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# Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

The beams are made in a long line system of pretensioning, In one line three beams are made as shown in below fig.

α α α α α α
α α α α α α

Analysed section

1) The loss of prestressing due to friction is calculated according to IS: 1343 – 1980 Clause 18.5.2.6.

P x = P 0 × e − ( µα + kx )

Neglected the wave effect (factor kx) since there is no curved strands considered.

## α= 0.1176 rad. 6.74 Degree

The cumulative angle in the analysed section is 5xα= 0.588 rad
33.7 Deg
The µ – factor is derived from IS: 1343 – 1980 Clause 18.5.2.6.
µ = 0.30 (for steel moving on fixed steel duct)

− ( 0 . 3 × 0 . 588 )
P x = P0 × e Px = 0.838 x Po

## The stress in the analysed section after accounting for friction:

2
80% x 0.838 x 1860 / 1.15 = 1084.7 N/mm

## 2) Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation

The loss of prestress due to elastic deformation is obtained by
F p 0
ne × ω p ×
A p
∆σ p =
1 + ne × ω p

## Fp0 = number of strands x area strand x stress in strand

Fp0 = 28 x 140 x 1084.7 = 4251.9 kN

## ωp = Ap/Asection = (28 x 140) = 0.0065

(400 x 1500)
Assume concrete M40 (Strangth gained at the time prestress transfering)

31622.8

## ∆σp = 6.32 x 0.0065 x 4251.9 x 1000

28 x 140
1+ 6.32 x 0.0065
∆σp
∆σ = 43.04 Mpa

3) Section properties
The section properties are determined according to IS 456: 2000 Clause 23.1.2. The governing effective width is
determined by
bf = l0/6 + bw +6Df = 19100 + 400 + 6 x 300 = 5383.3 mm
6

1
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
The effective width is the lesser of:
The calculated value (bf = 5383.3 mm) and
The breadth of the web plus half the sum of the clear distances to the adjacent beams = 5087.5 mm
2175 + 2512.5 +
300

Deck slab

## 1500 Beam S = 1396 mm

400

2
A= 1500 x 400 + 5087.5 x 300 = 600000 + 1526250 = 2126250 mm
S= 1396 mm
1/12 x 400 x 12503 + 1/12 x 2888 x 2503 + 400 x 1250 x (1068-625)2 + 2888 x 250 x (1375-1068)2
I = I1 + I2 + A1 x a12 + A2 x a22
I= 1/12 x 400 x 1500^3 + 1/12 x 5087.5 x 300^3 + 400 x 1500 x (1396 - 750)^2 + 5087.5 x 300 x (1650 - 1396)^2
4
I= 4.728E+11 mm

## Wtop = I/S top

S top = 404 mm

3
W top = 1170398949 mm

## W bottom = I/S bottom

S bottom = 1396 mm

3
W bottom = 338677126 mm

## 4) Hand calculation of number of strands

The governing criterion for deciding the number of strands
The tensile stress in the lower outer fiber in the end phase

## The eccentricity of the strands in the middle section e = 900 mm (Assumed)

2
The allowable stress in the end phase s = 3 N/mm (Cl.22.7.1, IS1343-1999)

2
A= 400 x 1500 = 600000 mm

W= 1/6 x b x h2
3
W= 1/6 x 400 x 1500^2 = 1.50E+08 mm
16.16
-
Mrep = 684.0 + 1739.97 = 2424.0 kNm
s = M/Wbeam +

## s= 2424.0 = 16.16 N/mm2 16.16

150.0
Construction phase – roadway:LOAD-2 547 + 1691 + (1,313/(1,313 + 1,575)) x 1928 =
5.73
-

2
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980 -
Mrep = 1739.97 + 1690.88 + 1160.0 4590.8 kNm
s = M/Wbeam – end phase
2
s= 4590.8 = 30.61 N/mm +
150.0 16.61

## Compensating prestress = 16.2 + 30.6 - 3 = 43.77 N/mm2

Prestressing force:

σ concrete ⇒ 43.77
P =
1 e 1 + 900
( + )
A W 600000 1.500E+08

P= 5709 kN

N = number of strands
N= P/170 kN = 5709 = 34 strands
170
Stanrds distribution: Upper = 2 Midle = 15 Lower = 17

## 5) Bursting tensile force

Transverse tensile forces occur at the end of the beam. These forces are calculated with the equivalent prism
method.

2 strands

15 strands

17 strands

4.75 N/mm 2
+
404 mm
4.76 N/mm 2

-
17 strands

14.27 N/mm 2
The height of this prism is determined by the criterion that no shear forces may occur.

## Tensile force per strand = = 167.9 kN

Transmission zone according to IS 1343 – 1980 page 34
Diameter strands: 15.2 mm
Lt = 30 x ∅ = 30 x 15.2 = 456 mm (Cl.18.6.1.1, Pg-34)

## The stress due to the lower 17 strands

Lower fiber:
s= F/A + M/W = 17 x 167.90 x 1000 + 17 x 167.9 x 0.5
600000 150 x 1000000
2
s= 4.76 + 9.51 = 14.27 N/mm
Top fiber:
s = F/A + M/W = 17 x 167.90 x 1000 - 17 x 167.9 x 0.5

3
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
600000 150 x 1000000
2
s= 4.76 - 9.51 = -4.76 N/mm

0 .6 × l 0 2 0.6 × 456 2
Cspl = 1+ ( ) = 1+ ( )
h 1250
Cpsl = 1.02 h= = 375 mm
The length of the prism:
Lt = Cspl x h = 1.02 * 1500 = 1535.5 mm
F bursting = 2 x M/Lt
M bursting = 1/6 x b x h2 x s = 1/6 x 400 x (2 X 375)^2 x 4.76 = 178.39 kNm
F bursting = 2 x 178.4 /1535.5 232.4 kN

As = Fbursting/s steel
Due to the lower and the upper strands the amount of reinforcement is doubled
2
As = 2 x 232 x 1000/0.87 x 415 = 1287.1 mm
2
As = 1287.1 mm
2
Number of bars ∅ 16 = As/Abar = 1287.11/201.1 7 bars equal to 4 stirrups ( 1407.43 mm )

## Spilliting Tensile Force

In the transfer zone of pretensioned beams transverse reinforcement is necessary to prevent cracking of the
concrete. The tensile forces are calculated with a frame model.
The stresses due to prestressing are equally distributed over a length: Lt + beam height
Lt = length of transmission zone of 1 strand.

P1

P1 x sin α1

200 200

P2
P2 x sin α2 196
21 x 185kN
0.25 h = 375 mm

## The tensile loads P1 and P2

P1 x sin α1 = 13 x 185 x 73/850 = 207 kN
P2 x sin α2 = 14 x 185 x 196/850 = 597 kN

## The governing tensile force is P2 x sin a2 = 597 kN

As = 597 x 103/(0.87x415)
2 2
As = 1654 mm equals 10 bars 9 bars ∅ 16 = ( 2010.6 mm )

Shear Force

The shear check is done for two clauses in the Indian Standards:
The ultimate shear in an uncracked section (IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1)

4
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
The ultimate shear force in a cracked section (IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2)

## The shear reinforcement is designed on the lower of the above-mentioned values

The shear reinforcement is calculated for the construction phase and for the end phase.

The component of the inclined tendons is ignored according to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2.

The shear force is calculated for the middle beams since they carry the most loads.

The reinforcement for the shear force in the edge beam is equal to the reinforcement of the roadway beam. This is
allowable because the loads are comparable and the prestressing is equal to the roadway beam.

Analysed section

23700

## Vdead load beam = 144 – 1.25 x 12.5 = 129 kN

Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2 = (114 + 95) – 1.25 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 187 kN

## According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1

2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t
Vco = kN
Assume M40
2
ft = 0.24 x sqrt(fck) = 1.52 N/mm

2
fcp = 27 x 165/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.425 N/mm
2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 8 . 9 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1352.6 kN
According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2
f pe V
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 ) ζ 0 bd + M 0
f p M
Vcr = kN
Assume fpe/fp = 0.6
100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 691 = 1.37
2
ξc = 0.79 N/mm

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 1.25 – (0.5 x (12.5+9.9+8.2) x 1.252

5
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

## Centroid of the tendons:

(14 x 0.150 + 11 x 1.125 + 2 x 1.175)/27 = 0.62 m

## Stresses in outer fiber due to prestressing

s= N/A + M/W
s= (27 x 165 x 103/ 400 x 1250) + (27 x 165 x 103 x (625 – 623)/(1/6 x 400 x 12502)
2
s= 8.9 + 0.1 = 9 N/mm

## Assume stresses to be evenly distributed in the section.

2
The stress at the centroid of the prestress: 8.9 N/mm

## M0 = 0.8 x 8.9 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 742 kNm

380
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 75 × 400 × 606 + 742
1 . 2 × 330

## Vcr = 122 + 712

Vcr = 834 kN
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

cr

2 strands

11 strands

14 strands

Vc = 834 kN

Analysed section

23700

## Vdead load beam = 144 – 1.25 x 12.5 = 129 kN

Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2= (114 + 95) – 1.25 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 186 kN

## Vtruck IRC class A= 1.15 x 286 = 328 kN

6
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
(see document SC – 00 – 35 rev. B.– section 6.3, page 64)
Vwind= 26 kN
(see document SC – 00 – 35 rev. B.– page 34)
Vlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 – 1.25 x 13.13 = 135 kN

## According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1

2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t

Assume M40
2
f t = 0 . 24 f ck = 0 . 24 40 = 1 . 52 N / mm
fcp = 27 x 145/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.8 N/mm2

2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 7 . 8 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1151 kN

## According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2

f pe V
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 ) ζ c bd + M 0
f p M
Assume fpe/fp = 0.6
100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 606 = 1.56
x0 = 0.79 N/mm2

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 1.25 – (0.5 x (12.5+ 9.9 + 8.2) x 1.252

## Mwind= 26 x 1.25 – 0.5 x 2.2 x 1.252 = 31 kNm

Mlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 x 1.25 – 0.5 x 13.13 x 1.252 = 180 kNm

## Centroid of the tendons:

(14 x 0.150 + 11 x 1.175 + 2 x 1.125)/27 = 0.623 m

## Stresses in outer fiber due to prestressing

s = N/A + M/W
s = (27 x 145 x 103/ 400 x 1250) + (27 x 145 x 103 x (625 – 623)/(1/6 x 400 x 12502)
s = 7.8 + 0.1 = 7.9 N/mm2

## M0 = 0.8 x 7.8 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 650 kNm

1 . 5 × 804
V = ( 1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 650 = 128 + 503 = 631 kN

7
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980 1 . 5 × 804
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 650 = 128 + 503 = 631 kN
1 . 5 × 1038
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

## (V − V c ) × s v (1 . 5 × 804 − 631 ) × 10 3 × 200 2

Av = = = 287 mm
0 . 87 × f y × d t 0 . 87 × 415 × (1250 − 2 × 50 − 2 × 10 − 2 × 10 )

Asv = 287 mm2/200mm Þ apply stirrups Æ 12 – 100 (equals 452 mm2/200 mm)

## End Phase Section Out of The Support

Governing beam is middle beam

Analysed section

3000

Middle beam

23700

## The analysed section is 3 m out of the support of the beam

Vdead load beam = 144 – 3 x 12.5 = 107 kN
Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2= (114 + 95) – 3 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 155 kN

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 114 kN 114 kN
27 kN 27 kN

3000

Middle beam

## 3m 3m 3m 4.3 m 1.2 m 3.2 m 1.1 m

23700

For axle loads: see sketch above (maximum support reaction if the loads are mirrored)

Vtruck IRC class A= factor second wheel x dynamic factor x support force
Vtruck IRC class A= 1.53 x 1.15 x {13.5x(20.1+19)+57x(15.8+14.6)+34x(10.3+7.3+4.3+1.3)}/23.1

## Vrep = 107 + 155 + 233 + 20 + 113 = 628 kN

8
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
Vd = 1.5 x 628 = 942 kN

## According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1

2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t

Assume M40
2
f t = 0 . 24 f ck = 0 . 24 40 = 1 . 52 N / mm
fcp = 27 x 145/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.8 N/mm2

2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 7 . 8 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1151 kN

## According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2

f pe V
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 )ζ c bd + M 0
f p M

## Assume fpe/fp = 0.6

100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 606 = 1.56
x0 = 0.79 N/mm2

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 3 – (0.5 x (12.5+ 9.9 + 8.2) x 32

s = 13.5 N/mm2

## M0 = 0.8 x 13.5 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 1125 kNm

1 . 5 × 628
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 1125 = 128 + 355 = 483 kN
1 . 5 × 1992
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

## (V − V c ) × s v (1 . 5 × 628 − 483 ) × 10 3 × 200 2

Av = = = 229 mm
0 . 87 × f y × d t 0 . 87 × 415 × (1250 − 2 × 50 − 2 × 10 − 2 × 10 )
Asv = 229 mm2/200mm Þ apply stirrups Æ 12 – 100 (equals 452 mm2/200 mm)

## End Phase Section further Out of the Support

Governing beam is middle beam

Analysed section

5000

9
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
Middle beam

23700

## Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2= (114 + 95) – 5 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 118 kN

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 114 kN 114 kN
27 kN 27 kN

5000

Middle beam

## 3m 3m 3m 4.3 m 1.2 m 3.2 m 1.1 m

23700

For axle loads: see sketch above (maximum support reaction if the loads are mirrored)

Vtruck IRC class A= factor second wheel x dynamic factor x support force
Vtruck IRC class A= 1.53 x 1.15 x {13.5 x (18.1+17) + 57 x (13.8+12.6) + 34 x (8.3+5.3+2.3)}/23.1

## According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1

2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t

Assume M40
2
f t = 0 . 24 f ck = 0 . 24 40 = 1 . 52 N / mm
fcp = 27 x 145/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.8 N/mm2
2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 7 . 8 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1151 kN

## According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2

f pe V
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 )ζ c bd + M 0
f p M
Assume fpe/fp = 0.6
100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 606 = 1.56
x0 = 0.79 N/mm2

10
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 5 – (0.5 x (12.5+ 9.9 + 8.2) x 52

s = 15.2 N/mm2

## M0 = 0.8 x 15.2 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 1264 kNm

1 . 5 × 494
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 1264 = 128 + 214 = 342 kN
1 . 5 × 2916
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

## Centroid of the tendons:

(15 x 0.150 + 11 x 1.175 + 2 x 1.125)/28 = 0.606 m

## (V − V c ) × s v (1 . 5 × 494 − 342 ) × 10 3 × 200 2

Av = = = 199 mm
0 . 87 × f y × d t 0 . 87 × 415 × (1250 − 2 × 50 − 2 × 10 − 2 × 10 )
Asv = 199 mm2/200mm Þ apply stirrups Æ 12 – 200 (equals 226 mm2/200 mm

Moment Check
In this section the governing moments (Ultimate Limit State) for the operational phase are checked.

The ultimate moment is calculated for the middle section of the middle beam.
For the forces: see section 7.7.

1575 + 1313
250

Deck slab

## 1250 S = 1068 mm Beam - line prestressing

178

11
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

400

## According to IS 1343 – 1980 Clause 22.1

Ap × f p 27 × 140 × 1860
= = 0 . 041
b × d × f ck 2888 × 1323 × 45
See table 11 appendix B IS 1343 – 1980: Xu/d = 0.089
Xu = 0.089 x 1323 = 118 mm

M u= f pu × A p × ( d − 0 . 42 X u )
1860
M u = × 25 × 140 × (1323 − 0 . 42 × 118 )
1 . 15
Mu = 7209 kNm

## Reinforcement & Prestressing

Longitudinal prestressing

1.175
1.125
1.075
1.025

## Edge Beam/ Edge Beam/

Middle Beam Middle Beam
End section Middle section
0.375
0.325
0.275
0.225
0.175
0.125
0.075

## Middle beam/Edge beam

12
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

3 x 2 16 3 16 5 16
Bursting tensile Splitting tensile Splitting tensile
reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement
Shear reinforcement

## Stirrups Stirrups Stirrups

- 12 – 100 - 12 – 200 - 12 – 100

Middle beam

Stirrups
- 10 – 200

Edge beam

23700

8 x hp 16 – 200

## 1300 3000 3000 3000

Middle beam

Section 3 Section 1
Section 5 15 x hp 16 – 100 8 x hp 12 – 200
8 x hp 16 – 100

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