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Math 142, Quiz 9. 11/11/10.

Read problems carefully. Show all work.

There are 15 points total.

Name:

1. §11.6, #21 (4 points): Determine whether the series is absolutely convergent, conditionally convergent, or divergent. Justify your conclusion.

Solution: Apply the root test.

n |a n | 1/n = lim

lim

n→∞

n=1

n 2 + 1 2n 2 + 1 n

.

n 2 + 1

2n 2 + 1 n

1/n

= lim

n→∞

n 2 + 1 2n 2 + 1 =

1

2 < 1.

It follows that the series must converge absolutely.

2. §11.6, # (4 points): Determine whether the series is absolutely convergent, conditionally convergent, or divergent. Justify your conclusion.

n=1

2 · 4 · 6 · · · (2n)

n!

.

Solution:

(a)

(b)

Apply nth term test for divergence.

lim

n→∞

2 · 4 · 6 · · · (2n) n!

=

=

lim

n→∞

lim

n→∞

(1 · 2) · (2 · 2) · (3 · 2) · · · (n · 2)

2 n · n!

n!

n!

= lim

n 2 n = =

0.

It follows that the series diverges.

Apply the ratio test.

a

n+1

a

n

=

2(n + 1)

2 · 4 · 6 · · · (2n) · (2(n + 1))

n + 1

(n + 1)!

= lim

n 2 = 2 > 1.

lim

n→∞

lim

n→∞

= lim

n→∞

It follows that the series diverges.

·

n!

2 · 4 · 6 · · · (2n)

3. §11.7, #23 (4 points): Determine whether the series is convergent or divergent.

(Idea: Compute lim

n→∞

tan(1/n)

1/n

n=1

tan

n .

1

. What test do you apply to make use of this information?)

Solution: Apply the limit comparison test with the harmonic series.

lim

n→∞

tan(1/n)

1/n

= lim

n n tan(1/n) = lim

t0

tan t

t

= lim

t0

= lim

t0

sin t

t

1

· lim cos t = 1 · 1 = 1 > 0.

t0

sin t

t

·

cos t

1

Here, we used the fact that lim t0 (sin t/t) = 1, which may be cited without proof. (One may use L’Hopital’sˆ Rule, for example, to prove it.) Alternatively, one could use L’Hopitalˆ to evaluate lim tan(1/n)/(1/n) directly.

The basic idea is that for small t, the behavior of sin t and t is similar. Hence also, the behavior for large t of sin(1/t) and 1/t is similar. The same is true for the tangent.

Now, since the limit is positive and ﬁnite, we conclude that the series diverges since the series 1/n diverges.

4. §11.7, #27 (3 points): Determine whether the series is convergent or divergent.

k=1

k ln k

(k + 1) 3 .

(Idea: How does ln k compare to k 1/2 ? Is one bigger than the other for all k 1? What test do you apply to make use of this information?)

Solution: Apply the comparison test. We have

We deduce that

k ln k (k + 1) 3 <

k · k 1/2 (k + 1) 3 <

k 3/2

k

3

=

k=1

k ln k (k + 1) 3 <

k=1

1

k 3/2 .

1

k 3/2 .

The sum on the right is a p-series with p = 3/2 > 1. Therefore, the series on the right converges. The Comparison Test then implies the series on the left converges.

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