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Formation of Polyatomic Ions

— When nonmetal atoms combine, they share electrons


to become stable
— But sometimes, even after sharing electrons, the
groups of atoms are still not stable
— The groups of atoms must gain additional electrons (in
one or two rare cases, they lose electrons instead).
Some polyatomic ions
— SO42- Sulphate — SO32- Sulphite
— NO3- Nitrate — NO2- Nitrite
— ClO3- Chlorate — ClO2- Chlorite
— PO43- Phosphate — PO33- Phosphite

•What do you notice is different about the group on the right


compared to the group on the left?
•The –ate ions are the most stable forms for those ions
•The –ite ions have one less oxygen
— You do not have to be able to figure out charges or
numbers of oxygens on the ions
— You can use the list of polyatomic ions
— There is one polyatomic ion that you should memorize
for the sake of convenience: NH4+ ammonium
Naming & Formulas
— 1. Name the cation (+ ion) first
(normal name)
— 2. Name the anion (- ion)
(name as shown on table of the ions)
— 3. Determine lowest whole number ratio of ions that will
provide a net charge of zero.
(Subscripts *Parentheses as needed)
— 4. Use roman numerals to show the charge of the metal ion
(if applicable).
Examples
— Calcium carbonate — CaCO3
— Lithium nitrate — LiNO3
— Potassium nitrite — KNO2
— magnesium chlorate — Mg(ClO3)2
— iron (III) chlorite — Fe(ClO2)3