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Richard Dawkins

For the archaeologist, see Richard MacGillivray 1 Background

1.1 Kenya
Clinton Richard Dawkins /ˈdɔːkɨnz/, DSc, FRS, FRSL
(born 26 March 1941) is an ethologist, evolutionary bi- Dawkins was born in Nairobi, Kenya.[8] He is the son
ologist,[1] and writer. He is an emeritus fellow of New of Jean Mary Vyvyan (née Ladner) and Clinton John
College, Oxford,[2] and was the University of Oxford's Dawkins (1915–2010), who was an agricultural civil ser-
Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 vant in the British Colonial Service in Nyasaland (now
until 2008.[3] Malawi).[9][10] Dawkins self-identifies as being English
Dawkins came to prominence with his 1976 book The and currently lives in Oxford, England. Having
Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centred view been born in Kenya, he is a British citizen.
of evolution and introduced the term meme. In 1982, he Dawkins has a younger sister.[13] His father was called up
introduced into evolutionary biology the influential con- into the King’s African Rifles during World War II;[14][15]
cept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not neces- he returned to England in 1949, when Dawkins was eight.
sarily limited to an organism’s body, but can stretch far His father had inherited a country estate, Over Norton
into the environment, including the bodies of other or- Park in Oxfordshire, which he turned into a commer-
ganisms. This concept is presented in his book The Ex- cial farm.[9] Both his parents were interested in natural
tended Phenotype.[4] sciences; they answered Dawkins’s questions in scientific
Dawkins is an atheist, a vice president of the British Hu- terms.
manist Association, and a supporter of the Brights move- Dawkins describes his childhood as “a normal Anglican
ment.[5] He is well known for his criticism of creationismupbringing”.[17] He was a Christian until halfway through
and intelligent design. In his 1986 book The Blind Watch- his teenage years, at which point he concluded that the
maker, he argues against the watchmaker analogy, an ar- theory of evolution was a better explanation for life’s
gument for the existence of a supernatural creator based complexity, and ceased believing in a god.[13] Dawkins
upon the complexity of living organisms. Instead, he states: “the main residual reason why I was religious was
describes evolutionary processes as analogous to a blind from being so impressed with the complexity of life and
watchmaker. feeling that it had to have a designer, and I think it was
He has since written several popular science books, and when I realised that Darwinism was a far superior expla-
makes regular television and radio appearances, predomi- nation that pulled the rug out from under[13]
the argument of
nantly discussing these topics. In his 2006 book The God design. And that left me with nothing.”
Delusion, Dawkins contends that a supernatural creator
almost certainly does not exist and that religious faith 1.2 Education
is a delusion— extquotedbla fixed false belief”.[6]:5 As
of January 2010, the English-language version had sold Dawkins attended Oundle School in Northamptonshire,
more than two million copies and had been translated into an English public school with a distinct Church of Eng-
31 languages.[7] Dawkins founded the Richard Dawkins land flavour,[13] from 1954 to 1959, where he was in
Foundation for Reason and Science to promote the teach- Laundimer house.[18] He studied zoology at Balliol Col-
ing of evolution and to counteract those who advocate lege, Oxford, graduating in 1962; while there, he was tu-
classroom programs against evolution. tored by Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Nikolaas Tin-
bergen. He continued as a research student under Tin-

2 2 WORK

bergen’s supervision, receiving his MA and DPhil de- activities”.[27] In September 2008, he retired from his
grees by 1966, and remained a research assistant for an- professorship, announcing plans to “write a book aimed
other year.[8] Tinbergen was a pioneer in the study of ani- at youngsters in which he will warn them against believ-
mal behaviour, particularly in the areas of instinct, learn- ing in 'anti-scientific' fairytales.”[28]
ing and choice;[19] Dawkins’s research in this period con-
cerned models of animal decision-making.[20]
1.4 Personal life

1.3 Teaching Dawkins has been married three times, and has one
daughter. On 19 August 1967, Dawkins married fel-
low ethologist Marian Stamp in Annestown, County Wa-
From 1967 to 1969, he was an assistant professor of
terford, Ireland;[29] they divorced in 1984. Later that
zoology at the University of California, Berkeley. Dur-
same year, on 1 June, he married Eve Barham (19 Au-
ing this period, the students and faculty at UC Berkeley
gust 1951[30] –28 February 1999) in Oxford. They had a
were largely opposed to the ongoing Vietnam War, and
daughter, Juliet Emma Dawkins (born 1984, Oxford).[30]
Dawkins became heavily involved in the anti-war demon-
Dawkins and Barham also divorced.[31] In 1992, he mar-
strations and activities.[21] He returned to the University
ried actress Lalla Ward[31] in Kensington and Chelsea,
of Oxford in 1970, taking a position as a lecturer. In
London.[30] Dawkins met her through their mutual friend
1990, he became a reader in zoology. In 1995, he was ap-
Douglas Adams,[32] who had worked with her on the
pointed Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding
BBC’s Doctor Who.
of Science at Oxford, a position that had been endowed
by Charles Simonyi with the express intention that the
holder “be expected to make important contributions to
the public understanding of some scientific field”,[22] and 2 Work
that its first holder should be Richard Dawkins.[23]
Since 1970, he has been a fellow of New College, Ox- 2.1 Evolutionary biology
ford.[24] He has delivered a number of inaugural and other
lectures, including the Henry Sidgwick Memorial Lec- Further information: Gene-centred view of evolution
ture (1989), the first Erasmus Darwin Memorial Lec-
ture (1990), the Michael Faraday Lecture (1991), the T. In his scientific works, Dawkins is best known for his pop-
H. Huxley Memorial Lecture (1992), the Irvine Memo- ularisation of the gene as the principal unit of selection in
rial Lecture (1997), the Sheldon Doyle Lecture (1999), evolution; this view is most clearly set out in his books:[33]
the Tinbergen Lecture (2004) and the Tanner Lectures
(2003).[8] In 1991, he gave the Royal Institution Christ- • The Selfish Gene (1976), in which he notes that “all
mas Lectures for Children on Growing Up in the Universe. life evolves by the differential survival of replicating
He has also served as editor of a number of journals, and entities”.
has acted as editorial advisor to the Encarta Encyclopedia
• The Extended Phenotype (1982), in which he de-
and the Encyclopedia of Evolution. He is a senior editor
scribes natural selection as “the process whereby
of the Council for Secular Humanism's Free Inquiry mag-
replicators out-propagate each other”.
azine, for which he also writes a column. He has been a
member of the editorial board of Skeptic magazine since Dawkins has consistently been sceptical about non-
its foundation.[25] adaptive processes in evolution (such as spandrels, de-
He has sat on judging panels for awards as diverse as the scribed by Gould and Lewontin)[34] and about selec-
Royal Society’s Faraday Award and the British Academy tion at levels “above” that of the gene.[35] He is par-
Television Awards,[26] and has been president of the Bio- ticularly sceptical about the practical possibility or im-
logical Sciences section of the British Association for the portance of group selection as a basis for understanding
Advancement of Science. In 2004, Balliol College, Ox- altruism.[6]:169–172 This behaviour appears at first to be
ford instituted the Dawkins Prize, awarded for “outstand- an evolutionary paradox, since helping others costs pre-
ing research into the ecology and behaviour of animals cious resources and decreases one’s own fitness. Previ-
whose welfare and survival may be endangered by human ously, many had interpreted this as an aspect of group
2.1 Evolutionary biology 3

gene as the unit of selection (a single event in which an

individual either succeeds or fails to reproduce) is mis-
leading; the gene could be better described, they say, as a
unit of evolution (the long-term changes in allele frequen-
cies in a population).[43] In The Selfish Gene, Dawkins ex-
plains that he is using George C. Williams's definition of
the gene as “that which segregates and recombines with
appreciable frequency.”[44] Another common objection is
that a gene cannot survive alone, but must cooperate with
other genes to build an individual, and therefore a gene
cannot be an independent “unit”.[45] In The Extended Phe-
notype, Dawkins suggests that from an individual gene’s
viewpoint, all other genes are part of the environment to
which it is adapted.
Advocates for higher levels of selection (such as Richard
Lewontin, David Sloan Wilson, and Elliott Sober) sug-
gest that there are many phenomena (including altruism)
that gene-based selection cannot satisfactorily explain.
The philosopher Mary Midgley, with whom Dawkins
clashed in print concerning The Selfish Gene,[46][47] has
criticised gene selection, memetics, and sociobiology as
being excessively reductionist;[48] she has suggested that
the popularity of Dawkins’s work is due to factors in
the Zeitgeist such as the increased individualism of the
Thatcher/Reagan decades.[49]
In a set of controversies over the mechanisms and in-
Dawkins at the University of Texas at Austin, March 2008 terpretation of evolution (what has been called 'The
Darwin Wars’),[50][51] one faction is often named af-
ter Dawkins, while the other faction is named after
the American palaeontologist Stephen Jay Gould, re-
selection: Individuals are doing what is best for the sur- flecting the pre-eminence of each as a populariser of
vival of the population or species as a whole. British evo- the pertinent ideas.[52][53] In particular, Dawkins and
lutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton had used the gene- Gould have been prominent commentators in the con-
centred view to explain altruism in terms of inclusive fit- troversy over sociobiology and evolutionary psychology,
ness and kin selection—that individuals behave altruis- with Dawkins generally approving and Gould generally
tically toward their close relatives, who share many of being critical.[54] A typical example of Dawkins’s posi-
their own genes.[36][a] Similarly, Robert Trivers, thinking tion is his scathing review of Not in Our Genes by Steven
in terms of the gene-centred model, developed the the- Rose, Leon J. Kamin, and Richard C. Lewontin.[55] Two
ory of reciprocal altruism, whereby one organism pro- other thinkers who are often considered to be allied with
vides a benefit to another in the expectation of future Dawkins on the subject are Steven Pinker and Daniel
reciprocation.[37] Dawkins popularised these ideas in The Dennett; Dennett has promoted a gene-centred view of
Selfish Gene, and developed them in his own work.[38] evolution and defended reductionism in biology.[56] De-
He has also been strongly critical of the Gaia hypothesis spite their academic disagreements, Dawkins and Gould
of the independent scientist James Lovelock.[39][40][41] did not have a hostile personal relationship, and Dawkins
dedicated a large portion of his 2003 book A Devil’s
In June 2012 Dawkins was highly critical of fellow bi- Chaplain posthumously to Gould, who had died the pre-
ologist E.O. Wilson’s 2012 book The Social Conquest of vious year.
Dawkins’s book The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evi-
Critics of Dawkins’s approach suggest that taking the
4 2 WORK

dence for Evolution expounds the evidence for biological 2.3 Criticism of creationism
evolution,[57] and coincided with Darwin's bicentennial
year.[58] Dawkins is a prominent critic of creationism (the reli-
gious belief that humanity, life, and the universe were
created by a deity[65] without recourse to evolution[66] ).
He has described the Young Earth creationist view that
2.2 Meme the Earth is only a few thousand years old as “a pre-
posterous, mind-shrinking falsehood”,[67] and his 1986
Main article: Meme book, The Blind Watchmaker, contains a sustained cri-
tique of the argument from design, an important creation-
Dawkins coined the word meme (the behavioural equiv- ist argument. In the book, Dawkins argues against the
alent of a gene) as a way to encourage readers to think watchmaker analogy made famous by the 18th-century
about how Darwinian principles might be extended be- English theologian William Paley via his book Natural
yond the realm of genes.[59]:11 Indeed, it was intended as Theology, in which Paley argues that just as a watch is too
an extension of his “replicators” argument, but it took on complicated and too functional to have sprung into exis-
a life of its own in the hands of other authors such as tence merely by accident, so too must all living things—
Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore. These popularisa- with their far greater complexity—be purposefully de-
tions then led to the emergence of memetics, a field from signed. Dawkins shares the view generally held by sci-
which Dawkins has distanced himself.[60] entists that natural selection is sufficient to explain the
apparent functionality and non-random complexity of the
Dawkins’s meme refers to any cultural entity that an ob- biological world, and can be said to play the role of watch-
server might consider a replicator of a certain idea or maker in nature, albeit as an automatic, nonintelligent,
complex of ideas. He hypothesised that people could blind watchmaker.[68]
view many cultural entities as capable of such replica-
tion, generally through exposure to humans, who have
evolved as efficient (although not perfect) copiers of in-
formation and behaviour. Because memes are not always
copied perfectly, they might become refined, combined,
or otherwise modified with other ideas; this results in new
memes, which may themselves prove more or less effi-
cient replicators than their predecessors, thus providing
a framework for a hypothesis of cultural evolution based
on memes, a notion that is analogous to the theory of bi-
ological evolution based on genes.[61]
Although Dawkins invented the specific term meme inde-
pendently, he has not claimed that the idea itself was en-
tirely novel,[62] and there have been other expressions for
similar ideas in the past. For instance, John Laurent has
suggested that the term may have derived from the work
of the little-known German biologist Richard Semon.[63]
In 1904, Semon published Die Mneme (which appeared
in English in 1924 as The Mneme). This book discusses Dawkins at the 34th annual conference of American Atheists,
the cultural transmission of experiences, with insights 2008
parallel to those of Dawkins. Laurent also found the
term mneme used in Maurice Maeterlinck's The Life of In 1986, Dawkins and biologist John Maynard Smith par-
the White Ant (1926), and has highlighted the similarities ticipated in an Oxford Union debate against A. E. Wilder-
to Dawkins’s concept.[63] Author James Gleick describes Smith (a Young Earth creationist) and Edgar Andrews
Dawkins’s concept of the meme as “his most famous (president of the Biblical Creation Society).[b] In gen-
memorable invention, far more influential than his selfish eral, however, Dawkins has followed the advice of his
genes or his later proselytizing against religiosity”.[64] late colleague Stephen Jay Gould and refused to partic-
2.4 Advocacy of atheism 5

ipate in formal debates with creationists because “what

they seek is the oxygen of respectability”, and doing so
would “give them this oxygen by the mere act of engag-
ing with them at all”. He suggests that creationists “don't
mind being beaten in an argument. What matters is that
we give them recognition by bothering to argue with them
in public.”[69]
In a December 2004 interview with American journal-
ist Bill Moyers, Dawkins said that “among the things that
science does know, evolution is about as certain as any-
thing we know.” When Moyers questioned him on the use
of the word theory, Dawkins stated that “evolution has
been observed. It’s just that it hasn't been observed while
it’s happening.” He added that “it is rather like a detective
coming on a murder after the scene... the detective hasn't
actually seen the murder take place, of course. But what
you do see is a massive clue... Huge quantities of circum-
stantial evidence. It might as well be spelled out in words
of English.”[70]
Dawkins has ardently opposed the inclusion of intelligent
design in science education, describing it as “not a sci-
entific argument at all, but a religious one”.[71] He has
been referred to in the media as “Darwin’s Rottweiler Dawkins lecturing on his book The God Delusion, 24 June 2006.
extquotedbl,[72] a reference to English biologist T. H.
Huxley, who was known as “Darwin’s Bulldog extquot-
edbl for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's evolutionary any other.[6]:50
ideas. He has been a strong critic of the British or-
ganisation Truth in Science, which promotes the teach- Dawkins became a prominent critic of religion and has
ing of creationism in state schools, and he plans through stated his opposition to religion is twofold: Religion is
the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science both a source of conflict and a justification for belief
to subsidise schools with the delivery of books, DVDs, without evidence.[6]:282–286 He considers faith—belief
and pamphlets that counteract their (Truth in Science’s) that is not based on evidence—as “one of the world’s
work, which Dawkins has described as an “educational great evils”.[85] He rose to prominence in public debates
scandal”.[73] relating science and religion since the publication of his
book The God Delusion in 2006, which became an inter-
national best seller.[86] Its success has been seen by many
2.4 Advocacy of atheism as indicative of a change in the contemporary cultural
zeitgeist and has also been identified with the rise of New
Dawkins is an outspoken atheist [74]
and a sup- Atheism.
porter of various atheist, secular, and humanistic Dawkins sees education and consciousness-raising as the
organisations.[8][75][76][77][78][79][80] Although he was primary tools in opposing what he considers to be re-
confirmed into the Church of England at the age of ligious dogma and indoctrination.[21][88][89] These tools
thirteen, he started to lose his religious faith when he include the fight against certain stereotypes, and he has
discovered Darwin.[81] He revealed that his understand- adopted the term bright as a way of associating positive
ing of evolution led him to atheism[82] and is puzzled by public connotations with those who possess a naturalistic
belief in God among individuals who are sophisticated worldview.[89] He has given support to the idea of a free
in science.[83] He disagrees with Stephen Jay Gould's thinking school,[90] which would not indoctrinate chil-
principle of nonoverlapping magisteria[84] and considers dren in atheism or in any religion but would instead
the existence of God to be a scientific hypothesis like teach children to be critical and open-minded.[91][92] In-
6 2 WORK

spired by the consciousness-raising successes of femi- ologians are no better than scientists in addressing deep
nists in arousing widespread embarrassment at the routine cosmological questions and that he himself is not a fun-
use of “he” instead of “she”, Dawkins similarly suggests damentalist as he is willing to change his mind in the face
that phrases such as “Catholic child” and “Muslim child” of new evidence.[6]:55–56[105][106] Recently, in May 2014,
should be considered as socially absurd as, for instance, at the Hay Festival in Wales, Dawkins was quoted as say-
“Marxist child”, as he believes that children should not be ing, “I would describe myself as a secular Christian in
classified based on their parents’ ideological or religious the same sense as secular Jews have a feeling for nostal-
beliefs.[89] gia and ceremonies.”[107]

2.5 Foundation

Main article: Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason

and Science

In 2006, Dawkins founded the Richard Dawkins Founda-

tion for Reason and Science (RDFRS), a non-profit organ-
isation. The foundation is in a developmental phase. It
has been granted charitable status in the United Kingdom
Dawkins with Ariane Sherine at the Atheist Bus Campaign launch and the United States. RDFRS plans to finance research
in London on the psychology of belief and religion, finance scien-
tific education programs and materials, and publicise and
Dawkins suggests that atheists should be proud, not support charitable organisations that are secular in na-
apologetic, stressing that atheism is evidence of a healthy, ture. The foundation also offers humanist, rationalist,
independent mind.[6]:3 He hopes that the more atheists and scientific materials through its website.[108]
identify themselves, the more the public will become Dawkins has said the “trend toward theocratic think-
aware of just how many people actually hold these views, ing in the United States is a danger not only for Amer-
thereby reducing the negative opinion of atheism among ica but for the entire world.”[109] Connected to this con-
the religious majority.[93][94] Inspired by the gay rights cern, Dawkins invited Sean Faircloth to serve as opening
movement, he founded the Out Campaign to encourage speaker on Dawkins’s 2011 US book tour. Faircloth is
atheists worldwide to declare their stance publicly and author of the book Attack of the Theocrats, How the Reli-
proudly.[95] He supported the UK’s first atheist advertis- gious Right Harms Us All and What We Can Do About It.
ing initiative, the Atheist Bus Campaign in 2008, which The Richard Dawkins Foundation (United States branch)
aimed to raise funds to place atheist advertisements on later hired Faircloth, who has ten years experience as a
buses in the London area. state legislator, as Director of Strategy and Policy.[109]
Dawkins’s advocacy of atheism has been controversial.
Writer Christopher Hitchens defended the perceived stri-
dency of Dawkins’s stance towards religion while Nobel 2.6 Other fields
laureates Sir Harold Kroto and James D. Watson and psy-
chologist Steven Pinker lavished praise on his book The In his role as professor for public understanding of
God Delusion.[96][97] In contrast, literary critic Terry Ea- science, Dawkins has been a critic of pseudoscience
gleton, theologian Alister McGrath, and science philoso- and alternative medicine. His 1998 book Unweaving
pher Michael Ruse[98][99] have accused Dawkins of hav- the Rainbow considers John Keats's accusation that by
ing fundamentally misapprehended the theological argu- explaining the rainbow, Isaac Newton diminished its
ments he claimed to refute, while scientists Martin Rees beauty; Dawkins argues for the opposite conclusion.
and Peter Higgs have criticised Dawkins’s confrontational He suggests that deep space, the billions of years of
stance towards religion as unhelpful, with Higgs going as life’s evolution, and the microscopic workings of biology
far as to label him a fundamentalist.[100][101][102][103][104] and heredity contain more beauty and wonder than do
In response to his critics, Dawkins maintains that the- “myths” and “pseudoscience”.[110] For John Diamond's
2.6 Other fields 7

Peter Singer. In this essay, he criticises contemporary

society’s moral attitudes as being based on a “discontin-
uous, speciesist imperative”.[114]
Dawkins also regularly comments in newspapers and
weblogs on contemporary political questions; his opin-
ions include opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq,[115]
the British nuclear deterrent, the actions of US Presi-
dent, George W. Bush.[116] and the ethics of designer ba-
bies.[117] Several such articles were included in A Devil’s
Chaplain, an anthology of writings about science, reli-
gion, and politics. He is also a supporter of the Republic's
campaign to replace the British monarchy with a demo-
cratically elected president.[118] Dawkins has described
himself as a Labour voter in the 1970s[119] and voter for
the Liberal Democrats since the party’s creation.[120] In
2009, he spoke at the party’s conference in opposition to
blasphemy laws, alternative medicine, and faith schools.
In the UK general election of 2010, Dawkins officially
endorsed the Liberal Democrats, in support of their cam-
paign for electoral reform and for their “refusal to pan-
der to 'faith'.”[121] In August 2014, Dawkins was one of
200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The
Dawkins speaking at Kepler’s Books, Menlo Park, California, 29 Guardian opposing Scottish independence in the run-up
October 2006 to September’s referendum on that issue.[122]
In the 2007 TV documentary The Enemies of Reason,[123]
posthumously published Snake Oil, a book devoted to de- Dawkins discusses what he sees as the dangers of aban-
bunking alternative medicine, Dawkins wrote a foreword doning critical thought and rationale based upon scientific
in which he asserts that alternative medicine is harmful, evidence. He specifically cites astrology, spiritualism,
if only because it distracts patients from more successful dowsing, alternative faiths, alternative medicine, and
conventional treatments and gives people false hopes.[111] homoeopathy. He also discusses how the Internet can be
Dawkins states that “there is no alternative medicine. used to spread religious hatred and conspiracy theories
There is only medicine that works and medicine that with scant attention to evidence-based reasoning.
doesn't work.”[112] Continuing a long-standing partnership with Channel
Dawkins has expressed concern about the growth of 4, Dawkins participated in a five-part television series
the planet’s human population and about the matter of Genius of Britain, along with fellow scientists Stephen
overpopulation.[113] In The Selfish Gene, he briefly men- Hawking, James Dyson, Paul Nurse, and Jim Al-Khalili.
tions population growth, giving the example of Latin The five-episode series was broadcast in June 2010. The
America, whose population, at the time the book was series focuses on major [124]
British scientific achievements
written, was doubling every 40 years. He is crit- throughout history.
ical of Roman Catholic attitudes to family planning In a More4 documentary entitled Faith School Menace?
and population control, stating that leaders who for- and presented by Dawkins, he argues “for us to reconsider
bid contraception and “express a preference for 'natu- the consequences of faith education, which... bamboozles
ral' methods of population limitation” will get just such a parents, and indoctrinates and divides children.”[125][126]
method in the form of starvation.[59]:213
In 1998, Dawkins expressed his appreciation for two
As a supporter of the Great Ape Project—a movement to books connected with the Sokal affair:
extend certain moral and legal rights to all great apes—
Dawkins contributed the article “Gaps in the Mind” to • Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its
the Great Ape Project book edited by Paola Cavalieri and Quarrels with Science by Gross and Levitt.

• Intellectual Impostures by Sokal and Bricmont. of St Andrews and the Australian National University
(HonLittD, 1996), and was elected Fellow of the Royal
These books are famous for their criticism of Society of Literature in 1997 and the Royal Society in
postmodernism in US universities (namely in the 2001.[8] He is one of the patrons of the Oxford Univer-
departments of literary studies, anthropology, and other sity Scientific Society.
cultural studies).[127] In the same occasion, Dawkins In 1987, Dawkins received a Royal Society of Literature
also criticised Cambridge University for awarding award and a Los Angeles Times Literary Prize for his book
philosopher Jacques Derrida an honorary doctorate.[127] The Blind Watchmaker. In the same year, he received a
In 2011, Dawkins joined the professoriate of the New Sci. Tech Prize for Best Television Documentary Sci-
College of the Humanities, a new private university in ence Programme of the Year for his work on the BBC’s
London established by A. C. Grayling, which opened in Horizon episode The Blind Watchmaker.[8]
September 2012.[128] His other awards include the Zoological Society of
London's Silver Medal (1989), the Finlay Innovation
Award (1990), the Michael Faraday Award (1990), the
3 Awards and recognition Nakayama Prize (1994), the American Humanist As-
sociation's Humanist of the Year Award (1996), the
fifth International Cosmos Prize (1997), the Kistler Prize
(2001), the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Repub-
lic (2001), the 2001 and 2012 Emperor Has No Clothes
Award from the Freedom From Religion Foundation, the
Bicentennial Kelvin Medal of The Royal Philosophical
Society of Glasgow (2002),[8] and the Nierenberg Prize
for Science in the Public Interest (2009).[133]
Dawkins topped Prospect magazine’s 2004 list of the top
100 public British intellectuals, as decided by the readers,
receiving twice as many votes as the runner-up.[134][135]
He was short-listed as a candidate in their 2008 follow-
up poll.[136] In 2005, the Hamburg-based Alfred Toepfer
Foundation awarded him its Shakespeare Prize in recog-
nition of his “concise and accessible presentation of sci-
entific knowledge”. He won the Lewis Thomas Prize for
Writing about Science for 2006, as well as the Galaxy
British Book Awards's Author of the Year Award for
2007.[137] In the same year, he was listed by Time maga-
zine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world
in 2007,[138] and he was ranked 20th in The Daily Tele-
graph's 2007 list of 100 greatest living geniuses.[139] He
Dawkins receiving the Deschner Prize in Frankfurt, 12 October was awarded the Deschner Award, named after German
2007, from Karlheinz Deschner anti-clerical author Karlheinz Deschner.[140]

Dawkins was awarded a Doctor of Science by the Univer- Since 2003, the Atheist Alliance International has
sity of Oxford in 1989. He holds honorary doctorates in awarded a prize during its annual conference, honour-
science from the University of Huddersfield, University ing an outstanding atheist whose work has done the most
of Westminster, Durham University,[129] the University to raise public awareness of atheism during that year; it
of Hull, the University of Antwerp, and the University is known as the Richard Dawkins Award, in honour of
of Oslo,[130] and honorary doctorates from the University Dawkins’s own efforts.[141]
of Aberdeen,[131] Open University, the Vrije Universiteit In February 2010, Dawkins was named to the Freedom
Brussel,[8] and the University of Valencia.[132] He also From Religion Foundation's Honorary Board of distin-
holds honorary doctorates of letters from the University
4.2 Documentary films 9

guished achievers.[142] • Richard Dawkins (2006). The God Delusion.

In 2012, ichthyologists in Sri Lanka honored Dawkins by Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-68000-4.
creating Dawkinsia as a new genus name (members of
• Richard Dawkins (2009). The Greatest Show on
this genus were formerly members of the genus Puntius).
Earth: The Evidence for Evolution. Free Press
Explaining the reasoning behind the genus name, lead re-
(United States), Transworld (United Kingdom and
searcher Rohan Pethiyagoda was quoted as stating that
Commonwealth). ISBN 0-593-06173-X.
“Richard Dawkins has, through his writings, helped us
understand that the universe is far more beautiful and
• Richard Dawkins (2011). The Magic of Reality:
awe-inspiring than any religion has imagined [...] We
How We Know What’s Really True. Free Press
hope that Dawkinsia will serve as a reminder of the el-
(United States), Bantam Press (United Kingdom).
egance and simplicity of evolution, the only rational ex-
ISBN 978-1-4391-9281-8. OCLC 709673132.[145]
planation there is for the unimaginable diversity of life on
• Richard Dawkins (2013). An Appetite for Wonder:
In a poll held by Prospect magazine in 2013, Dawkins was The Making of a Scientist. Ecco Press (United King-
voted the world’s top thinker based on 65 names chosen dom and United States). ISBN 978-0-06-228715-1.
by a largely US- and UK-based expert panel.[144]

4.2 Documentary films

4 Media
• Nice Guys Finish First (1986)
4.1 Selected publications
• The Blind Watchmaker (1987)[146]
Main article: Richard Dawkins bibliography
• Growing Up in the Universe (1991)

• Richard Dawkins (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford: • Break the Science Barrier (1996)
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286092-5.
• The Big Question (2005) - Part 3 of the TV series,
• Richard Dawkins (1982). The Extended Pheno- titled “Why Are We Here? extquotedbl
type. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-
19-288051-9. • The Root of All Evil? (2006)
• Richard Dawkins (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. • The Enemies of Reason (2007)
New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-
393-31570-3. • The Genius of Charles Darwin (2008)
• Richard Dawkins (1995). River Out of Eden. New
York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-06990-8. • Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (2008) – as him-
• Richard Dawkins (1996). Climbing Mount Improb-
able. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN • The Purpose of Purpose (2009) – Lecture tour
0-393-31682-3. among American universities
• Richard Dawkins (1998). Unweaving the Rainbow. • Faith School Menace? (2010)
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-05673-4.
• Richard Dawkins (2003). A Devil’s Chaplain. • Beautiful Minds (April 2012) – BBC4 documentary
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-33540-4.
• Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life (2012)[147]
• Richard Dawkins (2004). The Ancestor’s Tale.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-00583-8. • The Unbelievers (2013)

4.3 Other appearances [8] “Curriculum vitae of Richard Dawkins”. The University
of Oxford. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008.
• Doctor Who: extquotedblThe Stolen Earth extquot- Retrieved 13 March 2008.
edbl (2008) – as himself
[9] Dawkins, Richard (11 December 2010). “Lives Remem-
• The Simpsons: extquotedblBlack Eyed, Please ex- bered: John Dawkins”. The Independent (London). Re-
trieved 12 December 2010.
tquotedbl – appears in Ned Flanders’ dream of Hell;
provided voice as a demon version of himself[148] [10] “Dawkins, Richard 1941- - Contemporary Authors, New
Revision Series”. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2014-05-
5 Notes [11] “A twitter status update by Dawkins saying that he iden-
tifies as English”. Twitter.com. Retrieved 2014-05-16.
a. ^ W. D. Hamilton hugely influenced Dawkins and the
influence can be seen throughout Dawkins’s book The [12] Andrew Anthony (15 September 2013). “Richard
Selfish Gene.[21] They became friends at Oxford and fol- Dawkins: 'I don't think I am strident or aggressive' ex-
tquotedbl. The Guardian. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
lowing Hamilton’s death in 2000, Dawkins wrote his obit-
uary and organised a secular memorial service. [13] Hattenstone, Simon (10 February 2003). “Darwin’s
b. ^ The debate ended with the motion “That the doctrine child”. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
of creation is more valid than the theory of evolution”
[14] Richard Dawkins (October 2004). The Ancestor’s Tale.
being defeated by 198 votes to 115.[150][151] Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-618-

[15] Dawkins, Richard. “Brief Scientific Autobiography”.

6 References RichardDawkins.net. Retrieved 17 July 2010.

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[120] “Richard Dawkins: Keep Libel Laws OUT of Science”. [137] “Galaxy British Book Awards — Winners & Shortlists
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[121] “Show your support – vote for the Liberal Democrats on
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[145] extquotedbl extquotedblThe Magic of Reality - new book
by Richard Dawkins this Fall” 10 May 2011”. Richard- • Richard Dawkins at TED
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• Video interview with Riz Khan for Al Jazeera En-
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[147] “Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life”. Channel 4. Re- • An Appetite for Wonder: Richard Dawkins in Con-
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[148] “Richard Dawkins Appears in Ned Flanders’ Nightmare
on The Simpsons” Patheos.com, 10 March 2013 By He- Selected writings
mant Mehta
• The Real Romance in the Stars (1995) – A critical
[149] Dawkins, Richard (3 October 2000). “Obituary by
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view of astrology.
original on 18 March 2008. Retrieved 22 March 2008. • Snake Oil and Holy Water (1999) – suggests that
[150] Critical-Historical Perspective on the Argument about there is no convergence occurring between science
Evolution and Creation, John Durant, in “From Evolution and theism.
to Creation: A European Perspective (Eds. Sven Ander-
son, Arthus Peacocke), Aarhus Univ. Press, Aarhus, Den- • What Use is Religion? (2004) – suggests that reli-
mark gion may have no survival value other than to itself.

[151] “1986 Oxford Union Debate: Richard Dawkins, John • Race and Creation (2004) – On race, its usage and
Maynard Smith”. RichardDawkins.net. Archived from a theory of how it evolved.
the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
Debate downloadable as MP3 files. • The giant tortoise’s tale, The turtle’s tale and The
lava lizard’s tale (2005) – A series of three articles
written after a visit to the Galápagos Islands.
7 External links

• Works by or about Richard Dawkins in libraries

(WorldCat catalog)

• Richard Dawkins collected news and commentary

at The Guardian

• Richard Dawkins collected news and commentary

at The New York Times

• Collection of Richard Dawkins Quotes


• National Geographic Interviews – A series of video

interviews with National Geographic Channel with
Richard Dawkins on Darwin, Evolution and God.

8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

8.1 Text
• Richard Dawkins Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Dawkins?oldid=627513587 Contributors: Magnus Manske, Derek Ross,
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Blainster, Timrollpickering, Gnomon Kelemen, Jeroen, Demerzel, Mushroom, Raeky, Pmcray, Xanzzibar, MikeCapone, Jooler, Juhaz,
Alan Liefting, Aomarks, Matthew Stannard, Centrx, Christopher Parham, Jacoplane, Barbara Shack, Jonth, Ryz, Jacob1207, Anville,
Michael Devore, Gamaliel, Brequinda, FeloniousMonk, Duncharris, Rparle, Tagishsimon, Edcolins, Utcursch, VoX, Pgan002, Andycjp,
Alexf, Kums, Marriex, LucasVB, Antandrus, BozMo, Bcameron54, PDH, Khaosworks, Rdsmith4, JimWae, Rattlesnake, Kuralyov, Icairns,
Histrion, Greenwave75, Marcos, Gscshoyru, Neutrality, JohnArmagh, Clemwang, Guybrush, Eisnel, Lacrimosus, Clubjuggle, Gazpacho,
Porges, Grstain, D6, Bonalaw, DanielCD, Dcfleck, An Siarach, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, KillerChihuahua, Guanabot, Leibniz,
ObsessiveMathsFreak, Sys2074, Cnwb, Vsmith, Rspeer, Tsumetai, Silence, Boy asunder, Dave souza, Catfacem3n, Quiensabe, Arthur
Holland, Grutter, Bender235, ZeroOne, Violetriga, Rick MILLER, FirstPrinciples, El C, Marx Gomes, Guettarda, Causa sui, Thures-
son, Bobo192, NetBot, Longhair, Ebradsha, Robotje, Smalljim, Nectarflowed, Beachy, Redlentil, John Vandenberg, BrokenSegue, Enric
Naval, Shenme, Viriditas, Fremsley, Wisdom89, Elipongo, Guiltyspark, Jerry cornelius, Obradovic Goran, Krellis, Orangemarlin, ADM,
Jumbuck, Vesal, Storm Rider, Alansohn, Managementboy, Philip Cross, Dalinian, Plumbago, Monado, Davenbelle, Wikidea, Nicholas
Cimini, SlimVirgin, Scarecroe, Rebert, Bart133, Schaefer, Wtmitchell, Dhartung, Benson85, Andrew Norman, Qshio, Knowledge Seeker,
Lev lafayette, Hahih, Tony Sidaway, RainbowOfLight, Dirac1933, Sciurinæ, Killenheladagen, Dave.Dunford, H2g2bob, Versageek, Red-
vers, Rekkr, Achievist, Dryman, Crosbiesmith, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Woohookitty, FeanorStar7, Carlos Porto, Havermayer,
Asav, Uncle G, Ganeshk, James Kemp, Madchester, Briangotts, Before My Ken, JBellis, JosefK, Mat813, Jok2000, Trevor Andersen, Ter-
ence, Macaddct1984, Kriegman, Tutmosis, Gimboid13, Essjay, Isambard, Palica, Thirty-seven, Mandarax, Coert, SqueakBox, Graham87,
Chupon, Alienus, Amayzes, Kbdank71, Mloclam901, Dpr, Dwaipayanc, Zoz, Mendaliv, Lord.lucan, Ketiltrout, Rjwilmsi, Mayumashu,
Tim!, Nightscream, Koavf, Robotwisdom, Jweiss11, Urbane Legend, Harry491, Bob A, Rillian, Bruce1ee, Pitan, Bubba73, Boccobrock,
Brighterorange, Afterwriting, FOBioPatel, The wub, Cfortunato, MarnetteD, Reinis, Nigosh, Matjlav, Yamamoto Ichiro, FayssalF, FlaBot,
Duagloth, Chris Pressey, Old Moonraker, CalJW, AdnanSa, Hiding, Brianreading, MacRusgail, Nivix, *nondescript, Gurch, Alexjohnc3,
Born2cycle, DannyDaWriter, Pete.Hurd, Diza, OpenToppedBus, Neilj, Gareth E Kegg, Amchow78, Chobot, Michaelritchie200, SirGrant,
SideSwept, Raider Duck, Helios, DVdm, Bdelisle, Bgwhite, Gwernol, Banaticus, Wavelength, John Stumbles, Sceptre, Ste1n, RussBot,
Sarranduin, Severa, Albert Einsteins pipe, Hede2000, Limulus, Splette, TWSummer, Ajc, Lar, Stephenb, Gaius Cornelius, Mike Young,
CambridgeBayWeather, Alex Bakharev, Wimt, Big Brother 1984, Anomalocaris, Muntuwandi, Slodave, Wiki alf, RazorICE, VetteDude,
JTBurman, Seegoon, Mccready, Vizjim, Kdbuffalo, Jpbowen, PhilipO, Number 57, Tonyfuchs1019, Apeman, Dannyno, Tony1, Buck-
etsofg, Aaron Schulz, Gertie, Ltalarico, Cerejota, DeadEyeArrow, BraneJ, Moncubus, Aofrancis, Wknight94, Eurosong, Xabian40409,
Mütze, Pawyilee, FF2010, Donbert, Dtemp, 2over0, Agapetos angel, Lt-wiki-bot, Encephalon, Kmunkittrick, Closedmouth, Rdnzl, Cyrus
Grisham, Pb30, Davril2020, Djgrothe, CWenger, Mais oui!, T. Anthony, ArielGold, Fluent aphasia, Pfistermeister, Canadianism, Tyrhinis,
NeilN, Finell, Tom Morris, Entheta, NetRolller 3D, Snalwibma, Sarah, A bit iffy, Laurence Boyce, SmackBot, MattieTK, Unschool, David
Kernow, Rtc, HamiltonHabs32, Reedy, Prodego, InverseHypercube, KnowledgeOfSelf, McGeddon, Grazon, David.Mestel, DCDuring,
C.Fred, Saimdusan, Od Mishehu, Jim62sch, Bomac, Masoodamin, ScaldingHotSoup, Mdebruijn, Trevdna, JAStewart, Mdd4696, Monty
Cantsin, Arniep, ProveIt, Iph, Canthusus, Japa, Edgar181, Cazort, Srnec, Sysrpl, Peter Isotalo, Gilliam, Portillo, Finduilas 09, Tomathy,
Hmains, The Famous Movie Director, Mkimemia, Betacommand, GwydionM, Squiddy, Tyciol, Bluebot, KaragouniS, Autarch, Jcc1, An-
thonzi, Bduke, Hibbleton, Emufarmers, Sirex98, Thumperward, DroEsperanto, Eseymour, SchfiftyThree, Dabigkid, Firstcrusader, Kap-
tKos, Jeff5102, Robth, Jacob no. 9, Yanksox, Mikker, Stedder, Scwlong, George Ho, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Jefffire, Danielkueh,
Sephiroth BCR, Snowmanradio, Avb, Darthgriz98, Yidisheryid, EvelinaB, Nunocordeiro, Parent5446, Kittybrewster, Chcknwnm, Robma,
PrometheusX303, Mightyxander, Khukri, Savidan, MichaelBillington, Blake-, Dreadstar, Dacoutts, TechPurism, Richard001, RandomP,
BullRangifer, Jan.Kamenicek, Ladlergo, Metamagician3000, Springnuts, Muhammad Hamza, Vina-iwbot, Ck lostsword, Leungchuenyan,
Will Beback, Byelf2007, CIS, Apeitheo, Jwwebman, Mchavez, Nishkid64, Serein (renamed because of SUL), Zymurgy, Harryboyles, Rk-
lawton, Giovanni33, Sophia, Vanished user 9i39j3, Kuru, Khazar, John, Stuartea, Macphisto12, Johnnyb 61820, -ramz-, Loodog, Disavian,
Jaganath, Tony Corsini, JoshuaZ, Robert Stevens, Glucoboost, Tdudkowski, Arbustoo, Cielomobile, DoItAgain, Rinnenadtrosc, Astuishin,
Slakr, Gandalfxviv, TheologyJohn, Skishoo2, KokomoNYC, Libraryjuice, Redeagle688, Midnightblueowl, Ryulong, IceHunter, Citicat,
SmokeyJoe, Noleander, Ash Loomis, Crossbyname, Kripkenstein, Dl2000, Asyndeton, Hu12, LenW, Cnbrb, Nonexistant User, Joey-Merl,
Iridescent, K, Befuddled steve, Spark, Laddiebuck, Richard Nowell, JoeBot, Donmac, Shoeofdeath, Dave420, ACEO, Cls14, Blehfu, Gnus-
mas, Rhetth, Noman953, FancyPants, Tawkerbot2, Filelakeshoe, Pete g1, TheHorseCollector, The Haunted Angel, Dbf, J Milburn, Thede-
monhog, Wolfdog, CmdrObot, Ale jrb, Wafulz, Sjmcfarland, Dycedarg, Olaf Davis, W guice, Maester mensch, Drinibot, MFlet1, Leu-
john, Andrew Delong, Memills, Chicheley, LAUBO, Jackprosser2006, LCP, AaronFX, Ajkgordon, Cydebot, Nar Matteru, Island Dave,
Valodzka, JFBridge, Treybien, Evenmadderjon, Steel, Svanloon, Hyperdeath, Clayoquot, Hebrides, Flowerpotman, Uker, Ttiotsw, George-
Topouria, Lancsalot, Froes, Daniel J. Leivick, Tkynerd, Carlroller, Odie5533, Crash.car.star, Shirulashem, Dougweller, Yellowhammer,
Poodleboy, DumbBOT, Viridae, LondonJae, Fateh, Omicronpersei8, Woland37, Zalgo, Crum375, Michael Johnson, Thijs!bot, Epbr123,
8.1 Text 17

Biruitorul, Mercury, Coelacan, Cujo27, Daniel, Lambo4000, N5iln, Headbomb, Luigifan, Marek69, John254, Java13690, Second Quan-
tization, Shot info, Cj67, Bunzil, Farrtj, Grayshi, Dgies, Therequiembellishere, Edhubbard, BlytheG, Dovea, Central2, SusanLesch, Men-
tifisto, AntiVandalBot, Christothes, RobotG, Majorly, Dbrodbeck, Mchale7, ArtAsLife, Andy C., TimVickers, Cstreet, Fayenatic london,
Mackan79, Hopiakuta, D. Webb, Cjs2111, Adam Chlipala, RichardDawkins, Stephen B, Spencer, David Shankbone, Jordan Rothstein,
Manu bcn, Ghmyrtle, Canadian-Bacon, Dreaded Walrus, Res2216firestar, Underage, Zeno27, JAnDbot, NBeale, Davewho2, DuncanHill,
MER-C, Skomorokh, CosineKitty, Epeefleche, Falqwin, Matthew Fennell, Congocraze, Seddon, Mark Shaw, Hamsterlopithecus, The Ice-
man2288, Hut 8.5, Rorrenig, Simon3W, Lisa.debruine, Demophon, Geniac, Bencherlite, General Nolledge, Connormah, Dp76764, Bong-
warrior, VoABot II, Sideshow Bob Roberts, Ishikawa Minoru, Xn4, MastCell, Xb2u7Zjzc32, JamesBWatson, Mclay1, Chschmn, Tomhan-
nen, BroodKiller, Hikarumitani, CTF83!, Steven Walling, Jatkins, Avicennasis, PEAR, KConWiki, Theroadislong, Benzocane, Crzysdrs,
Hiplibrarianship, Leo Stedile, Dave Muscato, Torchiest, Allstarecho, Tedster212, E104421, DerHexer, JaGa, Gavin Wilson, Waninge,
Pluvialis, GoodBooksMelbourne, Seba5618, Gwern, Marfan8, The velociraptor, Fuseau, MartinBot, Flexdream, Realisis, Tvalleav10,
NAHID, Lanroth, Alro, CommonsDelinker, Mweflen, Tgeairn, Erkan Yilmaz, AlphaEta, Deathby, J.delanoy, Pharaoh of the Wizards,
Veritas Blue, Trusilver, DandyDan2007, Svetovid, EscapingLife, Huey45, SuperGirl, Anas Salloum, Radrfa, Snowfalcon cu, Chrisfrom-
Houston, Tikiwont, Uncle Dick, Iloveanna, Helon, Ian.thomson, M C Y 1008, Lku04sen, Shawn in Montreal, Fang Boy 89, Katalaveno, Tai
kit, Kyudokoshi, DarkFalls, Cam8755, Tremblor, Gehockteh leber, Notreallydavid, Skier Dude, Lithfo, Anonywiki, Rclb, Laura H S, Wil-
dOscar, Thinking-it-through, Htanata, Robertson-Glasgow, RenniePet, HiLo48, F0xfree, Apepper, Master shepherd, Sprewellnyk, Dom-
minico, Pawnkingthree, Madhava 1947, ChristianKarlsson.se, Burzmali, Tygrrr, Merzul, FGT2, Mike V, Redrocket, Andy Marchbanks,
JohnDoe0007, RingoBingo, Halmstad, Sgeureka, LeeroyLewis, Spellcast, Vox Humana 8', Deor, VolkovBot, Shortride, ABF, Swangyy,
Orphic, Peter Otzen, Koelman, Stevetee, Hiddenart, Ndsg, Jeff G., Niceley, HeihachiMishima, Thenthornthing, Butwhatdoiknow, Pilotbob,
Schavez963, StudyAndBeWise, Chienlit, WachyWambo, QuackGuru, Philip Trueman, Sarnowski, Caelon, Jarona, TXiKiBoT, Docanton,
Jomasecu, Benar, Cosmic Latte, Zamphuor, Ninadelis, Technopat, BenBathgate, Sean D Martin, Testbed, Robert Muldoon, Charlesdrakew,
Mywikieditor2007, Blind designer, ANB, Chrisieboy, Steven J. Anderson, Lradrama, Elphion, Supertask, Abdullais4u, Helperthorpe,
Rezter, Raymondwinn, Noformation, GeorgeFormby1, Duncan.Hull, Millstone99, Maxim, Chsbcgs, AndyPhillips, Hannes Röst, WLNB,
Eubulides, Ashnard, Malick78, MarkSheldon, Darwinlives, Wolfrock, Torontonian1, CoolKid1993, Dawkinsologist, Mouse1337, Jef-
futz, Jpk82, Brianga, Gabjam, HiDrNick, Northfox, Seraphita, AlleborgoBot, Juggernautthunderclap, C0N6R355, Darwinlivesz, Born2x,
Hrafn, L'Eagle, SMC89, SieBot, Coffee, GentileJew, TJRC, TYLER, Youtubr3, Merrickweb, Tresiden, YonaBot, Nihil novi, Scar-
ian, WereSpielChequers, Jack Merridew, VVVBot, Dawn Bard, ConfuciusOrnis, HyperrealORnot, Triwbe, BabyJonas, Bernard Marx,
Fibo1123581321, WikiTony999, Steveking 89, Dala0, StylumCEO, Abhishikt, RucasHost, Hokiehead, Tiptoety, B3nnic33, Oda Mari,
Arbor to SJ, Hxhbot, Momo san, Mimihitam, Simaloko, Samepassword, Oxymoron83, Antonio Lopez, Joycey17, Faradayplank, Targe-
man, Nuhr, RMB1987, Lightmouse, ThAtSo, Ealdgyth, Alex.muller, Macy, Dillard421, Paperfire, Supt. of Printing, P.Marlow, Xday,
Msrasnw, AlexCatlin, GaalDornick, Cmasonx1, Journalist492, Jza84, Dolphin51, Denisarona, Oekaki, Artdemon01, Jobas, Baldrick90,
ImageRemovalBot, WikipedianMarlith, Faithlessthewonderboy, Soporaeternus, Twinsday, Loren.wilton, ClueBot, SummerWithMorons,
Rattymac, Pauldsims, Tmol42, Binksternet, Bob1960evens, TableManners, Einamozam, All Hallow’s Wraith, Grundede, QueenAdelaide,
Uxorion, Sandiegoryu, United264035, MikeVitale, Nsk92, Chomsky2093, Gaia Octavia Agrippa, TotesBoats, Adrianwn, Meekywiki,
Bobisbob, Jay Davis 25, Yum152, Robby.is.on, Boing! said Zebedee, Fred8888, Kristamaranatha, Sk17ept3, JIMMYLINE, Coun-
terVandalismBot, Baegis, Mostargue, Blanchardb, Hometruths1618, Otolemur crassicaudatus, JustGresh, JFlav, Solar-Wind, PeteXor,
The Scarlet Letter, Masterpiece2000, Mpullnash, Yoyoyo007, Princessshah, -Midorihana-, MantisEars, Coralmizu, Freethinkersusan,
Rkh10, NuclearWarfare, Millionsandbillions, Tnxman307, Xxagile, Razorflame, Starrboy, Drinksquare, Miracle fish, Cokeabout, Royal-
mate1, Tastesoon, TimothyJacobson, Mongo2002, BOTarate, Kakofonous, Calor, Aprock, Ajterry, Kida625, Thingg, Samho777, John-
nymaddog, Aitias, Versus22, IJA, AC+79 3888, Qwfp, Adamfinmo, Johnuniq, Dylanpack, Graevemoore, Att159, Budelberger, Cow-
ardly Lion, Skunkboy74, Cooltrainer Hugh, Bletchley, XLinkBot, Araknyd, MessinaRagazza, Nathan Johnson, Bilsonius, Tommaso88,
Imagine Reason, EastTN, Rror, Feinoha, Mitch Ames, Jprw, Mifter, Alexius08, DavidinVA, Aunt Entropy, Tedgrant, HotPocketman,
Cluginbuhl, Kbdankbot, Georgereev118118, Anticipation of a New Lover’s Arrival, The, Aslinga, Tayste, Keller.brett, Asrghasrhio-
jadrhr, Addbot, Some jerk on the Internet, Jafeluv, Anneke anneke, DOI bot, Lovelyrita67, Ave Caesar, Betterusername, Philio2020,
Opus88888, NoitcuderSnikwad, CL, Richjcq, Swiftblink, AkhtaBot, Politicworms, TutterMouse, L.E.Poss, Laurinavicius, PlumCrumble-
AndCustard, ContiAWB, CanadianLinuxUser, Ka Faraq Gatri, Jim10701, Proxima Centauri, Cjm6, Yhvh777, JemmaBrossel, Malonian,
JamesSmathyfield, Dynamization, Ld100, Sam Drowns Puppies For Fun, Rrya1207, LinkFA-Bot, Tomvasseur, Elvenlordonelvenpath,
Jathan617, Gs111, Sardur, Tassedethe, Jesusfreak0013, Moonpie UK, DubaiTerminator, Tide rolls, Nersy, Jalfredl, Filip em, Jarble, Mar-
tinBennett Aus, Grubbidok, Greeeek, LuK3, Wiwayb, Luckas-bot, Yobot, EchetusXe, Themfromspace, Theserialcomma, JJARichardson,
Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Nfeik, Donfbreed, RegenerateThis, Karthika.kerala, Ubxer, We66er, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Reenem, Dr.
12345678, CPX, Amicon, AndrewFlorea, Richard56, Charles Dee, FeydHuxtable, Spikeasaur, Rajewsbury, Orion11M87, AnomieBOT,
Hitenshantia924, Georgiamode01, Archon 2488, Hairhorn, KvltTNBMer, Jim1138, IRP, Squoups, Mackiro, Hadrian89, Adamnewt, Phan-
tom Hoover, SlideEraser, Profangelo, Aditya, Wikisanchez, Frankol77, Flewis, Smoothcee, Mahmudmasri, Materialscientist, Gilbert04,
Bchurchill, Kirachinmoku, Citation bot, Hostin, Frankenpuppy, ArthurBot, Landud, Potočnik, Xqbot, Happyhuman, მოცარტი, Tran-
sity, Hanso671, Nasnema, Oliverbeatson, Gilo1969, Quark1005, Skinnysock, Wyklety, Chucky052108, Cyphoidbomb, Gap9551, 7h3
3L173, Bilburt101, StealthCopyEditor, Jezhotwells, Pereant antiburchius, Jpearse999, Gracehbd, GhalyBot, Rosered1963, Richard BB,
Miyagawa, Mattpalumbo11, Joaquin008, Misortie, Pauswa, Carbonator, Satiksme, Randalllism, Neil Carmichael, Amilnerwhite, Lev-
alley, Gabe.g123, Omaraty009, EvilFlyingMonkey, MaximilianMark, Mfwitten, DoucheCadet, Quantum.wells, Zlatno Pile, HACKER
HEADSHOT, Sozsoz, Jun Nijo, Rhalah, Citation bot 1, Kobrabones, Gaba p, Guyhihello, Momergil, Ono-sama, DANE YOUSSEF,
Jonesey95, MarcelB612, Jorgicio, Jschnur, Srasrodriguez, Falk55, SapienDeinosRexus, NKS22, AustralianMelodrama, Fongwongchew,
SkyMachine, FoxBot, Spritebox, Wotnow, Yunshui, DriveMySol, Fama Clamosa, Standardfact, Duncwilson, Lotje, Callanecc, Henry-
moorehouse, Sisyphos23, Amar2556, Popovvk, Livingrm, Vrenator, LilyKitty, And Rew, SeoMac, Aoidh, Damone Jones, Findaknow,

Canuckian89, Stephen MUFC, Innotata, Tbhotch, Deanmullen09, Qluah, Mean as custard, Alan666wsg, RjwilmsiBot, Waters2100, Bert-
brooks, Javaweb, Tesseract2, DASHBot, BrendanFrye, EmausBot, ImprovingWiki, And we drown, Archie Mitchell, WikitanvirBot,
Obamafan70, Rodolfo G Muller, Surlyduff50, Lucien504, Dominus Vobisdu, Siegfried Nugent, GoingBatty, RA0808, Ratspeed, Jim
Michael, Shaunthered, Wikipelli, K6ka, TeleComNasSprVen, Tuxedo junction, Werieth, ZéroBot, Shuipzv3, Bassel adas, Heavyleaks,
Sgerbic, Kiwi128, Borja Moll XAL 2010, H3llBot, 1Veertje, Glimmer721, JackHeslop91, Mehrdad1900s, Gz33, HylandPaddy, Qmtead,
Mayur, Wikiposter0123, Lacobrigo, LisaSandford, Polisher of Cobwebs, Scientific29, CGPGrey, Ihardlythinkso, UBERxL33T, Gum375,
ClamDip, Dylan Flaherty, Robin Lionheart, TYelliot, Socialservice, ClueBot NG, Gareth Griffith-Jones, Adamrce, Joefromrandb, Ja-
sonSoleil, Kazemita1, Abhijeet Safai, Mommolau, Anupmehra, Vibhijain, North Atlanticist Usonian, GuyHimGuy, Helpful Pixie Bot,
Novusuna, Mophedd, Anentiresleeve, Siddhant2010, Dawkinscreep, Absolutelegend5, Lowercase sigmabot, BG19bot, Onion machine,
LouiseBrown1981, Jackfilm, ComputerJA, Cyberpower678, MusikAnimal, Darkness Shines, Dmainah, ElGuitaristMagnifico, Bleeble-
Blobble, Hyperrealis, Iwanturkitty, HumeFan, Allecher, 04rossca, Skepticinpub, FutureTrillionaire, Civeel, ChrisSaltmarsh1234, Asu-
rion, JonKrow, Jeancey, Phlegm Jeeves, Idxcue, MikamiLovesDeleting, Toccata quarta, Pablonoriega, DARIO SEVERI, SmilingProphet,
Dwfoftn, English cheese man, MrBill3, JosephPerezInChrist, Katangais, Epicurus B., LondonER19, Gwickwire, Rappunzzel, Moriblob,
‫ابن لنگور‬, AmeriSwede001, Jediknightelectro1997, Kooky2, Sanju87, Editorpsy, Paulinski011, Cormag100, Extraction99, BattyBot,
Justincheng12345-bot, Barney the barney barney, Ziggypowe, Tkchafin7153, Th4n3r, Alebun, Cyberbot II, NPOVMF, ChrisGualtieri,
The Red R, ThickShades, Nudaydawning, Saedon, Jj1693hbk, Brightsparkeh, Dobie80, ParrotPrince, JYBot, SnwLprd, JakeDowell, Pope
Benedict “Benny” XVI, BostonDeist, Timelezz, PnakoticInquisitor, OsmanRF34, Dexbot, Jinx69, Chrystal81, Supportobama1, Rasp-
burryb, TwoTwoHello, Lugia2453, StillStanding-247, ComfyKem, Irenaeus7, K9x, Kevpaton, Enigma908, Grizzlygus1, User 99 119,
Howicus, Jb1944, Jinkinson, Msundqvist, EvergreenFir, Backendgaming, Ellisnyc, Boone jenner, YoungDrac, Realrainbow, Param Mud-
gal, Justin.Parallax, Adamblack93, Rob735, Luis Benites Sánchez, CommissarRAWR, Jfut76, Kdie84, Nexus000, CogitoErgoSum14,
TrolledByWheelios, Jacquefuller, Carlos Rojas77, Monkbot, JamKaftan, Pitpat3, Singleton4321, Robin S. Taylor, BethNaught, Nicw01,
Hullkrdan, JapanUK, Zach bender, Vandawk8, Jonarnold1985, Maranjosie, Bigbuttz, AIPAC007, Lucascookbook, Copunio Neciw and
Anonymous: 1267

8.2 Images
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wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Ariane_Sherine_and_Richard_Dawkins_at_the_Atheist_Bus_Campaign_launch.jpg License: CC-BY-2.0
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8.3 Content license 19

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8.3 Content license

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