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Crash Bandicoot

Crash Bandicoot is a franchise of platform


Crash Bandicoot
video games. The series was created by Andy
Gavin and Jason Rubin during their tenure at
Naughty Dog for Sony Computer Entertainment;
the series was originally exclusive to the
PlayStation family of video game consoles. The
series has appeared on multiple platforms and
gone through various developers and spans The original Crash Bandicoot logo
numerous genres. The series comprises eighteen Genres Party
games and shipped over 50 million copies Platform
worldwide. Racing
The games are mostly set on the fictitious Developer(s) Naughty Dog (1996–1999)
Wumpa Islands, an archipelago situated to the Eurocom (2000–2001)
south of Australia, although other locations are Traveller's Tales (2001–2004)
common. The main games in the series are Dimps (2006)
largely platformers, but several are spin-offs in Radical Entertainment(2005–2008)
different genres. The protagonist of the series is Polarbit (2008–2010)
an anthropomorphic bandicoot named Crash, Vicarious Visions (2002–2004, 2017–present)
whose quiet life on the Wumpa Islands is often
Publisher(s) Sony Computer Entertainment(1996–2000)
interrupted by the games' main antagonist,
Universal Interactive Studios(2000-2003)
Doctor Neo Cortex, who created Crash and
Vivendi Universal Games(2003-2008)
wants him dead. In most games, Crash must
defeat Cortex and foil his plans for world
Konami (2001-2003, Japanese Publisher)
domination. Activision (2008–present)
Creator(s) Andy Gavin
Charles Zembillas
David Siller
Contents Jason Rubin
Joe Pearson
History
1996–2000: PlayStation-exclusive Composer(s) Josh Mancell (Mutato Muzika) (1996–1999)
2001–06: Jump to multiplatform Steve Duckworth (2000)
2007–10: Redesign Andy Blythe and Marten Joustra(2001)
2011–16: Hiatus Ashif Hakik and Todd Masten (2002–2003)
2016–present: Return Spiralmouth (2004–2005, 2010)
Marc Baril (2005–2008)
Common gameplay elements
Collectibles Platforms Game Boy Advance
Crates GameCube
Structure iOS
Music Mobile phone
Developers and publishers N-Gage
Other media Nintendo DS
Manga
PlayStation
Animation
PlayStation 2
Reception
PlayStation 3
References PlayStation 4
External links PlayStation Portable
Wii
Xbox 360
History Xbox
Zeebo
Platform of origin PlayStation
1996–2000: PlayStation-
Year of inception 1996
exclusive
First release Crash Bandicoot
After presenting Way of the Warrior to Mark September 9, 1996
Cerny of Universal Interactive Studios, Naughty Crash Bandicoot N. Sane Trilogy
Latest release
Dog was signed on to the company for three June 30, 2017
additional games.[1] In August 1994, Jason
Timeline of release years
Rubin and Andy Gavin began their move from Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles,
1996 Crash Bandicoot
California.[2] During the trip, Gavin and Rubin decided to create a 3D action-platform
1997 Cortex Strikes Back
game. Because the player would be forced to constantly look at the character's rear, the
1998 Warped
game was jokingly code-named "Sonic's Ass Game".[1] The basic technology for the game
1999 Team Racing
and the Crash Bandicoot series as a whole was created somewhere nearGary, Indiana. The
2000 Bash
rough game theory was designed by Colorado and David Siller, the creator of Aero the
2001 Wrath of Cortex
Acro-Bat and Maximo: Ghosts to Glory. Soon afterward, Gavin and Rubin threw out their
previous game design for Al O. Saurus and Dinestein, a side-scrolling video game based 2002 Huge Adventure

on time travel and scientists genetically merged with dinosaurs. After moving into the 2003 N-Tranced
Nitro Kart
Universal Interactive Studios backlot, Gavin and Rubin met with Mark Cerny, discussed
2004 Purple: Ripto's Rampage
the design of the game and made an agreement to go into production.[1] In September Twinsanity
1994, Gavin and Rubin decided to develop their new game for the PlayStation, after which 2005 Tag Team Racing
Rubin began character design.[2] In November 1994, Naughty Dog hired Dave Baggett, 2006 Boom Bang!
their first employee and a friend of Gavin's from the Massachusetts Institute of 2007 Crash of the Titans
Technology.[1][2] Together, Gavin and Baggett created the development tool "Game Mind over Mutant
2008
Oriented Object LISP" (GOOL), which would be used to create the characters and Nitro Kart 3D
gameplay of the game.[1] In January 1995, Rubin became concerned about the 2009 Mutant Island
programmer-to-artist ratio and hired Bob Rafei and Taylor Kurosaki as additional 2010 Nitro Kart 2
artists.[1][2] 2011
2012
Needing a lead character for the game, Naughty Dog recruited American Exitus artists
2013
Charles Zembillas and Joe Pearson and met with them weekly to create the characters and
2014
environments of the game,[1][2] eventually creating a character named "Willy the
2015
Wombat".[3] The marketing director of Universal Interactive Studios insisted that the
2016
character be named "Wez", "Wuzzles" or "Wizzy the Wombat".[4] On creating the levels
2017 N. Sane Trilogy
for the game, Zembillas and Pearson first sketched each environment, designing and
creating additional individual elements later. They aimed for an organic, overgrown look to the game and worked to completely avoid
straight lines and 90-degree corners. A Naughty Dog artist sketched every single background object in the game before it was
modeled. The artists were tasked with making the best use of textures and reducing the amount of geometry. Dark and light elements
were juxtaposed to create visual interest and separate geometry. The Naughty Dog artists would squint when sketching, texturing and
playing the levels to make sure they could be played by light value alone. Correct use of color was an important goal for Naughty
Dog's artists; for example, mutually accentuating colors were chosen as the theme for the "Lost City" and "Sunset Vista" levels. The
[5]
interior of Doctor Neo Cortex's castle was designed to reflect Cortex's twisted mind.
After the main character's creation, the team went into three months of developing the game. The game first became functional in
April 1995 and became playable in June 1995. The first 3 levels in the game were completed by August 1995. However, they were
judged to be too difficult to appear so early in the game and were moved to the game's power plant area. Artist Charlotte Francis
joined Naughty Dog at around this time.[2] In September 1995, a videotape of Crash Bandicoot was shown to Sony Computer
Entertainment behind closed doors.[1][2] While playing the game during development, Rubin realized that there were many empty
areas in the game due to the PlayStation's inability to process numerous on-screen enemy characters at the same time. Additionally,
players were solving the game's puzzles too fast. Rubin soon came up with the idea of a box and putting various symbols on the sides
to create puzzles. Breaking these boxes would serve to fill in the boring parts of the levels and give the player additional puzzles.[4]
The first "crate" was placed in the game in January 1996, and would become the primary gameplay element of the series.[2] Willy the
[2][4] On March 1996, Sony agreed to
Wombat's destruction of the crates would eventually lead him to be renamed "Crash Bandicoot".
publish Crash Bandicoot, which went into the alpha stage in April 1996. Crash Bandicoot was first shown at the Electronic
Entertainment Expo in May 1996.

Development of Cortex Strikes Back began in October 1996. For the game, Andy Gavin created a new engine and scripting language
named "Game Oriented ObjectLISP 2" (GOOL 2) that was three times faster than the previous game's engine, could handle ten times
the animation frames and twice the polygon count.[1][2] The jungle levels were originally to have featured ground fog, but this was
abandoned when magazines and the public began to heavily criticize other developers for using fog to hide polygon count. Sunlight
and depth accentuation was experimented with for these levels. Wanting to have some "dirty" locations in the game, Naughty Dog
worked in the sewer levels and added color contrast to the levels to show depth and break up the repetitive monotony of the endless
sewer pipes.[5] A flat plane z-buffer was created for the game; because the water surfaces and mud in the jungle had to be a flat plane
and be exactly flat on the Y-axis, there could be no waves and the subdividing plane could not be at an odd angle. The effect only
worked on objects in the foreground and was only used on Crash, some enemies and a few boxes at the same time.[1] The soundtrack
of Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back was provided by Mutato Muzika (consisting of Mark Mothersbaugh and Josh Mancell),
while the sound effects were created by Universal Sound Studios (consisting of Mike Gollom, Ron Horwitz and Kevin Spears). The
characters were designed by Charles Zembillas of American Exitus, Incorporated. Clancy Brown provided the voice of Doctor Neo
Cortex, while Brendan O'Brien voiced the dual role of Doctor N. Gin and Doctor Nitrus Brio and Vicki Winters voiced Coco
Bandicoot.[6] The game was unveiled at the Electronic Entertainment Expo in Atlanta, Georgia in June 1997 to a positive response
from the game industry. The game went into the alpha stage in August 1997. Around that time, Dan Arey, the lead designer of Gex:
[2]
Enter the Gecko, joined Naughty Dog and streamlined the level design.

Like the first, the second game was a commercial success, green-lighting a third game. Production of Crash Bandicoot: Warped
began in January 1998, with Naughty Dog given only 10½ months to complete the game.[1][2] Programmers Andy Gavin, Stephen
White and Greg Omi created three new gameplay engines for the game. Two of the three new engines were three-dimensional in
nature and were created for the airplane and jet-ski levels; the third new engine was created for the motorcycle levels in the style of a
driving simulator. The new engines combined make up a third of the game, while the other two-thirds of the game consist of the
tweaked engine used in the previous games. Jason Rubin explained that the "classic" engine and game style was preserved due to the
success of the previous two games and went on to say that "were we to abandon that style of gameplay, that would mean that we
would be abandoning a significant proportion of gamers out there". An arbitrary plane
z-buffer was created for the jet-ski and flooded
Egyptian hallway levels of the game.[1] To create a completely fluid feel for the water on these levels, an environment map that
reflects the sky was fitted onto the surface of the water. A real shadow was given to the Crash character at the request of the Sony
Computer Entertainment America producers, who were "sick of that little discus that's following him around." To create an "arcade"
experience in the airplane levels and to differentiate them from flight simulators, the enemy planes were programmed to come out in
front of the player and give the player ample time to shoot them before they turn around and shoot the player rather than come up
behind the player and hit them from behind. The Relic system was introduced to give players a reason to return to the game after it
has been completed.[7]

While initially Naughty Dog was only signed on to make three games, Crash Team Racing was a possible Crash 3 as it started out in
production after Crash 2 and the game which was finished first in production would be released first. However, Naughty Dog had
already gotten far into the project and decided to finish it and release it. David Baggett produced the game's soundtrack, with Mark
Mothersbaugh and Josh Mancell of Mutato Muzika composing the music. Sound effects were created by Mike Gollum, Ron Horwitz
and Kevin Spears of Universal Sound Studios.[8] This marked the end of Naughty Dog's Crash Bandicoot games.

With the release of Crash Bash, Vivendi Universal's publishing deal with SCE had ended. Crash's prominent status within the video
game community prompted the company to make Crash a multiplatform series, giving the series to Mark Cerny and Vicarious
Visions to develop two separate but connected games.

2001–06: Jump to multiplatform


Crash Bandicoot: The Wrath of Cortex was originally in development by Traveller's Tales. After a falling-out between Vivendi
Universal and the two entities, Traveller's Tales was forced to alter the game from a free-roaming title to a standard Crash title.
Traveller's Tales had to begin development of the game from scratch and were given only twelve months to complete it.[9] The game
received mixed reviews but made the Greatest Hits lineup due to strong sales. Despite the rights of Crash Bandicoot going to Vivendi
Universal, Sony still retained the rights for the distribution and porting of the original Crash Bandicoot game series.

The following year, Vivendi would have Vicarious Visions release their first Crash Bandicoot game, a handheld exclusive called The
Huge Adventure was developed by Vicarious Visions and released to favourable reviews. The game would be noted for being
extremely similar to Naughty Dog's Crash Bandicoot 3. This would warrant a sequel, N-Tranced, which would also be met to similar
reception. During this time a subsidy of Traveller's Tales – Traveller's Tales Oxford Studio were developing a new Crash game for
console. This game was to be Crash Nitro Kart but due to unknown circumstances Vivendi moved development of Crash Nitro Kart
over to Vicarious Visions. Traveller's Tales Oxford Studio then moved on to their next project,Crash Bandicoot Evolution.

Crash Bandicoot Evolutionwas set to create a new form of gameplay for Crash, with the game planned to be a platformer/RPG with
many different elements planned for the game; it eventually became Crash Twinsanity. Although Traveller's Tales planned on
creating a Crash Bandicoot game titled Cortex Chaos and a sequel to Crash Twinsanity, Vivendi never picked up the games,
effectively cancelling them. Vicarious Visions's fourth and final game was Crash Bandicoot Purple: Ripto's Rampage for the Game
Boy Advance.

Although Cortex Chaos and the sequel to Crash Twinsanity were cancelled, Traveller's Tales was nonetheless commissioned to
develop one final Crash Bandicoot game. It was to be a kart racing game titled Crash Clash Racing. However, Traveller's Tales was
taken off the project as it was given to Radical Entertainment. The new studio proceeded to change the project into an entirely new
game, keeping only two core ideas, clashing and fusion. The game marked the first game published under Vivendi's Sierra
Entertainment brand, and the first game to use Radical's Titanium Engine, receiving the titleCrash Tag Team Racing.

The following year Crash Boom Bang! was released on July 20, 2006. This was the first Crash game to be developed by a Japanese
video game studio called Dimps. This was also the first game to exclusively feature a Japanese voice cast in all regional versions of
the game.[10]

2007–10: Redesign
Development on Crash of the Titans, Radical's second title, began after the completion of Crash Tag Team Racing.[11] The graphics
of the Wii version of the game was one of Radical Entertainment's main focuses in the game's development,[12] with Radical stating
that the Wii has "a lot of horsepower under the hood" and expressing their desire to make full use of it.[13] They also considered
implementing a feature to connect the Wii to DS during gameplay, but stopped due to technical issues and time limitations.[14] The
[15]
Xbox 360 version got a few extra months of development time to improve its graphics before setting a final release date.

While the game was being developed, the title's main character, Crash Bandicoot, became the new mascot of the Leukemia &
Lymphoma Society's "School and Youth" programs in an effort to promote the battle against blood cancer.[16] In a bid to further
promote the game, a Hummer was painted with imagery from the game and displayed at the Annual Balloon Fiesta in Bristol, United
Kingdom.[17] A "Monster Edition" of the game was released exclusively in Europe on October 12, 2007 for the PlayStation 2. This
special edition of the game features "Making-of" videos, water-on tattoos, game hints, a cheat code list, and the game's E3 and
theatrical trailers in multiple languages. Due to its "mild cartoon violence and language", the game received a PG rating from the
BBFC.[18]

Development on Crash: Mind over Mutant, Radical's third and final Crash title so far, began immediately after the completion of
Crash of the Titans. The idea of preserving a Titan for later use came from the play testing sessions of Crash of the Titans, in which
the testers were found to be reluctant to leave the Titans behind after an epic battle was won. Fans of the series were also a source of
inspiration for Crash: Mind over Mutant, having such wishes as a free-roaming environment, Coco Bandicoot being a playable
character and the return of the character Doctor Nitrus Brio. Full camera control was considered for the game, but was rejected for
graphical reasons and to avoid having to insert a split-screen view in the cooperation mode.[19] Online gameplay was also considered
as a feature in the finished game,[20] but was omitted due to the brief development schedule.[21] Coco Bandicoot as a playable
character was omitted from the PlayStation 2 version of the game due to her distinct animations taking up much of the console's
memory.[21] The Wii version of Crash: Mind over Mutantwas created first, with the graphics scaled up for the Xbox 360, and scaled
down for the PlayStation 2.[22]

In 2010, rumors appeared that Radical Entertainment was developing a fourth Crash Bandicoot title, under the name Crash Landed,
but due to large layoffs in the studio, the game was cancelled with all remaining developers put to work on Prototype 2.[23] The DS
edition of this game would be in development by Renegade Kid for approximately two weeks before similarly being cancelled by
Activision.[24][25][26] High Impact Games was developing a reboot of Crash Team Racing for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and Wii, but
the game was cancelled by Activision before the initial prototype. Several ideas for the game eventually made it into DreamWorks
Super Star Kartz.[27]

2011–16: Hiatus
On a Kotaku interview with Activision CEO Eric Hirshberg regarding the future of the Crash series, he said, "I don't have anything
official to announce, but I can speak as an individual, I love Crash Bandicoot. Those were some of my favorite video games growing
up. And I would love to find a way to bring him back, if we could."[28] Andy Gavin, co-creator of Crash Bandicoot, has said that he
would love to see a HD version of the marsupial's first four games, or even a full blown reboot.[29] Jason Rubin, co-creator of Crash
Bandicoot, said he is hopeful that Activision will "Bring Crash back to their glory days and that the character is still very dear to fans
between 18–49 years".[30] A new design of Crash Bandicoot has been spotted in a photo from the Vicarious Visions's studio, raising
rumors that a new game might be in development,[31] though this was later confirmed to be concept art from a previous Crash
Bandicoot cancelled game.[32]

In June 2013, co-creator Andy Gavin suggested ways to revitalize the series. "Crash needs a total reboot. There's an opportunity to
reset the history, and go back to his creation story and the original conflict with Cortex. In that context, you could reprise classic
Crash 1 and 2's settings and villains. It would make sense to use a more modern, free-roaming style. I would concentrate on Looney
Tunes-esque animation and really addictive action. That's what we did with the original Crash, and there's no reason it couldn't be
done today. Given the current Crash games, people forget that he was once cool. Our Crash had a certain whimsical edge to him.
Sure, it was goofy – but it wasn't dumb.".[33]

In November 2013, rumours began circulating that Sony bought the rights to the franchise from Activision.[34] Speculations have
been fueled after the release of PlayStation 4's #4ThePlayers campaign, featuring a road sign of a bandicoot, with an arrow pointing
towards the orange diamond logo of Sony Computer Entertainment.[35][36] It was also noted by publications such as IGN that Crash
had been removed from Activision's official website,[37] which would seem to add further credibility to the rumor. However, shortly
after, this was proven false, as an Activision representative told Game Informer that "[Activision still owns] Crash Bandicoot and we
[38]
continue to explore ways in which we could bring the beloved series to life".

In July 2014, Sony Computer Entertainment CEO Andrew House revealed that reviving the Crash Bandicoot series is something that
they have been thinking about, saying "It's never off the table.", and Naughty Dog also revealed through an IGN interview the
possibility that they may revive both series of Crash Bandicoot as well as Jak & Daxter.[39] In January 2015, however, Naughty
Dog's Josh Scherr stated in an interview with Game Informer that Naughty Dog does not miss working on either series and has no
intention of bringing them back to life.[40] Despite this, Naughty Dog co-president Evan Wells stated that the company would love to
return to Crash Bandicoot but doesn't see it as viable.[41]

On December 5, 2015, rumors of a possible Crash Bandicoot return flared up once again when SIE Worldwide Studios Chairman and
SCEA President and CEO Shawn Layden appeared onstage at PlayStation Experience wearing a Crash Bandicoot shirt. Layden,
however, never mentioned the series at the event, and has yet to address why he wore the shirt.[42] In February 2016, a new Crash
game appeared to be on the horizon when NECA Director of Product Development Randy Falk stated in an interview with YouTuber
Pixel Dan that the company has "a lot of stuff going on with Sony" before mentioning that "I see they're bringing Crash Bandicoot
back, so there's some great stuff there."[43] Shortly after, however, an NECA representative clarified with GameSpot that Falk's
comments were misunderstood, and that Falk was only speaking of a hypothetical return of the series after seeing a fan-made Crash
art just before being interviewed.[44]

In Naughty Dog's 2016 game Uncharted 4: A Thief's End, in which protagonist Nathan Drake is seen playing a level from the
original Crash Bandicoot, further adding to the rumor that a return for the series was imminent.[45] Speculation was fueled even
further when it was discovered that Activision's legal ownership of the franchise was not mentioned anywhere in the game's credits,
sparking rumors that the franchise had been purchased by Sony.[46] Lex Lang has also hinted on Facebook that he has been asked to
return to his role as voice actor of Dr. Neo Cortex.[47] However, shortly after, the rumors and speculations were derailed when Sony
VP of Publisher Relations Adam Boyes confirmed on Twitter that Activision still owns the rights to the franchise,[48] and Lang
clarified that he was not teasing a Crash Bandicoot revival, and that he had not been asked to return to the series, but would be open
[49]
to potentially lending his voice to a new Crash game in the future.

2016–present: Return
At E3 2016, after years of rumours and speculation, Crash Bandicoot made his official return when it was announced that Crash
would be a playable character in Activision's upcoming game Skylanders: Imaginators, released on October 16, 2016. It was
announced at Gamescom 2016 that Dr. Neo Cortex would also be playable in Skylanders: Imaginators, and that Vicarious Visions
had developed a Crash-themed level for the game, "Thumpin' Wumpa Islands".[50] A remaster of the first, second, and third titles
developed by Vicarious Visions, titled Crash Bandicoot N. Sane Trilogy, was released on the PlayStation 4 on June 30, 2017 in
partnership with Activision.[51][52] During the interview with Metro Game Central, Vicarious Visions producer, Kara Massie refused
to rule out the possibility of a remaster of Crash Team Racing for the PlayStation 4. Massie has also acknowledged that she was
repeatedly asked aboutCrash Team Racing by fans.[53] Massie has not confirmed if the game will be in the works after the release of
N. Sane Trilogy.[54] Vicarious Visions has also expressed interest in making a newCrash Bandicoot game.[55]

Common gameplay elements


Crash Bandicoot is primarily a platforming series. The goal of each level is to guide Crash from the beginning to the end, travelling
either into the screen, towards the player or left and right in a side-scrolling manner. Several levels place Crash in unique situations
which require the use of motorbikes, jet skis, submarines and various wild animals to reach the level's end.

In the original Crash Bandicoot, Crash's moveset is rather limited; he can run, jump and spin his way through treacherous
environments and hostile creatures. Cortex Strikes Back introduces several new moves for Crash to utilise, including a high jump,
high spin jump, body slam and slide attack. Warped expands on this by awarding the player with new abilities after each boss is
defeated, which was carried over toThe Wrath of Cortex. The players can also spin and slide at the same time when pressing the right
buttons.

Collectibles
The most common collectible in the series is Wumpa Fruit, which is found on the main path of most levels, as well as inside most
crates. Collecting 100 Wumpa Fruits will award the player an extra life. Wumpa Fruit takes on other uses in most spin-off titles, such
as restoring health in certain Crash Bash levels and increasing weapon power in Crash Team Racing. In recent titles, Wumpa Fruit is
used to replenish Crash's health, with Mojo effectively replacing it as the new main collectible item. By collecting Aku-Aku masks,
Crash can be protected from harm from most enemies and obstacles (though certain elements such as bottomless pits will cause him
to lose a life regardless.) Crash can collect up to two masks for two extra hits of damage, with an additional mask granting him
temporary invincibility.

The other major recurring valuables Crash finds on his adventures include Gems and Crystals. Most Gems in the series are won by
breaking open every crate in a level. Starting with Cortex Strikes Back, an additional five coloured Gems can be obtained by
completing special tasks or finding hidden areas. Crash Twinsanity contains six colored Gems per level, most of which are earned by
solving a small puzzle. Crystals, which play a key role in the plot of most Crash games following Cortex Strikes Back, are usually
required to make progress through most games. Relics, first introduced in Warped are earned in Time Trial modes, with more
valuable relics earned for higher times.

Crates
Crates come in several varieties and can be found in abundance across Crash's world. Most crates will assist the player's journey
through the game, providing Wumpa Fruit, additional hit points in the form of Aku Aku masks and extra lives. In most games,
players will be awarded a gem if they break all the crates in a level.

TNT and Nitro Crates are the only boxes that can damage Crash. TNT Crates have a three-second fuse when jumped on, but Nitro
Crates will explode instantly upon any contact with Crash or anything else that runs into them. Switch Boxes (distinguished by an
exclamation mark) are used to make previously invisible crates appear
. A green Switch Box will detonate all Nitro Crates in the level.

Crates marked with a "C" are checkpoints that Crash will return to if he is killed during play. Locked Crates are protected by a metal
casing that can only be destroyed with Crash's body slam move, while Spring Crates allow him to reach high up areas by bouncing on
them. Slot Boxes rapidly switch between multiple types of crates, and if they are not broken in time, will become metallic and
indestructible. Time Boxes are a special crate found exclusively in Time Trial mode. They will freeze the clock for the number of
seconds displayed on the box, increasing the player's chance of beating the time trial.

Structure
The original Crash Bandicoot uses a fairly linear structure in which Crash clears through levels on a map, with some areas accessible
by locating gems. Beginning with Cortex Strikes Back, the game usually takes place in a hub world called a Warp Room, with levels
divided up into sets of five. To progress, the player must find and collect a Crystal within each of the stages, which can be played in
any order, before facing the boss of each room. From Twinsanity onwards, the games took a more free-roaming approach, with Crash
travelling various areas on foot.

Music
Numerous composers have contributed music to the Crash Bandicoot series. Mutato Muzika's Josh Mancell was responsible for the
music of the first four games. After the fourth game, numerous other composers were responsible for the music in other games. Steve
Duckworth composed music for Crash Bash, Andy Blythe and Marten Joustra for The Wrath of Cortex, Ashif Hakik and Todd
Masten for Crash Nitro Kart and Spiralmouth for Twinsanity. The music for Tag Team Racing was composed by both Spiralmouth
and Marc Baril, while Crash of the Titans and Mind Over Mutant were composed by Baril alone.

Developers and publishers


The first four Crash Bandicoot games were developed by Naughty Dog. Bash was developed by Eurocom. The Wrath of Cortex and
Twinsanity were developed by Traveller's Tales and its division Traveller's Tales Oxford, respectively. The Huge Adventure (Crash
Bandicoot XS in Europe), 2: N-Tranced, Nitro Kart, Purple: Ripto's Rampage (Crash Bandicoot Fusion in Europe) and N. Sane
Trilogy have all been developed by Vicarious Visions. Tag Team Racing, Crash of the Titans and Mind Over Mutant were developed
by Radical Entertainmentand Boom Bang! was developed by Dimps.
The first five Crash titles were published by Sony Computer Entertainment and produced by Universal Interactive Studios. Wrath of
Cortex was published by Universal Interactive Studios. All of the other Crash titles were published by Universal Interactive Studios
(now the defunct Vivendi Games). Konami published and distributed some Japanese-released Crash Bandicoot games for the
Japanese market and the worldwide release ofThe Wrath of Cortex.

Other media

Manga
In 1998 Coro Coro Comics developed a manga series titled Crash Bandicoot—Dansu! de Jump! na Daibōken; was drawn and
produced by Ari Kawashima in 1998, and only been two manga volumes published to date, leaving the total number of comics
unknown. It is loosely based off the events of Crash Bandicoot 2: Cortex Strikes Back.

Animation
In 2007, The Animation Picture Company had produced four web-short films, to promote the game Crash of the Titans, titled Crash
Bandicoot: No Use Crying, Crash Bandicoot Monster Truck, Crash Bandicoot – Titan Idol and Crash Bandicoot – Have Another, all
lasting for about three minutes. These are available for free download on the Xbox 360 video service or are available to watch on the
web, originally available for viewing on the Crash Bandicoot of
ficial website.

On a somewhat related note, the original game had short start and end cutscenes made for it that were not used in the game- this is
because they were hand-drawn, animated by Universal Animation Studios during early development of the game (with Jim
Cummings providing a backing song), for possible extrapolation into an animated TV series; it had a similar look and feel to another
video game adaptation from Universal in the same timeframe, Earthworm Jim. However, when Sony purchased rights to publish the
game, the scenes were ordered dropped to push the 3D elements. They were not seen publicly until 2015, when producer David Siller
uploaded the scenes to YouTube.

Crash also makes a guest appearance in the Skylanders Academy animated series. At the end of the episode "The Skylands Are
Falling!", due to the actions of the Skylanders, Crash is inadvertently pulled through a dimensional rift while battling Cortex, ending
up in the Skylands. The episode "Crash Landing" features Crash allying with Spyro and the Skylanders to recover the dark relic
needed to return him to the Wumpa Islands. Crash's appearance in Skylanders Academy is largely based on his design from
Skylanders: Imaginators, but unlike other appearances, he is capable of speaking full sentences with an Australian accent.

Reception
The Crash Bandicoot series has been a commercial success. As of 2007, the series altogether has sold over 50 million units
worldwide.[120] According to Gamasutra, the first Crash Bandicoot game has sold 6.8 million units as of November 2003,[121]
making it the seventh best-selling PlayStation game of all time. Cortex Strikes Back sold 3.87 million units in the U.S.,[122] while
Warped sold 3.76 million.[122] The last 2 games on the PlayStation console, Crash Team Racing and Crash Bash, sold 1.9 and 1.6
million units in the U.S. respectively.[122] 'Crash Bandicoot: The Wrath of Cortex, which has sold 1.95 million units in the U.S.[122]

The Crash Bandicoot series is one of the few Western video game series to find blockbuster success in Japan. Cortex Strikes Back
and Warped sold 1.3 and 1.4 million units in the country respectively,[123] while the PlayStation 2 version of Wrath of Cortex sold
203 thousand units.[124]
Aggregate review scores
As of January 4, 2011.

Game GameRankings Metacritic


Crash Bandicoot (PS1) 80.40%[56] —
Cortex Strikes Back (PS1) 88.54%[57] —
Warped (PS1) 89.07%[58] (PS1) 91[59]
Team Racing (PS1) 91.78%[60] (PS1) 88[61]
Bash (PS1) 71.27%[62] (PS1) 68[63]
(Xbox) 70.48%[64] (Xbox) 70[67]
The Wrath of Cortex (PS2) 70.12%[65] (PS2) 66[68]
(GC) 63.01%[66] (GC) 62[69]
The Huge Adventure (GBA) 78.82%[70] (GBA) 78[71]
N-Tranced (GBA) 75%[72] (GBA) 75[73]
(GBA) 69.71%[74] (GBA) 77[79]
(PS2) 67.02%[75] (Xbox) 70[80]
Nitro Kart (Xbox) 65.98%[76] (PS2) 69[81]
(GC) 63.19%[77] (GC) 66[82]
(NGE) 58.56%[78] (NGE) 64[83]
Ripto's Rampage (GBA) 64.20%[84] (GBA) 67[85]
(Xbox) 68.84%[86] (Xbox) 66[88]
Twinsanity
(PS2) 66.20%[87] (PS2) 64[89]
(Xbox) 68.39%[90] (Xbox) 69[94]
(PS2) 68.25%[91] (PSP) 68[95]
Tag Team Racing
(PSP) 68.12%[92] (PS2) 66[96]
(GC) 66.65%[93] (GC) 66[97]
Boom Bang! (NDS) 42.45%[98] (NDS) 37[99]
(NDS) 72.00%[100]
(NDS) 73[105]
(PS2) 71.86%[101]
(PS2) 70[106]
Crash of the Titans (Wii) 71.03%[102]
(Wii) 69[107]
(PSP) 70.00%[103]
(X360) 65[108]
(X360) 64.79%[104]
(PS2) 74.60%[109]
(PS2) 73[114]
(Wii) 71.79%[110]
(Wii) 70[115]
Mind Over Mutant (X360) 61.94%[111]
(X360) 60[116]
(PSP) 54.75%[112]
(NDS) 45[117]
(NDS) 48.55%[113]
N. Sane Trilogy (PS4) 82.06%[118] (PS4) 81[119]

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External links
Official website
The series website from 2008at the Wayback Machine (archived May 31, 2013)

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