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Prevention and Mitigation of Cascading Outages in Power Grids Using Synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Measurements Kai Sun
Prevention and Mitigation of Cascading Outages in Power Grids Using Synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Measurements Kai Sun

Prevention and Mitigation of Cascading Outages in Power Grids Using Synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Measurements

Kai Sun

Project Manager Grid Operations, Planning & Renewable Integration

Email: ksun@epri.com Tel: 650-8552087 May 8, 2012 @ Stanford University
Email: ksun@epri.com
Tel: 650-8552087
May 8, 2012 @ Stanford University
Content
Content

Cascading outages (impacts, causes, new challenges and solutions)

Intelligent system separation utilizing synchrophasors

Situational awareness utilizing wide-area measurements (DOE demonstration project)

Conclusions

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2

(DOE demonstration project) • Conclusions © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Blackouts of Power Grids Date Area Impacts Duration Nov 9, 1965 North America (NE) 20,000+MW,
Blackouts of Power Grids
Date
Area
Impacts
Duration
Nov 9, 1965
North America (NE)
20,000+MW, 30M people
13
hrs
Jul 13, 1977
North America (NY)
6,000MW,
9M people
26
hrs
Dec 22, 1982
North America (W)
12, 350 MW, 5M people
Jul 2-3, 1996
North America (W)
11,850 MW,
2M people
13
hrs
Au
g
10 1996
,
North America (W)
28 000+MW
,
,
7 5M
.
p
eo
p
le
9 hrs
Jun 25, 1998
North America (N-C)
950 MW,
0.15MK people
19
hrs
Mar 11, 1999
Brazil
90M people
hrs
North America (N-
Aug 14, 2003
61,800MW,
50M people
2+ days
E)
Sep 13, 2003
Italy
57M people
5-9 hrs
Sep 23, 2003
Sweden & Denmark
5M people
5
hrs
Nov 4, 2006
Europe
15M households
2
hrs
Nov 10, 2009
Brazil & Paraguay
17,000MW, 80M people, 18
states
7hrs
53M people, 8
Feb 4, 2011
Brazil
states
Sep 8, 2011
US & Mexico (S-W)
4,300MW,
5M people
12hrs
© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
3
Causes of a blackout 970 MW loss Blackout event in Aug. 1996 1 . Initial
Causes of a blackout
970 MW loss
Blackout event in Aug. 1996
1
.
Initial events (15:42:03):
2,100 MW loss
Short circuit due to tree contact ->
Outages of 6 transformers and lines
2
.
Vulnerable conditions (minutes)
11,600 MW loss
Low-damped oscillations->
Outages of generators and tie-lines
15,820MW loss
3. Blackouts (seconds)
Grid separated into islands ->
Loss of 24% load

Malin-Round Mountain #1 MW

15:48:51 15:42:03 Can we do anything to stop cascade? 15:47:36 0. 27 6 H z
15:48:51
15:42:03
Can we do anything
to stop cascade?
15:47:36
0. 27
6
H
z osc
ill
at ons
i
Damping>7%
0.264 Hz oscillations
3.46% Damping
0.252 Hz oscillations
Damping 1%
200
300
400
500
600
700
4 Time in Seconds

800

1500

1400

1300

1200

1100

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

New Challenges from Integration of Renewables
New Challenges from Integration of Renewables

1. Reliability and congestion issues with long-distance power transmission

Legend: • Wind • People
Legend:
• Wind
• People

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

power transmission Legend: • Wind • People © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All

5

power transmission Legend: • Wind • People © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All
New Challenges from Integration of Renewables (cont’)
New Challenges from Integration of Renewables
(cont’)

2. More uncertainties in real-time operation

Inaccuracy in short-term forecasting
Inaccuracy in short-term
forecasting

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

6

Mismatch in supply and demand curves
Mismatch in supply
and demand curves
New Challenges from Integration of Renewables (cont’)
New Challenges from Integration of Renewables
(cont’)

3. Changing the grid’s dynamics

of Renewables (cont’) 3. Changing the grid’s dynamics From OG&E synchrophasor presentation Better monitoring
of Renewables (cont’) 3. Changing the grid’s dynamics From OG&E synchrophasor presentation Better monitoring

From OG&E synchrophasor presentation

Better monitoring applications are needed at the control room for real-time situational awareness

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

7

f or rea l- ti me s it ua ti ona l awareness © 2012 Electric
Synchrophasor based Wide-Area Measurement System (WAMS) Oscillation Mode Analysis © 2012 Electric Power Research
Synchrophasor based Wide-Area
Measurement System (WAMS)
Oscillation Mode Analysis
© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
8
Prevention of Cascading Outages • Power System Stability Assessment: • Limitations: – Too many system
Prevention of Cascading Outages
• Power System Stability Assessment:
• Limitations:
– Too many system conditions
Offline probabilistic analysis on
system vulnerabilities and
potential cascading outages
– Combinatorial explosion of N-k
contingencies
– Inaccuracy in simulation models
Simulation-based contingency
analysis
Real-time stability analysis using
wide-area measurements

Simulation-based approach

+

Measurement-based approach

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

9

4600 Observed COI Power (Dittmer Control Center) 4400 Measured 4200 4000 4600 Simulated COI Power
4600 Observed COI Power (Dittmer Control Center)
4400
Measured
4200
4000
4600
Simulated COI Power (initial WSCC base case)
4400
Simulation
4200
4000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Time in Seconds
COI Power (initial WSCC base case) 4400 Simulation 4200 4000 0 10 20 30 40 50
Intelligent System Separation
Intelligent System Separation

Blackstart

Intelligent System Separation Blackstart Restoration IInnitiitiaall eveneventtss Cascading blackouts © 2012 Electric

Restoration

IInnitiitiaall eveneventtss
IInnitiitiaall eveneventtss

Cascading blackouts

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cascading blackouts © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Intellig en

10

Intelligent separation

Cascading blackouts © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Intellig en
Key Questions on System Separation
Key Questions on System Separation
Key Questions on System Separation Questi on N ature WHERE Network optimization (locations) WHEN
Key Questions on System Separation Questi on N ature WHERE Network optimization (locations) WHEN
Key Questions on System Separation Questi on N ature WHERE Network optimization (locations) WHEN

Question

Nature

WHERE

Network optimization

(locations)

WHEN

Nonlinear system stability

(timing)

HOW

Implementation of control strategies

(control)

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

11

of con t ro l st ra tegies ( con t ro l) © 2012 Electric
Three-Step Approach
Three-Step Approach

Offline

procedure

• Offline Studies (daily ~ yearly) – Synchrophasors siting (near generators) Where – Separation point
• Offline Studies (daily ~ yearly)
– Synchrophasors siting (near generators)
Where
– Separation point optimization
– Validation of a control-strategy table
HowHow

Online

software

• Online Monitoring (every second) – Identify most vulnerable grid interface based on the shape
• Online Monitoring (every second)
– Identify most vulnerable grid interface based on the shape
of the dominant oscillation mode
WhereWhere
– Predict the timing of instability on the interface
When
• Real-Time Control (milliseconds)
– Perform a control strategy matching the current condition
How

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12

strategy matching the current condition How © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights
WHERE to Separate Generation Coherency 1. Cluster generators into coherent groups (by EPRI DYNRED software)
WHERE to Separate
Generation
Coherency
1. Cluster generators into coherent
groups (by EPRI DYNRED software)
2. Reduce the network by graph theory
Slow mode
(weak connection)
Fast mode
(strong connection)
Slow mode (weak connection) Fast mode (strong connection) © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc.
Slow mode (weak connection) Fast mode (strong connection) © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc.

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

(weak connection) Fast mode (strong connection) © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights

13

WHEN to Separate
WHEN to Separate

Modal analysis

Identify the dominant oscillation mode by synchrophasors

Predict a vulnerable grid interface from the mode’s shape (phasing)

 k 
k

interface from the mode’s shape (phasing)  k  t  ( ) t  
interface from the mode’s shape (phasing)  k  t  ( ) t  

t

 ( ) t   0  k k Monitored
( )
t
0 
k
k
Monitored

variable

M ki

i 1

A e

ki

2 1   ki
2
1
ki

ki

t

cos(

 

ki

t

ki

e ki 2 1   ki  ki t cos(   ki t 
e ki 2 1   ki  ki t cos(   ki t 

)

Oscillation

frequency

Phasing (mode shape)

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

14


(mode shape) © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14  

(mode shape) © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14  

“Phase Clock” on mode i

(mode shape) © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14  
WHEN to Separate (cont’) PMU2 • Stability analysis
WHEN to Separate (cont’)
PMU2
• Stability analysis
PMU1 Area 1 Area 2 
PMU1
Area 1
Area 2
PMU2 • Stability analysis PMU1 Area 1 Area 2  – Estimate the state of a

Estimate the state of a simplified model about the interface

Predict instability using the energy function of the model

Predict instability using the energy function of the model Boundary of Stability Equilibrium point State estimation

Boundary of Stability

the energy function of the model Boundary of Stability Equilibrium point State estimation on a simplified
Equilibrium point
Equilibrium point
of the model Boundary of Stability Equilibrium point State estimation on a simplified model v ©
State estimation on a simplified model v
State estimation on a simplified model
v

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15

point State estimation on a simplified model v © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc.
Example: 179-bus System System loses stability after 6 line outages 6 5 1 2 California-Oregon
Example: 179-bus System
System loses stability
after 6 line outages
6
5
1
2
California-Oregon
Intertie
3
4
© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
16
Example: 179-bus System (cont’) “Phase Clock” about 0.2Hz mode 1 5 1-2 (120-160s) Strategy 1-234
Example: 179-bus System (cont’)
“Phase Clock” about
0.2Hz mode
1
5
1-2 (120-160s)
Strategy 1-234
Dominant mode
1-3 (120-160s)
4
1-4 (120-160s)
1-2 (160-200s)
1-3 (160-200s)
3
1-4 (160-200s)
2
1
0
0.2Hz
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency of the mode
4
1-2
0.28
1-3
1-4
0.26
2
0.24
0.22
0.2
0.18
0.16
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Time (s)
Phasing (shape) on the mode
180
120
60
0
-60
1-2
1-3
3
-120
1-4
Strategy 14-23
-180
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Time (s)
© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
17
Frequency ( Hz)
Phase Differenc e (deg.)
FFT
Example: 179-bus System (cont’) •
Example: 179-bus System (cont’)
180 1-234 90 14-23 0 Phase D ifference (deg .)
180
1-234
90
14-23
0
Phase D
ifference (deg .)
40 80 120 160 200 210 Ti me (s) 180 1-234 160 14-23 140 120
40
80
120
160
200 210
Ti me (s)
180
1-234
160
14-23
140
120
100
80
60
40
40
80
120
160
200 210
Time(s)
A nge D ifference
(deg.)

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

18

Perform strategy 1-234 once the angle distance exceeds a threshold

• Shed 4.9% system load

All rights reserved. 18 Perform strategy 1-234 once the angle distance exceeds a threshold • Shed
Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness and Decision Support Online Monitoring Real-time Stability Assessment Key
Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness
and Decision Support
Online Monitoring
Real-time Stability Assessment
Key
Risk
Interface
Phase Clock on
the mode
Simplified model on the interface
Dominant oscillation mode
Time
PhasorPhasor datadata
Scenario N
Scenario 2
Risk &
Scenario 1
Control
Timing
Look-Up Table
2 Risk & Scenario 1 Control Timing Look-Up Table Interconnected Power System © 2012 Electric Power
2 Risk & Scenario 1 Control Timing Look-Up Table Interconnected Power System © 2012 Electric Power

Interconnected Power System

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Control Action
Control Action
© 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Action Visualization at Control

Visualization at Control Room

19

© 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. Control Action Visualization at Control
DOE Synchrophasor Demonstration Project (DOE Grant #DE-OE0000128; 2009-2012)
DOE Synchrophasor Demonstration Project
(DOE Grant #DE-OE0000128; 2009-2012)
Demonstration Project (DOE Grant #DE-OE0000128; 2009-2012) Real-time PMU Data (IEEE C37.118) Online Event Detection

Real-time PMU Data (IEEE C37.118)

Online Event Detection Location of Disturbance Near Real-Time Event Replay Early Warning of Grid Instability
Online Event
Detection
Location of
Disturbance
Near Real-Time
Event Replay
Early Warning of
Grid Instability
Power System Wide-Area
Visualization

20

Grid Instability Power System Wide-Area Visualization 20 • Phase 1 (research) • Phase 2 (software development)

• Phase 1 (research)

• Phase 2 (software development)

Phase 3 (demonstration at TVA in 2012)

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Performance Testing Using Simulated or Real Synchrophasor Data Separation
Performance Testing Using Simulated or Real
Synchrophasor Data
Separation
PMU_Config.XML Contingencies DSA Tool SQL Models database PMU_Data.CSV Historical Data Software Application PMU
PMU_Config.XML
Contingencies
DSA Tool
SQL
Models
database
PMU_Data.CSV
Historical
Data
Software
Application
PMU data stream in
IEEEC37.118
Energy
Management
System data

strategies

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Energy Management System data strategies © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Management System data strategies © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Management System data strategies © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved.

21

Tests on Simulated WECC PMUs © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tests on Simulated WECC PMUs
© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
22
Separating the grid when risk=100% Island 1 Island 2
Separating the grid when risk=100%
Island 1
Island 2
FrequenciesFrequencies beforebefore ControlControl
FrequenciesFrequencies beforebefore ControlControl

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

23

FrequenciesFrequencies afterafter SeparationSeparation
FrequenciesFrequencies afterafter SeparationSeparation
Tests on Simulated TVA PMU Data
Tests on Simulated TVA PMU Data

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

24

Tests on Simulated TVA PMU Data © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights
Conclusions
Conclusions

Online situational awareness and decision support applications are important for grid operators to prevent or mitigate cascading outages Wide-area synchrophasor measurements would enable next-generation grid monitoring applications Technologies to help prevent cascading outages are such as

System reduction (topological and dynamical)

Signal processing

Data mining

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

25

ynamical) – Signal processing – Data mining © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All
References
References

[1] K. Sun, D. Zheng, Q. Lu. Splitting Strategies for Islanding Operation of Large-scale Power Systems Using OBDD-based Methods, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol.18, May 2003

[2] Q. Zhao, K. Sun, et al, A Study of System Splitting Strategies for Island Operation of Power System: A

Two-phase Method Based on OBDDs,

IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol.18, Nov 2003

[3] K. Sun, D. Zheng, et al, Searching for Feasible Splitting Strategies of Controlled System Islanding,

IEE Proceedings Generation, Transmission & Distribution,

vol.153, Jan 2006

[4] K. Sun, D. Zheng, Q. Lu, A Simulation Study of OBDD-based Proper Splitting Strategies for Power Systems under Consideration of Transient Stability, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vo.l.20, Feb 2005

[5] M. Jin, T. S. Sidhu, K. Sun, A New System Splitting Scheme Based on the Unified Stability Control

Framework,

IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 22, Feb 2007

[6] K. Sun, S. Likhate, V. Vittal, et al, An Online Dynamic Security Assessment Scheme using Phasor

Measurements and Decision Trees,

IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 22, Nov 2007.

[7] R. Diao, V. Vittal, K. Sun, et al, Decision Tree Assisted Controlled Islanding for Preventing Cascading

Events,

IEEE PES PSCE,

Seattle, 2009

[8] K. Sun, S. Lee, P. Zhang, An Adaptive Power System Equivalent for Real-time Estimation of Stability Margin using Phase-Plane Trajectories, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 26, May 2011. [9] K. Sun, K. Hur, P. Zhang, A New Unified Scheme for Controlled Power System Separation Using

Synchronized Phasor Measurements

,

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

IEEE Trans Power Systems

26

.

,

vol 26

.

No 3 Aug 2011

,

.

,

.

Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights reserved. IEEE Trans Power Systems 26 . , vol
Q&A
Q&A

Kai Sun Phone: 650-855-2087 E-Mail: ksun@epri.com

Q&A Kai Sun Ph one: 650-855-2087 E-Mail: ksun@epri.com © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc.

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

27

Sun Ph one: 650-855-2087 E-Mail: ksun@epri.com © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights

Co nsequenc e Index

NERC Categories of Contingencies
NERC Categories of Contingencies

Most utilities manually select Category D contingencies to simulate:

Loss of a key substation

Outages of tie lines

Outages close to a d

i

/l

k

poc et

generat on oa

lines – Outages close to a d i /l k poc et generat on oa Unlikely
Unlikely and Extreme consequences Credible and Unacceptable D Unlikely Credible and C and Acceptable
Unlikely
and
Extreme consequences
Credible
and
Unacceptable
D
Unlikely
Credible
and
C
and
Acceptable
Acceptable
B
A
Category of Contingencies

Likelihood Index

28

0

Deterministic

Criteria

Generator Outage N-1 Line Outage N-2 Line Outage E x t r e m e E v
Generator Outage N-1 Line Outage N-2 Line Outage E x t r e m e E N-1 Line Outage
N-2 Line Outage Generator Outage N-1 Line Outage E x t r e m e E v e n
Generator Outage N-1 Line Outage N-2 Line Outage E x t r e m e E Extreme Events

N-2 Line Outage E x t r e m e E v e n t s

When System is Stressed (e.g. Storm Approaching), the likelihood may increase

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Northeast Coherent Generation Groups
Northeast Coherent Generation Groups

From NPCC (Northeast Power Coordinating Council) Study Results

© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

29

Power Coor dinating Council) Study Results © 2012 Electric Power Research Inst itute, Inc. All rights
Building a strategy table P G =28.3GW 1 P L =26.4GW Total load: 60.8GW •
Building a strategy table
P
G =28.3GW
1
P
L =26.4GW
Total load: 60.8GW
• 7 potential separation points
• 6 strategies (2 islands):
P
G =12.5GW
1-234, 2-134, 3-124, 4-123
12-34, 14-23
P
=10.6GW
L
4
• 12 potential islands
2
• Validate control actions by
simulations
P
=5.1GW
G
P
=6.4GW
L
Shed
Shed
Island
Island
Load
Load
1
0
23
7.3%
2
3.6%
34
1.5%
3
3.8%
124
0
4
0
123
4.1%
12
0
234
4.9%
P
G =15.5GW
3
14
0
134
0
P
L =17.4GW
© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
30