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DOW'S

FIRE & EXPLOSION INDEX


HAZARD CLASSIFICATION
GUIDE

SEVENTH EDITION
DOW'S
FIRE & EXPLOSION INDEX
HAZARD CLASSIFICATION
GUIDE

SEVENTH EDlTION

a AIChE technical manual published by


the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017
© 1994
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers wishes lO acknowlcdgc the cooperation


of Thc Dow Chemical Company in releasing their 7th edition of the Fire amI Explosion
JI/de:! Hazard CJassification Guide for publication. Speciallhanks to N. E. Schcrner,
W. R. Heitzig. J. F. Murphy. S. M. Hartnagle. N. H. Humphrey. B. H. Seortiehini
and T. O. Gibson of The Dow Chemical Company, whose carcful evaluation and
review of Lhi s materi al provided sorne important innovations lo make the Guide more
use[ul to the chemica! industry.

Copyright In U.S.A. © 1994


LC 80-29237
ISBN 0-8169-0623-8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface .......................................... .......................................................... ................ .......................... . 1
Introduction: The Fire & Explosion Index Syslem ........ ..... ..................... ..... ............. .. ........ ..... .............. 2
Procedure for Risk AnaIysis Calculations ....................................... .... .................... .. ....... .... ... ..... .... ... . 3
Selection ofPertinent Process UnilS ............................... ... ..... .... .. ... ... ..... ....... ... .................................... 8
Detennination oC M aterial Factor .. ............................................. ...... ... ... .. ....... .... .. .... .. ........................ . 10
Process Unit Hazaros Factors .............. ... .... .... .... ....... ................. .. .. .............. ....... ......... ........ ...... ......... 15
General Process H azards ........... .... ...... ..... ........ ..... .. .... ..... ..... ... ... ..... .. ................................................. . 16
Special Process Hazards .......................................... ................................................ ..... .......... .... .. .... ... 20
Determination of Process Unit Hazards Factor .. .. ... .. ... ........... .... .. ....................................................... . 37
Determination of Fire and Explosion Index .............................................. .. .... .. ..... .... ... ......................... 38
Loss Control Credit Factors ............................................................ ....... ....... .. .... .. ...... ......................... 39
Process Unit Risk Analysis Swnmary ... ..... ... ............ .. ..... ...... .... ..... .. .................................................... 47
Discussion ofMPPD, 81 and Plant Layout .......................................................... .. ... .. ...... .. .. .. .............. 57
Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Swnmary ..... ..... ......... ...... ... ........... .. ... ................................... ......... 58
Risk Analysis Package .................................................................................................. ...... .... .. ........... 59

TABLES
1 - Material Factor Determination Guide .... ...... ......... ............................. .. ........ .. ........................... 13
2 - Material Factor Temperature Adjustment ........ ........... .... .. ..... .. ............................................ .... . 14
3 - Dust Explosion Penalty .. ................... .... .............. ........... ................... ..................... .. .. ....... ...... 21
4 - High Pressure Penalty forFlammable and Combustible Liquids ............................................. .. 22
5 - HOl Oil Heat Exchange System Penalty .............................. ............. ... ..................................... 36
6 - Degree of Hazard for F&EI ............. .................... ........ ....... ........................ .............. ... ... . ...... .. 38

FIGURES
1- Procedure for Calculating F&EI and Olher Risk Analysis lnfollllation ............... ........ .... .. ........ 4
2- Prcssure Penalty for Flammable and Combustible Liquids ......................... .... .. .... ...... ............ ... 23
3- Liquids or Gases in Process .. ..... .. .... ... ... ... ... ...... .. ........ .. ..................................... ... .................. 27
4 - Liquids or Gases in Storage ....... .................................. .. ....................... .... ...... ......................... 29
5- Combustible Solids in Storage/Dust in Process ....................................................... ... .............. 31
6- Fue<! Equipment Penalty ............................................................ ...... ...... .... ........................... ... 34
7- Radius of EXJX)sure ...................................... .. .... ..... ....................................... ...... .... ............... 48
8- Damage Factor ..... .... .......................... .......... .. .................................... ..... ............................. ... 53
9- Maximum Probable Days Outage .................................... ...... .. ............................ ... ... ... .. ......... 55

FORMS
Fire and Explosion lndex Fonn .................................. .................. ............ ............. .... ... ..... ............. 5
Loss Control Credit Factors Fonn ................ ... ... ....... . ....... ............................. ....... .............. ... .... .... 6
Ptocess Unit Risk Analysis Summary Fonn .................... ... ..................................... ..... ................. .. 6
Manufacturing Un;¡ Risk Analysis Surnmary Fonn .... ....... ..... . ...... ......................... . .... .. . ...... ......... 7

APPENDICES
A- Material Factors ........................................................... ............ ................. ..... ........................ 60
B - Special Material Factor Considerations for Mixtures ............................. ... .. .. .... .. ......... .. .. ....... ... 72
C - Basic Preventive and Protectivc Fcatures ........................................... ....................... .. .... .. ....... 74
D- Loss Prevention Oteck.list .... ............................. .. ... ... .. ................................... .. ............... ...... ... 75
E - Equations for Damage Factor Data ........ ........... .. ... ... ........................... ..... ... .. .............. .... ......... 81
F - Acronyms and Abbreviations ................. ................................ .. ................................................. 83
PREFACE
Since the first cdition oC lhis guide was issued in 1964. the Fire & Explosion Index (F&EI) has evolved
through the pasl 29 ycars into a comprehensive index thal gives a relative value to the risk oC individual
process unit losses due to potential tires and explosions. 1be prirnary purpose of the F&EI is to serve as a
guide to the selection oC fire protection melhods. Its broader pUtJXlse was to have a method Cor the relative
ranking oC individual process units focused on key ¡teros of equipment

This index has becn wide1y used in Dow and oulSide oC Dow. It is the leading hazard index recognized by
the chemical industry. The present F&EI providcs key informadon to help evaluate the overall risk from
fue and explosion. 1be F&EI can be used in conjunction with Ole Chemical Exposure Inda Guide, 2nd
ed. and Olher process informadon 10 form a Risk Analysis Package 10 bener undcrstand the poteotial risks
10 a manufacturing unit. This package is an imponant pan of the Consolidatcd Audit process.
'Ole F&EI is one of thc tools used ror evaluadon oC realistic ti re, explosion and reactivily pJtcntial of proc-
ess equipment and its conlents. The F&EI is also ticd into [he Distribution Ranking Index (DRI).

TIle seventh edition is primarily an updale of the sixth cdition. and there are no major conceptual changes.
Improvements have becn madc in wording and updating has becn done 10 rcmain consistcnt with Codes and
1.oss Prevention PrincipIes. A major update has becn made in Appcndix A. Material Factors. which gives
the latcst NFPA ratings. flash poinlS, tx>iling poinls ando most imponantIy. Material Faclors.

Improvements in the seventh edition include:


• Correction of the errata which had becn notcd in the sixth cdition.
• Incorporation oC a table oC F&EI versus Degree oC Hazard.
• Major u¡x1ating of Appendix A 10 give most reccnt NFPA ratings and Material Factors which agree
with Table 1.
• Revision oC F&EI fonns that have becn streamlined and pUl into computerized spreadsheet fonnats.
• U¡x1ating of the Determination of Material Factor and Toxic Materials NFPA ratings in accordance
with the latest NFP A 704 definitiollS.
• Addition of equations for the curves in the figures lO aid in the calculation oC Cactors and allow for
ccmputcr determinatioo of values.
• Inclusioo of SI (Intemational Systcm of UnilS) units in addition to US/British units.
• Improvement and addition of examples.
• Sorne revamping in the 1.oss Control Credit Factors arca wüh elimination of buried tank credit and
referencc to halons and new credit for proccss hazard reviews.
• Reorganization of Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary section.
• Updating discussion regarding Maximum Probable Propeny Damagc and plant layout considerations.
• Minor revisions 10 the Loss Prevention Checklist

1be Fire &: Explosion Inda Hazard CJassificalion Guide has been made availablc as an cdited version 10
a1l interested parties tbrough the American Institule of Olemical Engineers (AlOtE). 345 East 47th Strcet.
New York. NY 10017 [Phone (2 12) 705·7657]. Various countries have referenced the F&EI guide in their
respective goverrunental regulations.
INTRODUCTION: THE FIRE AND EXPLOSION INDEX

The Fire and Explosion Risk Ana1ysis System is a stcp-by·SlCp objcctivc cvaluauon of the realistic fue.
explosion and rcactivity potential of process equipment and its contenlS. The quantitativc rncasurements
used in me analysis are based on historie 1055 data, the energy potential of me material undcr study. and the
extenllO which loss prevention practices are currentIy applied

The pW'¡X)sc of the F&EI system is to:


1. QUANTIFY the expected damage of potential fue. explosion and reactivity incidents in realistic renns.
2. IDEN11FY equipment that would be likely to conlribute lO the creadon or escalation of an incident.
3. CQMMUN1CATE the F&EI risk polential to managemenl

Beneath all the numb::rs. graphs and figures. however, lies me most important goal of the F&EI System -
10 f1Ulke the enginur Qware 01 Me /oss polentiol 01 each process arta and 10 help the engineer idcntify
ways 10 lessen the severity and resultant dollar loss of potential incidcnts in an efficient and cost effective
marmer.

The F&EI is used in the Dow Risk Review Process. Determinadon of the F&EI must be done in conduct-
ing a Process Hazard Analysis or Levell Risk Review.

Insurance company assessments of pJtential eXpJsures are typically based on the worst imaginable
incidenl They might anticipate. for example. that the complete contents of a reactor dump could vaporize
instantaneously and ignite; and their insurance loss estimares , which are detennined in part from this kind
of analysis. can be extremel)' large. Frem a realistic point ofview. this kind of situation is rareo

The Dow F&EI s)'stem attempts to detennine the reaUstic maximwn 10ss that can occur to a process plant
(or process unit) or related facilit)' - a 10ss that could aClually be experienced Wlder the most adverse op-
erating conditions. TI1e calculation is based on quantifiable data. Fmite spill rates , process tempcrature in
relation 10 material flash points and OOiling pJints and reactivit)' are just a few of the man)' conUibutors 10
a probable incidenl

Although the F&EI s)'stcm is primaril)' designed for an)' operation in which a flammable. combustible or
reactive material is Slored, handled or processed, it ma)' also be used in anaI)'zing the 10ss potential of sew-
age treating facilities, distribution systems , pipelines . rectifiers, transfonners. boilers. thennal oxidizers and
cenain elements oC JX>wer plants. TI1e system can also be used for risk evaluations oC small processes wilh
modest inventaries of potentiaUy hazardous materials; its application 10 pilot plants is strongly recom-
mended. The system can be applied if handling a minimum of approximatel)' 1,(XX) lb (454 kg) of a
flarnmable or reactive material.

A Mlord 01 coution is in arder for those planning 10 use thc F&EI system for the risk evaluation of facili-
ties. Common sense and good judgment must be used during lhe actual calculatioR and in the interpretation
of its rcsults. Process hazards that contribute to thc magnitude and probability oC losses have been
quantified as "penalties" to provide factors for computation. Not cvery penalty may be applicable 10 a
specific situation and pemaps sorne may have to be adjusted.

2
PROCEDURE FOR RISK ANALYSIS CALCULA TIONS

To develop an F&EI and Risk Analysis Swnmary. the following are needcd:
a. An accurate plot plan of the plant (manufacturing unit)
b. A process flow sheet
c. A Firt &: Explosion Inda Hazard Classificatjon Guide. Seventh &titiao
d An Fll'e & Explosion lndex Fono (page 5 - F&EI. Seventh Edition)
e. A Loss Control Credit Factors Fonn (page 6 - F&EI, Sevcnth Edition)
f. A Process Unit Analysis Summary Fonn (page 6 - F&EI. Seventh Edition)
g. A Manufacturing Unit Risk Ana1ysis Swnmary Fonn (page 7 - F&EI, Seventh Edition)
h. Replacement cost data for the instaUed process equipment under study.

1be procedure 10 be followed is listed below. Figure 1, page 4, presents a flowchart outlining the
procedure for risk analysis calculations.
J. Selection shoold re made on thc pIOl plan oC thc Pertinent Proccss UnilS that are comidered of key
importance ro the process and that would have the greatest impact on the magnitude of a potential tire
or explosiono
2. Detennination is 10 be made of the Material Factor (MF) for eaeh Process Unil The MF for a
particular material in the Process Unit is 10 be obtained frem Table 1, page 13 or Appendiccs A or B,
pages 60 to 73.
3. Calculatioo is 10 be completed Cor the General Process Hazards Factor with application of the
appropriate penalties according to the F&EI Fonn, page 5.
4. Calculation is to be completed Cor the Special Process Hazards Factor with application oC the
appropriate penalties according 10 the F&EI Fonn, page 5.
5. Detennination oC the Process Unit Hazaros Factor is 10 be done by calculating the product oC the
General and Special Process Hazards Factors.
6. Detennination of the F&EI is to be done by calculating the product oC the Process Urot Hazards
Factor and the Material Factor.
7. Detennination oC the Area of Exposure surrowx:ling the Process Unit being evaluated is 10 be
perfonned based on Radius ofExposure from Figure 7, page 48, and pagcs 47 10 SO.
8. Detennination oC the replacement value of all equipment within the Area of Exposure and me
inven10ry is 10 be done.
9. Detennination ofthe Damage Factor, wruch represents the degree ofloss exposure, is to be done using
Figure 8, page 53, based on the MF and the Process Unit Hazards Factor (F3).
10. Oetennination of the Base Maximum Probable Property Damage (Base MPPD) is 10 be made by
multiplying thc Yalue of the Arca of Exposure by the Damage Factor.
11. Application of the Loss Control Credit Factor to the Base MPPD allows for the determination of the
Actual MPPD.
12. Dctennination of the Maximum Probable Days Outage (MPDO) is perfonned by using Figure 9, page
55, knowing the Actual MPPD.
13. Detennination of the Business Interruption (BI) is done by using the equation given on page 56 whcre
the MPOO is multiplled by the Yalue ofProduction for the Month (VPM) and by 0.70/30.

Each of the steps given above is outlined and explained in the following pages of this guide. Appendix C,
Basic Preventive and Protective Features, and Appendix D. Loss Prevention Olecklisl, are atso provided
for use in assessing the important 10ss control arcas in a plan[ or manufacluring uniL

WhcrJ. developing the F&EI. it is recommended that people with a working knowledge of the plant's his-
lOry/experiences be contacted to discuss probable incident scenanos 10 assure thc mos! viable F&EIs are
developed.

3
FIGURE!
PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING FIRE & EXPLOSION INDEX
AND OTHER RISK ANALYSIS INFORMATION

Select Pertinent
Process U nil
.¡.
Dell:n nme
Material Factor

I
,¡, ,¡,
CalcuIate F I CaJculale Fl
General Process Hazards Factor Special Process Hazards Factor
I

Determine Process Unil Hazards


Factor FJ ::: FI X Fl
.¡.
Calculate l..oss Control Detrnnine F&EI
Credit Factor = el x el x el ~ F&EI :::: Fl x Mataial Factor

.
Determine Area ofExposure

...
Determine Replacement Value
in Exposure A tea

+
Determine Base MPPD ... Detennine Damage Factor

...
Determine Actual MPPD

...
Determine MPOO

...
Determine Br

4
FIRE & EXPLOSION INDEX
A.REAICOUNTAY DlVISION lOCATlON
I DAn
"'" ..... NUF... CTUAINQ UNIT PROCESS UNrT

PREPARED IY: APPROYU) IV : (S~I~1l IIUIU!lNO

REVlEWEO 'Y :{~l REVlEWED IIY: (Teehnology CenI..., AEVlEWED BY : (5."1}' & Lo.. P,.ventlon)

MATERIALS IN PROCf.SS Ut,¡rr

STATE OF OPERATION ....SIC MATERIAl(S) FOA MATERIAL FACTOR

-
"""" - ITARTUP
- _WJ.OPERAnoH
- lHUTOOWH

MATERIAL FACTOR ¡Sea TabIe 1 or Appendioes A Of 8) Nota reqtkements when lI'Iill9lTlperature over 140 °F (60 oC)

lo General Procesa Hazards Penalty Fac- Penalty fac-


tor Range tor USed(l)

Base Factor ....................................................... ................................................... 1.00 1.00


A. Exothermic Chemical Reactions 0.30 lo 1.25
B. Endothermic Processes 0.20 lo 0.40
C. Material Handling and Transfer 0.25 lo 1.05
D. Enclosad or Jndaor Process Units 0.25100.90
E. Aocoss 0.20 lo 0.35
F. Drainage and Spill Control galorcu.m. 0.25100.50
General Procesa Hazards Factor (F , ) ............................................................... ........................ ..
2. Speclal Process Hazards
Base Factor .................................................. ........................................................ 1.00 1.00
A. Toxlc Malerlal(s) 0.20 lo 0.80
B. Sub-Almospheric Pressure « 500 mm Hg) 0.50
C. Operalion In or Near Flammable Range Inerted Nollnert&d
,. Tank Farms Slorage Flammabla Uqulds 0.50
2. Process U sel or Purga Failure 0.30
3. A1ways in Flammabla Ranga 0.80
D. Ousl Explosion (Sea Table 3) 0.25 lo 2.00
E. Prassura (Saa Figura 2) Operating Prassura pslg or kPa gauga
Relial Saning psig or kPa gauga
F. l ow Tefll)9ralUre 0.20 l O 0.30
G. Ouantity of FlammablaAJnslabla Matarial: Quanlily _ _ lb or kg

1. llqulds or Gases in Process (Sea Figure 3)


He - BTU/ lb or kcallkg

2. Uqulds or Gases in Slorage (Sea Figura 4)


3. Combuslible Sollds In Sloraga. Ousl in Process (Saa Figura 5)
H. Corrosion and Eroslon 0.10 lo 0.75
1. laakaga - Jolnls and Packing 0.10101 .50
J. Use 01 Flrad EQulpment (See Figure 6)
K. Ho! Oil Heat Exchange System (See Tabla 5) 0.15101.15
L Rotatlng Equipmenl 0.50

Speclal Process Hazards Factor (F2) .. ...... ................................ ... .................. ....... ................ .....
Process Unit Hazards Factor (F1 x F2) = ~ ...•..•.•....• _.................................................
Fire 800 Explosion Index (F3 x MF = ~~ ........... ... .......................................... ......................
(1) For no pona ~y use 0.00.
5
LOSS CONTROL CREDlT FACTORS
1, Process Control eredit Factor (Ct)
eredit eredit Credit eredit
Fealura Factor Factor Feature Factor Factor
Ranae Used(2) Ranae Used :21
,. Emergency Power 0,98 f. Inert Gas 0.94 lo 0.96
b. Cooling 0.97 lO 0.99 g. Operating InstructionSlProcedures 0.91 lo 0.99
c. E)(plosion Control 0.84100.98 h. Reactive Chemical Aeview 0.91 lo 0.98
d. Emergency Shutdown 0.96 to 0.99 f. Other Process Hazard Analysls 0.91 lo 0.98
e. Computer Control 0.93100.99

el VahJe(3)
2. Materlal1solatlon Credit Factor (e 2)
eredit CradH Credit eradit
feature factor factor fealure Factor Factor
Ranae Usedf21 Ranae Usedf21
a. Ramole Control Valvas 0.96 lo 0.98 c. Drainage 0.91 lo 0.97
b. OumpIBlowdown 0.96100.98 d. Interlock 0.98

e2 Value(3)
3. Fire Protectlon Credlt Factor (e3)
Cradl! eredit Credit eredi.
Feature Factor Factor Fealure factor Factor
Ranga Used{21 Ranga Used{21
a. leak Delection 0.94 lo 0.98 f. Waler Curtains 0.97100.98
b. Slructura! Stee! 0.95 lo 0.98 g. Foam 0.92 lO 0.97
C. Fire Waler Supply 0.94 lo 0.97 h. Hand ExlinguisherslMonitors 0.93 to 0.98
d. Special Syslems 0.91 1. Cable Prolectlon 0.94100.98
e. Sprinkler Syslems 0.74 to 0.97

C. Valuel') L.I_ _ _- - '

loss COntrol Credit Factor = C1 X C2 X C3(3) = L-_ _ _ .Jl (Enter on line 7 below)

PROCESS UNIT RISK ANAL YSIS SUMMARY


f. Fire & Explosion Inclex (F&EI) .. ....................... (Sea Fronl)
2. Radius 01 Exposure ....... ............ .. .. .. ................. (Flgure 7) ft or m
3. Area 01 Exposure ... ...... .... .. ... .... .... .. .... ... .. . ....................... ft2 or m2
4. Value 01 Area 01 Exposure ......................... ..................................... .... ... .... .... ... ... ........ ....... $MM I
5. Damage Factor ..... ............. ........ ....................... (Flgure 8) I
6. Base Maxlmum Probable Propeny Oamage (Base MPPD) [4 x 51 ··································· $MM
1
7. Loss Control Credit Factor... ......... ......... ........ (See Above) I
8. Actual Maximum Probable Property Damaga - (Actual MPPD) [6 x 71··· .... ... ..... .............. $MM I
9. Maximum Probable Days OUlage - (MPDO) .. .. .. (Figure 9) I days
10. Business InlerrupUon (BI) ...................... .. .. .. ... ...................... ......... .. ... ............ .... .... ......... $MM
1
(2) For no creditlactor enler 1.00. (3) Product 01 all lactors used.
Reler lo Fire & Explosion Index Hazard Classificalion GukJe lor details.
6
MANUFACTURING UNIT RISK ANALYSIS SUMMARY
AREA J COUNTAY DlVISION LOCATlOH

SlTE MANJFACruRINO UNIT TYPE Of OPERAnoN

PREPAREDBY TOTAL UFO. UNlT REPLACEMENT VAWE DATE

Process Unft Value O,


Area 01 S ... Actual Days
Material Exposure MPP01 MPP01 Outage 813 Loss
Ma·or Material Factor F&EI $MM $MM $MM MPD02 $MM

1 Maximum Probable Property Damage


2 Maximum Probable Days Oulage
3 Business Interruption

REV!OI-IM 7
SELECTION OF PERTINENT PROCESS UNITS
-----~~~~~~~~~~~~~~------

1he F&EI calculation is a 001 10 hclp determine the arcas of greate.~lloss potcntiaJ in a particular process.
It also enables one to predict the physical damage and business intcnuption mal would occur in lile event oC
an incidcnL

The first stcp in making me F&EI calculation requires using an cfficicnt and lagica! procedure to determine
which proccss units should be studied. A proccss unit is defined as any majar itcm of process equipment.
'Thc foUowing process units could be idcntified in a furnace/quench seelion of a vinyl chIoride moromerl
ethylene dichIoride plam: elhylene dichloride preheater, ethylene dichIoride evaporator, fumace, quench
coturno, clhylene dichIoride absorber and tarpot

A designadon oC me Proccss Unit must be entered in thc appropriatc spacc on thc F&EI formo pagc 5. Thc
Manufacturing Unit designarlon must also be entered on the F&EI formo A Manufacturing Unit is the
cntire production facility including chemical processes, mechanical processes, warehouse, packaging lines,
etc. For cxample, manufacturing units may be a latex planto DOW ANOL® plant or DowElanco
Fonnulations plant.

1be process area of a latex plant could have the following process units: raw material storage tanlc/s,
process stream storage lank/S. aqueous tank, reactor feed pumps, reaclor, stripper, recovery tank/s, lalex
storagc tank/s.

A warehouse may also be treated as a process unit. Thc matcrials stored within a fire-walled area, or
within !he total storagc area wherc firc walls are not provided, would constitute a Process Unit.

It is quite clcar that most manufacluring unilS have many process unilS. To calculate the Fire and Explo-
sion Index, however, only process units that could havc an impact from a loss prevcntion slandpoint should
be evaluated. Thcse are known as Pert1ncnt Process Units.

Important factors for selecting Pcrtincnt Proccss UnilS include:


a. o.cmical energy potential (Material Factor)
b. Quantity of hazardous material in the Process Unit
c. Capital density (dollars per square foot)
d. Process pressurc and process temperature
e. Past history of problcms that rcsulted in a firc and expIosion incident
f. Units critieal 10 plant operation, Lc., thennal oxidizer

Generally. the greater the magnitude of any of these faclors, thc greatcr thc lik:elihood that the process unit
nceds to be evaluated.

Thc dcstruction of scarcc. critieal or one-of-a-kind equipment in or ncar a process area couId produce many
days of downtimc. Even with minimal fire and explosion damage. this could create large losscs due 10
business interruption. The loss of such criticaI cquipment is a valid reason for selecting a Pertinent Process
Unit.

1llere are no hard and fast rules governing the choice of Process Units for evaluation. For hcIp in dcter-
mining which pieces of equipment have Ihe greatest potential for tire and explosion, consult with Technol-
ogy Centers. cxpcricnccd plant enginccrs. process safety and Ioss prevention specialists or othcrs wilh
process expericncc.

8
Important Considerations

A. 1be Fire and Explosion Index system assumes that a process unit handles a minimurn of 5.<XX> lb
(2,268 kg). or about 600 gal (2.27 ml) of a flammable. combustible or reactive material. If less
material is involved, genera11y thc risk wUl be overstaJed. However. F&EI calculations can providc
meaningful results for pilot plants if they handle at least 1,<XX> lb (454 kg) or about 120 gal (0.454
ml) of combustible or reactive material.

B. Careful consideration is needed when equipment is arranged in series and the items are not effcctively
isolated from each otber. An example would be a reaction train without an intermediate purnp. In
such situations. the type of process determines whether severa! vessels or just a single vessel should te
considercd as thc Process Unil

In a poIystyrene train, for example, where the main hazard is from unreacted material in the first stage
reactor, it is inappropriate 10 apply any penalties for vacuum operadon in the flash tank or
devolatilizer (wruch is effectively the third or rOUM stage) because it is inconceivable lo have both
hazards occurring al the same point in Ihe process. In this case, it would be reasonable to carry out
two separate F&EI calcuJations, treating the first stage and founh stage reactors as separate Proccss
Units.

It should rarely be necessary lO calculate the F&EI for more man three or four Process Units in a
single process arca of a Manufacturing Unil The number ofProcess Units will vary according 10 thc
type of process and the configuration of the Manufacturing Unit.

A separate F&EI form (pages 5 and 6) must be completed for each process unit evaluated. The
results of each calculation must also be listed on the Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary
(page 7).

C. It is also important 10 give careful consideration to the state or point in time of the operation. By their
nature, such normal stages as start-up, steady-state opcration, shutdown. filling. emptying. adding
catalyst. etc.• ofien create unique conditions having an impact en the F&EI. Generally, good judg-
ment will enable selection of the point in time of operation 10 peñorm the F&EI calculation. Occa-
sionalIy more than one point in time will have lO be studied lO determine the significant risk.

9
DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL FACTOR

'Ole Material Factor (MF) i5 the basic starting vaJuc in the computalion of thc F&EI and other risk analysis
valucs. 'The MF i5 a rncasure of thc intrinsic rate of potential cnergy release from fire Of cxplosion
produced by combustion Of cheroical reaction.

11lc MF i5 obtaincd from N F and N R. 11le N p and NR are NFPA ratings Of "signals" exprcssing Oamma-
bilily and reactivity (Of instability) respectively, as discussed below undcr "Unlisted Substances."

GeneraUy, NF and NR are foc arobient temperaturcs. It is recognizcd thal the tire and reaction hazards of a
material increase markedly with temperalure. 11le tire hazard from a combustible liquid al a tcmperature
aboye its flash point i5 equivalent to that from a flammable liquid al ambient temperature. Reaction ratcs
also inercase very markedly with temperature. If the temperature of the material on which the MF is bascd
i8 over 140 °F (60 OC), a certain adjusttncnt may be required, as discusscd below under C. "Temperature
Adjusunent oC Material Factor,"

Appcndix A providcs a listing of MFs for a number of chemical compounds and materials, and these values
will be used in mOSl cases. If Appendix A does oot list thc material, N F and NR may possibly be found in
NFP A 325M or NFPA 49 adjusted for temperature, if appropriate, and used with Table 1 to detennine the
MF. If the material is a combustible dust, use thc Dust Hazard Class Number (Sl number) rather than the
NF·

A. Unlisted Substances
lf neither Appcndix A, NFPA 49, flOr NFPA 325M contains values for the substance, mixture or
compound in question, lhese values will have 10 be detennincd fmm thc flammability value (NF) or
dust class (St) (sec Table 1, page 13.). First, the parame1ers shown in lhe lefi column of thc table 00
page 13 will have lO be detennincd. 'The NF of liquids and gases is obtained fmm flash point data,
and the Sr of dusts or mists is delenoined by dusl explosion tcsting. 1be NF of combustible solids
depends on the nature of the material as categorizcd in the len column.

The reactivity value (NRJ ean be obtained fmm a qualitative deseription of the instability (or reactivity
wilh water) of thc substance, mixture or compound al ambiem temperature, as follows bascd ro
NFPA 704:

NR =O Matcrials that in lhemselves are nonnally stable, cvcn undcr fire conditions. lbis dcgrcc
usually includes:
• Matcrials tha1 do nOl reae1 with water,
• Malcrials that exhibit an exotherm al tempcralurcs >300 oC (572 0F) but S500 oC
(932°F) when tcstcd by Differential Scanning Calorirnetcr (OSC);
• Malcrials that do nol exrubit in exotherm al tempcratures $500 oC (932°F) whcn
teSlcd by DSC.
NR = 1 Materials thal in lhemselves are nonnally stablc but that can bccomc unstable al clevatcd
tcmperatures and prcssurcs. lbis degree usually includcs:
• Matcrials that changc or decompose on exposure lo air, lighl or moisture;
• Malerials that exhibit an exOlhenn al tcmperatures > 150 oC (302°F), bU1 S300 oC
(572 "F).

10
Na = 2 Matcrials that rcadily undergo violent chemica1 change al elcvated tcmpera[Urcs and
prcssures. This degree usually includcs:
• Materials that exhibit an exotherm at temperaturcs S ISO oC (302 0F) whcn tcsted by
DSe;
• Matcrials that may react violcntly with water or form JXltcntiaUy explosive mixtures
with water.
Na =3 Materials that in themselves are capable oC detonation oC cxplosive decomposition or
explosive reaction but that rcquire a strong initiating sourcc or that must be heatcd under
confmement beCore initiation. This degree usually includes:
• Materials mat are sensitivc 10 thermal or mechanical shock al elevated tcmpcralures
and pressures;
• Malerials that react explosively with waler without requiring heat or confinement.
Na = 4 Materials thal in themselves are readily capable oC delonation of explosive decomJXlsition
or explosive reaction al normallempcralurcs and pressures. This degrce usually includes
materials that are scnsjtive lo localized therma! or mechanica! shock at normal
tempcraturcs and pressures.

Note that reactivity includes selC·reactivily (inslabilily) and reactivity with walCr.

A guidelinc Cor thc reactivity value (NJ0 is looking at thc peak lempcrature oC the lowest Differcntial
'Thermal Analysis (DTA) or Differential Scaruting Calorimeter (DSC) exotherm value as follows:

Exothenn, oC Exotherm, °F N.

>300 lO 5500 >572 10 :::;932 O

>150 to 5::300 >302 to 5572 I

~150 ~302 2,3, &4

A couple of additional qualifiers are:

1. If the substance or campound is an oxidizer. inerease NR by one (bul nol over NR =4).
2. Any shock·sensitive material shou1d be NR = 3 or 4.
3. lf the NR oblained seems inconsistent with known propenies of the substance. mixture or com·
JXlund. additional reactive chemicals lesting shou1d be done.
4. Assistance in interpreting thc significancc of ose or DTA data can be obtained from the sitc
Reactive Olemicals cantact persono

Once the NF or St has becn obtained and determined. the NR. the resulting NF (or SI) and NR are uscd
with Tablc 1 to determine the MF. Make the nccessary adjusunents as discussed below undcr
"Temperature Adjusunent ofMaterial Factor."

B. Mixtures
Mixtures of various kinds can be uoublesome unde r cenain conditions. Nonnally. matcrials thal react
violcntly - Cor example, fuel and air or hydrogen and chlorine - are mixcd undcr controlled eonditiollS.
The reactiollS gcncrally takc place continuously and rapidIy, producing nonflammable. stable produc ts
mal are safcly contained wilhin a process unit such as a reactor. 11lc combustion of fuel and air in a

11
fumace is a good exarnple of lhis son of controlled reaction. However, sinee "flarne-outs" and other
breakdowns can still occur, the MF should be based on lhe initial reactive mixture, which fits the
description of "most hazardous material present during a realistic operating scenario." For additional
infonnation see Appendix. B, page 72.

Mixtures of solvents or of a solvent witlt a reactive material can also create troublesome situations.
1be best MF for mixtures should be obtained from reactive chemical LCsting data, as recommendcd in
Appendix. B. Ir reactive chemical testing data is not available, an approximation can be obtained by
using the MF oC the component witlt the highest MF value. This component should be ene of
significant concentration such as 5% or more.
One particularly troublesome mixture is thc "hybrid." This is a mixture of combustible dust and
Oarnmable gas, which can (onn an explosive mixture in airo The Material Factor must adequately
reflect tite material hazard prescnt in litis uRique siluoliotl, and reactive chcmical testing data musl be
employed 10 dctennine the proper MF. It is recommended tltat a reactive chemicals specialist be
con,uHed.

C. Mists
One special condition can lead 10 explosions similar 10 having a flarnmable or combustible vapor
above its flash point. A suspension of fincly dividcd drops of flarnmable or combustible liquid in air
can givc a flarnmable mixture tltat has many of the characteristics of a flarnmable gas/air mixture.
Mists of flammable or combustible liquids al temperaturcs well below their flash points can be as
explosive as flammable vapor/air mixtures. For example, for suspcnsions in which the droplet diame-
ter is less than 0.01 mm (0.()(X)4 in), the lower flammability limil of the suspcnsion is nearly the same
at ambient temperature as thal of the substance al i15 flash poim.

It is important thal mists not be processed inside enclosed process slructures because flarnmable
coneentrations are more easily attained and overpressures from explosions can result in structural
damage.

The bcst dcfense against mist explosions is 10 avoid the conditions where a mist will fonn. Ir a mist 1S
possible, me malerial faclOr can be raised one step (ref. Table 1, page 13) to account for the increased
risk, and it is also rccommended that a loss prevention specialist be consulted.

12
TABLEl
MATERIAL FACTOR DETERMINATION GUIDE

Reactivity oc Instability
Liquids & Gases NFPA
Flarnmability or 325M NR~O NR~ 1 NR =2 NR~3 NR =4
Combustibilitv l or49
Non-combustiblel NF-O 1 14 24 29 40

F.P. > 200 °F (> 93.3 oC) NF -1 4 14 24 29 40

F.P. > 100 °F (> 37.8 oC) NF =2 10 14 24 29 40


$ 200 °F ($ 93.3 oC)
F.P. ~ 73 °F ~ 22.8 oC) NF~3 16 16 24 29 40
< 100 "F « 37.8 oC) oc
F.P. < 73 °F« 22.8 OC) &
BP. ~ 100 °F (~ 37.8 oC)
F.P. < 73 °F« 22.8 OC) & NF -4 21 21 24 29 40
B.P. < 100 °F« 37.8 oC)
Combustible Dust or Mistl
SI-l (K,;, $ 200 bar m/sec) 16 16 24 29 40
SI-2 (K,;, = 201 -300 bar m/sec) 21 21 24 29 40
St-3 (!Cs. > 300 bar m/sec) 24 24 24 29 40
Combustible Solids
Dense> 40 mm thick4 Np= 1 4 14 24 29 40
Open < 40 mm lhick' NF~2 10 14 24 29 40
Foam, fiber. powder, etc.' Np=3 16 16 24 29 40

F.P. =Flash Poinl, closed cup B.P. =Boiling Point at Standard Temperatures and Pressure (STP)

Notes:
I Includes volatile solids.
2Will not bum in aje when exposed to a temperature oC 1500 °F (816 oC) Coc a period oC five minutes.
JICst values are Coc a 16litcr oc larger closed test vesscl with Slrong ignition sourcc. Sce NFPA 68. Guide
lor Venting 01 Dejlagralions.
41ncludes wood - 2 inches nominal thic.k.ress, magnesiwn ingots, tight stacks af solids and tight m Us of
papee oc plastic film. Example: SARAN ~.
51ncludes coarse granular material such as plastic pellets. rack slOrage, wood pallets and non~usting
ground material such as polystyrene.
'Includes rubber goods such as tires and boots, STYROFOAM ~ brand plastic roam and fine material such
as METHOCEL~ cellul<u elhers in dusl/leak.-free packagcs.

13
D. Temperature Adjustment or Material Factor
It is imponant to recognize that the MF represenlS the hazard of the selected material at ambient tem-
perature and pressure. If the material has a flash point less than 140 °F (60 oC) or exhibits reactiv·
ity at temperatures less than 140 °F (60 oC), no adjusnnent is required. lbis is because the flamma·
bility and reactivity hazard have already been incorporated in the Material Factor. 1be effect oC
pressure is discussed in detaillater under "Special Process Hazards." If the Process Vnit temperature
is aboye 140 0p (60 oC), lile MF itself will require adjustrnent If the material is aboye ilS flash point
at ambient temperature. the material factor is not adjusted. 1lle temperature adjustment of the
material factor is detennined using Table 2:
TABLE2
MATERIAL FACfOR TEMP. ADJUSTMENT SI N.
a. Enter NF (St for dusts) and NR.

b. Iftemperature less than 140 °F (60 oC), go lO "e."

c. Ir tempcrature aboye flash point or if temperature greater


than 140 °F (60 oC). enter "1" under NF.
d. Iftempcrature aboye exotherm stan (see paragraph below)
enter "1" under

e. Add each coIumn, bul enter4 where total is S.

f. Using "e." and Table 1, determine Material Factor (MF) and enter on F&EI Fonn
5) and Manufacturing VIrit Risk Analysis 7).

Note: 140 °F (60 oC) can be reached in storagc due 10 layering and solar heat.

Flash point and aUlOignition data are generally available and understood. but "Exotherm Start"
requires explanation. Exotherm Start is the temperature al which a heat·generating chemical
reaction is first detected in Accelerating Rate Calorirnetry (ARC) or similar calorimeter. Exotherm
Start can be estimated from data secured by Differential 1bermal Analysis (DTA) or Differential
Scanning Calorimetry (OSC) either by:
a. subtracting 70 oC (126 0f) from the first exothenn stan temperature or
b. subtracting 100 oC (180°f) Crom the first exolhenn peak temperature.

1lle use of "a." is preCerred. Of coum<:, ir thc " real" exothenn stan temperature is known from
operating experimce (with a reactor in a plant, for example), the "real" temperature should be used.
Consultation with a reactive chemicals testing person can be oC great help in interpreting test data.

lf the Proccss Unit is a reactor, the exothenn from the intendcd reaction is disregarded for purposes oC
tcmpcrature adjustment due 10 reactivity. This is because the various reaction penalties take this into
account

Example:
OOWTIlERM~. a heat transfer fluid, has a flash point af 255 °F (124 oC) and an autoignition temperarure
of 1150 °F (621°C). It has no ose exotbenn below 752°F (400 oC) (the usuallimit of testing). When in
= =
drums in slOrage, it has an MF of 4 (NF 1 and NR O). When used as a solvent aboye 140 °F (60 oC),
lhe MF is still4 up 10 25S °F (124 oC). When it is used at temperatures aboye its flash point of 255°F
=
( 124 oC). its NF is increased lO 2, making MF 10.

14
PROCESS UNIT HAZARDS FACTORS

After the appropriate Material Factor has been determined. the ncxt step is 10 calculate the Process Unil
Hazards Factor (FJ). which is the lcnn that is multiplied by the Material Factor 10 obtain the F&El.

1be numerical value of the Process Vnit Hazaros Factor is detennined by 6rst detennining the General
Process Hazaros Factor and Special Process Hazaros Factor listed on the F&EI roon. Each ítem which
contributes ro the Process Hazaros Factors contributes 10 the development or escalation of an incident thal
could cause a tire or an explosiono

When calculating the penalties comprising the Process Unit Hazards Factor. F3. piek. a single specific in·
stant in time during which the material under consideration is in the most hazardous normal operation
state associated with the Process UniL Stanup, continuous operation and shutdown are among the opera-
tiooal stales thal may be considered

This rather strict definition is intended 10 prevent double or triple counting of hazards occurring during the
process. Since the MF is taken 10 be that of the most hazardous suhstance present in the Process Unit. it
can be certain that the Fire and Explosion analysis will really be based upon a "worst case" when focus is
placed on the most hazardous operational point involving the MF. and litis will be a realistic worst case-
one that could actually occur.

In the F&EI system. onIy one hazard may be evaluated at a time. If the MF is based 011 a flarnmable liquid
present in the Process Unit, do nol take pelUl1Jies reloting lo combustible duslS. even though dust may be
present at a different time. A reasonable approach might be to evaluate the Process Unit roce using the
MF of the flarnmable liquid and a second time using the MF of the dust. Only the calculation resulting in
the highest F&EI and Actual Maximum Probable Property Damage need to be reponed.

One important exception is the hybrid. described previously under "Mixtures." If a hybrid mixture is
selected as the moS! hazardous material presento it is pcnalized both. as a dust and as a flarnmable vapor in
the Process Unit Hazards Factor sections ofthis manual.

Sorne items 00 the F&EI fonn have fixed penalty valucs. For those tltat do noto detennine the appropriate
penalty by coosulting the text tltat follows. Remember - anolyu only one hlwIrd al a dnu. relating the
analysis to a specific. most hazardous time (e.g., startup. normal operation or shutdown). Keep the focus
en the Process Unit and Material Factor selected for analysis and keep in mind tltat the results of the final
calcu1ation are only as valid as the appropriateness of the penalty assessments.

15
GENERAL PROCESS HAZARDS

GeneraJ Process Hazards are faClors mal play a primary role in detcnnining the magnitude of a loss
incident

1be six ¡tems Usted in this section as contributing hazards are applicable 10 most process situations.
Although it may not be necessary 10 take penalties ror each pan of lhis section. these ¡tems have hislorically
played large roles in fue and explosion incidents. and careful evaluation oC the particular Process Unit in
question is oC paramount importance.

Remember, lO evaluate the exposure risk oC any Process Unil realistically. each General Process Hazard
Penalty must be applied under the most hazardous nonnal operating cood.itions mal might occur during me
association oC a specific Malerial Factor wilh the Process Unit bcing analyzed

A. Exolhernúc Chemical Reactions

Take this penalty onIy ir the Process Unit in question is a reactor in which a cheroica! reaction takes
place. The reactivity hazard of the material being evaluated is inherent in the Material Factor.

1. MIT.O EXQTHERMS require a penalty ofO.30. Examples include:


a. Hydrogenation - Addition ef hydrogen atoms lO both sides ef a double or triple bond.
b. Hydrolysis - Reaction of a compound with water, as in the manufacture of sulfuric or
phosphoric acids from oxides.
c. Isomeril.8tion - Rearrangement of the alOms of an organic molecule such as a change from a
straight chain to a branched molecule.
d SuIronation - Introduction of an SÜ3H radical inlO an organic molecule through reaction
with H 2SO...
e. NeutraJization - Reaction between an acid and a base 10 produce a salt and water or of a
base and an alcohol to produce the corresponding alcoholate and.water.
2. MODERATE EXOTIlERMS require a penalty or 0.50. Examples include:
a. Alkylation - Addition of an alkyl group 10 a compound to form various organic compounds.
b. Esterincation - Reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol.
c. Addition reactions - Reactions occurring between inorganic acids and unsaturated
hydrocarbons. When the acid is a strongIy reactive material. increase lhe penalty to 0.75.
d. Oxidation - Combination of substances with oxygcn by combustion. releasing CÜ]. and
H20 or a controlled reaction of sorne substances with oxygen that does not result in CÜ]. and
H20. For combustion processes and where vigorous oxidizing agents such as ch1orates.
rutric acid. hypochlorous acids and salts are uscd. ¡ncrease the penalty to 1.00.
e. Polymerization - Joining together oC molecules to Conn chains or other linkages.
C. Condensation - Joining together oC two oc more organic molecu.les with the spliUing off oC
H20. Ha or other COOlJX'UDds.
3. CRITICAL-TO-CONTROL EXOTIlERMS rcquire a penalty or 1.00. These are a elas, or
reactions in which a significant tire and explosion potentia! would erist if control was lest.
Example:
a. Halogenation - Introduction of a halogen oc halogcns into an organic molecule.
4. PARTICULARLY SENSlllVE EXOTHERMS. which are quite hazardous exothennic
reactions. require a penalty or 1.25. Example:
a. Nitration -1be replacement oC a hydrogen atom in a compound with a nitro group.

16
B. Endothermic Processes

A penalty ofO.20 is taken for any endothennic process taking place in a reactor. Nou: This pelUllJy
appUes 01111 lo reaclOrs. When the energy input Cor the endothermic process is provided by the
combustion of a solid, üquid or gaseous fuel, the penalty is increased to 0.40. Examplcs include:

1. Calcination - Heating a material lO remove chemically bonded water or other volatile material.
This generally requires a penalty of 0.40.
2. Electrolysis - Separation of ions by means of an electric currenl. This generally requires a
penalty of 0.20.
3. Pyrolysis or Cracking - Thennal decomposition of molecu1es lO smaller ones by use of high
temperatures, high pressures and/or a catalyst. The penalty is 0.20 [or electric or remole bot gas
heat or 0.40 for direct fired heat

C. Material Handling and Transfer

This item is evaluated with regard lO the potential for tire involving the pertinent Process Unit during
the handling, traIl'ifcr and warehousing oCmaterials.

1. Any loading or unIoading operatioR involving Class 1 flanunables or LPG-type materials where
transfer lines are connected and disconnected receives a penalty of 0.50.
2. Where the intrtxluction of air during manual addition of sorne ingredients into centrifuges, batch
reactors or batch mixers may create a flammability or reactivity hazard, a penalty of 0.50 is
applied. Note: These penalties apply whcther or not the equipment vapor space is inerted.
3. Ranges of penalties bascd on material fue hazards are applied to warehouse storage or yard
storage of various items.
a. A penalty of 0_85 is applied Cor NF = 3 or 4 flammable liquids or gases. This category
includes drums, cylinders, JX)rtable flexible containers and aerosol canso
b. A penalty of 0.65 is applied for NF =3 combustible solids as identified in Table 1, page 13.
c. A penalty of 0.40 is applied for NF =2 combustible solids as identified in Table 1.
d. A penalty of 0.25 is taken Cor combustible liquids (closed cup flash JX)int aboye lOO °F
(37.8 oC) and below 140 °F (60 0C).
If any of the aboye are stored on racks without in-rack sprink.lers. add 0.20 to the penalty. This
arca of consideratioo is oot for oonnal storage tanks.

D. EocJosed or Indoor Process Units

1be maintenance of open and frecly ventilated coru;truction ror arcas in which Oarnmable liquids and
gases are processed will pennit rapid dissipation of any vaJX)rs released, thereby reducing thc
explosion JX)tential oC the unit. Dust collectors and filters should also be located in an apen area away
from other equipment

An cnclosed arca is identified as any roofed area with three or more sidcs or an arca enclosed by a
roofless structure with walls on all sides.

Even proper1y designed mechanical ventilation is oot as effective as apeo construction; but ir a
mechanically ventilated system is designed in such a way that all flammables arc coUectcd and
disper.;ed. !he penalty can be reduced.

17
The penalty categories are as follows:

l. When dust filters or collec1Ors are located inside an enclosed area, a penalty or 0.50 is awlied.
2. Any process in which flammable liquids are handled al lemperatures aboye their flash point in an
encJosed area receives a penalty or 0.30. For quantities of liquid in excess of 10M lb. (= 1,(XX)
gallons), a penalty or 0.45 is used
3. Any process in which liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or any Oarnmable liquids are handled at
temperatures aboye their boiling point within an encJosed area requires a penalty or 0.60. For
quantities of liquid in excess of 10,000 lb (4,535 kg) (= 1,000 gal)[3.785 m'], a penalty of 0.90
isused
4. Where properly designed mechanical ventilation has been installed, the penalties listed in 1. and
3. aboYe may be reduced by 50%.

E. Access

Emergency equipment must have ready access 10 the arca housing the pertincnt Process UniL Access
from al least two sides is considered the "Minimum Requiremcnt." Strong consideration should be
given to this penalty for major Process Units located in encJosed areas.

At least roe of the access approaches must be from a roadway. A monitor nozzle that would remain
easily accessible and operational during a fue could be considered a second access.

All process areas over lO,(XX) ft2 (925 m 2) not having adequate access receive a penalty or 0.35. All
warehouses over 25,(XX) ft2 (2.312 m 2) nO( having adequate access receive a penalty or0.35.

For areas smallcr than those listed aboye, judgment must be used in asscssing the access requirement.
Such areas may be penaJized 0.20 if sound cnginecring judgment indicates the potential for fire
control problems due 10 inadequate access.

F. Drainage and Spill Control

This section lists penalties for design conditions that could cause large spills of flanunable or rom-
bustibJe liquids 10 be retained around or near process equipment. Inadequate design of drainage has
becn a contributing factor in a large number of losses involving liquid spills.

1hese penalties are 10 be applied only ifthe material in the Process Unit has a flash point below 14O"F
(60 oC) ori! the material is being processed aboye its flash poinl

To evaluate the adequacy of drainage and spill control, it is necessary 10 estimate the rombined
volume of flammable/combustible material as well as fire fighting water that would have te be safely
drained away or handled in an actual incident.

1. The F&EI calculation of drainage capacity will be bascd on the following guidelines:
a. For process and storage facilities, use 100% of the unit's largest tank capacity plus 10% of
the next largest tank.
=
b. Assume 30 minute flow rate of fire fighting water. (Le., 30 min x gpm gal fue water)
[Assume 60 min Oow rate for agricultural chemicals or environmentally hannful chemicals -
see LPP 4.5.6. Discuss with the site environmental contact person.1

Enter the sum of a. and b. aboye into the appropriatc space under General Process Hazaros -
Item l.F on page 5.

18
2. Penalty Sclcction:
a. Diking. which is designed to prevent a spill from going 10 Olhcr areas but exposes aH the
cquiprncnt within the dike. rcceives a penalty orO.5O.
b. GeneralIy, a nat arca amund the process w1it will allow spills 10 sprcad out, exposing large
arcas to tire if ignitcd. A penalty or0.50 is required for this situation.
e. A diking design that surrounds thrce sides of an arca and direclS spills lO an impounding
basin or non-exposing drainage trench receives no penalty if the following en tena are met:
i. Slope lO basin or trench is a minimum of 2% for eanhen surfaces or 1% for hard
surfaces.
Ü. Dislancc 10 equipment from ncarest cdge of trench or basin is at least 50 ft ( 15 m).
11ris distancc can be reduced if a fire wall is insta1led.
iü. The impounding basin must have lhe capadty al ¡east equallO thc sum of I.a. and l .b.
aboye.
d. If a basin or trench exposes utility lines or ~s not meet thc distance rcquircments, a
penalty or0.50 is applied.

l:l shon, excellenl dramagc is rcquired if penalties are to be avoided.

Once all of the general proccss hazards have becn evaluated. a calcu1 ation is 10 OC: made of thc sum of thc
base factor and all penalty factors applied in this section on General Process Hazards. The total is to OC
entercd in the box labeled "General Proccss Hazards Factor (F¡)" on lhe F&EI Fonn, page 5.

19
SPECIAL PROCESS HAZARDS

Special process hazards are factors thal contribute primarily 10 the probability oC a 1055 incidenL They COil-
SiSl oC specific process conditions thal have shown thcmselves to be major causes oC tire and explosion
inc:idents. 'There are twelve items Usted in litis section as follows:

A. Toxic Material(s)

Toxic materials can complicare the response oC emergcncy persormel, thereby reducing their ability lO
investigare or mitigate damage during an incidenl Use 0.20 x N H as the penalty. For mixtures. use
the comp:>nent with the highest NH.

NH is me health factor of a material as defined in NFPA 704 or given in NFPA 325M or NFPA 49.
Thc NH for many materials may be fOlUld in Appcndix A. An Industrial Hygiene Specialist can be oC
assistance in detcnnining a NIf for new materials.

Usted below is a summary oC NH value definitions [rom NFPA 704:

NH = O Materials thal on soon exposurc under fue conditions would orfer no hazard beyond thal oC
ordinary combustible materials.
NH = 1 Materials thal en short exposurc could cause irritation bUl only minar residual injury,
inc1uding thase requiring the use of an approved air-purifying respirator.
NH = 2 Materials that on intense o r shon exposure could cause tcmporary incapacitation or pos-
sible residual injury, including those rcquiring the use of respiratory protective equiprnent
that has an indcpcndent air supply.
NH = 3 Materials that on shon exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including
those requiring protection fonn all bodily CQntact.
N H = 4 Matcrials that on very shon exposurc could cause dcath or major residual injury.

Note: Thcse factors are intendcd to represent cmergency response limitations which can cause addi-
tionalloss. They are not intended lO be applied as industrial hygiene or environmental considerations.

B. Sub-Atmospheric Pressure

This seclion applics lO a process condilion whcre air leakage in a syslem could creale a hazard. A
hazard may result from air contaCl with moisture-sensitive or oxygen-scnsilive materials o r from the
fonnation of flarnmable mixtures upon thc inlrOduction of airo 'This ¡:cnalty is applied only if the
absolute pressure is Icss than 500 mm Hg (equivalent to 10 in Hg vacuum). The penalty is 0.50.

Ir the penalty is applied. do rot duplicatc or rcpeat the penalty specified in Secuon e below,
"Operation In o r Near F1ammable Rangc." or in Seclion E. "Relief Pressure."

MOSl stripping operations, sorne compressor opcrations and a few distillalion o¡:crations are the majar
Process Units ¡:cnalized in this category.

20
C. Operation In or Near F1ammable Range

1bere are certain operating conditions which can cause air 10 enter and be entrained into the system.
1be introduction or entry of air cou1d lead 10 the formation of a flarnmable mixture and create a
hazard. 1his section is intended 10 cover me folIowing conditions:

l. =
Tank storage of N F 3 or 4 flarnmable liquids. where air can be brcathcd into the tank during
purnJH>Ut or sudden cooling of the tank. The penalty is O.SO.
Open vent or non·inert gas padded opcrating pressure·vacuum relief system would rcquire a
penalty of 0.50.
Storage of combustible liquids at temperatures aboye their c10sed cup flash points without
inerting would also require a penalty oC 0.50.
If an inened. closed vapor recovery systcm is used and its aiNightness can be assured, no
penalty is applied. Sce next paragraph.
2. Process equipment or process storage tanks that could be in or near the flarnmable range onIy in
the event oC instrument or equipment failure wou1d require a penalty of 0.30.
Any process unit that relies on inert purge 10 keep it out of the Oarnmable range rcquires a
penalty oC 0 ..30. This penalty also applies 10 paddcd barges or tank cars. No penally is awlied
bere ifthe penalty specified in B., "Sub·Atmospheric Prcssure" has already been taken
3. Processes or operaLions thal are by nature always in or near the flarnmable range, eithcr bccause
purging is not practical or bccause it was elected not lo purge, receive a penalty oC 0.80.

D. Dust Explosion

The maximum rate oC pressure rise and maximum pressure generated by a dust are largely influenced
by the particle size. In general. the finer the dUS1. the greater the hazard because of the rapid rate of
pressure rise and maximum pressures anained.

The penalties listed in this section are intended 10 apply 10 any Process Unit involving dust handling
operations: transfening. blending, grinding. bagging, etc.

Al! dusts have a partic1c size range. For delennination of the penalty, use the 10% size; that ¡s. the
partic1e size al which 90% of the dust is coarser and 10% is finer. Scc Tablc 3 for appropriate
penalties.

Unless dust explosion testing has shown that no dust explosion hazard exists, dust penalties should be
applied.
TABLE3

DUST EXPLOSION PENALTY


ParticJe Size Tyler Mesh Si .. Penalty
Microns (Use 1/2 ifin an inert gas)
175+ 60 to 80 0.25
150'0175 80 'o 100 0.50
l00to 150 100 to 150 0.75
75 to 100 15010200 1.25
<75 >200 2.00

21
E. Rel ter Pressure

Whcre operating pressures are aboye atmospheric, a penalty is applied for thc higher release rates
causcd by higher pressure in the event of a leak. 1be concem is lhe IX)ssibility of failure oC sorne
comlxment in the Process Unit causing tite release oC flammable materials.

Example:
1be release of hexane liquid through a one-square-inch (6.5 cm2) orifice at 75 psig (517 kPa gauge)
would be a1most 600 Il>'min (272 kg/min). At 300 psig (2.069 kPa gauge). the release wouId be 2-1/2
times as great or 1,500 ltVrnin (680 kg/rnin). 1be relief pressure penalty evaluates tite specific spill
hazard potential at different pressure Ievels. RelieC pressure also affects dispersion characteristics.

Since lhe spill potential greatIy increases al higher pressures, equipment design and maintenance
bccome more critica! as tite operating prcssure increases.

Systems operating al pressures aboye 3,000 psig (20,685 kPa gauge) are outside thc range oC standard
codes (ASME Codc Cor Unfircd Pressure Vesscls, Section VIII. Division 1). Por such systems. lens
ring joints. cone seals or equivalent c]()Sures must be used in flange design

To detennme thc appropriate penalty. consult Figure 2, page 23, and use the opcrating pressure to
detennine an initial penalty value. 1be equation below applies from O to 1,000 psig (O to 6.895 kPa
gauge).

y =0.16109+ 1.61503X 1.42879(~)2 +0.5 172(~)' or


1000 1000 1000

y = 0.16109 + 1.61503·(X/lOOO) - 1.42879·(X/1000)"2 + 0.5172·(X/lOOO)A3

Por pressurcs from O to 1.000 psig (O to 6.895 kPa gauge) detennine the penalty Crom Table 4 below
(a1so included in Figure 2. page 23):
TABLE4
H1GH PRESSURE PENALTY FOR FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTffiLE L1QUIDS
Pressure Pressure
psig kPa gauge Penalty
1.000 6.895 0.86
1.500 10.343 0.92
2.000 13.790 0.96
2.500 17.238 0.98
3.000 to 10.000 20.685 to 68.950 1.00
> 10.000 > 68.950 1.50

1be curve in Figure 2 can be used directly to detennine penalties for flammable and combustible
liquids with a flash lX)int below 140 °F (60 oC). For other matcrials. the pena1ty providcd by the
curve must be adjusted as follows:

22
/
FIGURE 2 - PRESSURE PENALTY FOR FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTIBLE
LIQUIDS

0.9
y - 0. 16 1ds. + 1.61503 ' *,1000 . 1.4,i79·(X¡1000)A~ + 0.5172 · (,!¡1000)A3
0.8

0.7

0.6 .---- ....- .--' -


~ 0.5 ./
V
'"'
w
......
z
t! 0.4
/
0.3
/
0.2
/
/
0.1

o
o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
PRESSURE, PSIG
For kPa multiply by 6.895.
1. For bighly viscous materials such as tarso bitumen, heavy lubricating oi1s and asphalts. muhiply
!he penalty by 0.10.
2. For canpressed gases used alcre or flammable liquids pressurized wilh any gas above IS psig
(103 kPa gauge), multiply!he penalty by 1.2. ,
3. Por liquefied flammable gases (mcluding all other flammable materials stored ahove thcir boiling
poinl), multiply!he penalty by 1.3.

There is no penalty for extrusion arxt molding operations.

To detennine the final penalty, first find the penalty associated with the operating pressure from
Figure 2. Then find the penalty associated with the set pressure of the relief device. Divide the
operating pressure penalty by the set pressure penalty 10 get a final pressure penalty adjustment
factor. Multiply the operating pressure penalty by this adjustment factor 10 get the final pressure
penalty. Thus, credit is given for having a relatively high set pressure arxI vessel design pressure.

Note thal il is ofien advantageous 10 sel the relief pressure close 10 the vessel design pressure. Por
example, reactions in a volatile solvent, especially if a gassy, unwanted higher temperature reaction
can be avoided by sctting the relief pressure so thal the solvent can boil and remove heat before the
higher temperature is reached Computer simulation is generaUy used, based on reactive chcmicals or
other kinetic data, lO decide whether a low relief pressure is desirable. However, this is not always
des:irable in sorne reactive systems.

For scme speciaI situations, it is advantageous ro merease the design pressure of a pressure vessel te
min:imize the likelihood of release and in sorne speciaI cases perbaps containment of the maxirnum cx-
peeted pressure can be obtained

See the foUowing example of a vessel holding a viscous material.


Example:
Vessel design prcssure is 150 psig (1.034 kPa gauge)
Nonnal operation is al 100 psig (690 kPa gauge)
Rupture disk is sel al 125 psig (862 lePa gauge)

From Figure 2, the 100 psig (690 kPa gauge) operating pressure has a penalty ofO.31 and 125 psig
(862 lePa gauge) set pressure has a penalty ofO.34.

Viscous matcrials receivc an adjustment orO.7. so the penalty becomes:

0.31 X 0.7 =0.22 adjusted penalty

The final penalty is detemtined by multiplying this penalty by the pressure adjustment factor.

0.22 X (0.31/0.34) =0.20 =final penalty

See the second examplc of an cmulsion polymerization reactor showing the differcnce between a low
and a high dcsign pressure.

24
Examples:
A Reactor design pressure is ISO psig (1.034 ltPa gauge)
Nonnal operating is al 120 psig (827 kPa gauge)
RelieC device set pressure al ISO psig (1.034 kPa gauge)

From Figure 2. the opcrating pressure penalty is 0.34. The oot pressure penalty ofO.37. Thc prcssure
adjustment Cactor is 0.34,u.37. The final penalty is:

0.34 X (0.34ft).37) = 0.312 = final penalty

B. Reactor dcsign prcssure is 300 psig (2.068ltPa gauge)


Nonnal operating is a1120 psig (8271tPa gauge)
RelieC dcvice set pressure at 300 psig (2.068ItPa gauge)

From Figure 2. the operating pressure penalty is 0.34. The oot pressure penalty of 0.53. The pressure
adjustment factor is 0.34/0.53. The final penalty is:

0.34 X (0.34ft).53) =0.218 =final penalty

F. Low Temperature

This section makes allowances Cor the possible brittleness oC carbon steel or other metals that may be
exposed lO temperatures al or hclow their ducti1e/brittle transition temperarures. If a careful cvalu·
ation has becn made and 00 possibilily oC temperarures bclow the transition tempcrature exists due lO
oonnal and aboonnal operating cooditions. no penalty is applied. It would be very rare 10 have a
vessel designed with this potentiaJ. New vessel design would avoid the low temperature hazard.

The usual method oC detennining the transition temperature is 10 test samples oC the metal used in the
Cabrication of the Process Unit, using a standard Olarpy lmpact test lO detennine that the design and.
thereCore. operating tempcrature i5 aboye the transition tempcrature. Proper design should avoid these
Jow tempcralUre process conditions.

The foUowing penalties are applied:

l. For processes utilizing carbon steel construction and operated al or below the ductile¡brittle
transition temperature. a penaUy of 0.30 is applied. IC no data are available. a SO °F (lO oC)
transition tcmperarure should be assumed.
2. For materiaJs other titan carbon steel where the operating temperature is at or below the uansi·
tiOD temperature. use a penalty of 0.20. Remembcr that no penalty is applied ü lile material is
appropriate foc the 10weSl possible opcrating tempcrature.

G. Quantity of Flammable!Unstable Material

This section coosiders the additional exposure to an area as quantities of flammable and unstable
material in the process unit are increased. 1bere are three catcgories in this section. each evaluated by
a separate penalty curve. Apply oo1y one penalty for the entire section. based on the material that was
oolectcd as the Material Factor.

25
t. Liquids or Gases in Process (Figure 3. page 27).

This scction appIies a penalty 10 a quantity of material thal might be spillcd and create a fire
hazard. o r that mighl.. 00 exposure 10 fire. create a reactive chcmical evenL The penalty applies
10 any process operatioo. including pumping inlO holding tanks. and is valid for lhc following
materials when they are selected as the MF:

a. Aammable liquids and those combustible liquids with a flash poim below 140 °F (60 oC).
b. Aammable gases.
c. Uquefied flammable gases.
d. Coolbustible liquids wilh closed cup flash poinls aboye 140 ' F (60 'C) when !he process
tcmperarure is aboYe the flash point of the material.
e. Reactive materials regardless oCthcir flammability (NR = 2. 3 or 4).

In using this penalty section. the first task is to detennine lhc pounds oC materia1s in process.

The penalty is based upon me amounl oC fuel for a tire that can be released Cmm the Process
Unit or a connected line within 10 minutes. Cornmoo sense must be used in judging how much
material might be released. Experience has shown that litis amount can be reasooably estimated
by taking the larger oC the CoUowing:

i. 1be quantity oC material in me Process Unit or


Ü. The quantity of material in the largest cmnected unil

Any connccted wUI that ca.l be isolated by closure valves operable Crom a remOle location in
times oC emergency is removed from coosideration.

BeCore accepting litis approximation of me quantity of material in process. (he quemon lO be


asked is "What is lhc maximwn probable quantity that could be spilled?" If, using good engi-
neering judgmeru and familiarity with me process. it is detennined that a number which is sig-
nificaruly differenl fmm the abOYe, use (he lalter numbcr. being sure to document its validity.
Remcmber. good judgment and process JamiJi.arity will always lead lO a more realistic ap-
proximatioo. Note. however. that ü instability (reactivity) is involvcd. the quantity of coocem is
thc quantity ofmaterial nonnally inside the Process Unil

Example:
O1arge drums. surge drums and renux vcssels are types of connect.ed equi¡:ment that migtu
possibly contain more material than the Process Unir being evaluatcd. However. if such vessels
:ue ¡:quipped with remote-cootrolled shut off valvcs. they should 001 be considered as "vessels
connected to a Prcccss Urril"

Entcr the appropriate quantily of fllUllmablC/Unstable material on thc space pn.wided, Item "G"
of Spccial Process Hazards. page 5.

To estabüsh !he vaJue lO be appüed in using Figure 3. multiply the appropriate quantity of
ílllTlm ablC/unstable material by a f:lclOr He (in BT1J/lb) and obtain total STU )l 109, The factor
He ts thc hcal of ccmbustion of me material. This can be taken from Appcndlx A o r oblaincd
from reacti .... e chemicaJ test data.

2t,
,
FIGURE 3 - LIQUIDS OR GASES IN PROCESS

10
:r.oo (Y) = 0~ 17I79: 0.429sS·l.oQ de> 'o.3~244·LOG ¡x).2 + O)7712~wG (J< )"3 ~.02<J984·LOG (X)"4

-" .....

L
V
/
/
/
0.1
0.1 10 100
TOTAL BTU X 10·9 IN PROCESS
For kcal multiply by 0.2520. For Joules (J) multipl)' by 1.05506 x 10"3.
1llc He for unstable materials (NR of 2 or more) is taken as (1) six times the heat or
decomposition or (2) the hcal oC ccmbustion. whichcver is larger. Heats of dccomposition 'can
a1so be oblaincd from reactive chemical test data.

Enter thc factor He (BTIJ/lb) on me appropriale space. Item "a" of Special Proccss Hazards.
page S.

1be penalty is detennined by entering figure 3 wilh the Process Unit energy content (BTU x
1()9). The poi.nt ofintersection with!he curve indiC31cs!he penalty. Thc equation for this plot to
Total BTU x 1()9 in Process (X) versus Penalty (Y) is:

10gY = 0.17179 + 0.42988(\ogX) - 0.37244(\ogX)2 + 0.17712(\og X), - 0.029984(\ogX)' oc

10gY =0.17179 + 0.42988'logX - 0.37244'logX'2 + 0.17712'log X'3 - 0.0299&4'logX"4

2. Liquids or Gases in Storage (Outside Ihe Process Atea) (Figure 4. page 29)

Aammable and combustible liquids. gases or liquefied gases in storage outsidc the process area
receive a lower penalty !han those in the "in prcx:ess" or 2. G. l category (page 5), sinee there is
no process involvcmenL Process invol.vement contributes 10 the probability of an incident. MF
matcrials in me 2.G.2 (page S) category include raw material feedslOCk. in drums or tanks.
material in tank Canns and material in ponable containcrs and containers.

This penalty is detennined by entering Figure 4 with the total BTU (quantity oC material in
storage times a factor He) in any single storagc vessel. In the case of penable containers. use thc
total quantity of material in all stored containers.

When two or more vessels are located in a canmon dike which would not drain inta an acle--
quately siz.ed impounding basin. use the total BTU contcnt of a1l the tanks within me dike 10
obtain me p::nalty from the curve in Figure 4.

Unstable materials should be evaluated in the same fashion as in 2.0.1 (page 5) taking as the He
factor either (1) six times the hcat of decompositim or (2) the hcal oC combustion (whichcvcr is
largcr) and using Curve A of Figure 4 lo dctennine me appropriate penalty.

Example:
TIuee vessels containing process chemicals (750,000 lb [340.100 kg] oC styrene monomer,
750.000 lb [340.100 kg] of dielhyl hcnz<ne and 600.000 lb [272.100 kg] oi .crylonilrile) are
. iocated in 1 commcn dike thal does llQ( drain ~ 3n impounding basin.

,1~;urncd. fa~I')~ tak~n


I
I
Ambicnt storagc tcmpcrature of l()') "F' ( \8 cc) 15
of combustion.
and a1l He are 1S heats

1·'50.000 lb Slyecne X 17.4 X lO' llTU~b = 13.0 X 109 STU


1¡750M lb die",,1 bcnullC j( 1S.O X lO' BTU~b = 13.1 X I09STl'
tiOOM lb 3I:rylonitrilc Y. J ~ . 7 X HP BTll!lb .~ 8.:: X 1()9 8TU
l
..._ _ _ _ _ _ _....;TO=T"''';;JI"
.•~
;;,!:
. 1d. :-~;;B_~n.:-!_____• _ _ _...1
FIGURE 4 - LIQUIDS OR GASES IN STORAGE

10
= A - L1Ql1E!'lED G~SES
- LOG(Y) -0.289069 + 0.472171*LOG (X) - O.074585*LOO (X)"2 -O.OI8641*LOG (X)"3
T I I
B =CLASS 1 FLAMMABLEL1QUlDS (F.P. < 37.8C [IOOFI)
LOG IO(Y) - -0.403115 + 0.3i87~3·~Cf'<'P -{).046402·I¡OG (10 \-"2 -O,OI5179:LOG (X)'3

1
C = CLASS coMBLsnJLE L~U1bsl J} >=37.8 C < ~e [>= lOO < J 110~)
LOO IO{Y) '= -0.55IÜ94 .;. 0.363321*i..<)e 'pC) -0.057296*1.00 00"2 -0.Ol0759*Loo (X)"3
A
I I I
~ 5 B

."'
z'" 1

C
/' ~

~
I
----
V v l--
'" I,
---- ,

v
0 .1
~ V

0.1 10 lOO
TOTA L 10"9 BTU IN STORAGE
For kcal mulúply by 0.2520. For Joules (1) multiply by 1.05506 JI. 10"3.
CUrves lndicatcd by the Materials

Styrenc Oass 1 Flammable Liquid (CUrve B. Figure 4)


Acrylonilrile Oass 1 Flamrnable Liquid (CUrve B. Figure 4)
Diethyl Benzcne Oass JI CombusLible Liquid (CUrve e, Figure 4)

If more than onc substance is being dcalt wilh. use the TOTAL BTU and find Ihc penalty shown
at lhe p:>int oC intersection with the highest curve indicated Cor any individual material using
Figure 4.

In lhis example. the highest curve reCerenced by a single material is CUrve B and thc awropriare
penalty is 1.00. Note: NFPA 30 calls Cor subdivision by diking oCthese types oCmaterials.

The equatioos Cor CUrves A, B and e in Figure 4 Cor BTU X 1()9 in Process (X) versus Penalty
(Y) are:

Cur ve A:

10gY =- 0.289069 + 0.47217I(1og X) - 0.074585(1og X)2 -0.01864I(1ogX)3 or

10gY = -0.289069 + 0.47217I'log X -0.074585'log X'2-0.01864I'logX'3

Curve B:

10gY = - 0.403115 + 0.378703(log X) - 0.046402(1og X)2 - 0.015379(1og X)' or

10gY =- 0.403115 + 0.378703'log X - 0.046402'log X'2 -0.015379'log X'3

Curve C:

log Y =- 0.558394 + 0.363321(1og X) - 0.057296(10g X)2 - 0.010759(1og X), or

log Y =- 0.558394 + 0.363321'log X -- 0.057296'log X'2 - 0.010759'log X'3

3. Combustible Solids in Storage/Dust in Process (Figure 5, page 31)

This caregory covefl the penalty requirements Cor various quantities oC storcd salids and Cor dusts
eocountcred in a Process Unit when the solid or dust involved is the basis material Cor the MF. The
mcasurements used in this penalty assessment are the dcnsity oC the material and case oC ignitioo and
its ability to sustain flame.

1bc total wcight in pouncls oC stored salid or or dust contained within thc prcx:ess unir is used with
Figure S to dctennine the penalty. If the material's bulk density is less than 10 Iblft1 (160.2 kflml).
use Curve A; iril is greater than 10 Ib/rt3 (160.2 kg/m 1). use Curve B.

For unstable materials (NR = 2 or higher), take sbt times lhc actual wcight or material in the Process
Unir and use CUrve A to detennine \he awropriatc penalty (see the rollowing example).

30
,
FIGURE 5 . COMBUSTIBLE SOLIOS IN STORAGEIDUST IN PROCESS

10
LOO (Y) - + O.28()123 + 0.464559· LOG (Xl. 0.28291·Loo (X)"2 + 0.0662IS· Loo (X) A3

Curve A
1 I

MAlERIALS WITH DENSITY, < 10 Iblcu ft

r" ...
----
V
MATERIALS WITH DENS ITY > 10 lblcu f

/
/
/'

V
.-'
......... -- Curve B
I

/
/
/ I
/ I. I
LOO (Y = -0.358311 + 0.459926*LOG (X) -O. 14 1022·L()(j (X)"2 + O.02216·LOO (X)"3
0. 1 , , '"

0. 1 10 100
TOTAL POUN OS X 10"6
For kg x 10"6 multiply by 0.45359.
Example:
Ignoring aisle space, an area of 20,(XX) ft2 (1,860 m2) with a 15 ft (4.6 m) storagc hcight wouId coo-
tain 300,fXX) ft3 (8,500 m 3) of stored material.

Ir thc: material bcing storcd in the area (open-ceO foam and cardboard boxcs with polystyrene tubs)
have an average density of 2.2ltVft3 (35.2 kglm3):

2.2 Ib./ft' x 300,000 fl' =660,000 lb


Using Figure 5, Curve A for density < 10 Ibfft3, we detennine that the penalty should be 1.54.

Now compare this with storage of polyethylene pellets or ceOulese powder in bags (average density of
28 Ib/ft' (449 kg/m 2)):

28 Ib/ft' x 300,000 ft' =8,400,000 lb


Using Curve B for density > 10 lb/fP, we detennine that the penalty should be 0.92.

While it is true that the fire load (in tenns of both Bros and pounds per cubic foot) is much lowcr for
foam or boxes than for baggcd polyethylene pellets or methylcellulose powder, foam and cardboard
boxes are much easier to ignite and wouId sustain flame more readily than the denser materials. In
short, bccause lhese light materials pose a grcater tire hazard than the heavier ones, thcy are assessed
a highcr penalty, even though fewer pounds are stored.

The equations for Figure 5, page 31 t for the plots of Curves A and B of Combustible Solids versus
Penalty for Curves A and B are:

Curve A:

log Y = 0.280423 + 0.464559(log X) - 0.2829 I (log X)2 + 0.0662 I 8(1og X)' or

log Y = 0.280423 + 0.464559·'og X -0.28291·10g X"2 + 0.066218·log X"3

CurveB:

log Y = - 0.35831 I + 0.459926(1og X) - O. 141022(1og Xl' + 0.02276(1og X), or

log Y =- 0.358311 + 0.459926·10g X - 0.141022·log X"2 + 0.02276·log X"3

H. Corrosion and Erosion

Allhough good design malees allowances for corrosion and erosion, sorne corrosion/erosion problems
may still accur in certain processcs.

1be corrosion rale is considered lo be the sum of thc external and internal corrosion rates. Be surc not
to overlook the possible effects of minor impurities in the process stream that might cause grcatcr than
normal intemal corrosioo and the possibility of external corrosioo duc to the chcmical breakdown of
paint. Porosity ofbricks and impcrfections in plastic linings are likcly sites for accelcrated corrosion.

32
The following penalties apply:

1. For corrosion rates less than O.S mil/yr (0.005 in/yr) [0.127 mm/yr] wilh risk of piu.ing or local
crosion. the penalty is 0.10.
2. For a corrosiOl1 rale ovor O.S miI/yr (0.127 rnm/yr) and less Ihan 1.00 miVyr (0.254 mm!yr), !he
penalty is 0.20.
3. Por corrosion rates higher than 1 miVyr (0.254 rnm/yr), the penalty is 0.50.
4. If lhere is a risk that suess-corrosim cracking miglu de:velop. apply a penalty or 0.7S . 1bis is
canmon in process areas exposed lO contamination by chIorine vapor over prolonged periods.
S. Where a lining is required 10 prevent corrosioo. a pena1ty ol 0.20 is applied. Howcver. if thc
lining is simply to protect a product fran developing color, no penalty is taken.

l. Leakage - Joints and Packing

Gaskets, seals of joints or shafts and pacldog can be sourccs of leaks of Oammable or combustible
materials. particularly where lhennal and pressure cycling occurs. A penalty factor should be sclected
according to me design oC the Process Unit under study and the material bcing used in the process.
The following penalties should be applied:

1. Whcre (he pump and gland seals are likely 10 give scme leakage of a minor naturc, the penaUy is
0.10.
2. For processes koown to give regular leakage problcms at pumps. compressors and flangc joinls,
!he penalty is 0.30.
3. For processes in which thennal and pressure cycling occurs, the penalty is 0.30.
4 Ifthe material in the Process Urot is penetrating in nature or is an abrnsive slurry which can cause
intenniuent problems wilh sealing and if the Process Urot uses a rotating shaft seal or packing. the
penalty is 0.40.
S. Foe any Proccss Urot thal has sight glasses. bellows assemblies or expansion joints. the penalty is
1.50.

J. U~ ofFired Equipment

1be presence of fired equipment in a process adds an additional probability oC ignition when Oamma-
bIe liquids. vapors or combustible dusts are released

Thc penalty is applied in OCIe oC two ways: tiest, lO (he tired equipment itself when it is the Process
Urot foc the F&EI calculation, and, second, to the various Process Units in me vicinity oC the fired
equipment 1be distance in feel from a probable leak point in the Pnx:ess Unit ociog cvaluated 10 the
air intake of lile fired equipment is the dislallce referenced in Figure 6. page 34.

L CurveA-l (Figure6)isused:
a) For any Process Unit in which the material oC (he Material Factor could be rc1eascd abovc its
flash poinL
b) For any Proccss Unit in which the material ofthe Material Factor is a combustible dust
2. Curve A-2 (Figure 6) is used:
a) For any Process Urot in which the material ofthc Material Factoc could be released above its
boi1ing point

The penalty is detennined by entering Figure 6 with!he diSlance from a potemiaI Jeak source to the me
inlake of!he fired equipment and reading thc penalty from the intcrsection with lhe appropriate cwve
(A-l or A-2) of Figure 6.

33
FIGURE 6 . FIREO EQUIPMENT PENALTY

~OG (Y) = 10.3745·X .2.70212;X'2 + 2.09171·X,j


0.9 \ • ROvE BOlLING POINT

\
0.8

\ "'"
~ 0.6
0.7

\ A- I "'" ~A-2
-'
~
c.. 0.5
\ '" ~
0.4
\
0.3
~ ~
~
0.2

0.1
o
ABOYE FLASH POINT

30
'" 60
-..........-.
LOO (Y) _ ·3.3243 ·X + 3.75127·X"2 ·1.42523·X"3

90
-......
120 150 ISO 210
DIST ANCE IN FEET FROM POSSmLE LEAK SOURCE
For distante in melers multiply by 0.3048,
The equations for CUrves A-l and A-2 for Distance flom Possible Leak Source (X) and Penalty (Y)
are:
Curve A.l:
10gY = -3. 3243(~)
210
+ 3. 75 12.,('~21O
~)' - 1.4252.,(
\210
~)3 or

log Y =- 3.3243'(XI2IO) + 3.75127'(x/2IO)"2 - 1.42523'(X/2IO)"3


Curve A·2:
logY =-o.3745(~)-2.702l".,( ....!..)l +2.0917 1(~)' or
210 \210 210

log Y = - 0.3745(X!21O) - 2.70212'(X!2IO)A2 + 2.09171'(X!2IO)A3

If the fued equipment (process side) itself is the Process Unit ooing evaluatcd. Ole distaJlCC from the
possible leak source becomes zcro. If the equipment is heating a flarnmabl e o r combustible material ,
the penalty is 1.00. even lf lhe malerial is nol being healed abo ve itsJlash poinl. The "1" penalty is
oot applied 10 the flf'C side.

However. any olher silualÍon covered bylhis sudon involving a material processed below its flash
point receives no penalty.

If a piece of flrcd equipment is localed within thc process arca and there is a possibility mat the
material in the Process Unit selected as MF could 00 released aboye its flash pJint, a minimwn
penalty or0.10 is requircd, regardress 01 lhe distance in volved.

Flf'Cd equipment with "pressure bumer" design will require only 50% of the penalty spccified for
standard bumer designo provided the air intake is 10 ft (3 m) or more aboye grade and is not exposed
lO potential sources of spills from ovemead. However. thc 50% penalty cannot be applicd whcn the
fired heater itself is the Process Unit being evaluated.
-
K. Hot Qil "eat Exchange System

Since most hot oil (heat exchange) fluids will bum and are frequently uscd aboye their fla sh points or
boiling points, thcy rcprcsent an additionaI hazard in any Process Unil that uses lhcm. The penal bes
in this section are bascd on the quantity and temperature of the hcat exchange fluid used in me urtit
bcing evaluated.

No penalty is applicd if the hot oil is non-combustible or, if a combustible fluid. is always used bclow
its fl ash point However, [he plSsible fonnation of mists should 00 considcrcd. (See page 12.)

1be quantity 10 be used with Table 5 10 determine the penalty is takco 10 be the Icsscr of

1. a lS-minute spiU caused by a break in the Une servicing thc Process Unit or
2. the bol oiJ inventory within the active circulating hot oiJ system .

1be portion of the bol oi1 hcat exchange system that can be classified as "slOrage" is nOl used in
determining the active capacity unless it is connected much ofthe time to thc Proc:css Unil.

35
It is recanmended that thc F&EI for me hot oil circulating system itself be detennined. including the
active (oot Slorage) tank. pumps and distribution/retum piping. Thcse detenninations have histon-
caUy loo 10 large F&EI values. If the bot oil exchange system itself is the Process Dnit being evalu-
ated. no penalty is taken for this section. However. ir a fired bol oil heat exchange system is actua1ly
located in the arca of the Process Unit being evaluated. the penalty tor Section J wiIJ apply.

TABLES
HOT OIL HEAT EXCHANGE SYSTEM PENALTY
Quantity Above Flash At or Above Hoiling
3
Gallons (m ) Point Penalty Point Penalty
<5.000« 18.9) 0.15 0.25
5.000 lo 10.000 (18.9 10 37.9) 0.30 0.45

10.000 lo 25.000 (37.9 lo 94.6) 0.50 0.75


> 25 .000 (94.6) 0.75 1.15

L. Rotating Equipment

This section recognizes the hazard exposure of Pmcess Units incorporating large pieces of rotating
equipmenl. A1though formulas have not been developed for evaluating all types and sizes of rotating
equipment. there is statistical evidence indicating that pumps and compressors beyond a cenain size
are likely 10 contribute to a loss incident.

A penalty of 0.50 is applied 10 Process Units that utilize or are:

1. A compressor in excess of 600 hp.


2. A pump in excess oC 75 hp.
3. Agitators (mixcrs) and circulating pumps in which failure could create a process exotherm due to
lack of cooling from inlCrrupled mixing or circulation of coolant or duc lO inlCrrupted and
resumed mixing.
4. Othcr large high speed rotadng equipment with a significant loss history; for example. centrifuges.

Once all oC thc special process hazards have been evaluated, a calculadon is to be made oC thc sum of the
base factor and a1l penalty factors applied in this section. 1be total is 10 be entered in the box labcl.ed
"Special Process Hazards Factor (Fu" on the F&EI Form. page 5.

36
DETERMINATION OF PROCESS UNIT HAZARDS FACTOR

1bc Proccss Unir Hazarels Factor (F3) is me product of thc General Process Hazards Factor (PI) and the
Special Proccss Hazards Factor (F2). 1be product is used ralher than the sum bccause the "contributing
hazards" included in F¡ (General Proccss Hazards) and F2 (Spccial Process Hazards) are known lO have a
compounding effect 00. each amer. Far example. a penalty for poor drainage in FI is compoundcd by !he
magnilude oC the quantity in F2.

Thc Process Vnit Hazaros Factor (F). which has a nonnal range oC 1 lO 8. is used 10 determine thc Fire &
Explosioo Index. page 5. and to compute lile Damage Factor (Figure 8. page 52).

When penaIties are properly applied to various Process Hazards. F3 is nonnally oot in exccss of 8.0. Ir a
higher value is obtained, use a maximum oC 8.0. The Proccss Unit Hazards Factor is to be entered al [he
bottom oC the Pire & Explosion lndex Fonn as shown on page 5.

37
DETERMINATION OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION INDEX

Thc Fiee and Explosion Indcx calculation is used for estimating the damagc that would probably result
from an incident in a process plant. 111e various contributing factors. such as typ! oC reaction, process
tcmperatures. pressures, quantities orruel, etc., indicate the probability and potential magnitudc of a fuel or
cncrgy release resu1ting from process oontrol failurcs. equipment failures or from vibradon or other sources
oC stress fatigue.

Effccts oC a fue and/Or fuel-air explosion foUowing the releasc oC a flammabl.e material and its ignitioo are
catcgorized according to the immediate causes:

a. Thc blast wave or dcflagration.


b. Fue exposure from the original release,
c. Missile impact on piping and equiprnent (rom vessel explosion,
d. Other fuel releases as sccondary evems.

Thc secondary events bccane more significant as lhc Process Unit Hazards Factor and Material Factor
inercase.

The Fire and Explosion Index (page 5) is the product oC the Process Unit Hazards Factor (F) and the
Material Factor (MF). The F&EI will be related later 10 a Radius oC Exposure (Figure 7, page 48).

Table 6 is a listing of thc F&Et values versus a description o( thc degree of hazard that gives sorne re1ative
idea of the severily of the F&EI.
TABLE 6
DEGREE OF HAZARD FOR F&EI

F&EI INDEX RANGE DEGREE OF HAZARD

1 -60 Lighl

61 - 96 Moderare

97 - 127 Intcnnediate

128 - 158 Heavy

159 - up Severe

The F&Et is summarized 00 thc Fire & Explosion lndcx fo"" which is presented on page 5. lt is reccm-
meOOed thal any back.up calcu1ations or documentation be fiJed. with thc original F&Et so it is possible 10
rcview and reconslruCl how the original deterrnination was madc.

38
LOSS CONTROL CREDIT FACTORS

In lhe construction oC any chernical Process Unit (planO consideration must be given 10 a numbcr of basic
dcsign reatures (Appendix e, page 74) including compliancc with various codes such as building codes or
the codes oC ASME, NFPA. ASTM, ANSI (see Appendix F) and requirements oflocal govcrnments.

In addition 10 lhese basic design requirements. certain loss cootrol reatures based on experiencc llave
proveo beo::ficial both in preventing serious incidenlS and in reducing the probability and magnitude of a
particular inciden!. Tbere are three categories of loss control features:

el Process Control
el Materiallsolation
el Fire Protection

The Loss Control Credit Factors Form (page 6) is 10 be uscd 10 surnmarize the Loss Control Credit Factors
using !he following proccdure:

1. Enter the approprialc credit factor irnmediately lo the right of each cred.it item chosen.
2. Ir no credit (actor is appIicable, eOlef 1.00 tor the Credit Factor Used.
3. Note that cach category's Loss Control Credit Factor is the product of all factors used in mal category.
4. Perfonn the calculation (el x e2 x eJ) 10 detennine the overall Loss Control. Crcdit Factor.
S. Enter thc Loss Control Credit Factoron Une 7 oC me Process Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary on page 6.

Loss Control features should be sclccted for the contribution they wiJl actua1ly make 10 reducing or
controlling the unit hazards being evaluated. Selecting crcdit features lO accumulate credits is not thc inteot
of the Risk Analysis approach; the irueru is 10 reduce the dollars at risk or the base MPPD 10 a more
probable, realistic value. 1he local loss preveotion specialist can hclp detennine thc appropriateness of
various loss cootrol features. 1bc loss control features and lheir respective credit factors are listed and
explained as foUows:

1. Pfocess Control Credit Factor (C l )

a. Emergency Power - 0.98

This credit is given for the provision of emergeney powcr for essential services (instrument air,
control instrumentation. agitators, pumps, etc.) with aulOmatic changeover from nonnal 10 emcr-
geney. Thc cmergcncy power Credil should be taken only if it is relevant lO the control of an in-
cidel11 in the specific Process Unil reing evaluated. For example, maintaining agitation in certain
chcmica1 proccss reaclOrs is a critical factor in avoiding a runaway reaction, and cmCJgerx:y
power supply to such agitators is clearly a protective feature which justifics the credil

In other cases, such as agitadon in a rubbcr slulT)' tank in the polystyrcnc process, availability of
emergency power is oot needcd either 10 prcvent or lO control a possible firc/cxplosion incidcnt.
However, it may be a desirable feature bccausc it pcnnits continued operation whcn the nonnal
power supply is unrcliablc. lo such cases. no crcdit should re claimed for the availability of
emergency power.

A credit factor of 0.98 is 10 be given if applicable or clse a factor of 1.00 is to re used which
indicates no crcdil.

39
b. Cooling - 0.97 to 0.99

If process cooling systems are designed -Mth the capability of maintaining oonnal cooling lor at
least 10 minures during an aboonnal condition, use a credil lactor ol 0.99. If a backup cooling
system is designed to provide 150% ofthe cooling requirement [or al least 10 minures. use 0.97.

c. Explosion Control - 0.84 to 0.98

for explosion suppression systems installed en dust or vapor-handling equiprncnt or equiprnem


designed 10 contain a deflagration, use a credit factor of 0.84.

For overpressure reliel systems using rupture diaphragms or explosion-relieving vents dcsigned 10
prorect thc: cquipment fmm possible aboormal coo.ditions. use a credil factor al 0.98. The credil
is applied [or any reliel device thal protects the equipmcnt or building from damage due 10 rapid
overpressure, such as from a dcflagratioo. This credil is oot intended 10 00 applied for typical
overpressure relief sySlems such as safety reliel valves that are requircd lor a1l pressure vessels or
emergency relief vcnts 00 storage tanks.

d. Emergency Shutdown - 0.96 to 0.99

for a redundancy sysrem thal activares whcn conditions becomc abnonnal, initiating a shutdown
sequence. use 0.98.

For critica! rotating equipment such as compressors, turbines, fans. ctc .. that are provided -Mth
vibration dcrectien equipment, use a credil factor of 0.99 if the equipmcnt onIy activates an alann
and a credit factor al 0.96 ir it initiates a shutdoWJl.

e. Computer Control - 0.93 to 0.99

Whcn an on-Une computer functions as an aid to apcrators and is not directly in control ol key
operations, or where the plant is frequently operated without the computer, use a credit factor of
0.99.

When a compurer with "fail·safc" logic is in direct control of a process, a credit faclor af 0.97 is
used. If any ore of the foUowing options are used. the credil factor will be 0.93:

l. Redundant critical field inputs


2. Abort fcature 00 critical ioputs
3. Backup capability for control system

r. loert Gas - 0.94 to 0.96

Whcn equipment coo.taining nammable vapors is continuousIy padded with an ineJt gas, use a
credit factor of 0.96.

If the incJt gas system has sufficient capacity to purge the total volurnc of the unit automatically,
use a cremt factor of 0.94. 1ltis credit is oot applicable if there is an ineJt purge comection that
must be tumed on or controlIed manually.

40
g. Operating InstructionslProcedures - 0.9110 0.99

Adequate written operating instructions andlor a fully docwnentcd operating discipline are an
important part of maintaining satisractory control of a unit. 1bc following conditions, Usted with
point ratings, are considcred to be (he most important:
1. Stanup - 0.5
2. Routine shutdown - 0.5
3. Normal operating conditions - 0.5
4. Tumdown operating conditions - 0.5
S. Standby running conditions (unit running 00 total recycle or reflux) - 0.5
6. Uprated operating conditions (above flowshect capacity) - 1.0
7. Restarting short1y after a shutdown - 1.0
8. Restarting plant from a post·maintenance coodition - 1.0
9. Maintenance procedures (work permits, decontamination, lockout, system clearance) - 1.5
10. Emergency shutdown -1.5
11. Manufacturing unit equipmenf/piping mOOifications and additions - 2.0
12. Foreseeable abnormal fauIt situatioos - 3.0

To obtain a credit factor, add all the points for the conditions that have operadng iostNCtiOns.
1lle total points are represented by "X" in the following formula: 1.0 - 1~

If aI1 conditions have becn covercd, thc credit factor will be: 1.0 _ 13.5 =0.91
150
As an altemative, it may be detennined what value in the range of 0.91 to 0.99 the enginccr thinks
best represents the complcteness and accuracy of the operating instructions.

h. Reactive Chemical Review - 0.91 lo 0.98

1lle documented use of a total Reactive CbemicaJ Program for reviewing existing and new proc-
esses, inc1uding process changes and Slorage and handling of chemicaJs, is an imponant loss
control function.

Where lhis program is a continuing pan of the operations, a credit factor of 0.91 is used. If thc
review is done only on an occasional basis, use a credil factor of 0.98.

As a "minimum requirement" for credit, opcralOrs must reccive an orientation in Reactive


Olcmicals as applied 10 the ope.rator's job at least annual1y. Unless this orientation is provided
regularly, 00 credit can be taken.

i. Other Process Hazard Analysis - 0.91 to 0.98

Several other process hazard analysis t001s can be used in addition to the F&EI evaluation. 1llcsc
include Quantitative Risk. Assessments (QRA), Dctailed Consequencc Analysis, Fault Trcc
Analysis, Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Studies, Failure Modcs and Effects AnaJysis
(FMEA), Envirorunental. Health, Safety, and Loss Prevention Revicws, "What Ir' Studies, Cbeck
Ust Evaluations and Managcmcnt of Olange Reviews.

41
1bc credit factors to be uscd for this area are as follows:
Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) 0.91
Detailed Consequence Analysis 0.93
Fault Tree Analysis 0.93
Hazard and Opernbilily (HAZOP) Srudics 0.94
Failure Modes and Effects AnaIysis (FMEA) 0.94
Fnviroruncntal, Hcalth, Safcty, and 1..oss Prevention Reviews 0.96
"What Ir' Studies 0.96
Olcck List Evaluations 0.98
Management of Olange Review 0.98

When any of these process hazard rislc. analysis programs are done on a regular pan of operatioru;,
the full credil factor is lO be used. If these anaIyses are only done on an occasional basis, a higher
factor is lO be used based 00 good engineering judgment For fuIl credil, the results should be
shared with employees as is appropriate.

2. Material Isolation Credit Factor (Cl )

a. Remole Control Valves - 0.96 lo 0.98

If the unit is providcd with remotcly qx:rated isolation valves so that storage tanks. proccss
vessels or majar sections of transfer lines can be quickly isolated in an emergency. use a credit
factor of 0.98. If such valves are cyc1ed at leasl armually. use a credit factorof 0.96.

b. DumplBlowdown - 0.96 lo 0.98

Where an emergency process dump tank can be used directly to receive the cootents of the Process
Unit safely wilh adequate quenching and venting, use a credit factor of 0.98. If the dump tank is
located outside lhe urot arca. use a credil factor of 0.96.

For emergency venting. if gas/vapor material is piped to a fiare system or to a closed venl
receiver, use a credil factor of 0.96.

Credil is given fOf a normal venling system thal reduces the exposure of surrounding equipmeru to
released gases or liquids. A venl ticd into a fiare system or receiver would receive a credil of
0.98. An example would be blowdown from a po1ystyrene reactor to a tank or receiver.

c. Drainage - 0.91 to 0.97

To rcmove a large spill from a process or storagc unit, it is considered nccessary to provide a
slope of al least 2% (1% on a hard surface) leading to a drainage trench of adcquatc size.
assuming that 100% of the cootcnts of the largest tank plus 10% of the next largesl tank could be
releascd plus 1 hr of delugc/sprinkler fire water. Whcrc this requircmcnl is met, use a credit fac-
tor of 0.91.

lf drainage conditions are good such as to drain the contents away from under or near tanks and
equipment, a credit factor ofO.91 can also be used.

42
If lhe drainage design would allow a IXlQling of a large spill but could handle small spills (about
50% of lhe largest tanks cootents), use a credit factor of 0.97. Many drains are capable of
handling moderate spills, and many process areas would qualify for a credit factor of 0.95.

Storage tanks that are diked on four sidcs lO retain spills rcceive no credit. If thc diking design
dirccts the spill lO an imJXlWlding basin locatcd at least 50 ft (15 m) away and capable of
receiving the cootents of the largesl diked tank plus 10% oC the next largest tank plus sprinkler
water, a credit factor of 0.95 is used. If the slope is doublfu], or if the impounding basin is c10ser
than 50 ft (15 m) away, no credit is given for drainage.

d. Interlock - 0.98

If a process is provided with an interlock system which prevents incorrect material flow that could
produce undesirable reactions, use a credit factor oC 0.98. This credit can also be taken for a
bumer management system that meets the Loss Prevcntion Principies and cade requirements.

3. Fire Protection Credit Factor (el)

a. Leak Detection - 0.94 to 0.98

If gas deteclOrs have bcen installed thal alann only and identify a wne in the plant area, use a
credit factor of 0.98. Wha1 a gas detector both alarms and activates a protcctive system beCore
the lower nammability limit is reached, use a credit factor of 0.94.

b. Structural Sleel - 0.95 to 0.98

1be time duration rating of a fireproof coating appl.ication is related lO thc quantity oC fuel in the
arca and the drainage design.

Where fireproofing is used, ir should be applied lO all load-bearing steel to a minimum height of
~ 15 ft (5 m). Where this has been dooe, use a credit factor of 0.98. If fireproofing extends above
15 ft (5 m) but less than 30 ft (10 m), use a credit factor oC 0.97. For fireproofing above 30 Ct (10
m), use a cremt factor of 0.95 but only if such fireproofmg is nccessary. FueproofUlg systcms
must be in sound rcpair, or no credit is 10 be taken.

Reinforced coo.crete construction qualifies for the "fireproofmg" credit and is lhe prcCerrcd
method for fueproofUlg. Anolher approach is to install a deluge water spray for cxx>ling the
structure only. This should reccive a credit factor of 0.98 under lhe "Structural Steel" category
(although water spray cooling of a structure is not spccifically mentioned), rathcr than a eredit
factor of 0.97 und.er "Spri.nk1er Systems."

c. Fire Water supply - 0.94 lo 0.97

Whcn the delivery pressure is 100 psig (690 kPa) or more, use a credit factor oC 0.94. If thc
dclivery pressure is less than 100 psig (690 lePa), use a credit factor oC 0.97.

A plant's supply of tire fighting water should be capable of delivering thc maximurn calculated
demand for a periad oC four hours. Less than four hou~ of fire water may be appropriate for iow
hazard operations. If this requirement is satistied, use a credit factor of 0.97.

43
Un1ess me fue water supply can be provided by altemative power sources wruch are independcnt
o[ normal eleclric service and capable of dclivering thc maximwn calcuJated demando 00 credil
factor can be applicd. A diesel-driven tire pump is an example of an altemative power source.

d. Spec:ial Systems - 0.91

Special sySlemS include CÚl. halon. smoke and llame detectors and blast waUs or cuacles. The
installation of new halon systems is discouraged beeause of potential harm to the envirooment.
Credit can be given to existing halen systems if decmed appropriate [or Me safety or other special
situations.

It is important to be cenain that the loss coouol credilS taken for the Process Unit being studied
are those mal truI)' apply 10 tltat particular Process Unil A credit factor of 0.91 can be used [or
special systems.

If a double waU. above ground tank is designed so mat the oUler wall will contain !he total con·
tcnlS after a lcak in the primary waU. a credit factor oC 0.91 can be used. However, double wall
tanks are usually not COSl effective and additiollal integrity in the prirnary waU is ofien a better
answcr 10 minimizing risk.

Formerly, a credit was given for underground buricd and doublc wall tanks. There is no doubt
tltat from the standpoint of tire protection tltat a buried tank is safer; however, a more important
concem is thc possibility for leakage of buried tanks and the difficulty of being able to detcct and
control leakage. Ouc to this environmental conccm, thc construction of ncw buried tanks is
discouraged.

e. Sprinkler Systems - 0.74 to 0.97

Oeluge systems receive a credit factor of 0.97. A deluge system (open head) gets me minimum
credit bccause such systems have man)' componalts. any ene of wruch could fail rompletely or
partially, producing a ncgative effect 00 me operation and effectiveness of the s)'stem. AIso tre
deluge system is used in combination with ot.her loss control features on relatively hazardous unit
opcrations so its individual benefit is less.

Credit factors for wet pipe or dry pipe systems used in indoor manufacluring areas and warc-
houses are calcuJated as follows:

Design Credit Factor


Occupancy gpmlft' Ipmlm' We\ Pipe Dry Pipe
Light 0.15·0.20 6.11·8.15 0.87 0.87

Ordinary 0.21·0.34 8.56·13.8 0.81 0.84

Extra Hazard ;, 0.35 " 14.3 0.74 0.81

44
Wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems (closed head) are 99.9%-plus reliable, wilh very few of lhe
variables encountered wilh dcluge valves, which arc subject 10 failurc.

MuItiply the ¡bove factors by the foUowing penalty factors, which are based on the size of the
Ooor arca cmfined within firewalls:

Are. > 1O.!XXl ft2 (929 m2) = 1.06


Are. > 2O.!XXl ft2 (1.858 m2) = 1.09
Are. > 30.!XXl ft2 (2.787 m2) = 1.12

Note that as the possible tire area is increased (e.g., a warehouse), the credit factor is increased by
a penalty factor (1-06 to 1-12), which mcreases the loss cootrol cremt factor and incrcases the
MPPD, as it should. Large tire arcas offer greater exposure to tire loss than small tire areas.

r_ Water Curtains - 0.97 to 0.98

1be use of automatic water spray curtains between a source of ignition and a potential vapor
release arca can be effective in reducing the vapor c10ud ignition potential.

To be effcctive, the curtain should be located at least 75 ft (23 m) from the vapor reJease poinl 10
allow time for deteaion of the release and automatic activation of the water curtain. A single tier
of nozzles at a maximum elevation of 1S ft (5 m) will receive a cremt factor of 0.98. A secrod
tierofnozzles, not exceeding 6 ft (2 m) alxwe lhe first tier, will receive a credit factor ofO.97.

g. Foam - 0.92 lo 0.97

If lite arca proteclion system includes me capability of injecti.ng foam liquid into a standard dcluge
sprinkler system fmm a remOle manual control stalion. use a cre.dit factor of 0.94. 11lis credit is
in addition 10 the credit taken for the deluge system itself. A totalIy automatic foom system re-
- ceives a credil of 0.92. Totally automatic means thc foom valve is automatically actuated when
tire is detected.

Manual foam application systcms for the protection of seal rings on open-top floating mof tanks
receive a cremt of 0.97. Use a factor of 0.94 when tire detea.ion devices are uscd for actuating
the foam system.

Subsuñace foam systems and foam charntx:rs on cone roof tanks rcceive a credit factor of 0.95.
Foam application amund the outer shell of a flarnmable liquid tank rcceivcs a credit factor of 0.97
if manually applied. 0.94 ir automatic.

h. Hand ExtinguishersIMonitors - 0.93 to 0.98

If tbere is an adequate supply available of hand and Plrtable fire extinguishers suitable for the fire
risk. involved, use a cremt factor of 0.98. Where there is JX>tential for a large spill of Oarnmable
material that, if ignited, could oot tx: controllcd effectively with hand extinguishers, do nol take a
crcdit. Hand extinguisher credit is oot appropriate for process areas where large quantities of
Oarnmable or combustible liquids can be spilled.

45
If monilOr guns have also been installed, use a credit factor of 0.97. Monitor guns that can be
remOlCly operaled fmm a safe vantage point receive a credit factor of 0.95. Monitors equipped
with foam injection capability receive a credit factor of 0.93.

i. Cable Protection - 0.94 to 0.98

Instrument and electrical cable trays are very vulnerable lO damage froro tire exposurc when
installed in pipeways and operating structures. 1be use of 14 10 16 gauge metal sheet below the
tray with a water spray directed 0010 (he lOp side will provide reasonable protection which
justifies a credit of 0.98. 1be use of fireproofing material 00 the metal sheet in lieu oC the water
spray also receives a credit olO.98. If the cable raceway is buried below grade in a uench (either
nooded ordry), use a credit olO.94.

TIte product of el x el x el constitutes the Loss Control Credit Factor for thc Proccss Unil and is 10 be
cntcrcd inlO tine 7 ofthc Process Unit Analysis Summary, page 6.

46
PROCESS UNIT RISK ANALYSIS SUMMARY

The Process Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary, page 6, gives a surnmary of all of the important Process Unit
Risk Analysis infonnation. This starts with the F&EI and gives additional risk infonnation which is
detennined from the F&EI, the Loss Control Credit Factor, the Area of Exposure, the Damage Factor and
the Value of Production for the Month.

The Process Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary, along with the F&EI, is a good risk analysis tool to be used in
making decisions regarding the risk management program for the Manufacturing Unit of which the Process
Unit is a parto

The remainder of this guideline presents the process for detennination of the additional risk factors which
are to be considered for the Process Unit which then leads to an overall view of the risk factors for the total
Manufacturing Unil

1. The Fire and Explosion Index (F&El)

The Fire and Explosion Index calculation is used for estimating the damage that would probably result
from an incident in a process plant. A surnmary of a description of the F&EI is given on page 38
along with Table 6 which lists the degree of hazard for the various ranges of F&EI. All of the key
infonnation and calculations which go to determine the F&EI are list in the fonn on page 4. The
F&EI value is to be entered on line 1 of the Process Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary, page 6, and in the
Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary, page 7.

2. The Radius OC Exposure

The F&EI, which was determined on page 5, is converted to a Radius of Exposure by multiplying the
F&EI by a factor of 0.84 or by using Figure 7, page 48. This is detennined in either feet or meters.
This radius of exposure is to be shown on plot plans for the Manufacturing Unit with the primary item
ofyrocess equipment as the center of a circle using the Radius of Exposure. Cirdes should be drawn
for each of the Process Units being analyzed in the Manufacturing Unit. The Radius of Exposure
should be entered in the Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary on page 6, line 2.

When the Process Unit being evaluated is a small piece of equipment, the Radius of Exposure can be
considered to start at the center of the item concemed. The Radius of Exposure for large pieces of
equipment would extend outward fmm the equipment surface for a distance equal to what should be
considered as the "radius." The additional area is added to the original area of the Process Unit being
evaluated to detennine the Area of Exposure. For specific cases, the center of the Area of Exposure is
very often a leak point. Examples of likely leak points include vents, expansion joints, loading/
unloading connections, etc. These would be the center of the Area of Exposure circle.

47
FIGURE 7 . RADIUS OF EXPOSURE

180
y =O.84*X

160 /
V
140
V
/
~ 120
/
~
;;l
....
Q
-< 100 V
V
~
00 CII:
~
CII: ~
;;l 80
V
rn
O
c..
~
~
60
/
V
40 /
V
20 ......
/
O
/
O 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 , 160 180 200
FIRE & EXPLOSION INDEX
For Exposure Radius in meters multiply by 0.3048.
3. The Area Of Exposure

1be Radius of Exposure defines an Area of Exposure. The Area of Exposure is calculated with the
equation:
Area= 1tR 2 or Area =1t(R1\2) ft2 or m2

1be Area of Exposure should be entered in the Process Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary on page 6, line
3.

The area is that which contains equipment that could be exposed to a fue or to a fuel-air explosion
generated in the Process Unit being evaluated. For evaluation of equipment that could be damaged in
a fue or explosion, actually a volume is considered. This volume is a cylindrical volume of the plant
surrounding the Process Unit with the area being the Area of Exposure and the height being equal to
the Radius of Exposure. In sorne cases a spherical volume is appropriate. The volume is expected to
be the amount of the Manufacturing Unit at risk in the event of a fue or explosion caused by an
incident in the Process Unit under study.

Below is a sketch of a vertical tank considered as a Process Unit; and the Radius of Exposure, Area of
Exposure and volume are shown as an example .

....., .......-.,...... ,P ..... .. m""• ."m .. ............. !. . . . . .. w . . ........... w ............................... , ...." ...••••

.,. . . ...-/' T . . . .,.... .


( ~ Volume ~ ....\

" . *,
······· ·· ········"··.....•..····..·····•·· .. . .........., . w",, . ..... ... ' Nm .............." ... . . . . ·· · · · · , , · ,· · · · , , · · · · ..........., - • •
......... ..
····/:1
..:·

=
Height Radius
ofExposure

F&EI = 100
Radius of Exposure = 84 ft (25.6 m)
Area of Exposure = 22,170 ft 2 (2,060 m 2)
Height of Cylindrical Volume = 84 ft (25.6 m)

It is recognized that a tire and/or explosion incident does not spread out into a perfect circle producing
equal damage in all directions. The actual damage can be affected by positioning of the equipment,
wind di.rection and drainage layout, all of which are important factors influencing loss prevention
designo However, the circle affords a good basis for later calculation of values.

As a matter of interest, the Radius of Exposure was computed in early studies for the F&EI by
considering the probable effects of spills of various flammable materials 3 in (8 cm) deep as well as
the potential effects of vapor air mixtures and tire, considering several different sets of ambient
conditions.

49
If the Area of Exposure is external to, but ineludes walls of buildings that are resistant to fue or
explosion or both, the building may not be at risk and may be excluded from the Area of Exposure. If
there is a blast wall or fire wall within the Area of Exposure, the area behind the wall would not be
included

When the material is stored in a warehouse or other building, the aboye reasoning leads naturally to
the conclusion that only the volume of that building itself is at risk, provided the risk is fire only, not
explosion, and the -construction is such that the walls and roof will not propagate fire. If the building
<loes not have fire-resistant or at least non-combustible construction, the Area of Exposure will extend
beyond its walls.

Sorne additional considerations are:

1. 1be entire area of a single building containing a Process Unit is considered to be an Area of
Exposure unless varlous parts of the building are separated from each other by vertical fire walls.
If the risk of explosion exists, the entire building is considered to be an exposure area, even if its
parts are separated by tire walls.
2. A multi-story building containing fire-resistant floors would be divided into exposure areas by
floor levels.
3. Fire-resistant walls are an adequate barrler to exelude a building from fire exposure penalties if
the tire source is external. However, where an explosion hazard exists, a tire-resistant wall
cannot be considered an adequate barrier.
4. Blast resistant walls are considered adequate for establishing any Area of Exposure boundarles
provided the protection from blasts is oriented in the correct direction.

The real effect of the F&EI on the final evaluation can be seen by referring to the following:

Example:
Process Unit "A" Process Unit "B"

Process Unit Hazards Factor = 4.0 Process Unit Hazards Factor = 4.0
Material Factor = 16 Material Factor = 24
Damage Factor =0.45 Damage Factor = 0.74
F&E Index = 64 F&E Index =96
Radius ofExposure = 54 ft (16.4 m) Radius of Exposure = 81 ft (24.6 m)
Area ofExposure =9,161 fi2 (845 m 2) Area ofExposure = 20,612 fi2 (1,901 m 2)

Although both Process Units have a Process Unit Hazards Factor (F3) of 4.0, the final measurement
of their probable loss exposure must inelude the hazard of the material being processed or handled

The conditions in Process Unit "A" represent 45% damage to 9,161 ft2 (845 m2) of surrounding area.
The conditions in Process Unit "B" represent 74% damage to 20,612 fi2 (1,901 m2) of surrounding
area.

If Process Unit "B" had a Process Unit Hazards Factor of 2.7 instead of 4.0, the F&EI would be the
same as that of Process Unit "A," .64. However, the Damage Factor for Process Unit "B" would be
0.64 (based on a Material Factor of 24), compared to a Damage Factor of 0.45 (based on a Material
Factor of 16) for Process Unit "A."

50
4. VaIue or the Area or Exposure

1he value of the Area of Exposure is obtained from the Replacement Value of the property contained
within it, inc1uding the inventory of material.

Replacement Value = Original Cost X 0.82 X Escalation Factor

1he factor 0.82 is an allowance for items of cost not subject to los s or replacement, such as site
preparation, roads, underground lines and foundations, engineering expenses, etc. This factor may be
changed if a more accurate estimate exists.

The Escalation Factor is determined from the value obtained from an engineering estimator who keeps
the most currently accepted values. See page 54 for escalation values fmm 1986.

1he Value of the Area of Exposure is to be entered on line 4, Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary,
page 6, and in the Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Summary on page 7.

The Replacement Value may be calculated in several ways:

1. Use Replacement Value of the equipment in the Area of Exposure. The current value may be de-
termined as outlined aboye. Accounting records, if properly constructed, can provide this
information.
Note: Accounting may have an insurable value or Actual Cash Value (ACV), which is computed
from current Replacement Value. While the dollars recovered in the event of loss are based 00
insurable value, the best estimate ofrisk is based on the current Replacement Value.
2. Make a current engineering cost estimate of the Replacement Value (exc1uding foundations and
other cost items not subject to los s) of everything within the Area of Exposure. This can be quite
time-consuming for all but new plants. To simplify the procedure, use major equipment cost only
in estimating and correct to installed cost using Engineering Estimating Installation Factors.
Technology Centers may have the most current cost data on both existing and recently constructed
plants.
3. -Derive an equipment cost per square foot from the overall manufacturing unit Replacement Value.
Multiply this cost by the ground floor area within the plan view of the Area of Exposure. While
this is likely to be the least accurate method, it may be the most practical for older plants.

When the Replacement Value for the Area of Exposure is computed, it is necessary to use the value of
the product inventory along with the equipment value. For storage tanks, use 80% of tank capacity;
for columns, towers, pumps, reactors, etc., use the product inventory or connected source of supply.
Use 15 min flow process or the volume available, whichever is less.

1he product value should be based on cost of manufacture for worlc-in-process, on the sales value of
saleable products or on the cost for scrap. All products within the Area of Exposure are to be
inc1uded.

Note: When this Area of Exposure encompasses part of another Area of Exposure, the values for the
two areas are not additive.

51
s. Dctermination Of Damage Factor

The Damage Factor is detennined from the Process Unit Hazards Factor (F3) and the Material Factor
(MF) with the use of Figure 8, page 53.

The Damage Factor represents the overall effect of fue plus blast darnage resulting from a release of
fue} or reactive energy frorn a Proccss Unit.

For any calculation in which F3 exceeds 8.00, do not extrapolate from Figure 8. Use 8.00 as the F3
for obtaining the Damage Factor.

As the Material Factor (MF) and the Process Unit Hazards Factor (F3) increase, the Darnage Factor
will increase from 0.01 to 1.00. The Damage Factoris to be listed on line 5, page 6.

For example, two Process Units, A and B, may be found to have a Process Unit Hazards Factor (F3)
of 4.00. Unit A has an MF of 16 and Unit B has an MF of 24. Using Figure 8, it can be detennined
that the Damage Factor for Unit A is 0.45 and the Damage Factor for Unit Bis 0.74.

The equations for the data presented in Figure 8 are given in Appendix E, page 81 . Note that there is
no meaning for the intennediate Material Factors other than the nine defined cases of Material Factors
that equal 1, 4, 10, 14, 16, 21, 24, 29, and 40 for which nine equations have been definoo. See
Appendix E for additional infonnation.

6. Base Maximum Probable Property Damage (Base MPPD)

With the Area of Exposure, the Value of the Area of Exposure and the Damage Factor detennined, it
is necessary to obtain sorne appropriate dollar value for the plant equipment within the theoretical
Area of Exposure (really volurne of exposure) which represents the Base Maxirnurn Probable
Property Damage (Base MPPD). The Base MPPD is obtained by multiplying the values of lines 4
and 5 of the Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary, page 6. This gives a result which is based on loss
experiences from many years of data. The Base MPPD is to be ente red on line 6, page 6 and in the
Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Summary, page 7. The Base MPPD assumes none of the loss
control features mitigates the loss.

7. Loss Control Credit Factor

The Loss Control Credit Factor is entered as detennined from the top of page 6 of the fonns. This is
the product of numerous credit factors which are described in the previous section on Loss Control
Credit Factors, pages 39 to 46. The final Loss Control Credit Factor is lo be entered on line 7 of the
Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary, page 6.

8. Actual Maximum Probable Property Damage (Actual MPPD)

The product of the Base MPPD and the Loss Control Credit Factor from the Loss Control Credit
Factors Section, page 6, will provide the Actual Maximum Probable Property Darnage (Actual
MPPD). This product represents the property darnage loss !hat couId result from an incident of
reasonable magnitude with adequate (but not perfect) functioning of protective features as listed ro
pagc 6. If any of these protective systems were to fail, the los s might approach the Base MPPD.

The value of the Actual MPPD is to be entered on line 8 of the Process Unit Risk Analysis Surnrnary,
page 6, and in the Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Summary, page 7.

52
FIGURE 8 - DAMAGE FACTOR

0.7
i-----t-----t-----Td~~~;r~?.,L.=_::j;::::::::,......:::::::::...__:=t:========t==---=1 F3=2.0
~
~ 0.6 -t'------+------i----~~~~L~~7¿::.-_;::::~¿::::=--_=_d:===--_1===:::==l F3=l.O
U
:;
~ 0.5 4------+-----4--~~~~~~~~~~--~~----_+----~----~
C!)

~< 0.4 4------+-----4-~~~~~~~~-~~---~----_+-----~----~


Q

0.3 4---------~------~4Y~~~~~~----~------_4--------_r--------+_------~

0.2 4--------~~~,.~~~~~--~--------~--------~--------_r--------_r--------~

0.1

o 4-~-----~--------~--------~--------~--------~--------_r--------_r--------~
o 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
MATERIAL FACTOR (MF)
See Appendix E for data equations.
9. Maximum Probable Days Outage (MPDO)

M noted in the inttoduction. the estimate of Maximum Probable Days Outage (MPDO) is a necessary
step in assessing the potential Business Interruption (BI) fmm a loss incident The dollar impact of
Business Interruption can often times equal or exceed that of pmperty damage. depending en
inventory levels and product demando A number of different conditions can cause variations in the
relationship of MPDO to property damage. For example:

1. Repair of damaged cable in a cable tray could require as much time as the repair .or replacement
of small electric motors. pumps and instruments. although the property damage would be smaller.
2. Failure of a vital raw material supply line. such as a brine line or a hydrocarbon line. would be a
low property damage incident with a high MPOO.
3. Availability of hard-to-get or one-of-a-kind items will have an impact on the number of days a
process will be down.
4. Ability to make up the lost product at a remote production facility.
5. Plant interdependence: loss of profit and continuing costs of a plant due 10 lack of material from
the plant in question.

To obtain the MPDO value. it is necessary 10 have detennined the Actual MPPD of the area and then
10 refer to Figure 9. page 55.

Figure 9 gives a correlation between MPDO and Actual MPPD. The data are derived fmm historical
fire and explosion loss incidents. which also provided a basis for the Damage Factor. Such a
correlation is imprecise because there is a considerable spread of data. Many times. people have
simply read the MPDO value directIy from the central correlation line. The intention is that judgment
should be used in selecting the MPDO and that the value will generally fall within the upper and 10wer
70% probability levels in the absence of any other contmlling factor. However. the value for the
MPDO could deviate considerably fmm 70% if there were c1early sorne strong overriding
consideration. If there is a better estimate of days outage based on delivery times or engineering
schedules. use the better estimate of MPDO instead of Figure 9.

In sorne instances. the MPDO may not be realistic for the known conditions. For example. critical
component parts for a compressor might be kept in stock or a spare pump or rectifier might be in
stock. TIrls would justify using the MPDO obtained fmm the 10wer line of the normal range
bracketing the 70% probability leve!. On the other hand. hard-to-get or one-of-a-kind items would
usually require using an MPDO near the upper line of that range. Altematively, an individual
analysis of the effect of fire and/or explosion might be substituted for the use of Figure 9, page 55.

The value of the Actual MPPD is given in 1986 dollars in Figure 9. Escalation needs 10 be made 10
present day values. The current relative escalation values from Chemical Engineering Plant Cost
Index is as follows:

1986 318.4 1991 361.3


1987 323.8 1992 358.2
1988 342.5 1993 359.9*
1989 355.4 1994 368.4**
1990 357.6 1995 378.3**

*Based on August 1993 index


**Best Estimate

54
FIGURE 9· MAXíMUM PROBABLE DA YS OUTAGE (MPDO)

1000
LOO (Y) 1.550233 + 0.598416*LOO (X)
I I I I I ...
I .........
LOO (Y) =1.325132 + 0.592471 *LOO (X) ~
~~
1""
~
~
~ V

~
< V"' ~ ....
E-<
;:J
¡......¡ ~
,... f..I ~ ~
~
Il'"'" ~

-
O 100
rI.l
> ,.,... ......
<
Q ...- ~ r- ..-
1II
1II
~
...;¡
CQ
<
CQ
O
el::
~UPPER 70% PROBABlLITY LIMIT

..- ........... ...... .....


....... .......
......
----
~ ~...-

~
V--
~ - - ~

V
.....- I
r"'"'"
..........
LOWER 70% PROBABlLITY LIMIT

Q.,
;::;:
~
V ........... ~~
;:J
¡§
><
<
;::;:
10

r-
...- - ........-
~

~
~
r

~
r-

f<j>G (Y) =1.04[515 + ~.6104126*~O<f (~


I

0.1 1 10 100
MAXIMUM PROBABLE PROPERTY DAMAGE (ACTUAL MPPD $MM, 1986 BASIS)
For update \O 1993 basis multiply by 359.9/318.4 =1.130, based on Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index..
Thus, for an escalation from 1986 to 1994 the following factor would be used:

368.4 = 1.157
318.4

These values many need to be adjusted in the future for the best possible estimate of Actual MPPD.

The equations for the curves in Figure 9 for MPPD (X) versus Days Outage (Y) are as follows:

Curve for UPPER 70% PROBABILITY LIMIT

log Y = 1.550233 + 0.598416(logX) or 10g Y = 1.550233 + 0.598416*10gX


Curve for NORMAL PROBABILITY LIMIT

log Y =1.325132 + 0.592471(logX) or log Y = 1.215132 + 0.592471 *logX


Curve for LOWER 70% PROBABILITY LIMIT

log Y = 1.045515 + 0.610426(logX) or 10g Y = 1.045515 + 0.610426*10gX


1be MPOO is lO be entered on line 9 of the Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary, page 6 and in the
Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Summary, page 7.

10. Business Interruption (DI)

The calculation for Business Interruption (BI) in U. S. dollars is done as follows:

BI= MPDO xVPMxO.70


30

VPM is the Value of Production for the Month, and 0.70 represents the fixed costs plus profits.

The BI loss is to be entered on line 10 ofthe Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary, page 6 and in the
Manufacturing Risk Analysis Summary, page 7.

56
DISCUSSION OF MPPD, BI AND PLANT LAYOUT

What is an acceptable Maximum Probable Property Damage (MPPD) and Business Interruption (BI) risk?
1bis is not an easy question 10 answer. It depends on the type of planto For example, the potential loss
from a hydrocarbon plant will always exceed the loss of a STYROFOAM® planto 1he best approach is to
compare plants in similar technology areas. TIte predicted loss from a new plant should not exceed that of
similar plants in the same technology. Another approach would be 10 set an acceptable MPPD value at
10% of the Manufacturing Unit (plant) Replacement Value.

Another issue is that of maricet conditions and the ability 10 supply product if a plant is down. With mul-
tiple plants making the same product, Business Interruption can be minimal. If the damaged plant is a sin-
gle source ofthe product and maricet position is vulnerable, the potential business impact can be great.

Plants relying on a critical unit operation, e.g., waste water treatment facilities, thennal oxidizers, etc., can
aIso have large business interruption impact if there is a significant property damage incident

1be important consideration is what action will or can be taken if the MPPD is not acceptable.

A 1be risk analysis should be carrled out during the design phase of a new capital project, and there
should be opportunity for action to reduce MPPD. 1be most effective way to achieve this is by a
change in layout, an increase in separation distances and a reduction of total capital within the Area of
Exposure. In certain cases, where the inventory penalty is a major item in the F&EI, a reduction in
inventory may be feasible and effective. Other possibilities may be found in specific cases. It will
quickly become apparent that preventative measures that eliminate or reduce hazards and reduce the
F&EI have more impact on the MPPD than the addition of more protective features (credit factors).

B. When the review is carrled out on an existing operating plant, changes in layout or inventory are much
less likely to be economica1ly feasible, and the opportunities to achieve a significant reduction in
MPPD may be limited. Emphasis should be placed on the addition of appropriate loss control features.

Plant Layout

1be Fire and Explosion Index evaluation can be very useful in developing new plant layouts or adding
equipment and buildings to existing plants. 1be F&EI can be used in conjunction with Loss Prevention
PrincipIe, 2.2, to assure adequate separation between process units and critical buildings and equipment.
1be more severe the F&EI rating, the greater the separation distance required between facilities.

Also, F&EI circles can be superimposed on preliminary plot plans 10 evaluate the potential impact of a fire
or explosion on adjacent buildings and equipment. If the risk appears unacceptable, the separation dis-
tances should be increased or consideration given to more sophisticated engineering estimates of the conse-
quences. Evaluation of the F&EI calculations and other layout considerations will result in a safe, main-
tainable, operable and cost-effective arrangement of equipment and buildings.

57
MANUFACTURING UNIT RISK ANALYSIS SUMMARY

The Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Surnmary. page 7. documents the probable loss impact of both
Base and Actual Maximum Probable Property Damage and Business Interruption for the Manufacturing
Unit (plant) being evaluated.

In the first column the name of the Process Unit is to be given followed by the major material of concem
from which the Material Factor was determined. An example for a latex plant would be - Reactor Unít/
butadiene. The other values are to be entered fmm the F&EI Sheet (page 5) and the Process Risk Analysis
Surnmary Sheet (page 6). These include the F&EI. Value of Area of Exposure. Base MPPD. Actual
MPPD. MPOO. and BI.

Separate F&EI. Loss Control Credit Factors. and Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary forms are to be
completed for all of the pertinent Process Units. The Manufacturing Unít Risk Analysis Surnmary gives
the key information from these forms and is to be included in the Risk Analysis Package.

58
RISK ANALYSIS PACKAGE

It is necessary lo provide fue and extended coverage insurance carriers with a surnmary of the 10ss and
prevention features on manufacturing units. This surnrnary is called a Risk Analysis Package and includes
the following:

1. Manufacturing Unit Risk AnaIysis Surnmary


2. F&EI Fonns completed for:
a. TIte highest Actual MPPD
b. TIte highest MPDO and BI
c. TIte highest F&EI
3. Simplified Block Flowsheet
4. Plot plan showing Areas of Exposure, Gas Detection, Fire Equipment, Emergency Block Valves
(EBVs), etc.
S. Business Interruption data, including:
a. Sources of raw materials and altemates
b. Packaging and shipping of product or products
c. Essential utilities and reliability
d. Critical equipment and plans for coping with breakdowns
e. Capability of loss control systerns such as tire fighting, water supply, deluge water spray, explo-
sion suppression, fue department response, etc.
f. Interdependencies with Dow and non-Dow facilities.
6. Chemical Exposure Index (CEI) Surnmary
7. Site Loss Prevention Insurance Report
8. Unit Loss Prevention Insurance Report

Each site needs lo rnaintain a current Risk AnaIysis Package for each of its rnanufacturing units. The Risk
Analysis Package is used by many sites as a part of the Consolidated Audit.

59
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 10"3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (deg F)
Acetaldehyde 24 10.5 3 4 2 -36 69
Acetic Acid 14 5.6 3 2 1 103 244
Acetic Anhydride 14 7.1 3 2 1 126 282
Acetone 16 12.3 1 3 o -4 133
A9.~.!Q.Q.~ ..ºy..ªf.!.Qby..ºrj.Q......................................... ..................... ......................................
24 11.2 4 2 2 165 203
.......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .......................................................
Acetonitrile 16 12.6 3 3 o 42 179
Acetyl Chloride 24 2.5 3 3 2 40 124
Acetylene 29 20.7 o 4 3 Gas -118
Acetyl Ethanolamine 14 9.4 1 1 1 355 304 - 308
A9.~~Y..!..~~.r.Q~j.º~.......................................................... ..................... 6.4
40 ....................................... 1
.......................... ..........................
2 4
.......................... -
....................................................... .........................~~2........................
Acetyl Salicylic Acid [8] 16 8.9 1 1 O - -
Acetyl Tributyl Citrate 4 10.9 O 1 O 400 343(1)
Acrolein 29 11.8 4 3 3 -15 127
Acrylamide 24 9.5 3 2 2 - 257(1)
A9.ry.!!.~ ..A~!9...................................................................... ..................... ......................................
24 7.6 3 2 2 124 286
.......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .......................................................
Acrylonitrile 24 13.7 4 3 2 32 171
Allyl Alcohol 16 13.7 4 3 1 72 207
Allylamine 16 15.4 4 3 1 -4 128
Allyl Bromide 16 5.9 3 3 1 28 160
!.\I.!y.L.ºb.!Q.r.!9..~ ................................................................ ..................... 9.7
16 ...................................... 3
.......................... 3
.......................... 1
.......................... -20
....................................................... 113
.......................................................
Allyl Ether 24 16.0 3 3 2 20 203
Aluminum Chloride 24 (2) 3 O 2 - (3)
Ammonia 4 8.0 3 1 O Gas -28
Ammonium Nitrate 29 12.4(7) O O ¡
3 - 410
~.my..!..A9.!?!ªJ~................................................................. .....................
16 14.6
..................................... 1
.......................... 3
.......................... O
.......................... 60
........................................................ 300
.......................................................
Amyl Nitrate 10 11.5 2 2 O 118 306 - 315
Aniline 10 15.0 3 2 O 158 364
Barium Chlorate 14 (2) 2 O 1 - -
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
I

COMPOUND MF X 10J\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deo F) Point (deg F)


Barium Stearate 4 8.9 o 1 o - -
Benzaldehyde 10 13.7 2 2 O 148 354
Benzene 16 17.3 2 3 O 12 176
Benzoic Acid 14 11.0 2 1 1 250 482
ª.~.f.!?y..!..~9.~~ªt~............................................................ ..................... 4 12.3
...................................... 1
.......................... 1
.......................... O
.......................... 195
....................................................... 417
.......................................................
Benzyl Alcohol 4 13.8 2 1 O 200 403
Benzyl Chloride 14 12.6 2 2 1 162 387
Benzyl Peroxide 40 12.0 1 3 4 - -
Bisphenol A 14 14.1 2 1 1 175 428
Bromine 1
..................................................................................................... ..................... 0.0
...................................... 3
.......................... O
.......................... O
.......................... -
....................................................... 138
.......................................................
Bromobenzene 10 8.1 2 2 O 124 313
o-Bromotoluene 10 8.5 2 2 O 174 359
1,3-Butadiene 24 19.2 2 4 2 -105 24
Butane 21 19.7 1 4 O -76 31
J..:.ª~1ª!:!9..!..H?y.Jy.!..ª.I.9.9..~.9..!L ............................. .....................
16 ......................................
14.3 1
.......................... 3
.......................... 84
............Q............ ....................................................... 243
.......................................................
1-Butene 21 19.5 1 4 O Gas 21
Butyl Acetate 16 12.2 1 3 O 72 260
Butyl Acrylate 24 14.2 2 2 2 103 300
n-Butylamine 16 16.3 3 3 O 10 171
ªy..!Y..!..ªr.9..!TI.!º.~ .............................................................. .....................
16 ......................................
7.6 2
.......................... 3
.......................... 65
...........9............ ....................................................... 215
.......................................................
Butyl Chloride 16 11.4 2 3 O 15 170
2,3-Butylene Oxide 24 14.3 2 3 2 5 149
Butyl Ether 16 16.3 2 3 1 92 288
t-Butyl Hydroperoxide 40 11.9 1 4 4 < 80 orabove (9)
ª.y.!y.!..N.i.!Eª~~................................................................... .....................
29 11 .1
..................................... 1
.......................... 3
.......................... 97
............~............ ....................................................... 277
.......................................................
t-Butyl Peracetate 40 10.6 2 3 4 <80 (4)
t-Butyl Perbenzoate 40 12.2 1 3 4 > 190 (4)
t-Butvl Peroxide 29 14.5 1 3 3 64 176
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 101\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (deg F)
Calcium Carbide 24 9.1 3 3 2 - -
Calcium Stearate [6] 4 - o 1 o - -
Carbon Disulfide 21 6.1 3 4 o -22 115
Carbon Monoxide 21 4.3 3 4 o Gas -313
Chlorine 1
..................................................................................................... ..................... 0.0
...................................... 4
.......................... O
.......................... O
.......................... Gas
....................................................... -29
.......................................................
Chlorine Dioxide 40 0.7 3 1 4 Gas 50
Chloroacetyl Chloride 14 2.5 3 O 1 - 223
Chlorobenzene 16 10.9 2 3 O 84 270
Chloroform 1 1.5 2 O O - 143
º.~!.Qr.º...~.~t.by..! ..~.tby..I...~.t~.~E.. ............................ ..................... 5.7
14 ...................................... 2
........................... 1 1 -
.......................... .......................... ....................................................... -
.......................................................
1-Chloro 1-Nitroethane 29 3.5 3 2 3 133 344
o-Chlorophenol 10 9.2 3 2 O 147 47
Chloropicrin 29 5.8(7) 4 O 3 - 234
2-Chloropropane 21 10.1 2 4 O -26 95
º.b.I.ºr.9.~!y.r.~n.~.............................................................. ..................... 24 ......................................
12.5 2
.......................... 1
.......................... 2
.......................... 165
....................................................... 372
.......................................................
Coumarin 24 12.0 2 1 2 - 554
Cumene 16 18.0 2 3 1 96 306
Cumene Hydroperoxide 40 13.7 1 2 4 175 (4)
Cyanamide 29 7.0 4 1 3 286 500
º.Y..9.!9.J?y..!.ª!J.~.................................................................. .....................21 19.1
...................................... 1
.......................... 4
.......................... O
.......................... Gas
....................................................... 55
.......................................................
Cyclohexane 16 18.7 1 3 O -4 179
Cyclohexanol 10 15.0 1 2 O 154 322
Cyclopropane 21 21.3 1 4 O Gas -29
DER· 331 14 13.7 1 1 1 485 878

Q.!9.~.!º.r.º.~~n.?;~.Q~...................................................... ..................... 8.1
10 ...................................... 2
.......................... 2
.......................... O
.......................... 151
....................................................... 357
.......................................................
1,2-Dichloroethylene 24 6.9 2 3 2 36 - 39 140
1,3-Dichloropropene 16 6.0 3 3 O 95 219
2 3-Dichloropropene 16 5.9 2 3 O 59 201
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB I
NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 101\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (deg F)
3,5-Dichloro Salicylic Acid 24 5.3 o 1 2 - -
Dichlorostyrene 24 9.3 2 1 2 225 -
Dicumyl Peroxide 29 15.4 o 1 3 - -
Dicyclopentadiene 16 17.9 1 3 1 90 342
Diesel Fuel
..................................................................................................... 10 ......................................
..................... 18.7 O
.......................... 2
.......................... O
.......................... 100- 130
....................................................... 315
.......................................................
Diethanolamine 4 10.0 1 1 O 342 514
Diethylamine 16 16.5 3 3 O -18 132
m-Diethyl Benzene 10 18.0 2 2 O 133 358
Diethyl Carbonate 16 9.1 2 3 1 77 259
P!~.m.y.!.~.!J.~ . º'!y.9.g.!.................................................... ..................... ....................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................................................
4 8.7 1 1 O 255 472
.......................................................
Diethyl Ether 21 14.5 2 4 1 -49 94
Diethyl Peroxide 40 12.2 - 4 4 (4) (4)
Diisobutylene 16 19.0 1 3 O 23 214
Diisopropyl Benzene 10 17.9 O 2 O 170 401
º-!!:!]~.thy.!.ª!I!!.Q~............................................................ ..................... 21 15.2
...................................... 3
.......................... 4
.......................... O
.......................... Gas
....................................................... 44
.......................................................
2,2-Dimethyl-1-Propanol 16 14.8 2 3 O 98 237
1,2-Dinitrobenzene 40 7.2 3 1 4 302 606
2,4-Dinitro Phenol 40 6.1 3 1 4 - -
1 ,4-Dioxane 16 10.5 2 3 1 54 214
Dioxolane 24 9.1 2 3 2 35 165
..................................................................................................... ...................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................................................
.......................................................
Diphenyl Oxide 4 14.9 1 1 O 239 496
Dipropylene Glycol 4 10.8 O 1 O 250 449
Di-tert-butyl Peroxide 40 14.5 3 2 4 65 231
Divinyl Acetylene 29 18.2 - 3 3 < -4 183
P!y.!ny..I.~.~n~.~.!].~................. ............................................................... 17.4
24 ...................................... 2
.......................... 2
.......................... 2
.......................... 157
....................................................... 392
.......................................................
Divinyl Ether 24 14.5 2 3 2 < -22 102
DOWANOL* DM 10 10.0 2 2 O 197 (Seta) 381
DOWANOL* EB 10 12.9 1 2 O 150 340
r~-~~~~-~_········ __ · · · · · _·· · · · · ····· · · · .. . . . ,-

APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES


He I I
BTU/LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 101\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (deg F)
DOWANOL* PM 16 11.1 o 3 o 90 (Seta) 248
DOWANOL* PnB 10 - O 2 O 138 338
DOWICIL* 75 24 7.0 2 2 2 - -
DOWICIL * 200 24 9.3 2 2 2 - -
º.Q.W..f..B.QªI.:.............................................................. ..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ................?.1.~..Q9.9...............
4 9.1 O 1 O 370
........................................................
DOWFROST* HD 1 - O O O None 240
DOWFROTH* 250 1 - O O O 300 (Seta) 473
DOWTHERM* 4000 4 7.0 1 1 O 252 (Seta) 330
DOWTHERM*A 4 15.5 2 1 O 232 495
DOWTHERM*G
..................................................................................................... 4
..................... 15.5
...................................... 1
.......................... 1
.......................... O
.......................... 266 (Seta)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .n ............................
551
.......................................................
DOWTHERM*HT 4 - 1 1 O 322 (TOe) 650
DOWTHERM* J 10 17.8 1 2 O 136 (Seta) 358
DOWTHERM* LF 4 16.0 1 1 O 240 550- 558
DOWTHERM*Q 4 17.3 1 1 O 249 (Seta) 513
DOWTHERM* SR-1
..................................................................................................... 4 7.0 1 1 O 232
..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... 325
.......................................................
DURSBAN* 14 19.8 1 2 1 81 - 110 -
Epichlorohydrin 24 7.2 3 3 2 88 241
Ethane 21 20.4 1 4 O Gas -128
Ethanolamine 10 9.5 2 2 O 185 339
~my!..A9.~tª!.~ ..................................................................................... 10.1
16 ...................................... 1
.......................... 3
.......................... O
.......................... 24
....................................................... 171
.......................................................
Ethyl Acrylate 24 11.0 2 3 2 48 211
Ethyl Alcohol 16 11.5 O 3 O 55 173
Ethylamine 21 16.3 3 4 O <O 62
Ethyl Benzene 16 17.6 2 3 ¡ O 70 277
~1by.!..!?~D.!?9..ª~~ ........................................................... ..................... 4 12.2 1 1 O
...................................... .......................... .......................... ............................ 190
........................................................ 414
.......................................................
Ethyl Bromide 4 5.6 2 1 O None lOO
Ethylbutylamine 16 17.0 3 3 O 64 232
Ethyl Butylcarbonate 14 10.6 2 2 1 122 275
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BlU/LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 1d A3 N{H) N(Fl N(R) Point (deg F) Point (dea f)
Ethyl Butyrate 16 12.2 o 3 o 75 248
Ethyl Chloride 21 8.2 1 4 o -58 54
Ethyl Chloroformate 16 5.2 3 3 1 61 203
Ethylene 24 20.8 1 4 2 Gas -155
,ª!by'.!~.Q~..9..ª.~ºD.ª!~................................................................... 14 5.3
........ ... ........u
2 1 1 290 351
.......................... .......................... .......................... ........................................................ .......................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

Ethylenediamine 10 12.4 3 2 O 110 239


Ethylene Dichloride 16 4.6 2 3 O 56 181- 183
Ethylene Glycol 4 7.3 1 1 O 232 387
Ethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether 10 11.6 2 2 O 29 174
'ª~by..!~.Q~..º~y..9.º.I...M.ºD.ºª9.~!ª!.~ ........................................ 4 8.0
...................................... O
.......................... 1
.......................... 215
...........9............ ....................................................... 347
.......................................................
Ethylenimine 29 13.0 4 3 3 12 135
Ethylene Oxide 29 11.7 3 4 3 -4 51
Ethyl Ether 21 14.4 2 4 1 -49 94
Ethyl Formate 16 8.7 2 3 O -4 130
?:.~tb.y..I.b..~~ª.~ª.! . ......................................................... ..................... . ..................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .......................................................
14 16.2 2 2 1 112 325
1, 1-Ethylidene Dichloride 16 4.5 2 3 O 2 135 - 138
Ethyl Mercaptan 21 12.7 2 4 O <O 95
Ethyl Nitrate 40 6.4 2 3 4 50 190
Ethyl Propyl Ether 16 15.2 1 3 O < -4 147
p..:.~Jb.y..I.. T.g!.l}..~n.~......................................................... ..................... 10 ......................................
17.7 3
.......................... 2
.......................... O
.......................... 887
.. ..................................................... 324
. . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

Fluorine 40 - 4 O 4 Gas -307


Fluorobenzene 16 13.4 3 3 O 5 185
Formaldehyde (Anhydrous Gas) 21 8.0 3 4 O Gas -6
Formaldehyde, solutions (37 - 56%) 10 - 3 2 O 140-181 206-212
Formic Acid 10 3.0 3 2 O
..................................................................................................... ..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... 122 213
....................................................... .......................................................
Fuel Oil #1 10 18.7 O 2 O 100 - 162 304 - 574
Fuel Oil #2 10 18.7 O 2 O 126 - 204 -
Fuel Oil #4 10 18.7 O 2 O 142 - 240 -
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB NFPA Classification Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 101\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (deg F)
Fuel Oil #6 10 18.7 O 2 O 150 - 270 -
Furan 21 12.6 1 4 1 <32 88
Gasoline 16 18.8 1 3 O -45 100- 400
Glycerine 4 6.9 1 1 O 390 340
G.!Y.9.ºJ.Qn.!~r.!.!~................................................................. ..................... 14 ••• u
7.6 1
.......................... 1
..........................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
1
.......................... -
....................................................... -
........................................................
Heptane 16 19.2 1 3 O 25 2~
Hexachlorobutadiene 14 2.0 2 1 1 - -
Hexachloro Diphenyl Oxide 14 5.5 2 1 1 - -
Hexanal 16 15.5 2 3 1 90 268
Hexane
..................................................................................................... 16 19.2 1 3 O -7 156
..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .......................................................
Hydrazine (anhydrous) 29 7.7 3 3 3 100 236
Hydrogen 21 51.6 O 4 O Gas -423
Hydrogen Cyanide 24 10.3 4 4 2 O 79
Hydrogen Peroxide (40 to 60%) 14 (2) 2 O 1 - 226 - 237
JjyºE.ºg.~r.!..§.y!!!Q~..................................................... ..................... 21 6.5
...................................... 4
.......................... 4
.......................... O Gas -76
.......................................................
••• u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hydroxylami ne 29 3.2 2 O 3 (4) 158


2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate 24 8.9 2 1 2 214 410
Hydroxypropyl Acrylate 24 10.4 3 1 2 207 410
Isobutane 21 19.4 1 4 O Gas 11
.1.~º.~~l~Y.I...A!9.ºb'º!......................................................... ..................... ....................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................................................
16 14.2 1 3 O 82 225 ...........................u .............. . ...........

Isobutylami ne 16 16.2 2 3 O 15 150


Isobutylchloride 16 11.4 2 3 O < 70 156
Isopentane 21 21.0 1 4 O <-60 82
Isoprene 24 18.9 2 4 , 2 -65 93
.1.~9..P.r.9..P.ª.r.!9..!.................................................................... ..................... 13.1
16 ...................................... 1
.......................... 3
.......................... O
.......................... 53 181
.......................................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u . .

Isopropenyl Acetylene 24 - 2 4 2 <19 92


Isopropyl Acetate 16 11.2 1 3 O 34 194
Isoprooylamine 21 15.5 3 4 O -15 93
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTUtLB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 101\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (dea F)
Isopropyl Chloride 21 10.0 2 4 o -26 95
Isopropyl Ether 16 15.6 2 3 1 -18 156
Jet Fuel A & A-1 10 21.7 O 2 O 110 - lSO 400- 550
Jet Fuel B 16 21.7 1 3 O -lOto +30 -
Kerosene
..................................................................................................... ..................... 18.7
10 ...................................... O
.......................... 2
.......................... O
.......................... 100 - 162
....................................................... 304 - 574
.......................................................
Lauryl Bromide 4 12.9 1 1 O 291 356
Lauryl Mercaptan 4 16.8 2 1 O 262 289
Lauryl Peroxide 40 15.0 O 1 4 - -
LORSBAN* 4E 14 3.0 1 2 1 85 165
by.º.~..º!!..JrD.!D.~!ª!L................................................ ..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................................................
4 19.0 O 1 O 300 - 450 680
.......................................................
Magnesuim 14 10.6 O 1 1 - 2025
Maleic Anhydride 14 5.9 3 1 1 215 395
Methacrylic Acid 24 9.3 3 2 2 171 325
Methane 21 21.5 1 4 O Gas -258
~.~.t~Y.!.. ~.9.~!ª!~............................................................ ..................... 16 ......................................
8.5 1
.......................... 3
.......................... O
.......................... 14
....................................................... 140
.......................................................
Methylacetylene 24 20.0 2 4 2 Gas -10
Methyl Acrylate 24 18.7 3 3 2 27 177
Methyl Alcohol 16 8.6 1 3 O 52 147
Methylamine 21 13.2 3 4 O Gas 21
~~J~Y..I..~.rD.Y.!..~~.~Q~~.............................................. ..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... .......................................................
10 15.4 1 2 O 102 302
.......................................................
Methyl Borate 16 - 2 3 1 < 80 156
Methyl Carbonate 16 6.2 2 3 1 66 192
Methylcellulose (bag storage) 4 6.5 O 1 O - -
Methylcellulose Dust [8] 16 6.5 O 1 O - -
Methy.1 Chloride 21
..................... 5.5
...................................... 1
.......................... 4
..........................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 • • • •
O
.......................... -SO
....................................................... -12
.. .....................................................
Methyl Chloroacetate 14 5.1 2 2 1 135 266
Methylcyclohexane 16 19.0 2 3 O 25 214
Methvl Cvclooentadiene 14 17.4 1 2 1 120 163
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 10"3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (deg F)
Methylene Chloride 4 2.3 2 1 o - 104
Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate 14 12.6 2 1 1 460 (9)
Methyl Ether 21 12.4 2 4 1 Gas -11
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 16 13.5 1 3 O 16 176
M~.thy.!...tº.r.!!.I.ª~~.......................................................... ..................... 21 6.4
...................................... 2
........................... 4
.......................... O
.......................... -2 89
.......................................................
. . .. u . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . ..

Methyl Hydrazine 24 10.9 4 3 2 21 190


Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 16 16.6 2 3 1 64 242
Methyl Mercaptan 21 10.0 4 4 O Gas 43
Methyl Methacrylate 24 11.9 2 3 2 50 213
?.:.M~~by!p.r.ºP.~D.ªL ................................................... ..................... 15.4
24 ...................................... 3
........................... 3
.......................... 2
.......................... 35
........................................................ 154
.......................................................
Methyl Vinyl Ketone 24 13.4 4 3 2 20 179
MineralOil 4 17.0 O 1 O 380 680
Mineral Seal Oil 10 17.6 O 2 O 275 480- 680
Monochlorobenzene 16 11.3 2 3 O 84 270
Monoethanolamine
..................................................................................................... 10 ......................................
..................... 9.6 2
.......................... 2
.......................... O
.......................... 185
....................................................... 339
.......................................................
Naphtha, V.M. &P, Regular 16 18.0 1 3 O 28 212 - 320
Naphthalene 10 16.7 2 2 O 174 424
Nitrobenzene 14 10.4 3 2 1 190 411
Nitrobiphenyl 4 12.7 2 1 O 290 626
Nitrochlorobenzene
..................................................................................................... 4
..................... 7.8
...................................... 3
.......................... 1
.......................... O
.......................... 261
....................................................... 457 - 475
.......................................................
Nitroethane 29 7.7 1 3 3 82 237
Nitrog Iycerine 40 7.8 2 2 4 (4) (4)
Nitromethane 40 5.0 1 3 4 95 213
Nitropropanes 24 9.7 1 3 , 2 75 -93 249- 269
p..:.N!.tr.Qtº.I.~~D~.............................................................. ..................... 14 ......................................
11.2 3
.......................... 1
.......................... 1
........................... 223
....................................................... 460
.......................................................
N-SERV· 14 15.0 2 2 1 102 300
Octane 16 20.5 O 3 O 56 258
t-Octyl Mercaptan 10 16.5 2 2 O 115 318 - 329
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU{LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 101\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Poi nt (deo f) Point (deg F)
OleicAcid 4 16.8 o 1 o 372 547
Pentamethylene Oxide 16 13.7 2 3 1 -4 178
Pentane 21 19.4 1 4 O <-40 97
Peracetic Acid 40 4.8 3 2 4 105 221
Perchloric Acid 29 3 O 3 -
..................................................................................................... ..................n. .................(?,2 ............... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .....................QQJ9.L..................
Petroleum Crude - 16 21.3 1 3 O 20- 90 -
Phenol 10 13.4 4 2 O 175 358
2-Picoline 10 15.0 2 2 O 102 262
Polyethylene 10 18.7 - - - NA NA
e9..!y.§~y.t.~.D.~...E.ºªDJ................................................... .....................
16 ......................................
17.1 -
.......................... -
.......................... - .......................................................
.......................... NA NA
.......................................................
Polystyrene Pellets 10 - - - - NA NA
Potassium (metal) 24 - 3 3 2 - 1410
Potassium Chlorate 14 (2) 1 O 1 - 752
Potassium Nitrate 29 (2) 1 O 3 - 752
Potassium Perchlorate
..................................................................................................... ..................... -
14 ...................................... 1
.......................... O
.......................... 1
.......................... -
....................................................... -
........................................................
Potassium Peroxide 14 - 3 O 1 - (9)
Propanal 16 12.5 2 3 1 -22 120
Propane 21 19.9 1 4 O Gas -44
1,3-Propanediamine 16 13.6 2 3 O 75 276
eE.QI?.ªr.gy.!..A!.9.º.~g!.. .................................................. .....................
29 ......................................
12.6 4
.......................... 3
.......................... 3
.......................... 97
....................................................... 237 - 239
.......................................................
Propargyl Bromide 40 13.6 (7) 4 3 4 50 192
Proprionic Nitrile 16 15.0 4 3 1 36 207
Propyl Acetate 16 11.2 1 3 O 55 215
Propyl Alcohol 16 12.4 1 3 O 74 207
eE9..I?Y..~ª.m.i.0..~................................................................... ..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .......................................................
16 15.8 3 3 O -35 120
Propylbenzene 16 17.3 2 3 O 86 319
Propylchloride 16 10.0 2 3 O <O 115
Propvlene 21 19.7 1 4 1 -162 -54
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 10"3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point (deg F) Point (deg F)
Propylene Dichloride 16 6.3 2 3 o 00 205
Propylene Glycol 4 9.3 o 1 o 210 370
Propylene Oxide 24 13.2 3 4 2 -35 94
n-Propyl Ether 16 15.7 1 3 O 70 194
n:.P..r.9.p.y.L.N..!~r.ªt~......................................................... ...................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .......................................................
29 7.4 2 3 3 68 230
Pyridine 16 5.9 2 3 O 68 240
Sodium 24 - 3 3 2 - 1619
Sodium Chlorate 24 - 1 O 2 - (4)
Sodium Dichromate 14 - 1 O 1 - (4)
§9..º!.~.r:n.Jj.Y.º.Q.ºg......................................................... ..................... -
24 ...................................... 3
.......................... 3
.......................... 2
.......................... -
....................................................... ........................ J~2........................
Sodium Hydrosulfite 24 - 2 1 2 - (4)
-.J Sodium Perchlorate
o
14 - 2 O 1 - (4)
Sodium Peroxide 14 - 3 O 1 - (4)
Stearic Acid 4 15.9 1 1 O 385 726
§~y..~gD.g................................................................................ ..................... ...................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... ........................................................
24 17.4 2 3 2 88 293
Sulfur Chloride 14 1.8 3 1 1 (5) 245 280
Sulfur Dioxide 1 0.0 3 O O Gas 14
SYLTHERM* 800 4 12.3 1 1 O > 320 (10) 398
SYLTHERM* XLT 10 14.1 1 2 O 108 345
TELONE* 11
...................................................................................................... ..................... 3.2
16 ...................................... 2
.......................... 3
.......................... O
.......................... 83
....................................................... 220
.......................................................
TELONE* C-17 16 2.7 3 3 1 79 200
Toluene 16 17.4 2 3 O 40 232
Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate 24 10.6 3 1 2 270 484
Tributylamine 10 17.8 3 2 , O 145 417
11....
.... 2 1...........................................................................................
4-Trichlorobenzene 4 6.2 2 1 O 222 415
..................... ....................................... .......................... .......................... .......................... ....................................................... .......................................................
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 4 3.1 2 1 O None 165
Trichloroethylene 10 2.7 2 1 O None 189
1,2 3-Trichloropropane 10 4.3 3 2 O 100 313
APPENOIX A MATERIAL FACTORS ANO PROPERTIES
He I I
BTU/LB
, NFPA Classifieation Flash Boiling
COMPOUND MF X 10J\3 N(H) N(F) N(R) Point ldeg F) Point (deg F)
Triethanolamine 14 10.1 2 1 1 354 650
Triethylaluminum 29 16.9 3 4 3 - 365
Triethylamine 16 17.8 3 3 o 16 193
Triethylene Glycol 4 9.3 1 1 o 350 546
T.r.!~.~º.Q~~y'.I.ªt~DJ!.r.!.~.!IL.......................................... .....................
29 ......................................
18.9 3
.......................... 4
.......................... 3
.......................... 32
....................................................... 414
........................................................
Triisopropylbenzene 4 18.1 o 1 o 207 495
Trimethylaluminum 29 16.5 - 3 3 Ignites spontaneously in air
Tripropylamine 10 17.8 2 2 O 105 313
Vi nyl Acetate 24 9.7 2 3 2 18 163
Y.!Dy..I..A9.~~y..I.~.Q.~ .......................................................... .....................
29 ......................................
19.5 2
.......................... 4
.......................... 3
.......................... Gas
....................................................... 41
.......................................................
Vinyl Allyl Ether 24 15.5 2 3 2 <68 153

-
-....l Vinyl Butyl Ether
Vinyl Chloride
24
24
15.4
8.0
2
2
3
4
2
2
15
-108
202
7
4-Vinyl Cyclohexene 24 19.0 O 3 2 61 266
y.!.Qy..I...~.t~.Y.!...st~.~E............................................................................
24 ......................................
14.0 2
.......................... 4
.......................... 2
.......................... <-50
....................................................... 96
.......................................................
Vinylidene Chloride 24 4.2 2 4 2 O 89
Vinyl Toluene 24 17.5 2 2 2 125 334
p-Xylene 16 17.6 2 3 O 77 279
Zinc Chlorate 14 (2) 1 O 1 - -
Zinc Stearate [8] 4 10.1 O 1 O 530 -
Footnotes : The net Heat of Combustlon (He) IS the value obtalned when the water formed In the combustlon IS consldered to be In the vapor
• _______ ..sLa!e.:, _'I!.h..e!! ~f !sJJ.!.v~!! !!l.!<2'!!/9~ _rlPle.!, ~ ~<!.n_b~ 2Q'!.v~r!ej..!~ ~It¿I~ _by ~!J~il?l~i!!9. ~_1§Qq, é!.n.9 st~v!.d~ng!>~ !!l21~~u!a.! !V~i9,!t:.. ______ _
[1] Vaeuum distillation. [6] MF is paekaged material.
[2] Material oxidized to higher level of oxidé [7] He equivalent to 6 times heat of decomposition. (Hd)
[3] Sublimes . [8] Evaluate as a dust.
[4] Explodes on heating. [9] Decomposes.
l~Lºf¿C.2'!lI?q"s~~i!! .!Y~~~ _____________ 11.91 t-~~ ~~t~'!.d~ ~~e..>_~..o.9.9~ f!...tb~ !!a..s~ ~'!.t2~n_~!e.!l~é!!I:i Qrgl? Lo_9'?j~:f.:.. __________ _
Seta = Setaflash Method (See NFPA 321) NA= Not Applieable TOC = Tag Open Cup Method
Other Flash Points determined by Tag Closed Cup Method (TCC) . * Trademark of the Dow Chemical Company
APPENDIXB
SPECIAL MATERIAL FACTOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR MIXTURES
The Material Factor (MF) has two components, flammability and reactivity, and represcnlS the hazard of
both. Once lhesc two are cstablishcd. the Material Factor can be detennined, as described in \he text and
using Table 1, page 13.

1be sclcction oC the significam material for determining the Material Factor can be a problem. Pure mate-
rials are straightforward. Problems arise whcn the process has a mixture of materials. panicularly in batch
reactors whcre many sequential reactions are done. For example. in a batch proccss whcre thc composition
changes during thc batch eyele, it is valid to selcct the worst condition which normally occurs during the
cyele.

Ir mere is a mixture of materials in a Proccss Unit with MFs of 10, 16 and 24. usualiy thc material with lhe
highcst MF, which is oC significant concentradon (about 5%), should be used as me basis for the MF. The
beSl way te dctennine the MF of the mixture is to obtain the flash point, boiling JXlint. DTNDSC exOlhenn
peak tcmpcraturc of the mixture, thermal and mechanical shock sensitivity and water reactivity by reactive
chemicals testing and to use the appropriate data to find MF from Table 1, page 13. 1be Reactive
ChemicaIs program rcquires that the flash point. DTA/DSC and other pertinent data be obtained before
scale-up.

Sorne examples of special Material Factor situations are:

l. Ethylene and Chlorine in an Ethylene Dichloride Reactor lO Produce Ethylene Dichloride MF -


1he material factor should be selected based on ethylene dichloride and not for ethylcne or chlorine.
Because the reaction is very fast betwccn thc cthylcnc and chlorine being sprayed into liquid ethylene
dichIoride, the reactor cootains ooIy ethylene dich1oride. Thc hazard is cthylcnc dichloridc in thc
reactor.

2. Ethane Cracked in a Fumace to Make Ethylene - 1be material factor for ethylene should be used
1he most likcly leak of cootents is a mixture of ethanc and ethylene, with the ethylene content signifi-
cant enough to make the mixture much like ethylene in its reactivity.

3. Continuous Benzene Alkylation Reactor - 1be feed strcams 10 the reactor are elhylene (MF 24) =
=
and benzene (MF 16), while the bulk of invcntory in the reactor is ethyl benzene (MF = 16). There
is a minimum of unreacted e1hylene present in the reactor. 1be recommended material factor of use is
16. Although this process involvcs the potential for release or an ethylene vapor cloud extemal 10 the
reactor. thcre is no cormcction between this and penalty factors applied ror conditioll'i in thc reactor.
It would be wise to coosider sorncthing in the ethylene feed system as a separate Process Vnit and
calculate the F&EI ror the feed system Process Vnit 10 determine the worst casco

4. Polyol RelICto, (Batch P,ocess) - The initial eharge 10 !he reactor is glycerine (MF ~ 4). Propylene
oxide (MF = 24) andlor ethylene oxide (MF = 29) are addcd progressively during the batch and rcact
with lile glycerine 10 form the poIyol (MF = 4). The reactioo depends on the additioo of catalyst. If
there is a significant cbance that none or insufficicnt catalyst may be added to thc reactor. a Material
Factor or 29 is appropriate. Whcn ethylenc oxide alonc is used. it rcacts rclativcly quickly. whcn
catalyst is prescnt, so that there are on1y small amounts of unreacted ethylene oxide present in lhc
reactor al any time; hence. the reactor MF = 4. However. the propylene oxide rcaction is slower and
there may be up to about 15% of unreacted propylene oxide prcsent al sorne stage. 1bc suggested
material factor. then. ror the F&EI calculation is the factor for the worst case reaction mixture
containing 15% propylenc oxide (MF = 24).

72
This is a typical case where it is not appropriate 10 take a weighted average of factors for individual
components in detennining the factor for thc mixture. This is due 10 fue wide wsparity in the
propenies of componcnts and the high molecular weight of the polyol. tt is nccessary 10 consider the
=
actual propertics ofthe mixture which are equivalent to NF = 3 and NR 2 for a material factor of 24.
This ccmpares with a value of about 6.6 which would be wrongly obtaincd as a wcightcd average
factor. If the prop;:nies of the mixture are not known, the approach taken in 3. above may be
appropriale whiJe awaiting resuJts of reactive chc.micals testing of the mixture.

S. Electrolytical Production or Chlorine - Electrolytic production of chlorine presents thc nocd for an
atypica1 approach. 1be process is endothennic and not theoretically hazardous; the hazards prcsent
are due 10 the presencc of flammable hydrogen and reactive chlorine. The MF for hydrogen would be
correct for this evaluation. as the MF for hydrogen is the higher.

6. ''Bumer-Type'' Reactor - When feeding lwo rcactants continuously, such as in burners, consider the
"bumer-typc" reactor. An example is an HO (h)'drogen chJoridc) synthcsis reactor, which, as a Proc-
ess Unit reacts h)'drogen with chlorine bul nonnall)' contains onIy HCl, a completel)' non-reactive and
oon-cornbustible gas (MF = 1). Howevcr, the slightcst upset can resuIt in flameouts and reaction
ccases. resulting in lhe Proccss Unil filling with reactants. The explosion hazards of HC! synthesis
reactors are so well known that they are a1ways provided with explooion rclief. MF shoold be based
=
00 the higher MF of the two reactants, hydrogen (MF = 21) and chlorine (MF 1); thal is, the MF
should be 21.

Fued boilers and fumaces are subject te flamcout and explosive re-ignition of the reactants, fucl and
airo The)' should be trealcd similarl)' to the example in the previous paragraph.

7. Mixtures with Mostly Water Composition - If a mixture is mostly water, coosider carcfully thc
condition of thc water in detennining thc "material factor" 10 avoid an unrealistically low value. For
example, water saluratcd with butawene will have a true flash point equal te that of butadiene bul will
not have a DTA/DSC exothenn. lbe vapor aboye such water is mostly butadicne. Thus NF 4 and =
NR = O for the vapor space and therefore MF = 21.

In surnmary, the Process Unit should be examined over its cycle of operation for thc most hazardous slate.
This most hazardous Slale is when the worst possible materials ma)' escape from or exisl in the process
equipment during nonnal starting up, operating or shutting down.

73
APPENDIXC
BASIC PREVENTIVE AND PROTECTIVE FEATURES
Many of the featurcs bclow should be provided regardless oC the type of operation or the magnitude of the
Fire and Explosion IOOex. W'hen they are oot provided. the existing hazard exposure may be greater than
the F&EI indiCa1es. This list is 001 all-inclusive as other features may be nceded, depending upon the
specific iru;tallatiOIL

A Adequale water supply Cor tire prolection. This is determincd by multip1ying its water demand by the
length oC time that the worst possible tire can be expected to 1ast. 1be supply deemed adequate will
vary with different aulhorities and may range from enough Cor a two-hour tire 10 enough for ale
lasting eight mulS.
B. Structural design ofvessels. piping, strucrural steeI, etc.
C. Ovcrpressure relief devices.
D. Corrosioo resiSlance andlor allowances.
E. Segregation oC reactive materials in process lines and equiprncnt.
F. Electrical equipment grounding.
G. Safe location of auxiliary electrica1 gear (tran'iformers, breakers. etc.)
H. Normal protection against utilily 1055 (altemate electrical fceder, sparc instrumcnt air comprcssor.
etc.)
1. Compliance with various applicable codes (ASME, ASlM, ANSI, Building Cedes, Fire Cedes, etc.)
J. Fail-safc instrumentation.
K. Access 10 area for emergcncy vehicles and exits [or personal evacuation.
L. Drainage lO handle probable spills safely plus tire fighting water from hose nozzlcs and sprinkler
heads andJor chemicals.
M. Insulation of hOl suñaces that heat 10 wilhin 80% of the autoignition tcmpcrarure of any flarnmable in
the afea.
N. Adherence lo the National Elcctrical Codeo The Code should tx:: followed exccpt where variances have
becn requested/approved.
Q. Limitation of glass devices and expansion joints in flammable or hazardous service. Such devices are
nol permitted unIess absolutely essential. Where uScd, they must be registered and approved by the
production manager and installed in accordance with Dow standards and specifications.
P. Building and equipment layout. Separation of high-hazard arca must be recognizcd espccially as it
relates lO both propcrty damage and interruption o[ business. Separation of tanks must be al least in
accordance with NFPA 30.
Q. Protection of pipe racn and insuument cable trays as wcll as thcir supports from exposure 10 fire.
R. Provision of accessible battery limit block valvcs.
S. Cooling tower loss prevcntion and protection.
T. Protection o[ fired equipmem against accidental explosion and resultant tire.
U. Elcctrical classification. Division 2 electrical equipmcnt will be required for outside flammablc liquid
handling where congestion is minimal and natural ventilation is unobstructed. Division 1 equiprnent is
rcquired onIy for spccial chemicals and/or spccial building or process handling conditions or where
ventilation is inadcquatc.
V. Process control IOOms shall be isolated by one hour fire walls from proccss controllaboratorics and/or
elcctrical switch-gear and transfonncrs.
W. A process review shall determine a need for reactive chcmicals testing.
X. A HAZOP review is recommended in high hazard areas.

74
APPENDIXD
LOSS PREVENTION CHECKLlST

1. Srope
This checklist ouUines most c:ngineering topies necding coosidcration ror possible loss prcvention
requirements. Such topies include: Location, Buildings. Fire Protection. Electrical. Sewers. Slorage.
Inert Gas Blanketing, Materials Handling, Machinery. Process. Proccss Computers. and General
Safety Equiprncnt

l. Introduction
This checldiSl is inteOOed as a guide for use when assessing lhe tire hazards and reviewing the loss
prevention requirements oC a chem.ical planto 11 may also be of panicular advantage in planning new
facilities. No such checklist can ever be entirely complete or meet the nceds of evcry situation. Care
should be takcn in using such a liSl 10 make suro thal othcr pertincnt items 001 includcd hcrc are not
overlooked.

3. Location
A. Plant layout; separation oC units per hazard evaluation
B. Accessibility
C. Traffic - vehicular and pedestrian
D. Parking arcas - entrances, exits. drainagc. lighting, enclosures
E. Oearanccs - buildings for railroad traffic and vchicles (overhead tumarounds)
F. Drainage. impounding arcas
G. Road locatioos. markings
H. Entrances, ex.jts - pedestrian. vehicular. and railroad
l. Ignitioo sources - fumace location, fiare stacks. boilers. bumer managcrncnt
1. Prevailing wind
K. Underground utility conduits
L. Aood control or protection
M. J..,oading/unloading facilities. avoid using main traffic area for this activity

4. Buildings
A Basic noo-combustible construction
B. Wind pressure, snow loads, floor loads, eanhquake dcsign
C. Roof material, anchorage
D. Roof vents and drains. smoke dispersal
E. Stairwells, ramps,lighting
F. Elevators and dumbwaiters
G. Fm walls, openings, tire doors
H. Explosioo relier, bias! dcsign
1. Exits - fire escapes, identification, safety treads
J. Record Slorage
K. Ventilation - fans, blowers, air conditioning, scrubbing of tone vapors, location of exhaust inlets.
smoke and heat ventilation dampers, fire curtains
L. Lightning protection. structural and equipment grounding for electrical discharges
M. Building heaters (Division 1 or 2 or standard areas), vcnts
N. Locker rooms including nccd for separale lockcrs for work and street clothes, required numbcr of
each and air changes
O. Building drainage - inside and out, property trappcd

7S
P. Structural steeI and equipment fireproofing
Q. Access ladders lO roofs and outside level, escape ladders, fire escapes
R. Bearing capacity of subsoil
S. Heat and smoke detcction
T. Elevarlon - flood plain restrictions
U. Wheelload on overbead crane

5. Fire Protection
A. Wa~r supply including secondary supplies, pumps, reservoirs and tanks
B. Mains - adequate looping. calhOOic protcction. coated and wrapped when necded, sectional valves
C. Hydrants - location. spacing. morulOrs
D. Automatic sprinklers - occupancy classmcation, wet systems. dry systems. dcluge systems
E. Standpipes and tanks
F. Type, size,location and number of fire extinguishers necded
G. FlXed aulOmatic extinguishing syslems, CÚl, foam, dry powder
H. Spccial tire protection systems - rise in temperature alanns, sprinkler system flow alanos, photo-
electric smoke and flame alanns, snuffing sleam
1. Piping systern - malerials of coffilructioo, no cast iron if explosion is possible

6. Electrical
A. Electrical hazard area classifications, intrinsically safe equipmcnt
B. Accessibility oC critical circuit breakers and switchgear
C. Polarized outlets and grounded systems
D. Switches and breakers for critical equirment and machinery
E. Ughting - Division J or 2 or standard arcas, light intensity. approved equipment, emergency
lighlS
F. Telephones and intercOOlS - Divisioo 1 or 2 or standard arcas
G. Type of electrical distribution system - voltage, grounded or ungrounded, overhead, underground
H. Conduit. raceways. enclosures. corrosion considerations
1. MOlor and circuit protection
J. Transfonoer location and types
K. Fail safe control dcvices protection againsl aUlomatic restarting
L. Backup busses for criticaI loads
M. Key interlocks far safety and proper sequcncing. duplicate feeders
N. Ughtning protecti.an
O. Exposure of cable trays to fue damage
P. Uninterrupóble Power Supply (UPS) and emergenc:y power system
Q. RequircmenlS for equipment grounding, melhods and frcqucncy of testing

7. Sewers
A Olemical sewers - trapped, accessiblc cleanoulS. vcnlS, locatioll'i, disposal, cxplooion ¡:Klssibili-
ties, trap tanks, forced ventilation, flarnmable vapor detectors and alarms, freezing or ice blocks
B. Sanitary scwers - treauoent, disposal, traps, plugs, cleanouts, vents
C. SlOnn sewers
D. Waste treaUOcnt, possiblc dangers from steam comamination including fire hazard from spills inlO
streams and lakes
E. Drain trenches - apen, buried, accessible clcanoulS, presence of required baffles, cX¡:Klsure lO
process equirment
F. Ground water impainnent prevention. air and surface water safeguards and proper dis¡:Klsal of
waste
G. Sewer drains coonected to process drains

76
8. Storage
A. Gener.Il
l. Accessibility - emrances and exits. sizes
2. Sprinklered
3. Aisle space
4. Aoor loading
5. Racks and spacing
6. Height of pUes
7. Roof venting
8. Spill coolairunent
9. Adequate tank. venting for bolh pressure and vacuum

B. Aarnmable liquids - gases. dusts and powdcr1i. fumes and mists


1. Oosed systems
2. Safc abnospheres throughout sySlem
3. Areas 10 be sprinklered or provided with water spray
4. Emergency vents. name arresters. reliefvalves. safe venting location including nares
5. Aoor drains 10 chcmical sewcrs properly trapped
6. VeJUilation - prcssurized cootrols. etc., andIor equipmenl
7. Tanks, bins. silos - safe distance separation. firepmofing supports or local dcluge prolCCtion,
dikes and drainage, inerting atmospheres. undcrground (001 recommended)
8. Spccial extinguishing systcms. explosion suppression - feam. dry chemicals. carbon dioxidc
9. Dependable refrigeradon sySlems for critical chcmicals
10. Location of pumps. compressors. elc., away from spill potcntial
11 . Weak. mof scam construction on API tanks
12. Cross vcnting of sourcc lanks and storage tanks

c. Raw Materials
l . Danger of risk classification of material iocluding shock sensidvjty
2. Facilities for receiving and storing
3. Identification and purity tests
-4. Provisions \O prevent material, being placed in wrong tanks. tank overflow, etc.

D. FitUshed Producls
l . Identification and labeling 10 protect the cuSlomer
2. COfÚormancc with shipping regulations
3. Segregation of dangerous matcrials
4. Protection fmm contamination. especially in the filling of lank C3r1i and tank uucks
5. Placarding of shipping vehicles
6. Routing of dangerous shipments
7. Material Safcty Data Sheets (MSDS) for safety information for customers
8. NFP A Hazard Ratings
9. Hear delCction
10. Conveyers and their location in production arcas
11. Aarnmablc liquid storage - paints, oils. solvents
12. Reactive or explosive storage - quantitics, distance separation.limiled acccss
13. Disposal of wastes - incincralors. air and water pollution safeguards
14. Spill control
15. Safc shipping containcrs

77
9. Inert G3S Blanketing of AII F1arnmable Products
A. Com>idec raw material. intennediatcs and products
B. Consider storage. materials handling and pn:x:esses

10. Materials HandJing


A. Truck loading and unloading facilities
B. Railroad loading and unloading facilities
C. IndUStriallIUCks and tractors - gasoline. diesel, liquetied petroleum gas, and battery powered
D . Loading and unloading docks foc mil. tank tIUcks, and truck trailec grounding systems foc
flarnmable liquids
E. Cranes - mobile, capacity marking, ovecload protection, linrit switches, inspection schcduJes
F. Warehouse area - noorloading and arrangement, sprink1ers, hcight of piles, ventilation, smoke
and hcat detcction
G. Conveyors and thcir location in production arcas
H. Aarnmable liquid storage - paints, oils, solvents
J. Reactive or Explosive storage - quantities. distancc separadon, limited access
J. Disposal of wastes - incinecators, air and ground water safeguards
K. Spill control

11. Machinery
A. Accessibility, maintenance and opcrations
B. RemOle emergency stop switches
C. Vibration monitoring/shutdown
D. Lubrication monitoring
E. Overspeed protection
F. Noise evaluation
G. Do 001 use cast iron oc othec brittle construction materials on:
l. Hazardous materials
2. Equipment load bearing pans (e.g., pump casing frames)

12. Process
A. Chcmicals - fue and hcalth hazards (skin and rcspiratory), instrumenlation. operating rules,
maintenance. compatibility of chemicals. stability. labeling ofpipclines and equipment. etc.
B. Critical prcssurcs and tempcraturcs
C. Relief deviccs and flame arrestcrs. propcrly registercd
D. Coded vessels made of suitable materiaJs of coostIUction
E. Piping made lO suitable spccifieations and codes and malerials of construction
F. Methods foc handling runaway reactions
G. Flxed tire protection systems - CÜ];, foam. sprinklcc deluge
H. Vessels propcrly vented. safe location, deadhead pump protection
1. Pennanent vaeuum c1eaning systems
J. Explosion barricades and isolation
K. Inert gas blanketing systems -listing of equipment requiring blanketing
L. Emergency shutdown valves and switches, location from critical arca, aedon time foc relays,
emergency block valves
M. Fireproofing of structural steel beams and columns (oc arca deluge protection)
N. Safety devices foc heat exchange equipment - vcnlS, valvcs and drains
O. Expansion loops foc stcam liDes
P. Do not use expansion joinlS unless not altcmative - registec and maintain
Q. Do 001 use sight glasscs - if absolutely necessary rcgister and maintain

78
R. Steam and electrical tracing - provision for relief of thennal expansion in hcatcd lincs
S. Insulation for personnel protection - bot process, steam lines and tracing - overheating protec-
tioo of material in pipe
T. Static grounding for vessels. piping and production equipment
U. Qeaning and mairuenance of vessels and tanks - adcquate manholes, platfonns. laddcrs, clean-
out openings and safe entry pennit procedures
V. Provisions for corrosioo monitoring and control
W. Pipeline identification
X. Radiation probIems including personal protection for firefighters - processcs and measuring
instruments containing radioisotopes, X-rays, ele.
Y. Redundant critical insttuments with alarms. fail safe operation
Z. Critical insuument designation and maintenance
AA. Fixed flarnmable gas detection and alarm systems

13. Process Computers


A Coouol Room
l . Air handling - tcmpcralure. humidity. dust. positive prcssure, ele.
2. Location - ground Oror preferred, non-combustiblc construction
3. Aoor covcring - vioyl or laminated plastic 10 prevenl static
4 . Space requirements for accessibility
5. No paper or combustibles storage
6. Lighting and power recep<acles
7. Fire protection - use CÚJ: , smoke detectors, heat delectors
8. Pur¡¡ed oonool room

B. Power Wiring and Grounding


1. Adequate power supply from special panel
2. Dual sources of power
3. Computer control system grounded al sourcc, Le .• al stcp down uansfonner
4. Cootrol room junction boxes connected to building ground

e: Signa! Wiring
1. Field wiring tenninated in a control junction box or other interface device
2. Wiring protected by cable tray, metal wireway. conduit or nm below raigcd floor
3. Ribbon cables oc similar type fragile cables run in separate enclosure from field cables

D. Control Systems
1. Fail safe convcntions
2. Polides on parameter changes and manual control of outputs or input
3. Polides en control strategy changes and backup of current strategy
4. Documentation - inputs and outputs. operating discipline and corurollogic diagrams
5. Shutdown procedures foc loss of utilitics
6. Training
7. Alarm system
8. Regular audits
9 . Control room intcgrity and location
10. Source of power foc process controllers
11 . Backup control systems

79
14. Salety Equipment, General
A. Dispensary and equipment
B. AmbuIance
C. Fire truck
D. Emergency alann system - alerto gas release, evacuate, etc.
E. Ftre whistle and siren - dcpartmenlS. insick: and outsi<k
F. Snow removal and ice control equipment
G. Safety showers and eye wash foumains - operatiooal alanns, indication of location
H. Safety ladders and cages
1. Emergency cquipment locatioos - gas masks. protective clothing, inside hose streams. stretchers,
flash suilS, self-oontained breathing apparatus. etc.
J. Laboratory safety shields
K. lnstrumenlS - continuous, portabl:e analy7.crs for Dammable vapors and gases, oxygen, toxic
vapors, etc.
L. Commurucations - emcrgcncy telephoncs. radio, public address systems, paging systems, safe
location and continuous maruting of communication center
M. Guards on rotating equipment
N. Combustion safeguarcls on fumaces, bumer management system
O. Fuel gas shutoff valves
P. SpillJvapor release alarms
Q. Aange protectors on acid lines

80
APPENDIXE
EQUATIONS FOR DAMAGE FACTOR DATA

lb! Damage Factor is 10 be dctemIined using Figure 8. page 53. 11tis data is dilferenl (rom !he data in the
other figures in this report inasmuch as [he data was tit 10 equations giving the damage facto~ al Process
Urot Hazaros Factors from 1.0 10 8.0 for each of the discretc Material Factors. Si.ncc therc are nire
Material Factors - 1, 4,10,14, 16.21.24.29, and 40 - there are nine equations.

It is important 10 note that there rcaUy is 00 meaning for thc imcnnediate Material Factors othcr than the
nine defined cases. The data points were joined by lincs solely for thc: PUrp:>Se of allowing it to be easier 10
foUow aloog [he lines oC constant Process Unit Hazaros Factors. 1lle main value of this figure is lO allow
for the interpolatioo ofthe Damage Factors between diffcrent values arthe Process Unit Hazards Factor'S.

1bc ninc cquations derived for the nine Material Factors are as follows:

For the Material Fador oC 1 the equation for the Damagc Factors (Y axis) bascd on thc Process Unit
Hazards Factors from I through 8 is as follows:

y = 0.003907 + 0.002957(X) + 0.004{)31(X')" 0.OOO29(X')


or
y = 0.003907 + O.OO2957*X + O.00403t*X"2 - OJXXl29*X"3

For the Material Factor of 4 thc equation for the Damage Factor.; (Y axis) bascd on thc Process Unir
Hazaros Factors fmm 1 through 8 is as foUows:

y = 0.025817 + 0.019071(X) " 0.OOO81(X') + 0.OOO108(X')


or
y =0.025817 + 0.019071*X • 0.OOO81*X"2 + 0.OOO108*X"3

For the Malerial Factor of 10 the equation for the Damagc Factors (Y axis) bascd on thc Process Unit
Hazards Factors from 1 thmugh 8 is as foUows:

y = 0.098582 + 0.017596(X) + 0.OOO809(X') "0.OOOOJ3(X')


or
y =0.098582 + 0.017596*X + 0.OOO809*X"2 · OJXXXH3*X"3

For the Material Factor of 14 me equation for the Damage FaclOrs (Y axis) bascd on [he Proccss URil
Ha7.aros Factors fmm 1 through 8 is as foUows:

y =0.20592 + 0.018938(X) + 0.007628(X')" 0.OOO57(X')


o,
y = 0.20592 + O.018938*X + 0.OO7628*X"2· 0.OOO57*X"3

For the Material Factor ol 16 the equation for the Damage Factors (Y axis) based on lile Process Unil
Hazaros Factors fmm 1 through 8 is as follows:

y = 0.256741 + 0.019886(X) + 0.011055(X')" 0.OOO88(X')


or
Y = 0.256741 + 0.019886*X + 0.011055·X ....2· 0.OOO88*X"3

81
For the Material Factor of 21 the equation for the Damage Factors (Y axis) based on the Proccss Unit
Hazards Factors from 1 through 8 is as follows:

y =0.340314 + 0.076531 (X) + 0.003912(X') - 0.OOO73(X')


0'
y = 0.340314 + 0.07653¡*X + 0.OO3912*X"2 • 0.(XX>73*X"3

For the Material Factor of 14 me equation for thc Damage Factors (Y axis) based on the Process Unit
Hazaros Factors fmm 1 through S is as follows:

y =0.395755 + 0.096443(X) - 0.OO135(X') - 0.OOO38(X')


0'
y =0.395755 + 0.096443*X • 0.OO135*X"2· O.(XX)3S*X"3
For the Material Factor of 29 me equation for the Damage Factors (Y axis) based on me Process Unit
Hazards Factors frem 1 through 8 is as follows:

y =0.484766 + 0.094288(X) - 0.OO216(X') - 0.OOO31(X')


oc
y = 0.484766 + 0.0942SS*X - 0.OO216*X"2 - 0.OOC)31*X"3

For the Material Factor of 40 the equation for thc Damage Factors (Y axis) based on the Process Unit
Hazards FactofS from 1 through S is as follows:

y =0.554175 + 0.080772(X) + 0.OOO332(X') - O.OOO44(X')


oc
Y =0.554175 + 0.080772*X + 0.OOO332*X"2 - 0.00044*X"3

1be equations are given in both word processing formal and tcxt formato For reading this guide in text
formal only. the figures and the word proccssing formal equations will not appcar. However. the equation
in tcxt formal will aIlow determination of the Damage Factor.

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APPENDIXF
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIA TIONS

ACV Actual Cash Value


AIChE American Institute of ChemicaI Engineers
ANSI American National Standards ln stitute
API American Petroleum lnstitute
ARC Accelerating Rate CaJorimeter
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
BI Business Interruption
BTU British ThennaJ Uni,
CEI Chemical Exposure Index
DRI Distribution Ranking lndex
DSC Differential Scanning CaJorimeter
DTA Differential ThennaJ Analysis
EBV Emergency Block Valve
F&EI Fire and Explosion Index
FMEA Failure Mode and Effec' Analysis
HAZOP HAZard and OPerabili'y Srudy
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MF . Material Factor
MPDO Maximum Probable Days Outage
MPPD Maximum Probable Propeny Damage
MSDS Material Safety Dala Sheet
NFPA Natiooal Fire Protection Association
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
SI Intemational System ofUnits (Le Systeme International d'Unites)
SILP/S Safety/Loss Prevention/Security
STP Standard TemperaNre and Pressure
UPS Uninlerruptible Power Supply
US/British Units United States/British Units
VPM VaJue of Production for the Month

83