5 PDF of the Fading Signal, fd = 100 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

4.2 Comb-type pilot arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.3 BER vs SNR of MMSE and LS channel estimators . . . . . . . . . 28

5.2 BER vs SNR in AWGN channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.3 BER vs SNR for BPSK in Rayleigh Fading and AWGN channel . . 38

5.4 MSE vs SNR of LS, MMSE and Kalman estimation techniques . . . 39

v

6.2 Shows the signals that generate the ML estimates (N = 400, L =

100, ε = .4 and SNR=15 dB). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

6.3 Shows the estimator mean-squared error as a function of L is estimated 45

6.4 Representation of OFDM frequency channel response and noise

spectrum. Spectrum for both white and colored noise is shown. . . . 47

6.5 Shows the Mean Squared error of Noise power estimation . . . . . . 49

6.6 Shows the SNR estimated for each symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

6.7 Shows the BER performance of the BPSK when Noise Power is fed

in Kalman filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

6.8 Complete baseband transmission model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

6.9 Structure of an OFDM receiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

6.10 BER plot of BPSK symbol over fading channel. . . . . . . . . . . . 54

6.11 MSE plot for channel estimation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

vi

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

In a basic wireless communication system, the data is modulated on to a single

carrier frequency. The total available bandwidth is totally occupied by each symbol.

But transmission rates are severely limited in a single carrier environment due to

Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). ISI occurs when the symbol time is comparable to

the channel delay spread. This limits the transmission rate in a single carrier system.

Hence we require multicarrier transmission schemes.

In multicarrier transmission scheme total bandwidth available to the system is

divided into a series of frequency sub-bands. The data is then sent in parallel

through these sub-bands. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

is a multicarrier scheme that improves the bandwidth efficiency of the system. Ba-

sic idea behind OFDM is to divide the available spectrum into several orthogonal

subcarriers. By doing so the spectrum of subcarriers overlap thereby increasing

the bandwidth efficiency and also, each narrowband sub-channels experience al-

most flat fading thereby increasing the reliability. A way to minimize Inter Block

Interference (IBI) in OFDM is to use Cyclic Prefix (CP). OFDM modulation and de-

modulation can be easily implemented using Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT)

and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) techniques respectively.

Channel estimation and equalization is an integral part of OFDM system de-

sign. For proper decoding of the signal at the receiver accurate channel state in-

1

formation is necessary. Often channel state information is obtained by transmitting

known training sequence as pilot symbols. A conventional communication system

receiver, first obtains the channel estimates at the of the pilot symbols using various

algorithms like LS, MMSE, Kalman filtering, etc, which are then interpolated and

used for decoding the received signal.

The main objective of this project was to study the basic concepts of an OFDM

receiver. Kalman filter was implemented to get accurate channel estimates com-

pared to the existing ones. In this project we studied the existing techniques of

LS and MMSE. The Kalman Filtering based approach for SISO model was also

studied. A comparison between the various techniques were also done to see the

improvement achieved by using Kalman Filters. The basic aspects of an OFDM

receiver were studied. The simulations were conducted in Rayleigh fading and ad-

ditive white guassian channels. Various techniques for estimation of parameters

in an OFDM receiver like SNR, frequency and timing offset were studied and an

optimum receiver was designed which incorporates all the techniques used.

2

Chapter 2

Basics of OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a multicarrier technique.Basic

idea behind multicarrier techniques is to divide the total data in to number of smaller

chunks and transmit each chunk using separate subcarrier. In basic multicarrier

scheme spectrum of each subcarrier is non overlapping whereas in OFDM sub car-

riers are selected in such a way that they will be mathematically orthogonal to each

other and by using this property we can make spectrum of adjacent sub carriers to

overlap each other and still can be determined at the receiver through baseband pro-

cessing. This overlapping property of OFDM makes it more bandwidth efficient as

compared to other multicarrier techniques.

OFDM signal carries only one symbol during which the conventional serial sys-

tem carries N symbols. So, an error burst causes severe degradation in the perfor-

mance of a serial system whereas the OFDM system is only slightly affected. A

further advantage of symbol period being increased in OFDM causes the channel

delay spread to be shorter than the symbol period than that of in serial system, which

makes the system less sensitive to ISI.

Disadvantage of OFDM is the increased complexity over the conventional sys-

tem caused by employing N modulator and filters at the transmitter and N demod-

ulators and filters at the receiver, However this complexity can be resolved by the

use of the FFT and IFFT at the receiver and the transmitter respectively.

3

2.2 Multicarrier transmission

The idea of multicarrier transmission was introduced as the data rates were severely

limited due to ISI. Basic approach behind multicarrier transmission is to split the

data streams in to K smaller sub streams and transmit these data sub-streams in to

adjacent carrier.

carrier will have bandwidth B/K, thus maintaining the overall systems bandwidth.

Tsym will be increased by a factor of k, which allows k times higher data rate at a

given delay spread.

Figure 2.1 shows the basic structure of a multicarrier transmission where a wide-

band signal is divided in to N substreams and modulated with carrier frequency

of fk , k = 0, 1, 2, ..., N − 1 and transmitted accordingly. It implies that multicarrier

transmission can be regarded as a kind of method where data is divided and trans-

mitted in carriers of different frequencies.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is yet another type of multi- carrier

transmission which employs multiple sub carriers in place of single carrier. In

OFDM system the spectra of sub carriers are overlapped to improve the bandwidth

efficiency, unlike other multicarrier systems like FDM where wideband is divided

into multiple frequencies with guard band between adjacent subcarriers as shown in

figure 2.2.

4

Figure 2.2: Carrier spectrum of OFDM and FDM

width B into N narrowband signal (subcarriers). Each narrowband signal will be

having bandwidth B/N . Next step is to modulate each narrowband signal with its

corresponding carrier frequencies which are orthogonal to each other. This way, the

aggregate symbol rate can be maintained with reduced ISI in each subcarrier.

In practice Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) and Inverse DFT (IDFT) are used

to make OFDM system easier to implement. Practically DFT and IDFT can be

implemented using FFT and IFFT respectively. IFFT is used to assign the OFDM

symbols to their respective orthogonal subcarriers, so by taking N point IFFT of the

signal we can assign a stream of N OFDM symbols to N orthogonal sub carriers.

5

Figure 2.4: OFDM System implemented using IDFT/FFT pair

OFDM is a special case FDM where O stands for orthogonal. In OFDM, the sub car-

riers are orthogonal to each other unlike any other multicarrier transmission scheme

which is necessary for proper decoding of data at the receiver.

Mathematically orthogonality between sub carriers can be proved by fol- lowing

steps given below, We will consider the time-limited complex exponential signals

[e j2π fk t ]N−1

k=0 which represent the different subcarriers at f k = k/Tsym in the OFDM

signal where 0 ≤ t ≤ Tsym . These signals will be orthogonal if the integral of the

product of the first signal and the complex conjugate of the second signal, for their

fundamental period is zero, that is,

Z T Z T

1 j2π fk t − j2π fi t 1

e e dt = e j2π(k/Tsym )t e j2π(−i/Tsym )t dt

Tsym 0 Tsym 0

Z T

1

= e j2π(k−i)/Tsymt

Tsym 0 (2.1)

= 1 ∨ integer k = i

0 otherwise

Above condition is also true for the discrete samples with the sampling instances at

t = nTs = nTsym /N, n = 0, 1, 2, ...N − 1. it can be proved using the same given steps

above.Thus we have proved that sub carriers in OFDM are orthogonal to each other

as orthogonality is an essential condition for the OFDM signal to be free of Inter

Carrier Interference (ICI).

6

The Orthogonal part of OFDM suggest that there exist a special kind of relationship

between the sub carriers of the system.

The orthogonality property of the subcarriers allows the individual carriers to

overlap and still be immune to inter carrier interference (ICI). In the receiver, de-

modulators integrate the received signal over one symbol period to obtain the raw

data. The integration process results in zero contribution from all other sub carriers

even though there will be various delayed versions of the signal. In other words or-

thogonal sub carriers are uncorrelated from each other and are linearly independent.

The OFDM transmitter first modulates the input data bits into blocks of N symbols.

In Figure 2.5 Xl [k] denotes the symbol correspondong to the kth subcarrier in the l th

block. The symbol time for each symbol within the block gets extended to NTs as

data is sent in parallel. So after OFDM modulation, an OFDM block of time period

Tsym = NTs is formed. Then the baseband OFDM signals in the continuous time

domain can be expressed as:

∞ N−1

xl (t) = ∑ ∑ Xl [K]e j2π fk (t−lTsym)

l=0 k=0

In OFDM systems once the available bandwidth is known we have to decide on the

7

number of subcarriers or the subcarrier spacing. Subcarrier spacing is based on the

environment the system has to operate in, including maximum Doppler shift and

time delay spread of the channel. Once the subcarrier spacing has been decided, the

number of subcarrier can be estimated based on the total transmission bandwidth

available.

Carrier Spacing should be selected such that the carriers remain orthogonal to each

other. Orthogonal signals can be easily separated by using different correlation

techniques at the receiver.

Practically OFDM modulation can be easily implemented using inverse fast Fourier

transform technique. IFFT processing decreases the complexity and increases the

computational efficiency of OFDM system.

The continuous-time baseband signal can be sampled at the time instant, t =

lTsym + nTs where Ts = Tsym /N and fk = k/Tsym which gives the following discrete-

time OFDM symbols

N−1

xl (n) = ∑ Xl [K]e j2πkn/N

k=0

IFFT operation on continuous time OFDM signal yields the exact same result as

given above and it is also simple and easier to implement. IFFT operation also de-

creases the complexity in the transmitter, as instead of using bank of modulators

we can simply use N point IFFT operation. Thus the sequence xn , n = 0, 1, 2..,

N-1 is the size-N Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) of the block of mod-

8

ulation symbols X[0], X[1], ...., X[N-1]. Thus OFDM modulation can easily be

implemented using IDFT processing followed by digital to analog conversion, as

illustrated in Figure 2.6. In particular, by selecting the IDFT size N equal to 2m

for some integer m, the OFDM modulation can be easily implemented by means of

implementation efficient radix-2 inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) processing.

Basic principle of OFDM demodulation at the receiver is as shown in Figure 2.7

consisting of N correlators, one for each subcarrier. Exploiting the orthogonality

between sub carriers, in the ideal case, two sub carriers will not interfere with each

other at the time of demodulation. Now we consider the received baseband OFDM

symbol yl (t) = ∑N−1

k=0 Xl [K]e

j2π fk (t−lTsym ) from which transmitted symbol X [K] can

l

lows,

Z ∞ N−1

1 1

Z ∞

Yl [K] = yl [t]e j2π fk (t−lTsym )

dt = ∑ Xl [i]e j2pi fi (t−lTsym ) e− j2π fk (t−lTsym ) dt

Tsym −∞ Tsym −∞ k=0

N−1 Z Tsym

1

= ∑ Xl [i] Tsym e j2π( fi − fk )(t−lTsym )

k=0 0

= Xl [K]

(2.2)

In the above set of equations effect of channel and noise were not taken into account.

However in multicarrier transmission any corruption due to frequency selective ra-

dio channel may lead to loss of orthogonality between sub carriers and thus lead to

interference between adjacent sub carriers. To take care of the effects of frequency

selective channels cyclic-prefix insertion is used.

9

Figure 2.7: OFDM demodulation

If there are multiple paths from the transmitter to the receiver either due to reflec-

tions or obstructions, we can get fading effects. In such case, the signal reaches

the receiver following many different routes, each a copy of the transmitted signal.

Each of these rays has a slightly different delay and slightly different gain. The

time delays result in phase shifts which added to main signal component causes the

signal quality to be degraded.

In fading, the reflected signals that are delayed add to the main signal and cause

either gains in the signal strength or deep fades. And by deep fades, we mean that

the signal is nearly wiped out. The signal level is so small that the receiver cannot

decide what was there.

Delay Spread is defined as maximum time delay that can occur to the signal during

the transmission through the channel in that environment. Delay spread and multi-

path propagation causes Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) in the signal. Based on the

delay spread of the channel’s comparision to the symbol period there are two cases:

• If the symbol period is very large compared to the delay spread of the channel

the distortion caused is negligible.

• If the symbol period is comparable to the delay spread then distortion occurs.

10

2.7.2 Cyclic Extension of OFDM symbols

To eliminate ISI and multipath fading a guard interval is used in OFDM symbols.

Two techniques that can be used to form a guard interval are:

2. Zero Padding

Cyclic Extension is to extend the OFDM symbol by copying the last or first few

samples of the symbol and adding it as a prefix or suffix respectively to the symbol.

We use cyclic prefix as the extension in all the simulations.

Cyclic Prefix is the technique used to make OFDM symbols insensitive to time

dispersion in multipath channel. As we can see in Figure 2.8, the last part of the

OFDM symbol is copied into the starting of the OFDM symbol.

In zero padding instead of making the cyclic extension of OFDM symbols we insert

zeros equal to the length of the guard interval at the beginning of each OFDM

symbol. The only condition to be followed by the guard interval is that the time

interval of number of zeros should be greater than the maximum delay spread of

the channel that is, the ISI effect of one OFDM symbol on the symbol should be

confined within the guard interval.

11

Figure 2.9: OFDM Symbol with Zero Padding [1]

2.8 Summary

OFDM is a multicarrier transmission scheme which is bandwidth efficient as it uses

orthogonal subcarriers and also reliable as it converts a wide band into a number of

narrow band channels. The use of IFFT and FFT blocks reduces the complexity of

the system, compared to a bank of modulators. Another problem associated with

the OFDM system is ISI, due to the delay spread of the channel which is taken care

of by either zero padding or by using a cyclic extension.

12

Chapter 3

FADING CHANNEL

3.1 Introduction

In wireless mobile communications, due to reflections and scattering by obstruc-

tions such as buildings, automobiles etc. in the path between the transmitter and

receiver the transmitted signal arrives in multiple paths. This is called multipath

propagation. Each of the transmitted signal which follows different paths from the

transmitter to the receiver undergo different attenuations and have different delays

when it reaches the receiver. Due to these multipath components the strength of the

received signal randomly fluctuates and this phenomenon is called multipath fading.

Due to the difference in relative path lengths between individual paths, multiple

copies of the transmitted signal arrive at different times at the receiver which makes

signal to spread in time domain. Spreading of the signal depends upon the maxi-

mum excess delay of the channel τm , which is defined as time duration between the

first and last received components of the signal at the receiver or in other words we

can say τm is the maximum delay a signal can experience during its course in the

channel. An ideal channel should have zero excess delay.

Based on excess delay of the channel τm and symbol duration Tsym fading can

be characterised as follows

1. Flat Fading

13

When maximum excess delay of the channel is less than symbol period i.e. τm <

Tsym maximum delay the channel can offer will always be less than one symbol pe-

riod so all the multipath components of the symbol arrive during the same signalling

interval and there will not be any significant interference between adjacent symbols

at the receiver. Such a channel is called Flat Fading Channel.

Now if τm > Tsym , the channel exhibits frequency selective fading where excess

delay by the channel can exceed one symbol period. In such a case, some of the

multipath components of nth transmitted symbol can arrive during (n + 1)th symbol

duration. This results in Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). In frequency selective

channel the gain of the channel is different for different frequency components.

Until now we have assumed that there is no relative motion between transmitter

and receiver. Now considering that possibility, propagation paths can change with

the position of the transmitter and receiver which can result in change in channel

characteristics. Since the channel characteristics are dependent on the position of

transmitter and receiver which varies with time because of their movement , so

mobile channel can be characterised as time variant channel.

In the frequency domain, Doppler spread characterizes the effect of time varying

nature of the channel on the received signal. The Doppler shift in the frequency

of each of the multipath waves arises due to the motion of transmitter and receiver.

The amount of Doppler shift will be different for each of the multipath waves as

the angle of arrival of each wave is randomly distributed. This results in spectral

broadening of the signal. The amount of spectral broadening is expressed in terms

of Doppler spread. The Doppler spread, fd , is the maximum Doppler shift and is

given by,

v

fd =

λ

where v is the velocity of relative motion between transmitter and receiver in me-

ters/second and λ is the wavelength of the signal in meters.

The received signal can be expressed as sum of in-phase and quadrature-phase com-

ponents and for large number of paths between transmitter and receiver, these com-

ponents can be approximated as Gaussian random variables with zero mean and the

envelope of the received signal can be shown to have Rayleigh distribution [6]. The

14

probability density function (pdf) of the envelope of the received signal R(t) is given

by

r2

−

r

e 2σ2 , if r ≥ 0

fR (r) = σ2

0, if r < 0

In frequency domain power spectrum of received fading signal has the U shaped

bandlimited form:

1

, if | f − fc | ≤ fd

r

f − fc 2

S( f ) = π fd 1 − ( f )

d

0,

elsewhere

the maximum Doppler frequency. The equivalent autocorrelation function in time

domain of the received signal is given by

r(τ) = J0 (2π fd τ)

where J0 (.) is the zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind, and τ is the separa-

tion between observation times in seconds.

As flat fading with Doppler spread is a common phenomenon in communi- cation

systems, computer simulation of flat fading model will greatly help to properly

study the characteristics of the multipath channel.

As described above envelope of the received signal under flat fading con- dition

follows the Rayleigh distribution. Hence to simulate the flat fading channel with

Doppler spread we need to generate time domain samples having power spectrum

as given by S(f) in above section or should have Bessel autocorrelation function

of zeroth order and first kind. As statistical properties of received envelope R(t)

and generated Rayleigh sequence should be same, we have to generate a Rayleigh

15

sequence having autocorrelation se- quence,

We know that magnitude of a zero mean complex Gaussian sequence with uncorre-

lated real and imaginary parts gives a sequence having Rayleigh pdf.

variables using single IDFT operation. We know that a signal of known PSD(power

spectral density) can be obtained by passing white Guassian noise through a par-

ticular filter whose coefficients can be calculated by the known PSD. Figure 3.1

shows how we can generate complex Rayleigh sequence by single IDFT operation

As we can see in above Figure 3.1 the modification has been done in Filter sequence.

Modified filter FM [k] sequence ensures that output of a single IDFT operation will

give uncorrelated real and imaginary parts, hence there is no need of second branch

(IDFT operation). This results in significant reduction in computational complexity

of smiths algorithm.

The modified filter FM [k] which is used to shape the random Gaussian variables to

16

get desired U shaped doppler power spectrum is

0 k=0

v

u r 1

u

k = 1, 2, ..., km − 1

k 2

u

2( 1 − (

t

) )

N fm

r

km π km − 1

[ − arctan( √ )] k = km

2km − 1

2 2

FM [k] =

0 k = km + 1, ...., N − km − 1

r

km π km − 1

[ − arctan( √ k = N − km

)]

2 2 2km − 1

v

u r 1

u

k = N − km + 1, ...., N − 2, N − 1

k 2

u

2( 1 − (

t

) )

N fm

fd

fm = = normalized Doppler frequency

fs

fd =Maximum Doppler frequency

fs = Sampling frequency

km = fm N

km is the point at or just below, the maximum Doppler frequency. The filter co-

efficient at km is chosen such that the area under an interpolation of the spectrum

coefficients is equal to the area under the continuous-time spectrum curve given by

S(f).

Since fading is a multiplicative process, the effect of fading channel on a transmit-

ted signal can be simulated by multiplying the transmitted signal with a Rayleigh

sequence having desired correlation properties. Assuming that the channel does

not fluctuate during a symbol interval, we have to multiply each transmitted sym-

bol with a single sample from the computer generated Rayleigh sample sequence.

Hence the total number of Rayleigh samples N should be equal to the total number

of transmitted symbols.

17

3.3 Auto regressive Model for Fading Channel

The IDFT technique discussed above is a high quality and efficient fading genera-

tor. But the disadvantage of this method is that all the samples are generated in a

single FFT operation. The memory constraint restrains us from using this method to

generate a large number of samples. In this section we describe the use of a general

auto regressive (AR) modeling approach for the generation of correlated Rayleigh

samples.

3.3.1 Generation

As discussed before, the theoretical power spectral density of either the in- phase

or quadrature phase part of the received fading signal has the U shaped bandlimited

form:

1

, if | f − fc | ≤ fd

r

f − fc 2

S( f ) = π fd 1 − ( f )

d

0,

elsewhere

Here fd is the maximum Doppler shift in Hertz. The equivalent normalized continu-

ous time autocorrelation of the received signal is R(τ) = J0 (2π fd τ), here J0 (.) is the

zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind. For the discrete time scenario, the-

oretically, the generated in-phase and quadrature Gaussian processes should each

have the autocorrelation sequence: R(n) = J0 (2π fm |n|), Here, fm = fd /Fs is the

maximum Doppler shift normalized by the sampling rate Fs . Also the in-phase

and quadrature processes must be independent and each must have zero mean for

Rayleigh fading.

3.3.2 AR modelling

A complex p-th order AR process can be generated by the time domain recursion

p

x[n] = − ∑ ak x[n − k] + w[n]

k=1

18

Where w[n] is a complex white Gaussian noise process with uncorrelated real and

imaginary parts. For Rayleigh modelling w[n] should have zero mean. The AR

model parameters that need to be found are the coefficients a1 , a2 , ...., a p and the

variance σ2p of w[n]. The Power Spectral Density of this model has the rational

form given by

σ2p

S( f ) = p

|1 + ∑k=1 ak exp(−2π f k)|2

Although the theoretical spectrum is not rational, an AR model of sufficiently high

order can closely approximate the theoretical spectrum.

− ∑ p am Rxx [k − m]

if k ≥ 1

m=1

Rxx [k] =

− ∑ p am Rxx [−m] + σ2

if k = 0

m=1 p

Here,

Rxx [0] Rxx [−1] · · · Rxx [−p + 1]

· · · Rxx [−p + 2]

Rxx [1] Rxx [0]

Rxx =

.. .. .. ..

.

. . .

Rxx [p − 1] Rxx [p − 2] · · · Rxx [0]

p

a = [a1 , a2 , ...., a p ]T , v= [Rxx [1], Rxx [2], ....., Rxx [p]]T and σ2p = Rxx [0]+ ∑k=1 ak Rxx [k]

So given the required ACF sequence, the AR filter coefficients can be determined

by solving the p equations given above. And these set of equations are called Yule-

Walker equations.

As Rxx is an autocorrelation matrix, it is positive semidefinite and can be shown

to be singular only if the process is purely harmonic and consists of p-1 or fewer

sinusoids. In all other cases these equations are guaranteed to have a unique solution

for a. The generated AR process has its ACF given by,

Rxx [k] if 0 ≤ k ≤ p

Rˆxx [k] =

− ∑ p am Rxx [k − m] + σ2

if k > p

m=1 p

19

3.4 Results

rithm

20

Figure 3.2 and 3.3 show the results when two different fade rates, 10Hz and 100Hz,

are simulated using the single IDFT method. For each simulation, the time varying

envelope of the fading signal has been plotted.

Inference

As the doppler frequency increases the rate at which the magnitude of the fade vari-

able changes also increases which is expected as the relative velocity increases and

hence more variation in the channel.

Figure 3.4 and 3.5 show the results when two different fade rates, 10Hzand 100Hz,

are simulated using the single IDFT method. For each simulation, the PDF of the

fading signal has been plotted.

21

Figure 3.5: PDF of the Fading Signal, fd = 100 Hz

Inference

The PDF plots shows that the generated fading signal is Rayleigh distributed, thus

validating this model for Rayleigh fading simulation.

22

Chapter 4

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

4.1 Introduction

In an OFDM system, the transmitter modulates the message data into PSK/QAM

symbols, performs IFFT on the symbols to convert them into time-domain signals,

and sends them out through a channel. The received signal usually suffers distortion

by the channel between transmitter and receiver. In order to recover the transmitted

bits, the channel effect must be estimated and compensated in the receiver.

In an OFDM system each subcarrier can be considered as separate channel. The re-

ceived signal can be defined as a product of transmitted signal and channel response,

thus transmitted signal can be recovered by estimating the channel response at each

subcarrier in the receiver due to the orthogonality of the subcarriers. Pilot symbols

are those symbols known to both transmitter and receiver, which are used to es-

timate the channel at those particular locations which can then be extended using

various interpolation techniques to estimate the channel response of the subcarriers

between pilot tones. Computational complexity of the technique and time-variation

of the channel should be considered when choosing a particular technique for chan-

nel estimation

23

4.2 Pilot Structure

In a block type pilot structure shown in Figure 4.1 the pilot signal is assigned to a

particular block that is, the data at all the subcarriers is known to the receiver at a

particular time interval periodically. Using these pilots, a time-domain interpolation

is performed to estimate the channel. During the time period St for which pilots are

known, it is to be noted that the channel’s variation with time is constant in that

period.

In a comb-type pilot arrangement as shown in Figure 4.2 pilot symbols are dis-

tributed uniformly among subcarriers which are known throughout the transmission

time which are interpolated in frequency domain to estimate the channel. Similar

to the block type the period of the pilot tones S f should be such that the variation in

the channel with time is constant in that period

As we know from previous chapters that all the subcarriers in OFDM system are

orthogonal to each other. Considering this property we can represent the training

symbols for N subcarriers in the form of diagonal matrix:

24

Figure 4.2: Comb-type pilot arrangement

X[0] 0 ··· 0

X[1] · · ·

0 0

X = .. .. ... .

. . ..

0 0 · · · X[N − 1]

Where X[k] denotes a pilot tone at kth subcarrier, k = 0, 1, 2,....,N 1. Given that

channel gain is H[k] for each subcarrier k, the received signal Y[k] can be defined as

Y [0] X[0] 0 · · · 0 H[0] Z[0]

Y [1] 0 X[1] · · ·

0 H[1] Z[1]

= +

.. .. .. .. .. ..

..

.

. . . . . .

Y [N − 1] 0 0 · · · X[N − 1] H[N − 1] Z[N − 1]

where H is a channel vector given as H = [H[0], H[1], ....., H[N − 1]]T and Z is a

noise vector given as Z = [Z[0], Z[1], ....., Z[N1]]T with E[Z[k]] = 0 and Var[Z[k]] =

σ2Z , k = 0, 1, 2, ...., N − 1.

Several techniques exist for estimation of channel but considering their computa-

tional complexity and nature of the channel following are more popular than others,

25

4.4.1 Least Square Estimator

Least square (LS) channel estimation methods finds the channel estimate H in such

a way that the following cost function is minimized:

= Y H Y −Y H X Ĥ − Ĥ H X H Y + Ĥ H X H X Ĥ

∂J(Ĥ)

= −(X H Y ) + (X H X Ĥ) = 0

∂Ĥ H

Lets consider the LS estimate of the channel for each subcarrier as ĤLS [k], k = 0, 1,

2.....N-1. Since X is a diagonal matrix because of no ICI, the LS estimate ĤLS can

be written for each subcarrier as

Y [k]

ĤLS = , k = 0, 1, 2, ....., N − 1

X[k]

For a Gaussian and uncorrelated channel with impulse response given by h and

channel noise, the MMSE estimate of h is given by,

yy y

where,

26

Ryy = E[y, yH ] = XFT Rhh FTH X H + σ2n In

are the cross-covariance matrix between h and y and the auto-covariance matrix of

y. And Rhh is the auto-covariance matrix of h and σ2n denotes the noise variance.

Now in this method we are using a comb type pilot arrangement. So the X matrix

that is used is a diagonal matrix with the known N p pilot symbols.

FT is a truncated DFT matrix that we are using to reduce the complexity of the

system by bringing down the number of complex multiplications. It has the first Ct

columns of the original DFT matrix F and rows corresponding to the pilot locations.

27

4.5 Result

Bit error rate (BER) associated with the LS and MMSE channel estimation methods

at various SNR

Inference

Figure 4.5 shows that MMSE out performs LS for the entire SNR range and also the

performance of both estimators improves as SNR increases.The performance of the

MMSE estimator is better than that of the LS estimator due to the known covariance

matrix of the channel.

28

Chapter 5

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

5.1 Introduction

MMSE and LS estimators described in previous sections assumes channel to be

wide-sense stationary random process. But in reality, this assumption is incorrect

because the channel can be a non-stationary process. Kalman filter is an adaptive

filter which recursively calculates the channel estimates and hence ttrack the exact

value of the channel matrix as well.

In this chapter, the Kalman filtering problem is defined first. Then this problem

is extended to suit the channel estimation problem in OFDM systems. It ends

with simulation results which shows the improvement of Kalman filtering over least

square estimation.

Discrete time linear systems are usually described in a state variable form given by:

x j = ax j + bu j

29

where the state x j is a scalar, a and b are constants and the input u j is a scalar; j

represents the time index.

Now if the system gets corrupted by noise, the system definition changes to:

x j = ax j + bu j + w j

where, w is white noise with zero mean and covariance Q and is uncorrelated with

the input. Now if the signal x is measured, and the measured value is z,

z j = hx j + v j

The measured value z depends on the current value of x and on the gain h. Ad-

ditionally, the measurement has its own noise v associated with it. The noise v is

white noise source with zero mean and covariance R that is uncorrelated with the

input or with the noise w. The two noise sources are independent of each other and

independent of the input. The Kalman filter problem is to filter z to get an estimate

of x which minimizes the effect of both w and v.

A simple solution to the problem is to recreate the system model to get the estimate

ˆ j ). But this approach has two inherent problems. The first is

of x j (given by (x)

that there is no correction. If we dont know the quantities a, b or h exactly (or the

initial value x0 ), the estimate will not track the exact value of x. Secondly, we dont

compensate for the addition of the noise sources (w and v). In this approach we will

first make a prediction regarding x at time j based on the information available till

j-1. This is called the a priori estimate and is given by:

We use this a priori estimate to predict an estimate for the output, ẑ j . The differ-

ence between this estimated output and the actual output is called the residual, or

innovation.

Residual = z j − ẑ j = z j − hx̂−j

30

If the residual is small, it generally means we have a good estimate; if it is large the

estimate is not so good. We can use this information to refine our estimate of x j ;

we call this new estimate the a posteriori estimate, x̂ j . If the residual is small, so

is the correction to the estimate. As the residual grows, so does the correction. The

entire system can be modeled as:

The only task now is to find the quantity k that is used to refine our estimate, and it

is this process that is at the heart of Kalman filtering.

There are two errors which are of interest in the above problem definition. An a

priori error ê−j , and an a posteriori error e j .

ê−j = x j − x̂−j

e j = x j − x̂ j

p−j = E(e−j )2

p j = E(e j )2

where the operator E represents the expected or average value. A Kalman filter

minimizes the a posteriori variance p j by suitably choosing the value of k.

The value for k is calculated to be,

hp−j

k=

h2 p−j + R

However, there is still a problem because this expression needs a value for the a

priori covariance which in turn requires a knowledge of the system variable x j .

Therefore our next task will be to come up with an estimate for the a priori covari-

31

ance.

But before that lets examine this equation for k. First note that the constant, k,

changes at every iteration.

Next, and more significantly, we can examine what happens as each of the three

terms in equation are varied.

correction is also very small. In other words we will ignore the current mea-

surement and simply use past estimates to form the new estimate.

• If the a priori error is very large (so that the measurement noise term R in the

denominator is unimportant) then k = 1/h. This, in effect, tells us to throw

away the a priori estimate and use the current (measured) value of the output

to estimate the state.

the current measurement in forming the new estimate.

Now, the a priori and a posteriori covariance terms are given by:

p−j = a2 p j−1 + Q

p j = p−j (1 − hk)

Any Kalman filter operation begins with a system description consisting of gains a,

b and h. The state is x, the input to the system is u, and the output is z. The time

index is given by j.

x j = ax j + bu j + w j

z j = hx j + v j

The process has two steps, a predictor step and a corrector step.

In the predictor step, an a priori estimate of the state(x̂−j ) and the apriori covariance(p−j

32

) is calculated.

In the corrector step the Kalman gain(k) is calculated and used to re- fine the a priori

estimate to give us the a posteriori estimate of the state(x̂ j ).

Then we can calculate the a posteriori covariance which will be used in the next

iteration.

In an earlier chapter we had discussed how a fading channel can be approx- imated

by an AR model. Based on that discussion we can model a channel tap at time n by

the following pth order AR process.

p

hn,τ = ∑ ak hn−k,τ + wn,τ

k=1

hn,τ a1 a2 · · · a p−1 a p hn−1,τ 1

···

hn−1,τ 1 0 0 0 hn−2,τ 0

= + wn,τ

.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

..

.

. . . . . . .

hn−p+1,τ 0 0 ··· 1 0 hn−p,τ 0

In the next section we will discuss how to extend this concept to a MIMO system

with an m tap channel.

trices

For the general system the state equation for the Kalman filter is given by:

Hn = AHn−1 +Wn

33

where,

A1 0 ··· 0 b hn,0 bwn,0

··· 0

1 A1 b h bwn,1

Hn = n,1

A=

.. .. .. .

B =

.. ..

Wn =

..

. ..

. . . . .

0 0 · · · A1 b hn,m bwn,m

diagonally extend A2 to get A. So, the dimension of A will be, A ∈ C pm×pm

To construct B we column wise extend b, m times; likewise we extend hn to form

Hn and bwn to form Wn .

B ∈ R pm×1 , Hn ∈ C pm×1 andW n ∈ C pm×1 ,

After every state update, only the first element of hn gives the cur- rent state. The

rest of its entries are the p-1 past states. So we will multiply Hn with an appropriate

C matrix to get the current states at every tap.

The noise covariance matrix for the process noise while approximating each tap by

a pth order AR model is given by:

q 0 ··· 0

q · · · 0

0

Q=

.. .. . . ..

. . . .

0 0 ··· q

The measurement covariance matrix R is given by:

Yn = Xn Hn +Vn = Xn F 0 hn +Vn

Yn = Xn F 0CHn +Vn

34

Where Yn corresponds to the received signals at the pilot positions. So, Yn ∈ CNp ×1 .

Yn is constructed by first creating x j . x j is a diagonal matrix with its diagonal filled

with the symbols transmitted at the pilot positions.

C is constructed by diagonally extending c, m times. Here c = [10 . . . 0]1×p . So

C ∈ Rm×pm .

Now the Kalman filtering equations are given by:

Ĥn|n−1 = AĤn−1|n−1

Pn|n−1 = APn−1|n−1 AH + Q

Pn|n = (I − Kn Xn F 0C)Pn|n−1

The Kalman filter requires an initial estimate of the state and an initial error

covariance matrix to start the recursive process. The initial state estimate is given

by an LS estimation to fill the matrix Ĥn−1|n−1 in the above equations. Pn−1|n−1 is

initialized as an identity matrix.

35

5.4 Results

Simulation Parameters

The number of subcarriers used are 128. Length of the Cyclic prefix is 16. The

channel length is 5 and the power delay profile (PDP) of the channel = e(−n/5) for

n= 0,1,...,4.The number of pilot symbols used are 32 and the number of symbols in

each OFDM alphabet are 100.

• BER vs SNR plot for different modulation schemes in a Rayleigh fading chan-

nel and equalization using a Kalman filter. Figure 5.1 below shows the BER at

various SNR for BPSK, QPSK, QAM 16 and QAM 64 modulation schemes.

As we know from theory BPSK has the least BER followed by QPSK, QAM

16 and QAM 64 respectively which is also shown by the simulated results.

Figure 5.1 also shows that BER performance is better as SNR increases.

36

• BER vs SNR plot for BPSK and QAM 64 (theoretical and simulated results)

in an AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) channel

Figure 5.2 shows the theoretical and simulated results for both BPSK and

QAM 64 in an AWGN channel which are almost equal and follow the water-

fall curve. BER decreases with SNR.

37

• BER vs SNR plot for BPSK symbols in an OFDM system in a fading and

AWGN channel

Figure 5.3: BER vs SNR for BPSK in Rayleigh Fading and AWGN channel

Figure 5.3 shows that the BER performance is better in a AWGN channel than

that of a fading channel

38

• Mean Squared Error (MSE) Performance of LS, MMSE and Kalman estima-

tors

Figure 5.4: MSE vs SNR of LS, MMSE and Kalman estimation techniques

Mean square error associated with the LS, MMSE and Kalman channel esti-

mation methods at various SNR is plotted for BPSK modulated symbols

We see in figure 5.4 that Kalman out performs MMSE and LS for the entire

SNR range. Also as the SNR increases, the estimates by all three estimators

become more accurate.

39

Chapter 6

ESTIMATION

6.1.1 Introduction

in OFDM systems. This effect becomes more severe when compounded by the pres-

ence of Doppler fading in wireless channels. Orthogonal frequency-division mul-

tiplexing We have addressed here two problems in the design of OFDM receivers.

One problem is the unknown OFDM symbol arrival time. Sensitivity to a time offset

is higher in multicarrier systems than in single-carrier systems. A second problem

is the mismatch of the oscillators in the transmitter and the receiver. The demodu-

lation of a signal with an offset in the carrier frequency can cause a high bit error

rate and may degrade the performance of a symbol synchronizer.

A symbol clock and a frequency offset estimate may be generated at the receiver

with the aid of pilot symbols known to the receiver by maximizing the average log-

likelihood function. Redundancy in the transmitted OFDM signal also offers the

opportunity for synchronization. . We presented and evaluated the joint maximum

likelihood (ML) estimationof the time and carrier-frequency offset in OFDM sys-

tems. The key element that will rule the discussion is that the OFDM data symbols

40

already contain sufficient information to perform synchronization. Our novel al-

gorithm exploits the cyclic prefix preceding the OFDM symbols, thus reducing the

need for pilots.

thogonality between subcarriers is to copy the last samples of the body of the OFDM

symbol ( samples long) and append them as a preamble the cyclic prefix to form the

complete OFDM symbol. The effective length of the OFDM symbol as transmitted

is this cyclic prefix plus the body ( samples long). The insertion of a cyclic prefix

can be shown to result in an equivalent parallel orthogonal channel structure that

allows for simple channel estimation and equalization .

We assumed that the channel is non dispersive and that the transmitted signal

s(k) is only affected by complex additive white Gaussian noise(AWGN) n(k). we

considered the two uncertainty in the received symbol : the uncertainty in the arrival

time of OFDM symbol and the uncertainty in carrier frequency(a difference in the

local oscillator in transmitter and receiver gives rise to a shift of all the sub carriers).

The first uncertainty is modeled as a delay in the channel impulse response δ(k − θ)

where θ is the integer-valued unknown arrival time of symbol.The latter is mod-

eled as a complex multiplicative distortion of the received data in the time domain

e j2πεk/N ,where ε denotes the frequency difference between transmitter and receiver

oscillators.All the sub carriers experience the same shift ε, Those uncertainties and

the AWGN thus yield the received signal

Now, consider the transmitted signal s(k) This is the DFT of the data symbols

xk , which we assume are independent. Hence, s(k) is a linear combination of in-

dependent, identically distributed random variables. If the number of subcarriers is

sufficiently large, we know from the central limit theorem that s(k) approximates

a complex Gaussian process whose real and imaginary parts are independent. This

41

Figure 6.1: Structure of OFDM symbol with cyclicly extended symbol s(k).

process, however, is not white since the appearance of a cyclic prefix yields a corre-

lation between some pairs of samples that are spaced N samples apart. Hence, r(k)

is not a white process either, but because of its probabilistic structure, it contains

information about the time offset θ and carrier frequency offset ε.This is the cru-

cial observation that offers the opportunity for joint estimation of these parameters

based on r(k).

6.1.3 ML estimation

that these samples contain one complete (N + L) samples OFDM symbol.The posi-

tion of the symbol within the interval is unknown because of the delay θ introduced

0

by the channel.The set T contains the indices of the data samples that are copied

into the cyclic prefix,and the set of T contain the indices of the prefix.Since the

cyclic prefix and their copies r(k), k ∈ T ∪ T 0 are pairwise correlated while the re-

maining samples are uncorrelated.

The log-likelihood function for θ and ε, Λ(θ, ε) is the logarithm of the probabil-

ity density function fˆ(rθ, ε) of the 2N + L observed samples in r given the arrival

time θ and the carrier offset ε. Using the correlation properties of the observa-

42

tions,the log-likelihood function can be written as

= log ∏ f (r(k), r(k + N)) ∏ f (r(k))

k∈T / ∪T 0

k∈T

f (r(k), r(k + N))

= log ∏ ∏ f (r(k)) (6.2)

k∈T f (r(k)), f (r(k + N)) k∈T

where f (.) denotes the probability density function of the variables in its argu-

ment.The product Πk f (r(k)) in equation (6.2) is independent of θ (since the product

is over all ) and ε (since the density f (r(k)) is rationally invariant).Since the ML

estimation of θ and ε is the argument maximizing Λ(θ, ε) Under the assumption that

r is a jointly Gaussian vector,(6.2) is shown in the Appendix to be

m+L+1

γ(m) , ∑ r(k)r? (k + N) (6.4)

k=m

m+L+1

1

φ(m) , ∑ r(k)2 + r(k + N)2 (6.5)

2 k=m

and

? (k + N)}

E{r(k)r

ρ , p

E{|r(k)|2 }E{|r(k + N)|2 }

σ2s SNR

= 2 2

= (6.6)

σs + σn SNR+1

is the magnitude of the correlation coefficient between r(k) and r(k + N) The first

term in (6.3) is the weighted magnitude of γ(θ) which is a sum L of consecutive

correlations between pairs of samples spaced N samples apart.The weighting factor

depends on the frequency offset.The term φ(θ) is an energy term, independent of

the frequency offset ε. The maximization of the log-likelihood function can be

43

performed in two steps :

max Λ(θ, ε) = max max Λ(θ, ε) = max Λ(θ, ε̂ML (θ)), (6.7)

(θ, ε) θ ε θ

The maximum with respect to the frequency offset ε is obtained when the cosine

term in (6.3) equals one. This yields the ML estimation of ε

1

ε̂ ML (θ) = − ∠γ(θ) + n (6.8)

2π

where n is an integer.By the periodicity of the cosine function, several maxima are

found.We assume that an acquisition, or rough estimate, of the frequency offset has

been performed and that |ε| < 1/2 ; thus n =0. Since cos(2πε̂ ML θ + ∠γ(θ)) = 1,

the log-likelihood function of θ becomes

θ

1

ε̂ ML = − ∠γ(θ̂ ML ), (6.11)

2π

Only two quantities affect the log-likelihood function (and thus the performance

of the estimator): the number of samples in the cyclic prefix L and the correlation

coefficient ρ given by the SNR.The quantity γ(θ) provides the estimates of ε and

θ.Its magnitude, which is compensated by an energy term, peaks at time instant

θ̂ ML ,while its phase at this time instant is proportional to ε̂ ML .

44

Simulation

Figure 6.2: Shows the signals that generate the ML estimates (N = 400, L = 100, ε =

.4 and SNR=15 dB).

45

Conclusion:

signals Λ(θ, ε̂ ML (θ)) (whose maximizing arguments are the time estimates θ̂ ML )

and −(1/2π)∠γ(θ̂ ML ) (whose values at the time instants θ̂ ML yield the frequency

estimates) are shown in Fig 6.2. As shown in Fig 6.2 that the peaks in the timing

offset graph corresponds to the arrival of each OFDM symbol or beginning of a

Symbol and the corresponding indices gives the frequency offset in frequency es-

timate graph.In Fig 6.3 shows the estimator mean-squared error as a function of L

is estimated in AWGN channel.From eq.(6.4) to (6.8) the estimate is the argument

of a sum of complex numbers.Without additive noise n(k),each term r(k)r ? (k + N)

has same argument −2πε.Hence they contribute coherently to the sum whereas the

additive noise contributes incoherently. This explains why the performance will

improve as the size of the cyclic prefix increases.

6.2.1 Introduction

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is broadly defined as the ratio of the desired signal

power to the noise power. SNR estimation indicates the reliability of the link be-

tween the transmitter and receiver. In adaptive system design, SNR estimation is

commonly used for measuring the quality of the channel.In many SNR estimation

techniques, the noise is assumed to be white and Gaussian distributed. However, in

wireless communication systems, noise is often caused by a strong interferer, which

is colored in nature. Color of the noise is defined as the variation in power spectral

density in the frequency domain.Of particular interest is OFDM based multi-carrier

modulation systems, where the channel bandwidth is wide and the interference is

not constant over the whole band. It is very likely that there is variation of spectral

content over the OFDM sub-carriers i.e. some part of the spectrum is affected more

by the interferer than the other parts. Figure 6.4 shows OFDM frequency spectrum

and two types of noise over this spectrum, colored and white.

46

Figure 6.4: Representation of OFDM frequency channel response and noise spec-

trum. Spectrum for both white and colored noise is shown.

Most commonly used approach for noise power estimation in OFDM systems

is based on finding the difference between the noisy received sample in frequency

domain and the best hypothesis of the noiseless received sample. Calculation of

the received sample hypothesis requires channel state information for each car-

rier.Assuming that the noise is white and Gaussian distributed. In order to get the

long term estimates, the instantaneous SNR estimates are averaged over the whole

OFDM band by taking the mean of all the estimates over all the sub-carriers.

An OFDM based system model is used. Time domain samples of an OFDM symbol

can be obtained from frequency domain symbols as

N−1

= ∑ Sm(k)e j2πnk/N 0 ≤ n ≤ N −1 (6.12)

k=0

where Sm (k) is the symbol that is transmitted on k-th subcarrier of the m-th OFDM

symbol, and N is the number of sub-carriers. After the addition of cyclic prefix

and D/A conversion, the signal is passed through the mobile radio channel.In this

Simulation, we assume the channel to be constant over an OFDM symbol.At the

receiver, the signal is received along with noise. The noise power is assumed to be

varying across OFDM sub-carriers as well as in time. After synchronization, down

sampling, and removing the cyclic prefix, the simplified received baseband model

47

of the samples can be formulated as

L−1

ym (n) = ∑ xm(n − l)hm(l) + zm(n) (6.13)

l=0

where L is the number of channel taps, zm (n) is the noise sample which is white

Gaussian noise.After taking DFT of the OFDM symbols, the received samples in

frequency domain can be shown as

where Hm (k) and Zm (k) are DFT of hm (l) and zm (n) respectively.

taneous noise estimate for each OFDM carrier is calculated by finding difference

between noisy received sample and the best hypothesis of the noiseless received

signal.

Em (k) = |Ym (k) − Xm (k)Hm (k)|2 (6.15)

In this method we use the virtual carriers i.e its does not contain any data. Virtual

carriers are used for improvement of the estimation of Noise power.We have used

the pilot symbol for best estimate of the channel.With this estimate of the chan-

nel,noise power is calculated. The channel estimates in frequency domain can be

obtained using OFDM training symbols, or by transmitting regularly spaced pilot

symbols in between the data symbols and by employing frequency domain interpo-

lation. We assume transmission of training OFDM symbols. Using the knowledge

of the training symbols, channel frequency response can be estimated as

Ym (k)

Hls (K) = (6.16)

Xm (k)

N(k) = Ym (k) − Hls (k)Xm (k) (6.17)

48

where k belongs to the pilot locations of OFDM symbol, Y (k) is the received data at

pilots and X(k) transmitted data at pilot locations. So N(k) is the noise estimated at

the pilot locations.After collecting the noise samples in the pilot locations ,extrapo-

lated over the whole symbol.After that collecting the data from the virtual carriers

and combining it with the N(k). In conventional noise power estimation algorithms

the absolute square of the instantaneous noise samples are averaged over all OFDM

symbols, providing an averaged noise power estimate.

Simulation

system with 128 sub-carriers is considered and each fifth symbol considered to to

known at receiver i.e pilots. so one OFDM symbol has 32 pilots. Channel is consid-

ered to be time invariant with a power delay profile of {e−i/5 }. 30 Virtual carriers

are added at the end of the symbol.White noise is considered at SNR=15dB.

Figure 6.5: Shows the Mean Squared error of Noise power estimation

49

Figure 6.6: Shows the SNR estimated for each symbol.

Figure 6.7: Shows the BER performance of the BPSK when Noise Power is fed in

Kalman filter.

50

Conclusion:

In Fig 6.5 shows the mean square error in estimation of noise power which is very

low. So the estimation is significantly better.in Fig 6.6 shows the SNR estimation

for each OFDM symbol which estimated using the noise power estimation results.In

the Fig 6.7 shows the estimated noise is given to the kalman filter.Theoretical and

estimated variances is given and checked the BER performance which is close to

each other hence above algorithm is good for estimating the white noise.

6.3.1 Introduction

receiver is divided in an inner and outer part. The transmission parameterscarrier

frequency offset, sampling clock offset, timing offsetand the channel are estimated

in the inner receiver and then compensated for as if the estimates were the true pa-

rameters. The compensated signal is then used to decode the transmitted data in

the outer receiver.In order to arrive at the best compromise between the conflicting

objectives of minimizing this performance loss and simultaneously minimizing re-

ceiver complexity, the following approach is taken.First system model comprising

all relevant effects of the inner and outer receiver is developed,then An optimization

criterion is formulated that allows to evaluate the quality of each relevant receiver

component.

size N for modulation. Each OFDM symbol is composed of K < N data symbols

al,k , where l denotes the OFDM symbol time index and k denotes the subcarrier

frequency index.The signal is transmitted over a fading channel.

i

51

We will further assume that the channel taps are uncorrelated with respect to each

other and can be modeled as a wide-sense stationary process where the average

energy of the total channel energy is normalized to one, and the delays τi are taken

to be constant for the time of interest. Assuming the receiver filter is flat within the

transmitter bandwidth, the receiver input signal is

i

After removing the guard interval for further receiver processing, the lth received

OFDM symbol is represented by N samples.Demodulation of the subcarriers via a

fast Fourier transform (FFT) yields the received data symbols.For the moment, we

assume the channel to be constant during the transmission of one OFDM symbol

denoted by hi (l). In a real-world passband transmission system, the following pa-

rameters cause disturbances in the receiver.The sampling time T 0 at the receiver can

no longer be assumed to be identical with the transmitter time T .The same holds for

the carrier frequency oscillators used for modulating and demodulating the signal.

Assuming a small frequency offset relative to the transmission bandwidth, the fre-

quency difference between transmitter and receiver oscillators can be modeled as a

time-variant phase offset Θ(t) at the receiver.

All of the effects mentioned are incorporated in the equivalent system model

depicted in Fig.1.8

52

Figure 6.9: Structure of an OFDM receiver.

Fig.6.9 shows the basic structure of an OFDM receiver. Depending on the avail-

ability of training data, the parameters are estimated before or after demodulation

via the FFT. Following downconversion, the received signal should be sampled

same rate as that of transmitter.Timing offset is( determined with ML estimation)

corrected after that frequency correction performed.After guard removal, blocks of

N samples pertaining to one OFDM symbol are processed in the FFT.The demod-

ulated subcarrier samples and estimated channel samples (coherent detection) are

then passed to an appropriate outer receiver for further processing.

Simulation

We have taken the N=500 OFDM sybols o which are send over 128 subcarrier over

a fading channel.After performing the all the corrections and estimation of chan-

nel.Bit Error Ratr is calculate for BPSK data.

53

Figure 6.10: BER plot of BPSK symbol over fading channel.

Conclusion

We have performed all the corrections in the receiver side and achieved the Bit Error

Rate and MSE for different SNR which is decreasing as the SNR decreases.As in

54

Fig 6.10 and 6.11 shows that maximum amount of performance loss in Estimated

parameters with respect to Actual parameters is .078 dB at 20 dB SNR.

55

REFERENCES

1. Yong Soo Cho, Jaekwon Kim, Won Young Yang, and Chung-Gu Kang, MIMO-

OFDM Wireless Communications with MATLAB, in John Wiley & Sons

(Asia) Pte Ltd, 2010, pp. 129-193

John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2008

dom Variates by Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform, in IEEE Transactions

on Communications, vol. 48 , July 2000, pp. 1114-1127

torial, in Intuitive Guide to Principle of Communication, 2004, pp. 1-22

Fading Channel Simulation, in Wireless Communications, IEEE Transac-

tions, vol. 4, 2001, pp. 1187-1192

6. Greg Welch, and Gary Bishop, An Introduction to the Kalman Filter, in SIG-

GRAPH, 2008

7. Jan-Jaap van de Beek, Ove Edfors, Magnus Sandell, Sarah Kate Wilson and

Per Ola Borjesson, On Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems, in Vehicular

Technology Conference , IEEE 45th vol. 2 , 1995, pp. 815-819

8. H. Arsalan and S. Reddy, Noise Power and SNR Estimation for OFDM-based

Wireless Communication Systems, in IASTED International Conference on

Wireless and Optical Communications , Jul 2003, pp. 389394

56

9. M. Speth , S. Fechtel , G. Fock and H. Meyr ,Optimum receiver design for

broadband systems using OFDM-part I , IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47,

pp.1668 -1677 1999

10. Jan-Jaap van de Beek, ML estimation of time and frequency offset in OFDM

systems, IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. Letters, vol. 45, pp.1800-1806, July 1997.

tion and Tracking Algorithms for OFDMA Systems

12. Yun Wu, and Hanwen Luo, Channel Estimation for MIMO OFDM Systems

in Non sample spaced Multipath Channels in Congress on Image and Signal

Processing, 2008, pp. 88-92

13. Meher Jain, Rohit Kurien,Channel Estimation in STBC OFDM Systems, re-

port submitted to IIST

57

APPENDIX

θ+L−1

f (r(k),r(k+N))

Λ(θ, ε) = ∑ log f (r(k)) f (r(k+N)) , (6.20)

k=θ

correlation properties,it becomes

|r(k)|2 −2ρRe{e j2πε r(k)r?(k+N)}+|r(k+N)|2

exp − (σ2 +σ2 )(1−ρ2 )

s n

f (r(k), r(k + N) = (6.21)

π2 (σ2s + σ2n )(1 − ρ2 )

where ρ is the magnitude of the correlation coefficient between r(k) and r(k + N) as

defined in Eq(6.6).The denominator of (6.20) consists of two 1-D complex Gaussian

distribution

|r(k)|2

exp − σ2 +σ2

s n

f (r(k)) = (6.22)

π(σ2s + σ2n )

and the log-likelihood function (6.19), after some algebraic manipulations, becomes

where γ(m) and φ(m) are defined in Eq (6.4) and (6.5) and c1 and c2 are con-

stants,independent of θ and ε.Since the maximizing argument of Λ(θ, ε) is inde-

pendent of the constants c1 ans c2 .

58