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Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

The beams are made in a long line system of pretensioning, In one line three beams are made as shown in below fig.

α α α α α α
α α α α α α

Analysed section

1) The loss of prestressing due to friction is calculated according to IS: 1343 – 1980 Clause 18.5.2.6.

P x = P 0 × e − ( µα + kx )

Neglected the wave effect (factor kx) since there is no curved strands considered.

α= 0.1176 rad. 6.74 Degree


The cumulative angle in the analysed section is 5xα= 0.588 rad
33.7 Deg
The µ – factor is derived from IS: 1343 – 1980 Clause 18.5.2.6.
µ = 0.30 (for steel moving on fixed steel duct)

− ( 0 . 3 × 0 . 588 )
P x = P0 × e Px = 0.838 x Po

The stress in the analysed section after accounting for friction:


2
80% x 0.838 x 1860 / 1.15 = 1084.7 N/mm

2) Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation


The loss of prestress due to elastic deformation is obtained by
F p 0
ne × ω p ×
A p
∆σ p =
1 + ne × ω p

Fp0 = number of strands x area strand x stress in strand


Fp0 = 28 x 140 x 1084.7 = 4251.9 kN

ωp = Ap/Asection = (28 x 140) = 0.0065


(400 x 1500)
Assume concrete M40 (Strangth gained at the time prestress transfering)

ne = Ep/Ec = 200000 = 6.325


31622.8

∆σp = 6.32 x 0.0065 x 4251.9 x 1000


28 x 140
1+ 6.32 x 0.0065
∆σp
∆σ = 43.04 Mpa

3) Section properties
The section properties are determined according to IS 456: 2000 Clause 23.1.2. The governing effective width is
determined by
bf = l0/6 + bw +6Df = 19100 + 400 + 6 x 300 = 5383.3 mm
6

1
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
The effective width is the lesser of:
The calculated value (bf = 5383.3 mm) and
The breadth of the web plus half the sum of the clear distances to the adjacent beams = 5087.5 mm
2175 + 2512.5 +
300

Deck slab

1500 Beam S = 1396 mm

400

2
A= 1500 x 400 + 5087.5 x 300 = 600000 + 1526250 = 2126250 mm
S= 1396 mm
1/12 x 400 x 12503 + 1/12 x 2888 x 2503 + 400 x 1250 x (1068-625)2 + 2888 x 250 x (1375-1068)2
I = I1 + I2 + A1 x a12 + A2 x a22
I= 1/12 x 400 x 1500^3 + 1/12 x 5087.5 x 300^3 + 400 x 1500 x (1396 - 750)^2 + 5087.5 x 300 x (1650 - 1396)^2
4
I= 4.728E+11 mm

Wtop = I/S top


S top = 404 mm

3
W top = 1170398949 mm

W bottom = I/S bottom


S bottom = 1396 mm

3
W bottom = 338677126 mm

4) Hand calculation of number of strands


The governing criterion for deciding the number of strands
The tensile stress in the lower outer fiber in the end phase

The eccentricity of the strands in the middle section e = 900 mm (Assumed)

2
The allowable stress in the end phase s = 3 N/mm (Cl.22.7.1, IS1343-1999)

2
A= 400 x 1500 = 600000 mm

W= 1/6 x b x h2
3
W= 1/6 x 400 x 1500^2 = 1.50E+08 mm
16.16
Construction phase – roadway: LOAD-1
-
Mrep = dead load beam + dead load flange
Mrep = 684.0 + 1739.97 = 2424.0 kNm
s = M/Wbeam +

s= 2424.0 = 16.16 N/mm2 16.16


150.0
Construction phase – roadway:LOAD-2 547 + 1691 + (1,313/(1,313 + 1,575)) x 1928 =
5.73
Mrep = dead load flange + 1 – truck load + live load
-

2
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980 -
Mrep = 1739.97 + 1690.88 + 1160.0 4590.8 kNm
s = M/Wbeam – end phase
2
s= 4590.8 = 30.61 N/mm +
150.0 16.61

Compensating prestress = 16.2 + 30.6 - 3 = 43.77 N/mm2


Prestressing force:

σ concrete ⇒ 43.77
P =
1 e 1 + 900
( + )
A W 600000 1.500E+08

P= 5709 kN

N = number of strands
N= P/170 kN = 5709 = 34 strands
170
Stanrds distribution: Upper = 2 Midle = 15 Lower = 17

5) Bursting tensile force


Transverse tensile forces occur at the end of the beam. These forces are calculated with the equivalent prism
method.

2 strands

15 strands

17 strands

4.75 N/mm 2
+
404 mm
4.76 N/mm 2

-
17 strands

14.27 N/mm 2
The height of this prism is determined by the criterion that no shear forces may occur.

Tensile force per strand = = 167.9 kN


Transmission zone according to IS 1343 – 1980 page 34
Diameter strands: 15.2 mm
Lt = 30 x ∅ = 30 x 15.2 = 456 mm (Cl.18.6.1.1, Pg-34)

The stress due to the lower 17 strands


Lower fiber:
s= F/A + M/W = 17 x 167.90 x 1000 + 17 x 167.9 x 0.5
600000 150 x 1000000
2
s= 4.76 + 9.51 = 14.27 N/mm
Top fiber:
s = F/A + M/W = 17 x 167.90 x 1000 - 17 x 167.9 x 0.5

3
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
600000 150 x 1000000
2
s= 4.76 - 9.51 = -4.76 N/mm

0 .6 × l 0 2 0.6 × 456 2
Cspl = 1+ ( ) = 1+ ( )
h 1250
Cpsl = 1.02 h= = 375 mm
The length of the prism:
Lt = Cspl x h = 1.02 * 1500 = 1535.5 mm
F bursting = 2 x M/Lt
M bursting = 1/6 x b x h2 x s = 1/6 x 400 x (2 X 375)^2 x 4.76 = 178.39 kNm
F bursting = 2 x 178.4 /1535.5 232.4 kN

As = Fbursting/s steel
Due to the lower and the upper strands the amount of reinforcement is doubled
2
As = 2 x 232 x 1000/0.87 x 415 = 1287.1 mm
2
As = 1287.1 mm
2
Number of bars ∅ 16 = As/Abar = 1287.11/201.1 7 bars equal to 4 stirrups ( 1407.43 mm )

Spilliting Tensile Force


In the transfer zone of pretensioned beams transverse reinforcement is necessary to prevent cracking of the
concrete. The tensile forces are calculated with a frame model.
The stresses due to prestressing are equally distributed over a length: Lt + beam height
Lt = length of transmission zone of 1 strand.

21 x 185 kN 73 0.25 h = 375 mm

P1

P1 x sin α1

200 200

P2
P2 x sin α2 196
21 x 185kN
0.25 h = 375 mm

Lt = 450 mm Hbeam = 1250 mm

The tensile loads P1 and P2


P1 x sin α1 = 13 x 185 x 73/850 = 207 kN
P2 x sin α2 = 14 x 185 x 196/850 = 597 kN

The governing tensile force is P2 x sin a2 = 597 kN


As = 597 x 103/(0.87x415)
2 2
As = 1654 mm equals 10 bars 9 bars ∅ 16 = ( 2010.6 mm )

Shear Force

The shear check is done for two clauses in the Indian Standards:
The ultimate shear in an uncracked section (IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1)

4
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
The ultimate shear force in a cracked section (IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2)

The shear reinforcement is designed on the lower of the above-mentioned values

The shear reinforcement is calculated for the construction phase and for the end phase.

The component of the inclined tendons is ignored according to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2.

The shear force is calculated for the middle beams since they carry the most loads.

The reinforcement for the shear force in the edge beam is equal to the reinforcement of the roadway beam. This is
allowable because the loads are comparable and the prestressing is equal to the roadway beam.

Construction phase section near support


Analysed section

1250 Middle beam

23700

Vdead load beam = 144 – 1.25 x 12.5 = 129 kN

Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2 = (114 + 95) – 1.25 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 187 kN

Vrep = 129 + 187 = 316 kN

Vd = 1.2 x 316 = 379 kN

According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1


2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t
Vco = kN
Assume M40
2
ft = 0.24 x sqrt(fck) = 1.52 N/mm

2
fcp = 27 x 165/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.425 N/mm
2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 8 . 9 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1352.6 kN
According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2
f pe V
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 ) ζ 0 bd + M 0
f p M
Vcr = kN
Assume fpe/fp = 0.6
100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 691 = 1.37
2
ξc = 0.79 N/mm

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 1.25 – (0.5 x (12.5+9.9+8.2) x 1.252
Mdead load beam + slab = 422.09 kNm

5
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

Centroid of the tendons:


(14 x 0.150 + 11 x 1.125 + 2 x 1.175)/27 = 0.62 m

Stresses in outer fiber due to prestressing


s= N/A + M/W
s= (27 x 165 x 103/ 400 x 1250) + (27 x 165 x 103 x (625 – 623)/(1/6 x 400 x 12502)
2
s= 8.9 + 0.1 = 9 N/mm

Assume stresses to be evenly distributed in the section.

2
The stress at the centroid of the prestress: 8.9 N/mm

M0 = 0.8 x 8.9 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 742 kNm

380
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 75 × 400 × 606 + 742
1 . 2 × 330

Vcr = 122 + 712


Vcr = 834 kN
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

V > 0 . 1 × 400 × 691 × 55 = 205 kN


cr

2 strands

11 strands

14 strands

Vc = 834 kN

Vd/Vu = 380/834 = 0.46

Conclusion: minimum shear reinforcement.

End Phase Section Near Support


Analysed section

1250 Middle beam

23700

Vdead load beam = 144 – 1.25 x 12.5 = 129 kN

Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2= (114 + 95) – 1.25 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 186 kN

Vtruck IRC class A= 1.15 x 286 = 328 kN

6
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
(see document SC – 00 – 35 rev. B.– section 6.3, page 64)
Vwind= 26 kN
(see document SC – 00 – 35 rev. B.– page 34)
Vlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 – 1.25 x 13.13 = 135 kN

Vrep = dead load beam + dead load slab + truck load + wind + live load

Vrep = 129 + 187 + 328 + 26 + 136 = 806 kN

Vd = 1.5 x 806 = 1209 kN

According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1

2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t

Assume M40
2
f t = 0 . 24 f ck = 0 . 24 40 = 1 . 52 N / mm
fcp = 27 x 145/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.8 N/mm2

2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 7 . 8 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1151 kN

According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2


f pe V
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 ) ζ c bd + M 0
f p M
Assume fpe/fp = 0.6
100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 606 = 1.56
x0 = 0.79 N/mm2

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 1.25 – (0.5 x (12.5+ 9.9 + 8.2) x 1.252

Mdead load beam + slab = 417 kNm

Mtruck IRC class A= 328 x 1.25 = 410 kNm

Mwind= 26 x 1.25 – 0.5 x 2.2 x 1.252 = 31 kNm

Mlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 x 1.25 – 0.5 x 13.13 x 1.252 = 180 kNm

Mrep = dead load beam+slab + pipe rack + wind + live load

Mrep = 417 + 410 + 31 + 180 = 1038 kNm

Centroid of the tendons:


(14 x 0.150 + 11 x 1.175 + 2 x 1.125)/27 = 0.623 m

Stresses in outer fiber due to prestressing


s = N/A + M/W
s = (27 x 145 x 103/ 400 x 1250) + (27 x 145 x 103 x (625 – 623)/(1/6 x 400 x 12502)
s = 7.8 + 0.1 = 7.9 N/mm2

Assume stresses to be evenly distributed in the section.

The stress at the centroid of the prestress: 7.8 N/mm2

M0 = 0.8 x 7.8 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 650 kNm


1 . 5 × 804
V = ( 1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 650 = 128 + 503 = 631 kN

7
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980 1 . 5 × 804
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 650 = 128 + 503 = 631 kN
1 . 5 × 1038
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

V cr > 0 . 1 × 400 × 691 × 55 = 205 kN

Vd – Vcr = 1206 – 631 = 575 kN

(V − V c ) × s v (1 . 5 × 804 − 631 ) × 10 3 × 200 2


Av = = = 287 mm
0 . 87 × f y × d t 0 . 87 × 415 × (1250 − 2 × 50 − 2 × 10 − 2 × 10 )

Asv = 287 mm2/200mm Þ apply stirrups Æ 12 – 100 (equals 452 mm2/200 mm)

End Phase Section Out of The Support


Governing beam is middle beam

Analysed section

3000

Middle beam

23700

The analysed section is 3 m out of the support of the beam


Vdead load beam = 144 – 3 x 12.5 = 107 kN
Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2= (114 + 95) – 3 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 155 kN

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 114 kN 114 kN
27 kN 27 kN

3000

Middle beam

3m 3m 3m 4.3 m 1.2 m 3.2 m 1.1 m


23700

For axle loads: see sketch above (maximum support reaction if the loads are mirrored)

Vtruck IRC class A= factor second wheel x dynamic factor x support force
Vtruck IRC class A= 1.53 x 1.15 x {13.5x(20.1+19)+57x(15.8+14.6)+34x(10.3+7.3+4.3+1.3)}/23.1

Vtruck IRC class A= 1.53 x 1.15 x 132 = 233 kN

Vwind= 26 – 3 x 2.2 = 20 kN (see document SC – 00 – 35 rev. B.– page 34+73)

Vlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 – 3 x 13.13 = 113 kN

Vrep = dead load beam + dead load slab + truck load + pipe rack + wind + live load

Vrep = 107 + 155 + 233 + 20 + 113 = 628 kN

8
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
Vd = 1.5 x 628 = 942 kN

According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1

2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t

Assume M40
2
f t = 0 . 24 f ck = 0 . 24 40 = 1 . 52 N / mm
fcp = 27 x 145/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.8 N/mm2

2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 7 . 8 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1151 kN

According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2


f pe V
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 )ζ c bd + M 0
f p M

Assume fpe/fp = 0.6


100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 606 = 1.56
x0 = 0.79 N/mm2

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 3 – (0.5 x (12.5+ 9.9 + 8.2) x 32

Mdead load beam + slab = 921 kNm

Mtruck IRC class A= 202 x 3 = 606 kNm

Mwind= 26 x 3 – 0.5 x 2.2 x 32 = 68 kNm

Mlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 x 3 – 0.5 x 13.13 x 32 = 397 kNm

Mrep = dead load beam+slab + pipe rack + wind + live load

Mrep = 921 + 606 + 68 + 397 = 1992 kNm

Stresses in outer fiber due to prestressing (derived from ALPH output)


s = 13.5 N/mm2

M0 = 0.8 x 13.5 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 1125 kNm


1 . 5 × 628
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 1125 = 128 + 355 = 483 kN
1 . 5 × 1992
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

V cr > 0 . 1 × 400 × 691 × 55 = 205 kN

Vd – Vcr = 942 – 483 = 459 kN

(V − V c ) × s v (1 . 5 × 628 − 483 ) × 10 3 × 200 2


Av = = = 229 mm
0 . 87 × f y × d t 0 . 87 × 415 × (1250 − 2 × 50 − 2 × 10 − 2 × 10 )
Asv = 229 mm2/200mm Þ apply stirrups Æ 12 – 100 (equals 452 mm2/200 mm)

End Phase Section further Out of the Support


Governing beam is middle beam

Analysed section

5000

9
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980
Middle beam

23700

The analysed section is 5 m out of the support of the beam

Vdead load beam = 144 – 5 x 12.5 = 82 kN

Vdead load slab phase 1 + 2= (114 + 95) – 5 x (9.9 + 8.2) = 118 kN

68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 68 kN 114 kN 114 kN
27 kN 27 kN

5000

Middle beam

3m 3m 3m 4.3 m 1.2 m 3.2 m 1.1 m


23700

For axle loads: see sketch above (maximum support reaction if the loads are mirrored)

Vtruck IRC class A= factor second wheel x dynamic factor x support force
Vtruck IRC class A= 1.53 x 1.15 x {13.5 x (18.1+17) + 57 x (13.8+12.6) + 34 x (8.3+5.3+2.3)}/23.1

Vtruck IRC class A= 1.53 x 1.15 x 109 = 192 kN

Vwind= 26 – 5 x 2.2 = 15 kN (see document SC – 00 – 35 rev. B.– page 34+73)

Vlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 – 5 x 13.13 = 87 kN

Vrep = dead load beam + dead load slab + truck load + pipe rack + wind + live load

Vrep = 82 + 118 + 192 + 15 + 87 = 494 kN

Vd = 1.5 x 494 = 741 kN

According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.1

2
V co = 0 . 67 × b × D ft + 0 . 8 f cp f t

Assume M40
2
f t = 0 . 24 f ck = 0 . 24 40 = 1 . 52 N / mm
fcp = 27 x 145/(0.4 x 1.25) = 7.8 N/mm2
2
V co = 0 . 67 × 400 × 1250 1 . 52 + 0 . 8 × 7 . 8 × 1 . 52
Vco = 1151 kN

According to IS 1343 – 1980, Clause 22.4.2


f pe V
V cr = ( 1 − 0 . 55 )ζ c bd + M 0
f p M
Assume fpe/fp = 0.6
100 Ap/bd = 100 x 27 x 140/400 x 606 = 1.56
x0 = 0.79 N/mm2

10
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

Mdead load beam + slab = (144 + 114 + 95) x 5 – (0.5 x (12.5+ 9.9 + 8.2) x 52

Mdead load beam + slab = 1383 kNm

Mtruck IRC class A= 167 x 5 = 835 kNm

Mwind= 26 x 5 – 0.5 x 2.2 x 52 = 103 kNm

Mlive load = (1313/2888) x 334 x 5 – 0.5 x 13.13 x 52 = 595 kNm

Mrep = dead load beam+slab + truck load+ pipe rack + wind + live load

Mrep = 1383 + 835 + 103 + 595 = 2916 kNm

Stresses in outer fiber due to prestressing (derived from ALPH output)


s = 15.2 N/mm2

M0 = 0.8 x 15.2 x (1/12 x 400 x 12503/625) = 1264 kNm


1 . 5 × 494
V cr = (1 − 0 . 55 × 0 . 6 ) × 0 . 79 × 400 × 606 + 1264 = 128 + 214 = 342 kN
1 . 5 × 2916
Vcr should not be taken less than:
V cr > 0 . 1 × b × d f ck

Centroid of the tendons:


(15 x 0.150 + 11 x 1.175 + 2 x 1.125)/28 = 0.606 m

V cr > 0 . 1 × 400 × 691 × 55 = 205 kN

Vd – Vcr = 741 – 342 = 399 kN

(V − V c ) × s v (1 . 5 × 494 − 342 ) × 10 3 × 200 2


Av = = = 199 mm
0 . 87 × f y × d t 0 . 87 × 415 × (1250 − 2 × 50 − 2 × 10 − 2 × 10 )
Asv = 199 mm2/200mm Þ apply stirrups Æ 12 – 200 (equals 226 mm2/200 mm

Moment Check
In this section the governing moments (Ultimate Limit State) for the operational phase are checked.

The ultimate moment is calculated for the middle section of the middle beam.
For the forces: see section 7.7.

Md = 1.5 x (dead weight beam + dead weight top slab + live load + 1 – truck load)

Md = 1.5 x {(833 + (660+547) + (1.313/2.888) x 1928 +1691)}

Md = 1.5 x 4608 = 6912 kNm

1575 + 1313
250

Deck slab

1250 S = 1068 mm Beam - line prestressing

178

11
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

400

According to IS 1343 – 1980 Clause 22.1

Ap × f p 27 × 140 × 1860
= = 0 . 041
b × d × f ck 2888 × 1323 × 45
See table 11 appendix B IS 1343 – 1980: Xu/d = 0.089
Xu = 0.089 x 1323 = 118 mm

M u= f pu × A p × ( d − 0 . 42 X u )
1860
M u = × 25 × 140 × (1323 − 0 . 42 × 118 )
1 . 15
Mu = 7209 kNm

Md/Mu = 0.96Þ o.k

Reinforcement & Prestressing


Longitudinal prestressing

Prestressing longitudinal direction

1.175
1.125
1.075
1.025

Edge Beam/ Edge Beam/


Middle Beam Middle Beam
End section Middle section
0.375
0.325
0.275
0.225
0.175
0.125
0.075

End Zone Reinforcement

Middle beam/Edge beam

12
Prestressed beam design as per IS1343-1980

3 x 2 16 3 16 5 16
Bursting tensile Splitting tensile Splitting tensile
reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement
Shear reinforcement

Stirrups Stirrups Stirrups


- 12 – 100 - 12 – 200 - 12 – 100

Middle beam

5300 13400 5300

Stirrups
- 10 – 200

Edge beam

23700

Connection of beam to slab Reinforcement

Section 4 Section 2 ♥ - beam


8 x hp 16 – 200

1300 3000 3000 3000

Middle beam

Section 3 Section 1
Section 5 15 x hp 16 – 100 8 x hp 12 – 200
8 x hp 16 – 100

13