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WATER INDUSTRY SEGMENT REPORT

DESALINATION
San Diego, July 2012

Prepared by:

Andreas Fried

Basel Serio

WORLD TRADE CENTER SAN DIEGO

2980 Pacific Highway


San Diego, CA 92101
T: (619) 615 0868
F: (619) 615 0876
www.wtcsd.org
General Provision
This report was conducted by the World Trade Center San Diego (WTCSD). The scope of this report is to
provide information about the water industry segment of desalination. The report will not be, and
should not be, considered as an opinion regarding a recommendation for, or the reasonableness of any
specific business action. No representations or warranties are provided with respect to the results
obtained from use of the analysis or surveys of this report. In no event shall the WTCSD be liable for
consequential, special, direct, or indirect damages arising out of use of this material.

To the best of our knowledge and belief, the statements contained in this report are true and correct.
Information, estimates and opinions provided to us and contained in the report were obtained from the
sources cited, and to the extent analyzed by us are believed to be true and correct. However, no
representation, liability or warranty for the accuracy of such items is assumed by or imposed on WTCSD.
Opinions in this report are the author’s opinion, and are not the official opinion of WTCSD.

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Table of Contents
General Provision .................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 4
Conversion Measures .......................................................................................................................... 4
Desalination ......................................................................................................................................... 5-6
Industry at the National Level .................................................................................................................. 7
Southern California........................................................................................................................... 7-8
MENA Desalination Industry .................................................................................................................... 8
Power Sector ....................................................................................................................................... 8
Water Sector ....................................................................................................................................... 9
Middle East .................................................................................................................................. 10-13
North Africa.................................................................................................................................. 14-15
Small Scale Projects ........................................................................................................................... 15
Trade Shows - Domestic and International............................................................................................. 16
Trade Publications and Internet Sources ................................................................................................ 18
Current Desalination Projects ........................................................................................................... 19-33
Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 34

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Introduction
This report is an introductory overview of the desalination (desal) industry. The report focuses on U.S.
export to the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region and India. Water scarcity is an acute and
growing problem. Essentially the amount of naturally occurring fresh water in the world is constant – or
even declining because of the over-exploitation of non-renewable ground water resources. Demand for
water continues to grow as the need to increase agricultural production sucks up available water for
irrigation (85% of MENA water use for agricultural use), forcing urban water users to develop new
resources. Desalination has been favored as method to increase the water supply. The regional
desalination sector has grown into an $8 billion market in the last 5 years. Historically, especially the
Gulf (GCC) region has favored large scale projects to boost supply in favor of targeting the high demand
and water waste.1 The financial crisis though has opened policymakers eye’s for alternative, less capital
intense projects. Campaigns for reduced water usage have also been launched as a method for tackling
the region’s water shortage and less affluent countries are looking at smaller-scale desalination projects.
The attractiveness of desalination has been reduced due to rising oil prices, putting upward cost
pressure on a water supply process that consumes large amounts of energy. Desalination today is an
expensive technology, but most of the world's 2,000 desalination plants are currently located in the
Middle East where water is in short supply but energy has been cheap. Albeit, the low-cost energy has
been due to energy subsidies obtained by the mostly state owned utility companies operating
desalination plants in the MENA region. Desal plants are frequently built in connection with power
stations. The increase in electricity prices has actually recently spurred the power plant components of
desal plants. The latest desalination trend is that the increase in energy prices has made it possible for
bidders to increase the power plant component with increased excess power revenues, to subsequently
‘subsidize’ the desalinized water price offered in tenders.

Firstly, this paper will look briefly at the desalination industry in general; secondly, we will examine
current trends and forecasts for the industry per region. The paper concludes with useful tradeshow and
resource information as well as a list of current desal projects.

Conversion Measures
1 m3 = 220 Imperial Gallons (IG) 1 Ha = 2.47 Acres

1 IG = 0.0045 m3 1 Acre = 0.405 Ha

1 m3 = 264 Gallons (G) 1 Liter = 0.264 Gallons

1 G = 0.0038 m3 1 G = 3.785 Liters

1 IG = 1.2 G 1 IG = 4.54 Liters

1
http://www.gulfbase.com/site/interface/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?n=98458

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Desalination
Because only 1 percent of the Earth's water is fresh, the oceans are an obvious way of supplementing
the fresh-water supply. To be potable (drinkable), however, salt and other chemicals must first be
removed from the sea water. This process of salt removal known as desalination has been practiced
since ancient times.

The most common desalination processes used


today are distillation and membrane processes,
each accounting for about half the installed
global desalination capacity. Historically,
distillation technologies have dominated the
seawater desalination market, partly because
they lend themselves well to co-generation of
water and power, partly because energy
subsidies favored these more energy-intensive
technologies, and partly because of the lower
reliability of earlier membrane technologies.
However, most new desalination plants now use
membrane technologies, in particular reverse
osmosis (RO). This is mainly due to reductions in the costs and the energy intensity of reverse osmosis,
as well as improvements in its reliability. Reverse osmosis of seawater requires much less energy than
distillation processes.2

Looking forward, it is clear that


membrane desalination is going to
continue to pull away from thermal
desalination. Although multi-stage
flash and multi-effect distillation
represented around 26% of the
market during the period 2000-
2009, their market share is
expected to amount to around 9%
in the period 2010-2016. This
reflects two factors. First, the
desalination market outside the
Gulf is expected to grow faster than
the desalination market in the Gulf region, where thermal desalination is more frequently used. Second,

2
The World Bank: Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia

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membrane desalination is making in-roads into the Gulf market – a trend which is likely to accelerate
with the move towards independent water and power projects in Kuwait and Dubai, as well as greater
consciousness about energy efficiency due to rising energy prices.3

Overall global desalination capacity is expected to grow from 68.3 million m3/d at the beginning of 2011
to 129.9 million m3/d by the end of 2016.4 For 2010 and 2011 though, new capacity is on the decline,
with 4.7 million m3/d and 6.8 million m3/d respectively - well below the market peak of 7.5 million m3/d
achieved in 2007. There are a number of factors behind the cooling of the desalination market. These
include:

 The completion of major desalination plant building programs in Algeria, Spain, and Australia.
 The weakness of the real estate market in the UAE, Southern Spain and the Western U.S.
 Project delays and postponements related to a variety of issues such as elections, financing
difficulties, heavy rains, and administrative issues.

Increased energy prices in 2011 will probably continue to restrain the market recovery.5

3
http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/7/market-insight/desalination-market-returns.html
4
GWI: Desalination Markets 2010
5
http://www.globalwaterintel.com/gwi-downgrades-desalination-market-expectations-201011/

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Industry at the National Level
The U.S. desalination industry is strongly concentrated in the region dependent on the Colorado River
and Lake Mead for its water supply. Florida is also looking for desalination as a water supply technology.
Perhaps one of the best opportunities to reduce the capital and operating costs of a seawater
desalination plant is to co-locate the desalination plant on or adjacent to a power plant. Especially for
regulatory approval purposes this strategy has been pursued in the U.S.6 The U.S. will be spending
$3,330 million per year on building and operating desalination plants, suggests a new report by Global
Water Intelligence (GWI). This represents a 191% increase on current expenditure.

There are a lot of major multi-national corporations that have desalination subsidiaries. Some of the
largest U.S. companies include General Electric, Dow Chemical, and Hydronautics. GE Water has a long
history in the Middle East, first operating in the Saudi water sector in the 1930s. It has a base in Dubai
and the company is involved in many desalination and wastewater plant across the region. GE Energy
recently opened its second USD$10 million water technology centre in Saudi Arabia aimed at providing
water solutions across the region.7

Southern California
The Southern California region is strong when it comes to water technology and desalination. As of April
2011, an estimated 3,000 people work for companies in the San Diego area supplying equipment or
logistical support for desalination plants, earning the industry upwards of $350 million in annual
revenues. Many of these companies also supply other related manufacturing segments. The Californian
coast may have about 20 desalination plants in a few years, but most of them are still in the early
planning stage.8 The regulatory approval process is rigid, especially with regards to environmental
protection. Proposed desalination plants must win approval from city and county governments as well
as the Public Utilities Commission in the case of investor-owned utilities. The largest project, Poseidon
Resources’ Desal Plant in Carlsbad, spent almost a decade in the State and Federal approval process,
receiving final go-ahead in February 2011.9

In California, an estimated 40 percent of the cost of desalination is energy to run the plant. Lobbying by
companies that stand to gain financially from desalination has helped earn widespread support from
California lawmakers. Poseidon has reportedly spent around $60 million on engineering and attorney
fees on its Carlsbad plant before a single spade of dirt has been overturned. A group of California water

6
Neil Callahan: Integration of Power Generation and Water Desalination Operations
7
http://www.ge.com/mea/docs/brochure_sa_english.pdf
8
http://www.dcbureau.org/201103081301/Natural-Resources-News-Service/the-water-business-desalination-
means-big-business-to-california-industry.html
9
http://www.carlsbad-desal.com/

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companies and public agencies formed the non-profit CalDesal last year to educate and lobby for
desalination.10

MENA Desalination Industry

Power Sector
Desalination in the Middle East is closely linked to the power sector. We will therefore take a moment to
look at the MENA power sector. Due to population and industry growth, the power sector in MENA has
a demand that is growing at 5-7% annually. To meet this increasing demand; new power plants,
increased efficiency, improved transmission systems and new energy sources are required. The MENA
region has 146 GW of installed electrical capacity, a further 120GW of new capacity and 30 GW of
replacement capacity will be required from 2005-2020. Electricity is heavily subsidized in most countries
and as a result this has led to inefficient energy use. Electricity bills are often unpaid in some MENA
countries; almost half the electricity consumption was unpaid or illegally connected in 2005. Because of
the geography of the region, with sparse population, many communities exist ‘off the grid’. In recent
years, Independent Power Producers (IPPs) have been successfully encouraged, but there is still room
for more private electricity producers. The current challenge in the MENA region is diversifying the
energy mix beyond oil as a sizable proportion of the generation capacity is nearing the end of its lifespan
and capacity demands are rising. The high power demand matches the high water demand and much
work will have to be done to stabilize the resources of both.

10
http://www.dcbureau.org/201103081301/Natural-Resources-News-Service/the-water-business-desalination-
means-big-business-to-california-industry.html

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11
Current and projected desal markets by country or region.

Water Sector
The region relies heavily on water for agriculture which comprises 85% of its water use so combating the
continued drying of the land mass will be a priority. The climate will become drier and hotter with less
rainfall and increased droughts. Water shortages will be experienced by 80-100 million people before
2025. This puts water supply on top of the agenda of the region’s leaders. Due to recent infrastructure
investments, water supply has increased to allow 75% of the MENA population access to clean water
and improved sanitation. MENA already leads the world in desalination technology. The region will
require 6% per year water supply increase from desal plants. The majority of desalination plants use
thermal desalination technologies and large quantities of fossil fuel are required for the distillation
process. Even in small countries such as the UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, Israel and Jordon the pumping distances
have been a barrier, due to pipe leakages and poor water management in general. Furthermore, as a
result of poor regulations, desalination plants in the region have polluted the Gulf seawater by
discharging hot wastewater directly into the Gulf.

Like the power sector, private water utilities are struggling to perform due to an unreasonable
subsidization of tariffs in the public sector. Only two countries in the region have private water utilities
that can cover their operational and management costs. In MENA public spending on water accounts for
1-5% of the GDP but these investments have not been cohesive. The World Bank has heavily funded the

11
GWI: Desalinisation Markets 2010

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region’s water development. The Bank financed new water projects totaling $229.5 million in 2008 and
$123 million in 2009. Iran, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt and Kuwait accounted for around 70% of energy
and water investments in the last five years. The total MENA investment in power and water was about
$60 billion during this period. Government owned utilities will continue to play the key investment role
as only 40% will be funded by the private sector.12

13
Capacity increase during the 2000s.

Middle East
The power and water desalination Industry in the Gulf (GCC) nations is characterized by a limited source
of supply struggling to cater to the escalating demand fuelled by increasing population and improved
standards of living. Spurred by a buoyant economy and population growth, UN-FAO forecasts over $250
billion will be invested in GCC water and desalination projects, over the next decade. Whilst privatization
occupies the centre stage in the overhauling process of power and water sector, the initiatives towards
alternative energy sources will enable GCC nations to diversify their economic growth from
predominantly oil based economies. New power plants often include desal components. Faced with the
extreme scarcity of groundwater, the GCC nations are focusing on increasing supply of water through
desalination and waste water treatments. The regional governments are also educating the population
on water conservation.14 In the GCC region, commonly more than 75% of water consumption is in the
agricultural sector, around 15% for public purposes and less than 2% for industrial purposes. Hence,
potential for the lower-quality reused wastewater (which is sufficient for irrigation but not for public
use) is larger than the potential for desalination. So far though, farmers have been hesitant to accept
reused wastewater for food-product irrigation.15

12
Chantel McGrath: Renewable Desalination Market Analysis
13
Global Water Intelligence: Vol 10, Issue 10 (October 2009)
14
Research and Markets: GCC Power & Water Desalination Industry Overview 2010
15
http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/untd_arab_em/index.stm

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Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia relies on seawater desalination for 50% of its water supply and has over 30 operating
desalination plant. Saudi Arabia has 4,000 km of water pipelines, but this network is under pressure
owing to increased water demand. Current projects include a new pipeline in Saudi Arabia to supply the
city of Taif near the Red Sea. Between 2006 and 2016 approximately 20 plants will be built or planned,
with over $5 billion of annualized investment in desalination (2005-2015). Environmentalists have
pushed for increased use of solar power in desalination, but the government has continued to rely on oil
and gas as energy sources. The Saudi Arabians plan to invest USD$170 billion in the energy sector over
the next five years, requiring private sector investment to satisfy water and electricity demands for the
country. Of this investment, $90 billion will come from Saudi Aramco (national oil company) and will
primarily be invested in oil production.16

The first large scale renewable desal plant is an IBM joint venture with King Abdulaziz City for Science
and Technology (KACST), the Kingdom’s main research and development institute, building a solar
powered desalination plant in the city of Al Khafji in the northeast of the country. The plant will be
powered by ultra-high concentrator photovoltaic (UHCPV) technology and would provide up to 30,000
m3 of potable water a day to 100,000 people. The KACST/IBM joint research focuses on improving
polymeric membranes through nanoscale modification of polymer properties to make desalination
much more efficient and much less costly.17

Shoaiba Barge Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) plant is the largest in the world (completed in 2008),
producing 50,000 m3/day using Dow Film Tec membrane elements which have helped speed up the
production of treated water. The project was designed by WETICO Saudi Berkefeld. Saudi Arabia’s Saline
Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) purchases the water.18

Doosan Heavy Industries of South Korea has won a US$ 1.46 billion contract to supply the Ras Azzour
desalination plant, which, at a capacity of 228 MIGD (1,036,500 m³/d), will be the largest in the world.
The project, for the Saline Water Conversion Corporation, will be a hybrid 160 MIGD (727,000 m³/d)
evaporation and 67.5 MIGD (307,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis plant. It will supply water from the Gulf to
3.5 million people in the Riyadh area. The project was delayed during the financial crisis as one partner
of the proposed consortium withdrew. Doosan will now carry out design, manufacturing, installation,
and commissioning of the entire project, which is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2014. It will
be integrated with a 2,400 MW oil-fired power plant.19

The United Arab Emirates (UAE)


The UAE is the 2nd largest producer of desal water. The UAE relies on 70% desalinated water to supply
the country and Kuwait. The UAE has invested a total of $50 billion in power and desalination during the

16
Chantel McGrath: Renewable Desalination Market Analysis
17
http://www.ibm.com/news/sa/en/2010/03/31/z337573t40642u34.html
18

http://msdssearch.dow.com/PublishedLiteratureDOWCOM/dh_0259/0901b80380259476.pdf?filepath=liquidseps/
pdfs/noreg/609-00619.pdf&fromPage=GetDoc
19
http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=5480&channel=0

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past 10 years and they plan to build three more desalination plant. Dubai has embarked on a mission to
more than treble its desalinated water capacity over the next eight to 10 years. It will invest up to $20
billion in five power and water projects.20 The UAE will be spending $3,2 billion per year (2011-2016) on
building and operating desalination plants suggests a new report by Global Water Intelligence (GWI).
This represents a 305% increase on current expenditure. UAE currently has 8,885,366 m3/d of
contracted desalination capacity, but this will rise to 13,700,138 m3/d by 2016.21

Kuwait
Several desal plants are in operation and some under construction. A recent project is the pgrading of
the Doha desal plant, a $750 million project. In addition, many smaller sites are added. Yearly, up to ten
MSF plants each with a capacity of around 60 m3/d are completed.22 Kuwait’s Ministry of Electricity and
Water (MEW) issued a tender at the beginning of 2010 for a new power and desalination station to be
located at the Az-Zour North site. The scope of work encompasses the engineering, procurement and
construction of the 463,692 m3/d and 1,500MW plant, followed by a 7-year period of operation and
maintenance. It’s scheduled for completion in 2013. Kuwait authorities have had previous problems
with attracting bidders for their large-scale projects. One reason has been that negative cash-flow is a
frequent occurrence for contractors undertaking large MEW-funded power and water projects due to
tough tender requirements.23

Qatar
Qatar has limited and declining groundwater and is investing in desal to cover the supply shortage. The
country has one of the longest-standing desal programs in the Middle East, with considerable
experience in the sector. The largest desal IPWW is at Ras Laffan industry complex. It is owned by the
Qatar Electricity & Water Company (QEWC) and produces 180,000 m³/d. The country has around 1.4
million m3/d of desal water capacity.24 Kahramaa, Qatar’s General Electricity and Water Corporation is
currently tendering for construction of a 60 MGD desal plant.25 Furthermore, Qatar is aiming to build up
its water reserves so they can meet the country's needs for a week in an emergency. Existing
desalinated water reserves can last only one-and-a-half days in an emergency. The country hopes to be
ready with the increased capacity by 2012, according to the Qatar General Electricity and Water
Corporation (Kahramaa).26Plans have also been floated to combine nuclear and desal plants, something
that probably will be evaluated again after the nuclear disaster in Japan.27

20
Chantel McGrath: Renewable Desalination Market Analysis
21
GWI: Desalination Markets 2010
22
Mohamed Al-bahou: Desalination experience in Kuwait
23
http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/3/general/kuwait-offers-new-flexibility-az-zour-north-
complex.html
24
http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=5323&channel=0
25
http://www.meed.com/sectors/water/kahramaa-to-launch-tender-for-desalination-plant/1972990.article
26
http://www.arabianbusiness.com/qatar-eyes-water-desalination-plant-expansion-305936.html
27
http://www.ooskanews.com/middle-east-africa/qatar-desalination-among-projects-planned-nuclear-techology

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Bahrain
More than 65% of water supply is from desalination, but demand exceeds supply as the population
grows. The Ras Abu Jargur RO-desalination plant has been expanded during the 2000s.28 Bahrain-based
utility Energy Central Co (ECC) started construction of the Durrat Al Bahrain site in 2009, where the
company is building a seawater RO desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.29

Jordan
Jordan entered the world’s top 20 desal markets in 2010.30 Jordan has several small desal plants. It plans
a major $125 million project with a Red Dead Sea Conveyor (RDSC), taking seawater for RO desalination
to the Dead Sea. This mega project would aim to restore the Dead Sea’s water levels. The future of the
project is in doubt; the amount of brine has been estimated to be 1,050 MCM/y and the marine
environment of the Gulf of Aqaba is very fragile.31

Iraq
There are two new desal plants near Basra planned and tendered. There are also plans for small-scale
solar-powered desal plants for rural areas.

28
http://www.desalination.biz/news/magazine_article.asp?id=4702&title=
29
http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=4775
30
http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/7/market-insight/desalination-market-returns.html
31
Hani Abu Qdais: Environmental impacts of the mega desalination project: the Red–Dead Sea conveyor

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North Africa
Algeria
Algeria has significant indigenous energy resources and has been involved in desalination for many years
but mainly in connection with oil and gas development projects for industrial use. Most of the
population lives near the coast, but there are also small inland towns and villages with access to brackish
water. The government has recently built some small desalination plants in the vicinity of Algiers as a
temporary measure pending the construction of larger seawater reverse osmosis plants. The country
has two recently built desal plants. There are plans for series of plants with capacities ranging from
100,000 m3/d to 500,000 m3/d.

Morocco
Morocco has a semi-arid climate and the country is rapidly experiencing a decrease in available water.
Without implementing desalination techniques water scarcity will continue. The country entered the
world’s top 20 desal markets in 2010.32 Morocco has access to more than 3,500 km of coastline.
Desalination has, however, been impeded by the fact that Morocco imports 95% of its energy, as plant
require a considerable amount of energy to operate. The Office National de l’Eau Potable (ONEP -
National Office of Potable Water) and the Cherifien Office of Phosphates (COP) have made considerable
efforts to implement desalination plants in the south of the country. The current national production
capacity from desalination is 30,000 m3/day.

ONEP operates the country’s largest desalination plant in Laayoune. The Laayoune Seawater Reverse
Osmosis Plant is conventionally powered and has a capacity of 7,000 m 3/day. ONEP chose Agadir for its
first privately financed desalination project in 2007. The plant will be located on Morocco’s Atlantic
coast and will produce 45,000m3/day of desalinated water when finished.

The Secrétariat d’Etat chargé de l’Eau et de l’Environnement (SEEE) has recently completed a nationwide
study on long-term desalination strategy. Although desalination has traditionally been confined to small-
scale applications in Morocco, approximately 70,000m 3/day of new capacity is under planning and yet to
be tendered. The study also address how to approach the development of a large, new desalination
plant in the Casablanca region, with a proposed capacity of around 685,000m3/day. Morocco has a large
potential for wind and solar desalination technologies, and thus far, some small-scale projects have
demonstrated this potential. Moreover, recently completed wastewater treatment facilities are seen as
a project formula that can be replicated for future desal plants.33

Tunisia
Tunisia has four desal plants in operation, and the government had publicized plans to build 14 new RO
desal plants. The unrest might impact these plans. The country’s desal capacity is set to increase to
200,000 m³/d during the next five years and 500,000 m³/d by 2025.

32
http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/7/market-insight/desalination-market-returns.html
33
Chantel McGrath: Renewable Desalination Market Analysis

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Tunisia has gained very useful experience in brackish water desalination using both reverse osmosis and
electro-dialysis. These plants are located in the south of Tunisia, which is an arid zone. Additional plants
are planned; such as the first large seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant at Jerba.34 The
concession to build and operate a 50,000 m3/day plant at Jerba is tendered by the Tunisian
Government. After a pre-qualification process, three candidates have been selected.35

Egypt
A 35,000 m3/d desal plant on the Sinai peninsula is in operation since 2006, with an ongoing expansion
project. There are plans for a new larger plant in Hurghada and at the West Gulf of Suez. Egypt will be
spending $393.8m per year on building and operating desalination plants suggests a new report by
Global Water Intelligence (GWI). This represents a 120% increase on current expenditure. Egypt
currently has 652,024 m3/d of contracted desalination capacity, but this is expected to rise to 1,564,224
m3/d by 2016. During that time the cost of operating existing plants and the new plants that come on
line will rise to $172.0m, compared to $90.4m in 2010. These projections were made in late 2010 just
prior to the recent unrest, and are therefore subject to revision.36 In regards to smaller scale projects,
Ridgewood Egypt has provided over 20 local desalination plants, with capacities ranging between 500
and 6,000 cubic meters on a build, own and operate basis.37

Small Scale Projects


Various small-scale renewable desalination projects have been conducted in the MENA region over the
past twenty years. A hybrid MSF-RO system driven by a dual purpose solar plant was installed in Kuwait
which produces 25m3 of water per day. Pilot projects for solar pond collectors have been carried out in
Abu Dhabi with a 120m3/day plant. In Saudi Arabia a PV-RO brackish water plant was installed and
connected to a solar still with a production of 5m3/day. The feed water of the solar still is the blow down
of the RO unit (10m3/day). A wind powered brackish water plant was piloted in Jordan and shown to be
cheaper than diesel engine brackish water systems. These were all small-scale projects that have
contributed to the general consensus that renewable desalination is a feasible option in the Middle East.
The most popular combination is MEB with thermal collectors and RO with PV technology. Solar
technology is best suited to remote, off-grid communities. Use of renewable energy is more popular in
academic circles and at test sites, but has not been as popular with decision makers, who concentrate
on large fossil-fueled desalination plant to provide potable water to large populations. 38

34
The World Bank: Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia
35
http://www.eib.org/projects/pipeline/2009/20090714.htm
36
GWI: Desalination Markets 2010
37
http://www.energyrecovery.com/index.cfm/0/0/41/17-Hurghada-Desalination-Plant-Egypt.html
38
Chantel McGrath: Renewable Desalination Market Analysis

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Trade Shows - Domestic and International
The International Desalination Association (IDA) plans to hold their 2011 conferences in Dubai, Algiers,
China and Antigua. Global Water Intelligence also convenes seminars around the world.

 06/04/2011 to 08/04/2011, Tianjin, China

2011 Desalination and Water Reuse International Forum

http://www.2011desal.org/english/index.html

 April 18-19, 2011, Berlin, Germany

Global Water Summit 2011

http://www.watermeetsmoney.com/

 27 Apr 2011 to 29 Apr 2011, Venice, Italy

ICEE - International Conference on Energy and Environment 2011

http://tradeshow.free-press-release.com/15337,icee-international-conference-on-energy-and-
environment-2011.html

 17/04/2011 to 20/04/2011, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

ARWADEX 2011 - International conference and exhibition on Water Desalination in the Arab
Countries

http://www.arwadex.net/Defualt_en.aspx

 April 23–26 2012, Barcelona, Spain

Desalination for the Environment – Clean Water and Energy Conference

http://www.desline.com/BarcelonaFlyer.pdf

 2 May 2011 - 5 May 2011, Doha, Qatar

Project Qatar 2011 – Environment and Construction Trade Show

http://tradeshow.free-press-release.com/15338,project-qatar-2011.html

 May 29-31, 2011, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Gulf Environment Forum - most prestigious environmental event in the region

http://www.gulfenvironmentforum.com/

 Jun. 15-18, 2011, Oran, Algeria

SIEE Pollutec Algeria 2011 - Algeria’s only event for water industry professionals

http://www.siee-pollutec.com/fr/

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 July 18-21, 2011, Miami Beach, FL

AMTA/SEDA 2011 Joint Conference & Exposition “Membranes are the Solution”

http://www.membranes-amta.org/pdfs/2011MiamiExhibitorSponsorship.pdf

 04/09/2011 to 09/09/2011, Perth, Australia

IDA World Congress

http://www.idadesal.org/

 2nd - 3rd October 2011 - Doha, Qatar

GCC Power and Water Desalination Summit 2011

http://www.fleminggulf.com/utilities/middle-east/gcc-power-and-water-desalination-summit-
2011

 Mar. 6-9, 2012, Zaragoza, Spain

SMAGUA 2012 – Water Tradeshow

http://www.feriazaragoza.com/

 September 29-October 3, 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana

WEFTEC 2012, Largest Annual Water Quality Exhibition in the World.


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Trade Publications and Internet Sources
This is a listing of the leading information sources. Each of these sources contains further links to local
partners and resources.

 Global Water Intelligence


International Water Industry Analysis and Project Tracking: http://www.globalwaterintel.com/
 Water Sciences and Technology Association (WSTA)
GCC Water Industry Association: http://www.wstagcc.org/
 International Desalination Association
http://www.idadesal.org/
 D&WR
The International Desalination & Water Reuse Quarterly industry website:
http://www.desalination.biz/
 Desalination Directory Online
http://www.desline.com/
 World Water Council
http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/
 International Water Association
http://www.iwahq.org/Home/
 Water and Waste Digest
http://www.wwdmag.com/

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Current Desalination Projects
Below follows a up to date list of the world’s desalination projects.

Project Country Status


Bejaia Algeria Conceptual Stage
Beni Saf Algeria In construction
Cap Djinet Algeria In construction
El Oued Algeria Planned
El-Tarf Algeria Conceptual Stage
Fouka (fomerly Douaouda) Algeria In operation
Hamma Algeria In construction
Jijel Algeria Conceptual Stage
Kahrama Algeria In operation
Mactaa Algeria Contract awarded
Mostagenem Algeria In construction
Ouargla Algeria In construction
Oued Sebt Algeria Conceptual Stage
Skikda Algeria In construction
Souk Tleta (formerly Tlemcen-Sidna Ouchaa) Algeria In construction
Tamman Rasset (formerly Ain Salah) Algeria Awaiting Tender
Ténès Algeria Pre-construction
Tindouf BWRO Algeria Awaiting Tender
Tlemcen-Hounaine Algeria In construction
Touggourt Algeria RFP issued
Crocus Hill BWRO Anguilla Contract awarded
Balashi (formerly Bubali) Aruba Contract awarded
ACT (Canberra) Australia On hold
Albany Seawater Desalination Plant Australia Conceptual Stage
Brisbane - Kawana Australia Abandoned
Brisbane - Marcoola, QLD Australia On hold
Brisbane – North Stradbroke Island Australia Abandoned
Brisbane – South Stradbroke Island Australia Abandoned
Brisbane River (Brisbane), QLD Australia Abandoned
Brows LNG SWRO Australia Conceptual Stage
Cape Riche Australia Prequalification Ongoing
Carmichael Mining Project Australia EIS Underway
Christie Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrade Australia Pre-feasibility
Curtis Island LNG Australia Accepting General Interests

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Darwin, Northern Territory Australia Abandoned
Denmark Seawater Desalination Plant Australia Conceptual Stage
East Collie River, WA Australia Feasibility study in progress
Esperance, WA Australia Planned
Eyre Peninsula, SA (formerly SA Ceduna) Australia Feasibility study in progress
Hunter Valley Desalination Australia Conceptual Planning Stage
Kwinana (Perth) Australia In operation
Lytton (Brisbane River mouth), QLD Australia On hold
Miriamvale QLD Australia In construction
Oakajee Port & Rail Desalination Plant Australia Awaiting RFP
Olympic Dam (Upper Spencer Gulf) Australia Feasibility Study Ongoing
Onesteel Whyalla Plant Australia Contract awarded
Onslow Water Supply Scheme Australia Conceptual Stage
Port Germein Australia Conceptual Planning Stage
Port Stanvac Australia In construction
SE Queensland (possibly Caboolture) Australia Abandoned
Seabird to Jurien coastline (formerly Yanchep, WA) Australia On hold
Sino Iron Project Australia In construction
Southern Seawater Desalination Plant expansion Australia Planned
Sydney Australia In construction
Toukley Desalination Plant (formerly NSW Wyong) Australia Conceptual Planning Stage
Tugun Gold Coast expansion Australia Reserve Option
Tugun, Gold Coast Australia In construction
Walpole Seawater Desalination Plant Australia Conceptual Stage
Wellington Dam, WA Australia Planned
West Pilbara Water Supply Scheme augmentation Australia Planned
Wonthaggi, (Melbourne, Victoria) Australia Contract awarded
Blue Hills expansion (formerly Arawak Cay) Bahamas Contract awarded
Winton Bahamas On hold
Ad Dur Bahrain Contract awarded
Ad Dur 3 Bahrain Expected 2012/2015
Bahrain Petroenergy Complex (BPECO) Bahrain Progress Expected Soon
Durrat Al Bahrain Bahrain In construction
Hidd IWPP Bahrain In operation
Barbados Barbados On hold
Tynes Bay Bermuda In operation
Niterói SWRO Brazil RFP issued
Esterhazy New WTP, SK Canada Early Development Stage
Frank Sound, Grand Cayman Cayman Islands In operation
Agbar SWRO project, Copiapó Chile Cancelled
AguasMin Chile Feasibility Study Ongoing

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Antofagasta Chile Contract awarded
Arica Chile In Dispute
Atacama Sacyr Chile Conceptual Planning Stage
Central Castilla (formerly Cerro Castilla) Chile License Granted
Cerro Negro Norte Chile Awaiting Tender
Chuquicamata Chile On hold
Collahuasi Mine Chile Impact Assessment
Copiapó, MOP plants Chile Awaiting Feasibility Studies
Desaladora Sur, Antofagasta Chile In planning
El Morro Chile Prequalifies Named
Esperanza Chile Contract awarded
La Chimba Chile Contract awarded
Mantoverde copper mine Chile Prequalification
Minera Candelaria Chile Contract awarded
Minera Escondida Chile Preferred Bidder Announced
Punta Totoralillo Chile In permitting
White Mountain Titanium Chile Awaiting Licence
Baosteel Group Corporation, Zhanjiang China Awaiting Approval
Cangzhou Coastal Port Chemical Industry Zone 2 China Abandoned
Caofeidian Expansion China In construction
Changxing Island Economic Zone China MOU Designed
Dalian City China In construction
Fujian Coal Group China Early Conceptual Stage
Guohua Cangdong Power Company China In construction
Huangdao, Qingdao city China Contract awarded
Huludao, Liaoning China In operation
Laoting Desalination Project China Construction Delay
Lubei, Wudi county, Binzhou city, Shandong province China In construction
Qingdao China Contract awarded
Qingdao Soda Ash (formerly Qingdao City, Shandong) China In construction
Tangshan Sanyou Group (formerly Hebei Province) China Abandoned
Tianjin China In construction
Tianjin China In construction
Wenling City, Zhejiang Province China Contract awarded
Xiangshan County, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province China Contract awarded
Yantai City China Abandoned
Zhanjiang Project of Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. China Planned
Zhejiang Zhoushan and Guangdong Nan’ao China Planned
Zhoushan City (Liuheng Island) in Zhejiang Province China In construction
Zhoushan Power Plant China Planned
Guanacaste Costa Rica Developers in Negotiations

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Episkopi-Limassol Cyprus In construction
Kümkoy, Northern Cyprus (formerly Güzelyurt) Cyprus Contract awarded
Larnaca Cyprus In construction
Mobile plant, Yermasoyia, Limassol Cyprus Abandoned
Paphos Cyprus Contract awarded
Pre-engineered desalination unit Cyprus Abandoned
Temporary floating desal plant, east of Limassol Cyprus In operation
Vasilikos Power Station Cyprus In construction
Venus Rock Development, Paphos Cyprus Prequalification Process
Djibouti City Djibouti Contract awarded
Abu Qir Egypt Contract awarded
Hurghada Egypt Awaiting Advisory Tender
Mirage Makadi Egypt In operation
North Sinai Egypt Awaiting Advisory Tender
Red Sea, Sinai and Matrouh desalination projects Egypt Prequalification
Stella Di Makadi Egypt In operation
West Gulf of Suez Egypt Awaiting Advisory Tender
Nungua Ghana Planned
Nungua SWRO, Accra Ghana Contract awarded
Greek Islands (formerly Cycladic Islands) Greece Awaiting RFP
Tseung Kwan O Hong Kong Early Conceptual Stage
Chennai (Ennore) India Presumed online
Chennai (Minjur) India Pre-construction
Chennai 3 India Awaiting Consultancy Bids
Chennai Nemmeli India Contract awarded
Dahej SEZ SWRO India Awaiting Water Purchase
Gujarat India In operation
Karaikal, Pondicherry India Four Companies Shortlisted
Krishnapatnam Port, Andhra Pradesh India Abandoned
Kutch (FOKIA) India Contract Awarded
Kutch (GIDB) India Under Construction
Mumbai India Project Delayed
Mumbai 2 India Early Conceptual Stage
Mundra Port SEZ expansion India Awaiting Tender
NIOT Chennai India Bids submitted
Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands India Pre-RFP
Tata’s Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project India Contract awarded
Tuticorin, Tamilnadu India Planned
Vadinar refinery, Gujarat India In operation
Ancol Desalination Project Indonesia In operation
Asalouyeh Iran Contract awarded

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Asalouyeh Power Station Iran Planned
Assalouyeh Iran Planned
Bandar Abbas SWRO Iran Under Negotiation
Bushehr Iran On hold
Charak Port SWRO Iran RFQ Issued
Kerman Iran Planned
Kharg Island SWRO (rehabilitation) Iran Planned
Kish Iran Bids Under Evaluation
Kish MED Plant Iran Contract awarded
Lengeh Port SWRO Iran Awaiting Bids
Pars Economical Energy Zone Iran Prequalification Ongoing
Pars Site 2 – Assalouyeh (Bushehr) Iran Planned
Qeshm Island (Hormozghan) Iran Planned
Qeshm SWRO Iran Shortlist announced
Ramchah SWRO, Qeshm Island Iran Awaiting Bids
Salakh Village SWRO, Qeshm Island Iran Awaiting Bids
West Bandar Abbas (Hormozghan) Iran Contract awarded
Youngi Village SWRO Jask City Iran Awaiting Tenders
Zahedan BWRO Iran Contract awarded
Dublin Region Ireland Planned
Ashdod Israel Contract awarded
Ashdod (Paz Oil Company) Israel Planned
Ashdod Municipality Plant Israel Contract awarded
Ashkelon, Hadera and Palmachim Israel Contract awarded
Ashkelon, Palmachim and Hadera expansion Israel Feasibility study in progress
Containerised desalination plants Israel Planned
Dan Region Association Israel Planned
Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Company (EAPC)
desalination plant Israel Planned
Five New Plants Israel Conceptual Stage
Granot expansion Israel Approved By Government
Hadera Israel Approval Delayed
Hadera Industrial Zone Israel Planned
Hadera inland Israel Planned
Jordan Valley BWRO Israel RFEI Issued
Kfar Masaryk Israel Project in Development
Lahat Israel Final Approval Received
Lahat site near Ashkelon Israel In construction
Ma’agan Michael Israel Hydrological Survey Ongoing
Red-Dead Sea Canal project Israel Feasibility Study Ongoing
Rishon Le Zion Israel Project Under Review

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Sabha Israel Planned
Sabha expansion Israel Planned
Soreq (formerly Shafdan) Israel In construction
Soreq 2 Israel Approval Received
Temporary desalination plants Israel Planned
Timna Israel Planned
Western Galilee Israel Conceptual Stage
Vulcano, Aeolian Islands Italy Awaiting RFP
Aqaba Jordan In dispute
Jordan Red Sea Project Phase 1 Jordan Awaiting Bids
Aktau SWRO Kazakhstan Feasibility Study in Progress
MAEK Kazatomprom Power Plant Kazakhstan Presumed online
Az-Zour North Kuwait Abandoned
Az-Zour North 1 IWPP Kuwait Bidder Announced
Az-Zour North Stages 2-5 Kuwait Conceptual Stage
Az-Zour North SWRO Kuwait Abandoned
Az-Zour South hybridisation Kuwait Contract awarded
Doha East Kuwait Tender Re-issued 2012
Doha East Redevelopment Kuwait Conceptual Stage
Doha West Redevelopment Kuwait Conceptual Stage
Khirran IWPP Kuwait Advisory RFP Issued
Shuaiba North Redevelopment Kuwait Conceptual Stage
Shuaibah South Kuwait Tender Expected Soon
Shuwaikh Kuwait In construction
Abu Taraba extension Libya Conceptual Stage
Benghazi Libya Conceptual Stage
Benghazi North Libya Abandoned
Benghazi South Libya Abandoned
Darna extension Libya Tender Expected 2014-2016
Derna Libya In construction
Jfara Libya Tender Expected 2014-2016
Misurata Libya Tender Expected 2010-2016
Sirte Libya Tender Expected 2014-2016
Sirte ext. Libya Abandoned
Soussa Libya In operation
Soussa extension Libya Tender Expected 2014-2016
Tobruk Libya Contract awarded
Tobruk Cogen Libya Abandoned
Tripoli Libya Abandoned
Tripoli East Libya Tender Expected 2010-2013
Zawia Libya Tender Expected 2017-2020

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Zawia Phase 2 Libya In construction
Zueitina Libya Abandoned
Zwara Libya Tender Expected 2017-2020
Zwara extension Libya In operation
South Province SWRO plants Maldives Contract awarded
Mauritius Mauritius Planned
Acapulco SWRO Mexico Conceptual Stage
Cabo San Lucas Expansion Mexico Feasibility Ongoing
El Salitral, Ensenada, Baja California Mexico In planning
Ensenada Rural Mexico Tender Process Ongoing
Hermosillo Mexico Abandoned
Ixtapa, Zihuatanejo Mexico Feasibility Studies Underway
La Mision Mexico Conceptual Planning Stage
La Paz, Baja California Sur Mexico Awaiting Tender
Maravia Country Club Mexico Presumed online
Planta San Carlos (formerly Empalme, Sonora) Mexico Conceptual Stage
Puerto Peñasco, Sonora Mexico Cross-border Negotiation
Rosarito (NSC Agua) Mexico Preconstruction Stage
Rosarito Beach (SDCWA) Mexico Feasibility Stage Ongoing
Rosarito-Tijuana Mexico Early Conceptual Stage
San Quintin, Baja California Mexico Pre-study Phase
Tijuana-La Mision-Ensenada, Baja California Mexico Awaiting Tender
Agadir Morocco Awaiting Bids
Al Hoceima Morocco Tender Expected 2013
Boujdor Morocco Bids Under Evaluation
Chtouka Morocco Tender Expected End 2012
Dakhla Morocco Abandoned
Dakhla BWRO Morocco Planned
Essaouira SWRO Morocco Conceptual Stage
Jorf Lasfar Morocco Planned
Laayoune Morocco Presumed online
Laayoune SWRO – extension Morocco Tender Expected 2013
Nador Morocco Planned
Safi Morocco EOI Expected 2013
Sidi Ifni Morocco Phase 1 Expected 2013
Tan Tan Morocco Planned
Tan-Tan and Guelmim Morocco Prefeasibility Study
Mile 6 (formerly Swakopmund) Namibia Awaiting Bids
Swakopmund, Valenica uranium deposit Namibia Planned
Uramin Wlotzkasbaken (formerly Swakopmund) Namibia In construction
Aruba Neth. Antilles Presumed online

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Al Ghubrah IWP Oman RFP Issued
Containerised RO plant Oman Contract awarded
Duqm Oman Conceptual Stage
Mina Al-Fahal Oman In operation
Mukhaizna Oman In operation
New IWPP, likely to be at Barka or Sohar Oman Planned
Quhreiat Oman Conceptual Stage
Salalah 2 Oman Conceptual Planning Stage
Sohar Oman In operation
Sohar (#2) Oman In construction
Sohar Industrial Port Oman Contract awarded
Sur Oman In construction
Suwaiq IWP Oman Conceptual Stage
The Wave, Muscat Oman Tender Expected Soon
Tibat, Musandam governorate Oman RFP Issued
Yiti Beach/Shinas Oman Contract awarded
DHA Karachi Pakistan Contract awarded
Gwadar Industrial Estate Pakistan Abandoned
Hawkes Bay Pakistan Planned
Karachi Pakistan Planned
Korangi (merged with Port Qasim) Pakistan Planned
Port Qasim Seawater Desalination Pakistan Prefeasibility Study
Gaza Desalination Plant Palestine Awaiting Tender
Aguas de Lima Sur II (formerly Lima South) Peru Tender Expected May 2012
Lima North Peru Conceptual Stage
Tia Maria Copper Mine Peru On Hold
Bay City Philippines On hold
Putatan WTP expansion Philippines Bids Under Evaluation
Rizal WTP Philippines RFP Expected Soon
Caño Tiburones Puerto Rico Water Study Ongoing
Abu Samra Qatar Tender Process Ongoing
Mesaieed Industrial City (Facility B) Qatar Contract awarded
New RO plant Qatar Awaiting Bids
Ras Abu Fontas A2 Qatar Awaiting Bids
Ras Abu Fontas refurb Qatar Contract awarded
Ras Laffan (Pearl GTL Project) Qatar In construction
Ras Laffan C Expansion Qatar Under Negotiation
Solar-powered desalination plants Qatar Feasibility Study Underway
Al Khafji Saudi Arabia Project Design Complete
Al Khafji solar-powered SWRO Saudi Arabia Early Stage of Procurement
Al Wajh Phase 3 Saudi Arabia Presumed online

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Al-Khafji Phase 3 Saudi Arabia Abandoned
Al-Khobar 2 expansion Saudi Arabia Tender Process Ongoing
Alleeth Phase 1 Saudi Arabia Presumed online
Al-Waji 4 Saudi Arabia Re-tender Delayed
Barge Saudi Arabia In operation
Duba Phase 4 Saudi Arabia Design Stage
Farasan Phase 2 Saudi Arabia In operation
Gasan Industrial RO Plant Saudi Arabia Early Conceptual Stage
Haql phase 3 Saudi Arabia Design Stage
Jeddah Saudi Arabia In construction
Jeddah Phase 3 Saudi Arabia In construction
Jizan Economic City Saudi Arabia Bids Under Evaluation
Jubai Saudi Arabia Contract awarded
Jubail (Marafiq) Saudi Arabia In construction
Jubail Phase 3 Saudi Arabia Abandoned
Jubail RO upgrade Saudi Arabia Planned
Khobar 4 IWPP Saudi Arabia Conceptual Stage
King Abdullah Economic City Saudi Arabia Decisions Expected Soon
Qunfuthah Phase 1 Saudi Arabia Contract awarded
Rabigh IWSPP Stage 2 Saudi Arabia Awaiting Bids
Rabigh Phase 3 Saudi Arabia Design Stage
Ras Azzour Saudi Arabia Contract awarded
Ras Azzour Ma’aden aluminium Saudi Arabia Contract awarded
Ras Azzour Ma’aden phosphate Saudi Arabia In construction
Ras Tanura Saudi Arabia Awaiting RFP
Shoaiba 4 IWPP Saudi Arabia Conceptual Stage
Shoaiba Phase 3 Saudi Arabia Planned
Shuqaiq 3 IWPP Saudi Arabia Conceptual Stage
Shuqaiq Phase 2 Saudi Arabia In construction
SWRO-4/5 Portable Water Project Saudi Arabia Awaiting Bids
Ummluj Phase 3 Saudi Arabia Contract awarded
Wasia BWRO Saudi Arabia Awaiting Bids
Yanbu Saudi Arabia Bids Under Evaluation
Yanbu (Marafiq) Saudi Arabia Contract awarded
Yanbu (Marafiq) 2 Saudi Arabia Bids submitted
Yanbu 3 Saudi Arabia Bidders Announced
Yanbu MED Saudi Arabia Contract awarded
Multi-plant rehabilitation and upgrade package Seychelles Contract awarded
Tuas II Singapore Preferred bidder announced
Elektrárne Nováky thermal power station, Bratislava Slovakia In operation
Cape Town SWRO South Africa Bids Under Evaluation

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Coastal cities including Cape Town and Durban South Africa Planned
Durban SWRO South Africa Contract Awarded
Lamberts Bay South Africa On Hold
Plettenberg Bay South Africa Planned
Port Elizabeth, Coega Industrial Development Zone South Africa In construction
Saldhana Bay South Africa Contract awarded
Swartkops South Africa Planned
Adeje Arona/Sur de Tenerife Phase II Spain In operation
Adra, Almeria Spain Conceptual Stage
Aguilas, Murcia Spain In construction
Aguilas/Guadalentín, Murcia Spain In construction
Alcudia Spain In construction
Alicante II (ex Canal de Alicante) Spain Presumed online
Alicante Phase 2 Spain Presumed online
Almenara, Castellón Spain Abandoned
Almuñecar, Granada Spain Project not Implemented
Alt Empordà, Catalunya Spain Contract awarded
Andratx Spain In operation
Bajo Almanzora, Almeria Spain In construction
Balsa del Sapo, Almería Spain Planned
Calpe/Marina Alta, Alicante Spain Impact Assessment Ongoing
Campo de Cartagena, Murcia Spain Conceptual Stage
Campo de Dalías, Almeria Spain Pre-construction
Carboneras II Spain Early Planning Stage
City of Ceuta Phase 2 Spain In construction
Ciutadella de Menorca Spain In construction
Denia, Alicante Spain Contract awarded
Desalination for the Costa del Sol Spain Planned
El Campello, Alicante Spain Contract awarded
El Mojón, Murcia Phase II Spain Planned
El Prat del Llobregat 2, Catalunya Spain In construction
El Prat del Llobregat, Catalunya Spain In operation
Embalse de Guadalhorce, Malaga Spain Abandoned
Foix/Cunit, Tarragona Spain Project Postpond
Granadilla, Tenerife Spain Contract awarded
Guadalentin Spain Presumed online
Guardamar/Vega Baja, Alicante Spain Awaiting Impact Approval
Guía de Isora, Tenerife Spain Contract awarded
Janubio, Lanzarote Spain Contract awarded
Jávea, Alicante Phase II Spain Abandoned
La Caleta, Tenerife Spain In construction

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La Pedrera, Alicante Spain Abandoned
L'Alacanti y Marina Baja, Alicante Spain Planned
Lanzarote V, Canary Islands Spain Contract awarded
Las Palmas IV, Gran Canaria Spain Conceptual Stage
Las Palmas V, Gran Canaria Spain Conceptual Stage
Levante de Mallorca, Balearics Spain Under Consideration
Llanadas BWRO Spain Conceptual Stage
Mahon, Menorca, Balearics Spain Under Consideration
Marbella, Malaga refit Spain In operation
Marina Alta/Calpe, Alicante Spain Abandoned
Marina Baja/El Campello/Mutxamel, Alicante Spain In construction
Marina Baja/Mutxamel Phase II, Alicante Spain Conceptual Stage
Mazarrón, Murcia Spain Abandoned
Melilla BWRO Spain Project Announced
Melilla Phase II, Melilla Spain Awaiting Tender
Mijas, Fuengirola Spain In construction
Moncófar, Castellón Spain In construction
Oropesa, Castellón Spain In construction
Pilar de la Horadada, Alicante Phase 2 Spain Contract awarded
Puerto de Rosario, Fuerteventura Spain Contract awarded
Rincon de Leon, Alicante Spain In operation
Rincón, Malaga Spain Conceptual Planning Stage
River Guadalhorce BWRO Spain Conceptual Stage
Sagunto, Valencia Spain In construction
San Bartolomé and Mogán, Gran Canaria Spain Conceptual Stage
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canaries Extension Spain In planning
Telde, Gran Canaria Spain In operation
Tordera, Catalunya Expansion Spain Contract awarded
Tordera, Catalunya II Spain Project Postponed
Torrevieja (ex.Tajo-Segura Transfer), Alicante/Murcia Spain In construction
Valdelentisco, Murcia Spain In construction
Valdelentisco, Murcia Spain In operation
Valle de Güimar, Tenerife Spain RFP Issued
Valle Guerra, Tenerife Spain Conceptual Stage
Vinalopó/L’Alacantí, Alicante Spain In construction
Taoyuan Taiwan Contract awarded
Chaguaramas Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
Cove (Southwestern Tobago) Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
Cove Industrial Estate Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
Erin Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
La Brea (Point Fortin) Trin. and Tobago Abandoned

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Mayaro Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
Ortoire Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
Point Lisas Expansion Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
Point Lisas Powergen Trin. and Tobago Abandoned
Pointe-a-Pierre Refinery Trin. and Tobago Awaiting Invitation to Bid
Djerba Tunisia Project Re-tendered
Kerkennah Tunisia Seeking Funding for Studies
Phase 1 Southern Tunisia brackish water plants Tunisia Awaiting Contract Reward
Phase 2, Southern Tunisia brackish water plants Tunisia Contract Awarded
Sfax Tunisia Awaiting Tender
Zaarat Tunisia Awaiting Contract Award
Avsa Turkey In operation
Colakoglu Steel Mill Turkey Presumed online
Famagusta (Magusa), Northern Cyprus Turkey Planning Stage
Istanbul Turkey Conceptual Stage
Nuh Cimento, Gulf of Izmit Turkey Presumed online
Abu Dhabi Port Authority UAE Contract awarded
Abu Dhabi, Desert Islands UAE Conceptual Phase
Al Hamra UAE On hold
Al Zawrah 2, Ajman UAE Contract awarded
Al Zawrah, Ajman UAE Contract awarded
Desalination plant refurbishment at
E Station Phase 1, Jebel Ali UAE Bids Under Review
Dubal SWRO UAE Abandoned
Emal’s Emirates Aluminium Project UAE In construction
Fujairah Fresh Water SWRO UAE Prequalification
Fujairah 1 SWRO expansion UAE Preferred Bidder Announced
Fujairah 2 UAE Contract awarded
Ghalilah, Ras Al Khaimah UAE Bids submitted
Hamriyah UAE In construction
Hamriyah IV MED UAE Awaiting Contract Award
Hamriyah IV SWRO UAE Awaiting Contract Award
Hassyan 2 (formerly P Station Hassyan Phase 1) UAE Expected After Hassyan IPP
Hassyan IWPP UAE Planned
Hydrogen power and desalination plant, Abu Dhabi UAE Awaiting Contract Award
Jafza UAE Bids Under Evaluation
Jebel Ali L Phase 2 UAE In construction
Jebel Ali M UAE Contract awarded
Jebel Ali M Phase 2 UAE Planned
Jebel Ali N UAE Contract awarded
Layyah UAE Planned

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Layyah/Khor Fakkan UAE In operation
Masdar UAE Preliminary Stage
Mina Rashid UAE Awaiting Tender
Mirfa IWPP UAE Early Conceptual Stage
N Station UAE Planning Stage
New plant and relocation, Ajman UAE Contract awarded
Palm Jebel Ali (including Madinat Al Arab) UAE Three Bidders Shortlisted
RAK Ceramics UAE Planned
RAK Petroleum UAE Conceptual Stage
Ras Al Khaimah UAE Contract awarded
Saadiyat Island UAE Awaiting Bids
Shuweihat 2 UAE Contract awarded
Shuweihat 3 IPP UAE Open for Desal Component
Takreer desalination plant UAE Planned
Taweelah C IWPP UAE Expected After Shuweihat 3
Two SWRO Plants, Northern Emirates UAE RFP Expected Soon
Umm Al Nar UAE Developers in Negotiations
Umm Al Quwain UAE Contract awarded
Brighton United Kingdom Plant Under Consideration
London United Kingdom In construction
Newhaven United Kingdom Long-term Supply for 2035
Alamogordo New BWRO Plant, NM United States Project Under Evaluation
Baker Water United States In construction
Bay Area Regional Desalination Project (BARDP) United States Site Studies Ongoing
Broward County New RO Plant, FL United States Tender Expected 2015
Brownsville, TX United States On Hold
Calleguas Creek United States RFP Issued
Cambria, CA United States In Permitting
Camp Pendleton United States Feasibility Studies Ongoing
Cape Coral, FL United States In construction
Carlsbad SWRO, CA United States Conceptual Stage
Carlton Water Treatment Facility, Sarasota, FL United States Contract Awarded
Chino II expansion, CA United States RFP issued
City of Kenedy, TX United States Contract awarded
City of San Angelo, TX United States Abandoned
Clearwater, FL United States Plant 2 to be Tendered Soon
Coastal Water Project, Monterey County, CA United States Planned
Coquina Coast, FL United States Conceptual Stage
Corpus Christi/Flour Bluff, TX United States Pre-feasibility
Dominguez Gap Barrier Project United States Abandoned
East Hanover, NJ United States Permitting/Funding Stage

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El Paso, TX United States In operation
Florida Keys, FL United States In construction
Fort Myers, FL United States Planned
Freeport, TX United States Abandoned
Galveston, Texas City &League City Desal, TX United States Early Conceptual Stage
Granbury BWRO, TX United States Awaiting Approval
Green Meadows BWRO, FL United States Design Ongoing
Guadalupe-Blanco SWRO, TX United States Prefeasibility Study Ongoing
Gulf of Mexico to supply San Antonio, TX United States RFQ for Feasibility on Hold
H2Ocean Cristina United States Awaiting Impact Studies
Haverstraw, NY (formerly Rockland) BWRO United States Awaiting Approval
Hialeah, FL United States Contract awarded
Hull, MA United States On hold
Huntington Beach, CA United States Permitting Process
Kalaeloa, HI United States Abandoned
Keansburg, NJ United States Contract awarded
Laguna Madre, TX United States Conceptual Stage
Long Beach, CA United States Pilot Study Ongoing
Los Angeles Harbour Area United States Abandoned
Marin County (formerly San Rafael), CA United States On hold
Mid Pinellas, FL United States Abandoned
Monterey County Regional Desalination United States Decision Expected 2014
Morro Bay United States Presumed online
Moss Landing/Duke Energy site, CA United States Contract awarded
Moss Landing/Kaiser Refractory site, CA United States Early Stage of Planning
Oceanside, CA United States Feasibility Study Completed
Odessa BWRO, TX United States RFP Issued
Oldsmar City, FL United States In construction
Otay River, CA United States Planned
Oxnard, CA United States In construction
Pioneers District New RO Plant, SC United States Location Changed-Delayed
Playa del Rey (Scattergood Generating Station), CA United States On hold
Port St Lucie, FL United States On hold
Rancho Dominguez, CA United States Abandoned
Reynolds brackish ground water facility (Chula Vista) United States Awaiting Tender
Rio West, NM United States On Hold
Rockland, NY United States Contract awarded
San Antonio BWRO, TX United States Contract Awarded
San Joaquin River, CA United States On Hold
San Luis Obispo, CA United States On Hold
Sand City, Monterey, CA United States In construction

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Santa Barbara, CA United States Long-term Possibility
Santa Barbara, William B. Cater Advanced
Water Treatment Project United States Planned
Santa Clarita New RO plant, CA United States Conceptual Stage
Santa Cruz SWRO, CA United States EIR Expected Soon
Scottsdale Water Campus AWT expansion United States In construction
Seminole, TX United States Awaiting Contract Award
Somerset County, Maryland United States Contract awarded
South Florida United States Abandoned
South Orange Coastal Ocean
Desalination Project (Dana Point, CA) United States Feasibility Study Ongoing
Southwest Groundwater Treatment Plant, Utah United States Contract awarded
Swansea. MA United States In operation
Tarpon Springs, FL United States In permitting
Taunton River United States In operation
Taunton River, MA United States In operation
Texas BWRO, TX United States RFP Issued
West Basin, CA United States Feasibility Study Awarded
Withlacoochee United States Planned
Paraguaná Refinery Complex Venezuela In construction
Virgin Islands,
Paraquita Bay U.K. Contract awarded
St Thomas and St Croix Virgin Islands, U.S. Contract awarded
Mocha Yemen Development Agreement
Taiz Yemen Feasibility Study Underway

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Bibliography
 http://www.gulfbase.com/site/interface/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?n=98458
 The World Bank: Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination in the Middle East and North Africa
 GWI: Desalination Markets 2010
 http://www.globalwaterintel.com/gwi-downgrades-desalination-market-expectations-201011/
 Neil Callahan: Integration of Power Generation and Water Desalination Operations
 http://www.ge.com/mea/docs/brochure_sa_english.pdf
 http://www.dcbureau.org/201103081301/Natural-Resources-News-Service/the-water-business-
desalination-means-big-business-to-california-industry.html
 http://www.carlsbad-desal.com/
 Chantel McGrath: Renewable Desalination Market Analysis
 Global Water Intelligence: Vol 10, Issue 10 (October 2009)
 Research and Markets: GCC Power & Water Desalination Industry Overview 2010
 http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/untd_arab_em/index.stm
 http://www.ibm.com/news/sa/en/2010/03/31/z337573t40642u34.html
 http://msdssearch.dow.com/PublishedLiteratureDOWCOM/dh_0259/0901b80380259476.pdf?fi
lepath=liquidseps/pdfs/noreg/609-00619.pdf&fromPage=GetDoc
 http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=5480&channel=0
 Mohamed Al-bahou: Desalination experience in Kuwait
 http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/3/general/kuwait-offers-new-flexibility-az-zour-
north-complex.html
 http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=5323&channel=0
 http://www.meed.com/sectors/water/kahramaa-to-launch-tender-for-desalination-
plant/1972990.article
 http://www.arabianbusiness.com/qatar-eyes-water-desalination-plant-expansion-305936.html
 http://www.ooskanews.com/middle-east-africa/qatar-desalination-among-projects-planned-
nuclear-techology
 http://www.desalination.biz/news/magazine_article.asp?id=4702&title=
 http://www.desalination.biz/news/news_story.asp?id=4775
 http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/7/market-insight/desalination-market-
returns.html
 Hani Abu Qdais: Environmental impacts of the mega desalination project: the RDSC
 http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/11/7/market-insight/desalination-market-
returns.html

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 http://www.eib.org/projects/pipeline/2009/20090714.htm
 http://www.energyrecovery.com/index.cfm/0/0/41/17-Hurghada-Desalination-Plant-Egypt.html

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