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Student’s Name

Professors Name



Butler, Octavia E. Bloodchild: and other stories. Open Road Media, 2012.

Butler expresses her creativity and imagination by clearly exploring the challenges

faced in reversing human roles and the struggle experienced by two different species while

trying to survive with each other. In the author's imagination, she sees a generation of Terrans

escaping from their native land to live in an alien land where they become a host or carrier of

the insect-like animals' eggs. Naturally, the human anatomy does not allow men to bear

children. However, Butler expresses her creativity in illustrating how the Tlics relies on the

male Terrans as their host for them to bear children. Since this is an unusual act, the Tlics use

a narcotic to seduce the male species and eventually develops a familial bond. Nevertheless,

there is a conflict that forces the protagonist to question his role as the carrier of the species

eggs. He experiences a disgusting event where one of the male species had to undergo

through an operation to remove the eggs from his abdomen and place them in an animal. At

the end he agrees to carry the eggs since it's the only way he could save his generation.

The author has two central themes explored in this literature. Firstly, is the gender

roles and how a change in the environment could affect the function of each. Secondly, she

discusses the theme of interdependence in that no one species can live by itself. The Tlics

dominate the land, but despite them having all that power, they can't bear children and must

depend on the human male species. On the other hand, the male species rely on the Tlics for

survival in an alien land.


Butler, Octavia E. "The Evening and the Morning and the Night." Callaloo 24.2 (2001):


The premise behind this story is a dangerous discovery by scientists whereby they

unwittingly trigger a genetic disease in the quest of finding a cure for cancer. The author uses

another accurate analogy to express the theme of isolation as the people who become infected

by the disease are cut off from the general population. The Duryea-Gode Disease is a genetic

disease passed to Lynn by her parents. The author uses this illustration and shows how

stigmatization affects certain individuals in the society. Even though the conditions of the

characters are fictional a disease like HIV & Aids is real and the lifestyle in which people

with the infection is not different from the one the protagonist experiences. All the people

infected with DGD are required to wear a pendant around their necks which makes them feel

cut off from the community and only feel solace amongst themselves. Butler, adds that the

terminal genetic disease is incurable which means Lynn the protagonist cannot bear children.

She conflicts with her parents who died while she was still a teenager for giving birth to her

knowing she will live a discriminated life. The author shows the importance of health and the

critical side of a failed scientific experiment and how human beings would suffer.

This literature uses a fiction story that people can relate to unlike in the ‘Blood child.'

The author who specializes in science and fiction literature ignites a different thought on how

diverse the scientific world can be. Her writings are a challenge to people to think beyond

their surroundings. Lastly, she focuses on the theme of isolation and social stigmatization as a

way of letting the audience know how difficult it is for people with terminal diseases.

Curtis, Claire P. "Theorizing fear: Octavia Butler and the realist utopia." Utopian

Studies 19.3 (2008): 411-431.


This article focuses on multiple works of the author Butler Octavia and her focus on

fear as a motivation factor for human action and instincts as a fact of human life. The author's

utopian mindset is motivated by a concern for personal security. She further argues that the

hierarchy in which fear stems from and the understanding of intelligence is based on realistic

political thought. The author reveals that Octavia has exposed/expresses herself as a theorist

of fear in the 20th century through the short stories and novels she has written in the past. As

such, the journal has two examples of short stories "The Book of Marthea" and "Amnesty"

which reveals a journey of two women protagonists facing harsh conditions of living. In

essence, the female protagonists acknowledge that fear is an object that can be used as a

teaching tool, fear as subjugation, as motivation and as the impetus for human expansion.

Curtis claims that Butler's works exemplify a "utopia of fear" and further asserts the

statement by showing how she sees it as less than a reaction of the ideal human emotion and

more of a world based condition. The article is well set to give a narration of Butler's artistic

works. Nevertheless, it does not give more exquisite details on the science fiction of the

author's works. It's limited to fear as the subject of discussion.

Schalk, Sami. "Interpreting Disability Metaphor and Race in Octavia Butler's" The

Evening and the Morning and the Night." African American Review 50.2 (2017):


The author of this article illustrates how the disability metaphors as used in the

African-American literature can bring to light the overlapping and mutually constitutive

relationship between anti-black and ableism racism. Further, the author makes two critical

arguments whereby he analyses the story to show a desire for the development of the black

disability studies. In it, there is need to use more nuanced approaches while explaining the

African-American literature disability metaphors. In addition to that, the author sees a


necessity to include a theoretical expansion on the meaning of disability to include diseases

and illnesses.

As opposed to the other pieces of literature, the author of this article does not give a

lot of information on the artistic works of Butler. Also, the article is not based on science and

fiction stories like the first two. Therefore, Butler is a writer not limited to one subject or

genre of writing.

AJ, Manju, M. MA, and S. Nalini MA. "The style and techniques of the select novels of

Octavia E. Butler: A critical study."

The authors of this journal have thoroughly explored the role played by Octavio

Butler as an author in writing using the science and fiction genre. As such, this genre gave the

author a forum to use her freedom in writing about the subjects she felt mattered a lot to her

like slavery. This article entails a critical assessment of four novels written by Butler namely,

the parable of the talents, parable of the sower, kindred and wild seed. In this, she used a sub-

genre of science and fiction called dystopia which tells more about a frightening future.

Nonetheless, the authors note a difference in her works as compared to other novels in that

Butler was able to write in a manner that gave hope to her audience compared to the other

dystopian works making her work unique.

This journal, unlike others, has utilized more than one novel in the critical assessment

of Butler's work. Reading throughout the analysis one can tell that Butler was gifted in

writing about science and fiction. This article presents an extended study of her work and

thus is more reliable to anyone who would wish to study the author's literature.

Smith, Stephanie A. "Octavia Butler: a retrospective." (2007): 385-393.

This article gives credit to Octavia Butler as one of the best female science and fiction

writers of her time. The writer acknowledges that science and fiction was a genre dominated

by the whites, however, Butler comes in and takes over with topics that entailed injustice,

oppression and slavery at the time. The author of this journal is however, different as

compared to the rest in that he gives a background about the author to show what might have

inspired her in using the genre and focusing on critical issues affecting the country. Lastly, the

author compares her work with other writers and remembers that Butler was very influential

since she focused on enlightening the society on the current status of affairs that affected the

people. She therefore, becomes a revolutionary author who uses the genre in her advantage to

educate the society.