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This manual is intended to provide information pertinent to the installation, operation and maintenance
of the OXYSYSTEMS Model 2V3X-172-4.1 Compressor.


This is a 2 stage, 2 cylinder, air-cooled, oil-free compressor. See registration page for design operating
pressures, flow rate and gas type. Note the flow rate will vary with the suction pressure, temperature
and compressor condition.

1.2 GAS COMPRESSION: This compressor is designed to safely compress without cylinder oil
lubrication. Teflon based piston rings are used in all stages. The compression cylinders are isolated
from the crankcase lubricating oil by a crosshead distance piece.

Since oil is not used in the compression cylinders, the compressor will not contaminate the compressed
gas, however, it is the responsibility of the user to ensure that clean gas is supplied to the compressor
intake at all times. A small amount of inert piston ring dust will pass into the gas stream; this can be
filtered out if desired. It is required of the buyer to monitor the gas purity and/or filter the discharge gas
as necessary to be suitable for the intended use.

1.3 GAS FLOW AND COOLING: Due to the heat created from compression it is necessary to
cool both the compressed gas and the compression cylinders. A cooling fan pulls air through the
inter/aftercooler assembly (if supplied) and the air is then routed towards the cylinders. See flow
schematic for further detail.

1.4 CRANKCASE LUBRICATION: The entire crankcase assembly including guide cylinders is
splash lubricated.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 1


2.1 MOUNTING: The compressor must be firmly bolted down on a rigid foundation. In some
cases firm rubber mounts are acceptable, however, allowed movement will generally increase vibration
which can cause component damage. Ensure that the beltguard is securely attached.

For proper cooling adequate ventilation must be supplied at the compressor site. Ambient cooling air is
required to be 43C˚ (110 F˚) or less. Cooler air is desirable as it will increase compressor component
life. Extremely low ambient temperatures may require oil sump heating.

2.2 PIPING: When piping to the gas inlet, be sure all pipes are free from contamination. Piping to
the compressor suction should be the same diameter or larger than the compressor inlet piping to insure
the required flow can pass without pressure drop. A particulate filter or strainer (100 mesh or finer)
must be installed at the gas inlet. Customer inlet and discharge piping should be designed to
accommodate compressor vibration.

An approved safety relief valve and pressure gauge must always be installed between the compressor
and the first item in the gas piping that can potentially block the flow of gas. All piping and components
downstream of the unit must be rated for the same pressure as the setting of the final stage relief valve.
Do not start the compressor until these items are properly installed.

Inspect all gas piping compression fittings and tighten as necessary. Flexible lines should be secured to
prevent whipping in case of breakage. It may be helpful to install a hand valve in the gas line just after
the compressor to create back pressure for testing and switch calibration. On units with auto start/stop
logic, reconnecting the discharge pressure switch to a receiver tank may provide more accurate control.

See compressor flow schematic for other required customer connections (if any).

Note: the piston rings and gas packing seals (if equipped) are designed to seal in dynamic use and may
not seal well when compressor is not running.

For units with positive suction pressures, a safety valve must be used on the
suction line to protect against excessive intake pressure. The valve capacity must
match the maximum potential capacity of the customer gas source. Factory
installed relief valves are sized to match the compressor design flow rate only.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 2

2.3 CRANKCASE LUBRICATION: Check crankcase oil level via sight gage with unit stopped.
Oil level should be to fill line which is approx 3/4 of the way up the glass. Also inspect for water or
other foreign material. In some cases the crankcase oil is drained prior to shipment. Supply oil as
needed to meet the ambient conditions. If included the unit has been shipped with SAE 15-40 oil.

Automotive type oil is recommended, either synthetic or carbon based. Multi-viscosity oil is acceptable.
Synthetic compression oils are not suitable.


VISCOSITY: Above 15˚C. - SAE 30 or 40

Between 4˚C and 15˚C - SAE 30 or 10W-40
Between -6˚C and 4˚C - SAE 10W-30 or 10W-40
Below -6˚C - SAE 5W - synthetic recommended

2.4 ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS: The unit must be wired in accordance with applicable
codes. Jog unit to ensure correct rotation of compressor. See registration page for proper crankshaft
rotation. Check cooling fan rotation to ensure that air is pulled through the heat exchanger.

2.5 DISTANCE PIECES: Distance piece venting of the clear cover plates is provided to minimize
pressure pulsing (caused by piston movement) which could lead to piston rod oil seal leakage. It is also
necessary to prevent unsafe concentrations of O2 build dup in the distance piece area or crankcase.

2.6 STORAGE: If the compressor is taken out of service, provision should be made to protect
against corrosion. At a minimum, gas suction and discharge lines should be capped. The compressor
should be rotated at least once every 2 months. In corrosive environments, the distance pieces should be
sealed and the unit nitrogen purged.

After an extended storage (or if stored without climate control) the crankcase cover plates should be
removed and the roller bearings inspected for corrosion. Apply oil to bearings before replacing covers.
Also, lift up oil packing boxes (inside distance pieces) and lubricate guide cylinders. Compressor heads
and/or valves should also be removed and inspected for corrosion. Relief valves should be cleaned,
rebuilt or replaced.

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3.1 SYSTEM CHECKOUT: Check that crankcase oil level is 3/4 up the sight glass and inspect for
water or other foreign material.

Insure that a free flow of gas is available to the inlet and that all downstream piping is properly protected
by a suitable relief valve.

Read control section of manual (Ch. 4) to fully understand the control system and operating features.
Check setting of all temperature shutdown devices (see Ch. 4 for settings). All elements of the control
system and safety shutdowns should be tested and verified before the system is put into full operation.

3.2 START-UP: Supply the required suction pressure to the compressor inlet. Check for leaks in
the system and correct as necessary. Start the compressor and observe the pressure gauges.

If the unit is equipped with a back pressure regulator (BPR) on the discharge piping, the final pressure
will increase quickly to the BPR setting. Otherwise, the pressure will increase based on back pressure
from user downstream piping. The interstage pressures should approach normal levels as the final stage
comes up to its final setting. See paragraph 3.3 or Registration Page for normal operating pressures.
NOTE: High pressure units with floating pistons will experience knocking for 1-2 seconds on start-up.

If interstage pressures do not reach normal levels check for leaks in the gas piping. A soapy water
solution is one way to do this (see paragraph 5.8). If interstage pressures exceed normal levels (which
may pop relief valves) this is due to valves on the next stage leaking back. Leaking valves may be the
result of inactivity in which case operating the unit at reduced back pressure (or at back pressure valve
setting) for 30 minutes may clear the problem. Also see troubleshooting guide.

If the compressor does not shut off when the discharge switch set pressure is reached, manually shut
down and check the pressure switch and related wiring (see appendix for switch instructions). If
necessary, adjust the switch according to the directions.

Test the suction pressure switch (if supplied) by manually lowering the pressure to the compressor inlet.
If the compressor does not shut off when the switch set pressure is reached, manually shut down and
check switch and related wiring. Operating the compressor with inadequate suction pressure may
overheat the final stage or cause banging of floating pistons creating the potential for severe damage.

Gas temperatures will also rise in conjunction with the stage pressures. Temperature switches may need
adjustment for local ambient/cooling water temperatures. Switches can be checked by lowering the trip
setting and then running the unit. Reset to 17°C above maximum observed operating temperature. See
instructions in back of manual for setting digital display.

Test all other shutdown devices as applicable. All elements of the pressure control system and safety
shutdowns should be tested and verified before the system is put into full operation.


2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 4



The control panel has been provided by Oxysystems. See separate manual for details.

Basic requirements:
• Fail-safe shutdown logic for all switches
• Hourmeter for compressor run time
• Pressure in compressor piping to be reduced to suction pressure level on shutdown to allow
unloaded startup. Either an automatic or hand valve must be installed just prior to the discharge
check valve, to ensure that the unit can be bled down for startup as well as for maintenance.

Safety shutdowns as a minimum must include the following:

• High discharge pressure - located upstream of any gas block valves. See registration page for
maximum allowed pressure.
• Low suction pressure - located downstream of any gas block valves. Lowered suction pressure
will increase the final stage discharge temperature. A complete loss of suction pressure may
cause banging of floating pistons, and also cause the first stage cylinder to pull a vacuum,
drawing in atmospheric air and possibly other outside contaminates.
• High gas temperature, final stage hot side - set 17°C above the normal operating discharge

Optional shutdowns:
• High suction pressure - required if the suction may be exposed to excessive pressure.
• High interstage gas temp - recommended for fully unattended operation. Also helpful if unit is
operated at significantly reduced discharge pressure, as the final stage temp switch may not
protect the overall unit if the final stage has minimal compression.
• High vibration. Recommended for fully unattended operation.

Note regarding unloaded startup:

Ideally the pressure in the compressor piping should be bled down to the level of the suction pressure
before startup. Due to leakage past the piston rings this will happen by itself after some time.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 5


INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to provide the operator with the routine
inspection and scheduled maintenance information required to ensure a long service life of the subject
compressor. Detailed procedures for maintenance are contained in chapter 7.


a. Check that crankcase oil level is 3/4 of the way up on sight glass. Check for oil leaks.
b. Check gauge pressures against normal operating cylinder pressures.
c. Check cooling air flow. Verify heat exchanger fins are clean and free from blockages.
d. Check for unusual noises or vibrations.


Para. Operation Time Intervals in Hours
5.3 Filter Cleaning ......................................................... 2000 or as required
5.4 Crankcase Lubricating Oil .................................... 6000 or once per year
5.5 Electric Motor Lubrication ............................................ as required
5.6 Drive-belt Adjustment ........................................................4000
5.7 Pressure Relief Valves .......................................... 8000 or once per year
5.8 Gas Piping Leak Check .....................................1000 or after maintenance
5.0 Compressor Valves ........................................................... see text
5.10 Piston Rings .................................................................... as required
5.11 Cylinder Liners ............................................................... as required
5.12 Piston Rod Oil Seals ....................................................... as required


Before performing any maintenance the compressor power supply should

be locked Out of Service to prevent starting which could cause injury to
personnel or damage to the equipment. Allow piping to cool before repair.

5.3 FILTER CLEANING: Every 2000 hours (or as required) the filters should be cleaned (refer to
Flow Schematic for filter locations). Replacement gasket or O-ring as applicable should be on hand in
case existing is damaged during disassembly.

5.4 CRANKCASE LUBRICATING OIL: Every 3000 hours of running time (or annually) the
crankcase oil should be renewed. Failing to change the oil as scheduled may result in premature or
accelerated wear to the running gear (crankshaft, main / connecting rod bearings and the crosshead).

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 6

5.5 MOTOR LUBRICATION: If motor does not have grease fittings, the bearings are sealed for
life. Otherwise, follow the manufacturer’s recommendation.

5.6 DRIVE BELTS: Properly tensioned belts insure a longer life. Correct belt tension for the 2V
unit allows 6mm deflection with 4 - 4.5 kg. force applied per belt at mid-span. New belts may require
tightening after 24-48 hours of operation. Two belts are required. Units with the flywheel grooves
painted may require banded belts as single belts may rotate in the grooves. See Chapter 7.2 for more

5.7 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES: The pressure relief valves should be removed from the
compressor, inspected for cleanliness, and tested for correct set-point every 8000 hours or once per year.
If a valve fails to lift at its rated pressure, it must be readjusted, and if necessary, rebuilt or replaced.

5.8 GAS PIPING LEAK CHECK: After maintenance or every 1000 hours operation, all assembly
joints should be examined for leaks. Leak testing requires that the unit be pressurized, and therefore
running or recently run. Any gaskets and o-rings needed for repair should be on hand.

A soapy solution in a squirt bottle is one method of locating leaks. This test is simplified if the
compressor is allowed to cool, then restarted immediately prior to running the leak test, since the hot
discharge pipes can boil away the soap solution making detection of leaks difficult or impossible.


Do not use a flammable solution for leak testing

Hot discharge lines can produce painful burns
Wear safety glasses at all times

Notes: Observe for the formation of bubbles. Large leaks may blow the solution away as it is applied,
and therefore must be detected by feel, being careful of hot gases and piping. O-ring joints normally
cannot be corrected by additional tightening - in most cases a new o-ring is required. Always inspect o-
ring sealing surfaces for defects. Insure the proper durometer (hardness) o-ring is used.

Note: See Drawing A5089G for O-ring installation and material information

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 7


A leaking valve, either suction or discharge, will usually be indicated by higher than normal pressure on
the preceding stage, or in the case of the first stage, a loss in flow along with low interstage pressures.
This can be caused by wear, breakage, warping of the reeds or fouling due to particulates. Severe
leakage in a suction valve will cause heating of the suction pipe just prior to the cylinder head.

The valve reeds should be changed every 4000 hours (2000 hours with O2 units), or earlier if pressures
vary from normal, noise is detected or an abnormally high temperature is observed. The customer
should establish reference data for use in troubleshooting by taking gauge readings when the compressor
is running under normal operating conditions.

The perimeter of valve seats and o-rings may be lightly lubed with appropriate grease to ease assembly.
Alignment pins may also be lubed to help hold in place. (see additional information in chapter 7)

5.10 PISTON RINGS: As the piston rings wear, their ability to seal is diminished. Excessive wear
will result in lower compressor capacity, more frequent compressor operation and unnecessary wear on
other components. There is also risk of damaging cylinder liner walls if the rings wear out completely,
particularly on stages with stainless pistons.

Excess piston to cylinder clearance, caused from either piston or cylinder liner wear, will significantly
decrease ring life. Cylinder bores should be observed for wear at ring change-outs and measured for
wear if ring life has significantly decreased. For maximum ring life, pistons should not be removed
from cylinders prior to ring replacement.

The best indicator of worn rings is a low compressor flow output. On the first or intermediate stages the
pressure for the affected cylinder will also be lowered. With extreme wear the compressor will not be
able to compress to the design pressure.

Ring life will vary with discharge pressure, atmospheric conditions and frequency of start/stop cycles.
A low ambient temperature will increase ring life. Frequent start/stop cycles will reduce ring life. If
possible, allow downstream pressure to drop as low as possible before restarting compressor.

5.11 CYLINDER LINERS: When ring life deteriorates from normal, liners should be checked for
surface finish, scoring or excessive wear. Maximum wear will normally occur 1/3 to 1/2 way down the
bore. A bore gauge is the best way to measure wear. Check diameter at several depths for wash-
boarding, and hone or replace as required. See chapter 7 for maximum diameters. Cleaning may not be
required on normal ring change-outs unless contaminates are present.

The desired cylinder surface is a 16-32 crosshatch. Surface roughness is needed to allow engraining of
Teflon in the bore. A smoother bore will reduce ring life. Re-hone cylinder as required, removing a
minimum of material.

5.12 PISTON ROD OIL SEALS: The oil seals prevent crankcase oil from leaking into the
distance piece area. If objectionable leakage occurs, remove piston rod and replace seals. If scratches
are found on rod surface, refinish per instructions in chapter 7.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 8



GENERAL. Abnormal compressor conditions can be evaluated more quickly and accurately by
looking at interstage pressures. Variation of the interstage pressure indicates a problem condition, such
as worn piston rings, leaking valves or piping leaks. Observe cylinder pressures, which should be as
indicated on the Registration Page of this manual or in chapter 3.

Low interstage pressures will be caused by one or more of the following:

a. Worn 1st stage or interstage rings
b. Leaking 1st stage valves
c. Leaks in piping or o-rings
d. Excessive 1st stage piston clearance
e. Restricted inlet filter or suction piping
f. Low suction pressure to compressor

NOTE: Operating compressor with a low interstage pressure may cause overheating of the
final stage resulting in premature ring wear.

High interstage pressures will be caused by one or more of the following:

a. Leaking valves on the next stage (most likely cause)
b. Worn piston rings on next stage (limited effect)

NOTE: Leaking valves (in any stage) can cause a warming of the suction pipe just prior to the cylinder
head. If the unit has two parallel cylinders, compare the inlet pipe temperatures to each other.

Compressor will not produce final discharge pressure:

a. Worn piston rings
b. Leak to atmosphere via cylinder head o-ring or piping
c. Leak in downstream (customer) piping

Shutdown due to high discharge temperature:

a. Low interstage pressure (see above causes)
b. Inoperative cooling fan (or reverse rotation)
c. Inadequate ventilation around compressor or blocked cooling fins

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 9


INTRODUCTION: This chapter presents instructions for adjustments and repairs to the
compressor pump. Scheduled maintenance and general repair information is covered in Chapter 5.
Where special tools are required, they are called out in the applicable paragraph. This chapter is divided
into two sections: Section I, Adjustments and Alignments, and Section II, Repair.


7.1 ALIGNMENT OF DRIVE PULLEYS: Following any repair which requires removal of the
motor sheave or compressor flywheel, it may be necessary to realign the pulleys.

The pulleys are keyed to the shaft and locked in place with a tapered bushing. The pulleys have a hub
that can be separated by removing the three bolts and using them as jacking devices by inserting into the
threaded holes in the hub and tightening sequentially until the pulley breaks free. When loose, the
pulley and hub can be slid back and forth on the shaft to achieve alignment. To align, use a straight
edge across the outside faces of the pulleys. The gap between the straight edge and flywheel or pulley
should not exceed 1/16" (4 CM).

Torque the bolts per specifications. Check alignment and repeat if necessary. Replace belt guard.


To replace belts, loosen the motor (and beltguard if necessary) and roll the belts off the flywheel and
drive sheave, one groove at a time. Install new belts via reverse method.

To obtain the proper tension on the V-belts, use the following procedure:
a. Loosen the motor tie-down bolts at least three turns.
b. Move the motor outward until the desired belt tension is achieved. Correct belt tension
allows one quarter inch deflection with 8-10 lb. force applied per belt at mid-span.
c. Tighten motor tie-down bolts and replace belt guard.
d. Inspect and retighten new belts as required after 24-48 hours of operation.

7.3 COOLING FAN - The cooling fan is a sealed design and is not serviceable.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 10



a. Relieve pressure and allow heads to cool. Disconnect piping from head.
b. Note orientation of head to ensure proper reassembly. Remove retaining nuts using an
alternating pattern and lift head from cylinder.

a. Install new o-ring or gasket in the head and/or or at top of cylinder as applicable.
b. Correctly orient head and carefully lower onto cylinder making sure valve parts maintain
their proper position. Install stainless nuts using assembly lube to prevent galling.
Tighten in 5 ft-lb. increments using a cross sequence. Do not to overtighten as this can
damage valves and heads. Verify that head is on square and not cocked


A bad valve, either suction or discharge, will usually be indicated by higher than normal pressure on the
preceding stage, or in the case of the first stage, a loss in flow along with low interstage pressures. This
can be caused by wear, breakage, warping of the reeds or fouling due to particulates which prevent the
valve from fully closing. Remove and service the valves as recommended in chapter 5, or if any of the
interstage pressures vary from normal and other possible causes have been eliminated.

When reinstalling valves, care must be taken to avoid damaging the o-rings. Lubricate o-rings with an
appropriate grease, such as Christo-Lube MCG 111, O2 and breathing compatible). Alignment
pins may also be lubricated to help hold in place. Avoid tilting the valve seat when installing in head
and apply even pressure around the circumference until the seat is completely installed. On non-O2
units Dow Molycote 111 – Valve Lube & Sealant may be helpful in cases where suction reed valves
must be held in place during assembly (not O2 compatible).

Note: After seat installation both suction and discharge holes must be visible or seat is in backwards.
Proper installation of a discharge reed can be checked by attempting to blow into discharge port. No air
should pass if valve and seat are correctly installed.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 11

7.5.1 1ST STAGE VALVE ASSEMBLY, 2 1/4" Air-cooled cylinder (2V3 type)

a. Remove the head per section 7.4.
b. Note the orientation of the suction reed valve. The suction valve is not attached to the
head. Remove the reed.
c. Remove the valve seat.
d. Remove the two screws, valve backing plate and discharge reeds from the seat.
e Discard the O-rings. Clean, repair or replace parts as necessary.


a. Inspect the reeds for cracking or pitting. Remove any deposits. Examine the valve seat
for cracks or pits and for leakage past the seat. A uniform imprint of the reed usually
indicates that the valve is sealing normally. Radial lines or streaks extending outward
indicates leakage. Replace parts as required.
b. Lap the valve seat on a lapping plate using a fine lapping compound. Alternately, on a
flat plate, polish the seat with 400 grit wet/dry sandpaper, then follow up with 600 grit.
When lapping, remove a minimum of material to just clean up the surface.
c. As necessary, carefully sand the inside surface of the head where the o-rings and valve
parts slide into place. Use 400 grit sandpaper or Scotch Bright.

a. Attach discharge reeds and valve backing plate to valve seat. Torque screws to 12-15
inch-lbs. Inspect to see that valve rests flush against seat.
b. Apply a light film of appropriate grease to the new O-rings.
c. Install the large o-ring in the head and the small one on the valve seat assembly. Install
the valve seat with the discharge side of the seat going into the head and the spring pin
entering the small hole in the valve seat
d. Set the suction reed on the valve seat using a small amount of compatible O-ring grease,
which will hold the reed in place when the head is installed on the cylinder. If a new reed
is used, bend the tab to a 45 degree angle into the slot provided in the valve seat. Do not
put grease on or near the valve finger. Note: a 2nd o-ring can be installed to assist in
holding the suction reed in place during assembly.
e. Replace the O-ring on the cylinder liner. Note: if cylinder has been removed, make sure
valve cutout in top of cylinder is oriented to coincide with suction valve in head.
f. Carefully install the head assembly, making sure the suction reed valve does not fall out
of place. Note: it may be easier to mount the head on the cylinder off the compressor
and then install the two together. Install nuts and tighten using an alternating pattern in 5
ft-lb. increments to 30 ft-lbs. Verify that the head is on square and not cocked. Do not to
over tighten the nuts as this could damage the valves and/or head.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 12

7.5 2ND STAGE VALVE ASSEMBLY, 1.5" to 3" air-cooled cylinders (M type)
Ref drawing A9283: 7/64" Allen wrench required


a. Remove head, see section 7.4 for instructions.
b. Remove o-ring and the two Allen screws that attach the valve assembly to the head.
c. Remove suction guard, suction reeds and then valve seat (valve seat only on B11369
valve). Remove upper o-ring. Discard all o-rings.
d. Remove the screws holding the discharge reeds and backing plate. Remove suction
assembly on B11369 valve using allen wrench. It may be necessary to heat the screw to
release the Loctite.


a. Inspect the reeds for cracking or pitting. Remove any deposits. Examine the valve seat
for cracks or pits and for leakage past the seat. A uniform imprint of the reed usually
indicates that the valve is sealing normally. Radial lines or streaks extending outward
indicates leakage. Replace parts as required.
b. Lap the valve seat on a lapping plate using a fine lapping compound. Alternately, on a
flat plate, polish the seat with 400 grit wet/dry sandpaper, then follow up with 600 grit.
When lapping, remove a minimum of material to just clean up the surface.
c. As necessary, carefully sand the inside surface of the head where the o-rings and valve
parts slide into place. Use 400 grit sandpaper or Scotch Bright.

a. Once the valve components have been cleaned, proceed as follows:
b. Attach discharge reeds and backing plate onto valve seat. Use Loctite (see Para. 7.5 for
proper type). Use a minimal amount and be careful Loctite does not flow onto reeds as
this may prevent proper sealing. For B11369 valve, install suction valve into seat, using
Loctite in the screw threads.
c. Install upper o-ring in head using a small amount of appropriate grease to hold in place.
Then install seat into head being careful that orientation is correct with screw holes
properly lined up. Install suction reeds and guard as applicable.
d. Install socket head screws, making sure the screws do not bottom out in the head before
the valve assembly is fully clamped. Torque screws to 10 in-lbs.
e. Install lower o-ring in head using a small amount of lube to hold in place, then install
head onto cylinder making sure the gas connection ports are oriented correctly. Tighten
nuts in 5 ft-lb. increments to 20 ft-lbs, or 25 ft-lbs. if self-locking nuts are used (lubed
threads). Verify that the head is on square and not cocked. Do not overtighten.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 13

7.6 CYLINDERS: The compression cylinders must be removed to service the rings and pistons.
Each cylinder should be marked prior to removal to enable proper orientation upon reinstallation.


a. Remove the cylinder head in accordance with Paragraph 7.4.

b. Floating pistons may be pulled out top of cylinder with piston at TDC. Otherwise piston
may fall out bottom when cylinder is removed. For fixed pistons, turning the flywheel by
hand to position the piston at bottom dead center may ease removal of cylinder.
c. Being careful to prevent side stress on the piston and rod assembly, lift the cylinder off
the piston. Remove and discard the used O-rings. See chapter 5 for wear information
and end of this chapter for tolerances.
d. See instructions in piston ring replacement section(s) for reinstallation procedure.

7.7 PISTON RINGS: The rings should be replaced as necessary.

Drawing A0534 provides instructions for installing spiral rings.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 14

The piston rings can be changed by removing the cylinder only. Although it may be simpler not to
remove the piston, if the oil seals need to be changed, piston removal will be necessary anyway.

a. Remove the cylinder head in accordance with Section 7.4.

b. Remove cylinder. If piston is to be removed, follow instructions in Section 7.8
c. Clean and inspect the cylinder bore for wear or damage (see ch. 5). Wear must be within
the tolerance specified at end of this chapter.
d. Remove and discard the used rings. O-ring expanders (if used) must be replaced. Allow
o-rings 5-10 minutes to shrink back to original size before installing piston rings. Note:
when replacing Micarta expanders it is a good idea to do a trial fit of the ring assembly in
the cylinder bore. Check to ensure the expander has a small gap between the ends.
e. Carefully spread each new ring and install in the groove. Repeat for each ring, being
certain the ends of the ring fit completely into the groove to insure proper sealing. Install
rings with the gap 180˚ from the ring above. If a sleeve tool is available run piston thru
tool to compress and set rings.
f. Reinstall cylinder (check for proper orientation), and piston assembly per Section 7.8.
Carefully compress piston rings as piston is slid into cylinder, making sure the ends are
not pulled out of the ring groove. When installing piston into top side of cylinder, sleeve
tool may be used to aid installation. This procedure may require two mechanics.
g. Install a new o-ring or gasket in head or at top of cylinder as applicable.
h. Reinstall the head per the applicable valve assembly instructions. Note: make sure head
is oriented properly with regard to the suction/discharge ports and that valve cutout in top
of cylinder (if any) is oriented to coincide with suction valve in head.
i. Readjust piston rod per instructions in Section 7.9 (if removed).
j. Rotate the flywheel by hand several times to be certain that the parts are free.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 15



a. Remove cylinder and head in accordance with the appropriate sections of Chapter 7.
Remove distance piece covers.
b. Turn the flywheel by hand to position the piston at top dead center.
c. Remove the set screw (7/64" allen wrench required) and slide the oil wiper box upward
on the rod until the guide piston jam nut is exposed.
d. Loosen the jam nut and screw the piston rod assembly out of the guide piston. The piston
adjustment tool (#88-A8037) or small screwdriver can be inserted in the hole in the rod to
aid in turning the rod.
NOTE: It is recommended that the oil wiper seals be replaced anytime the rods are removed.
The piston rod surface in the oil seal area should be as smooth as possible - not exceeding a
finish of 8 RMS finish is preferred.


a. Install new oil seals in oil packing box (lips facing down). Pre-lubricate seals to avoid
damage during startup. Inspect o-ring on oil wiper box and replace if necessary.
b. Install o-ring slinger onto piston rod. Slide oil packing box onto rod and then attach
piston rod jam nut with machined side down. Screw the rod into the guide piston until
the threads bottom
c. Reinstall the cylinder assemblies and adjust piston rod per instructions below.

The piston to cylinder head clearance adjustment is critical. Insufficient
clearance will result in the piston hitting the head.


a. Turn the flywheel by hand to position the piston at top dead center.
b. Screw the rod out of the guide piston until the piston touches up against the valve.
c. Be certain the piston is still at top dead center, then screw the piston down three quarters
of one turn. The piston-to-cylinder head clearance will be approximately .040 inch.
d. Tighten the jam nut to 25 ft-lbs. torque.
e. Slide the oil wiper box into position, pushing down hard to ensure it is fully seated.
Tighten locking screw hand tight with 7/64" allen wrench (Note: overtightening may
dislodge packing box) and then secure using the jam nut.
f. Turn the flywheel by hand a few revolutions to be certain that everything is clear before
starting the compressor.

Oil Packing Break-In: None required.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 16

7.10 CRANKSHAFT SHAFT SEAL: The shaft seal is located at the flywheel end of the
crankshaft. If significant oil leakage develops it should be replaced.

a. Remove flywheel and bushing by removing the three cap screws that secure the flywheel
and hub to the crankshaft. Use these screws in the hub tapped holes to jack the flywheel
from the bushing.
b. If possible, remove the seal with crankshaft intact. If this is not successful, the entire unit
must be disassembled and the crankshaft removed prior to seal removal.
c. Inspect the crankshaft surface where the oil seal makes contact. Remove any burrs or
scratches that might inhibit a tight seal. Be careful to avoid getting any foreign material
on the exposed bearing.

a. Reassemble in the reverse order, using a new oil seal.
b. Be sure that the flywheel and drive sheave are lined up. This can be accomplished by
laying a straight edge across the sheave faces.



a. Remove compression cylinder assemblies and oil wipers. Use special tool to hold guide
cylinder when removing piston rods.
b. Remove nuts holding down the guide cylinder and carefully lift the guide cylinder off of
the guide piston.
c. Reinstall in reverse order. Install with mark "M" (on lower flange of cylinder) towards
flywheel. Use new gaskets if necessary.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 17

7.12 CONNECTING RODS: The connecting rod uses automotive type bearing inserts on the
large end and a pressed in needle bearing on the piston pin end. If the clearances are not within
the tolerances, the bearing shell, bushing or wrist pin should be replaced.


a. Drain oil from crankcase. Remove heads, compression cylinders, piston rods, and
packing in accordance with the appropriate sections of Chapter 7.
b. Remove the nuts holding the guide cylinder to the crankcase and lift the complete
assembly including distance piece up and off the guide piston.
c. Remove the two nuts and separate the connecting rod. The oil dipper does not need to be
removed. Lift the connecting rod and guide piston assembly out of the crankcase.
Remove the capscrew in guide piston and push the wrist pin out to separate the guide
piston from the rod. Match mark the connecting rod upper end and cap if necessary.
d. Using a micrometer, inspect the connecting rod bearing, bushing and crankshaft journal
for proper size, out of roundness or taper. Repair or replace as required.
e. Inspect the wrist pin and needle bearings for wear or damage; replace if necessary. When
pressing needle bearings into the connecting rod, be sure to press against the stamped end
(end with identification markings) of bearings. There are two needle bearings per rod
and the end of each bearing should be flush with the outside of the connecting rod
f. Install the guide piston on a new rod in reverse sequence of removal.
g. Clean the rod and journal with a lint-free cloth and install new bearing shells in each half
of the connecting rod.
h. Apply a coating of crankcase oil on the bearing shell and crankshaft journal surface.
Position the guide piston and rod on the crankshaft and install the cap, using the matching
numbers on the upper end and cap. Note: See photos below for correct oil dipper
location. Install lockwashers and nuts and tighten the nuts to 15 ft-lbs torque.
i. Reinstall oil dippers on connecting rod caps if previously removed. Both rods require oil
dippers. When installed, each rod should be oriented such that the dipper points
downward towards the oil sump. If dipper does not point downward the rod must be
pulled out and reversed. Torque the oil dipper bolt to 6 ft-lbs.
WARNING: Incorrect installation of oil dippers can lead to insufficient lubrication and
catastrophic failure.

Wrong Orientation Correct Orientation

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 18

j. Reinstall the guide cylinders over the guide pistons.
k. Fill crankcase with new oil.
l. Reinstall the compression cylinder assemblies per instructions.
m. Install distance piece covers.

7.13 MAIN BEARINGS: The crankshaft is supported in the crankcase by two main bearings.
They are a tapered roller design. Lubrication is supplied by oil splash. There is no scheduled
maintenance for the main bearings.


a. The compressor must be completely disassembled. See applicable instructions.
b. Remove the flywheel and bushing by removing the three cap screws that secure the
flywheel and bushing to the crankshaft. Use these screws in the bushing tapped holes to
jack the flywheel and bushing apart. This will "unlock" the bushing from the crankshaft.
c. Remove the bearing support cover and connecting rods. NOTE: There are notches in the
bearing support cover gasket so that the gasket is not damaged during disassembly.
d. Pull the crankshaft forward and remove it from the crankcase.
e. With a suitable puller, remove the bearings from each end of the crankshaft.


a. Thoroughly clean the crankcase, crankshaft and bearing cover.
b. Press a new bearing on each end of the crankshaft main bearing journals. Preheating the
bearings to 120˚C will facilitate installation.
c. Install a new shaft seal in the crankcase.
d. Install the crankshaft with bearings into the crankcase.
e. Install the bearing plate with new gasket. Tighten the bearing plate bolts to 30 ft-lbs.
f. Install the connecting rods and guide cylinders. Rotate by hand insure all turns freely.
Fill the crankcase to the proper level with proper oil.
g. Install the flywheel, hub and key, drive V-belts and beltguard in the reverse order of
removal. Insure that flywheel and driver sheave are lined up.
h. Replace compression cylinder assemblies per instructions.
i. Connect all other equipment in reverse order of disassembly.
j. Turn the flywheel by hand a few revolutions to be certain everything is clear before
starting the compressor.
k. Start the compressor and check for gas or oil leaks.

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 19


Indicator Dimensions Wear Limit
Crankshaft Roller Bearings By inspection for pits, scratches,
knocking or rough running.
Crankshaft Journals 1.811 Dia. Dia. -.002 in. Max.
Connecting Rod Bearing 1.814 Dia. Dia. +.002 in. Max.
Journal and Bearing Clearance .003 .0055 in. Max.
Wrist Pins 1.000 Dia. Dia. -.0015 in. Max.
Wrist Pin Bearing 1.000 Dia. Dia. +.002 in. Max.
Wrist Pin and Bearing Clearance .001 .004 in. Max.
Guide Cylinder: 4.331 Dia. Dia. +.002 in. Max.
Guide Piston: 4.325 Dia. Dia. -.002 in. Max.
Guide Piston to Cylinder Clearance: .006. .009 in.. Max.
Piston Rods: .500 Dia. .002 in. wear

Fixed pistons 1.5" and above are not wearing parts

Cylinders Bores:
2 1/4 2.249 – 2.251 .005 in. diametrical wear
1 1/2 1.499 - 1.501 .003 in. diametrical wear

Valve Reeds: Replace at the presence of any visible

ridge or other damage

Valve Seats: Replace if worn or pitted enough

to cause insufficient seating.

Seals: Visual Any leakage should be corrected

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 20

7.15 WRENCH TORQUE’S (Lubed Threads)

Item Foot Pounds (Ft-lb.)

Air-cooled Cylinder Heads with standard nuts ............................ 20*
Air-cooled Cylinder Heads with self locking nuts ....................... 25*
Oil Wiper Box Gland Bolts..............................................................5
Oil Wiper Box Set Screw............................................................. 1-2
Piston Rod Jam Nuts ......................................................................25
Distance Piece Mounting Bolts ......................................................30
Guide Cylinder Nuts ......................................................................30
Connecting Rod Nuts .....................................................................15
Crankcase End Cover Bolts ...........................................................30
Flywheel Bushing Bolts .................................................................40
Motor Sheave Hub Bolts, SD bushing (1/4-20) ...............................9
Motor Sheave Hub Bolts, SK bushing (5/16-18) ...........................15
* Over-tightening will damage valves

2V3X-172-4.1 SER 00116 rev (-) 21

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