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Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch

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system, and rightfully so. If you’ve never used it

before, it is easy to become confused with all of the

individual pieces that make the system work.

To help clear things up, here is an in-depth break

http://www.electricalpereview.com/per-unit-example-tips-tricks-watch-electrical-pe-exam/[26-Feb-18 21:18:50]

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

you can expect to see on the NCEES Electrical

Power PE Exam.

Per Unit System Example for the Electrical PE

Exam

Using the Per Unit system and taking into account the transformer percent

impedances, solve for the current in each part of the three-phase system shown below.

Assume both transformers are either delta delta or wye wye connected and that there

is no phase shift between primary and secondary current and voltage.

Solution:

The usefulness of the per unit system is in converting all system impedances to per

unit impedances and re-drawing the circuit without having to worry about the

different voltage levels from each transformer.

In this example, there are two transformers that divide the system into three sections

http://www.electricalpereview.com/per-unit-example-tips-tricks-watch-electrical-pe-exam/[26-Feb-18 21:18:50]

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

of different voltages. The first step is to divide the system into different sections

based on voltage levels. I do this by typically drawing a straight line below each

transformer:

The first step is to divide the system into different sections based on voltage levels.

The next step is to choose the base values for power and voltage.

The base power will be the same in for each section, but each section will have a

different base voltage.

The problem might tell you to use specific values for base power and voltage. If it

does, use them accordingly as the answer choices will most likely still be in per units

and using a different base will change the resulting per unit system values.

If the problem does not assign the base values for you, then it is advantageous to pick

one of the existing MVA values in the system such as the apparent power rating of

http://www.electricalpereview.com/per-unit-example-tips-tricks-watch-electrical-pe-exam/[26-Feb-18 21:18:50]

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Similar for voltage, it is advantageous to pick one transformer and use either the

primary or secondary voltage as the base voltage in a particular section, and then use

the remaining transformer ratios to step up or down the voltage base for each

neighboring section accordingly. Why this is advantageous will become clear when

we run the math.

If all transformer ratio’s match, then the secondary voltages of all upstream

transformers are equal to the primary voltage all downstream transformers and vice

versa, then your voltage base in each section will be equal to the primary and

secondary voltages of each transformer. That is the case for this example.

For base power, I’ve arbitrary picked T1’s MVA rating for the system and the voltage

ratios of the transformers for the base voltage in each section:

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Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Now that we have the assigned base values for power and voltage, we’ll need to

calculate the base impedance for each section so that we can use it to calculate the per

unit impedances later on.

We can solve for impedance using voltage and power, and if we use the base voltage

and base power in each section, then the resulting impedance will be the base

impedance for each section as shown below:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Now that we have calculated the base impedance for each section, we can start

calculating the per unit impedances of each system element using the following

formula:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

We will start by calculating the per unit line impedance and per unit load impedance

first before we tackle the transformers.

The line per unit impedance and load per unit impedance are calculated as shown

below:

Now that we know the per unit line and load impedances, let’s drawn them on the per

unit circuit diagram:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

In order to complete the above diagram, we’ll need to calculate the per unit

impedances of both transformers T1 and T2.

The catch here is that we don’t know either of the transformer impedances in ohms,

we are instead given their percent impedances.

When you are given the percent impedance of a machine such as a transformer,

generator, or motor, the percent impedance is given in the base ratings of the machine

itself.

This means that in order to calculate the percent impedances of the transformers, we

actually need to perform a per unit base change using the following formula:

In this case, the old base will be the ratings of each transformer, and the new base will

be the new bases we have chosen.

Since we are working with impedances, we will need to plug in the impedance

formula that uses the square of the voltage divided by power:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

In the above formula, SB and VB will be the chosen bases of our system and section,

and S and V will be the transformer voltage and power rating.

Transformers have one power rating, so choosing that is easy. However, they have

two voltages, a primary and secondary.

If we use the transformer’s primary voltage for V we will need to use the base voltage

on the primary side of the transformer for VB in the formula above.

If we use the transformer’s secondary voltage for V then we will need to use the base

voltage on the secondary side of the transformer for VB instead.

Let’s base change each transformer’s percent impedance one at a time starting with

transformer T1 using the primary voltage rating as V and the voltage base on the

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Notice that since we originally chose 45MVA as the base power for the system, both

power terms are equal and cancel. This will not be true for T2.

Also, notice, that both voltage values are also equal and cancel since the base voltage

in each section is equal to each transformer’s voltage ratio.

It is important to be aware that the voltage values in the above formula will not

cancel when the actual voltage in a section is not equal to the transformer’s voltage

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

ratios such as when a generator is connected that supplies a voltage slightly higher or

slightly lower than the primary voltage ratio of the transformer it is connected to, or,

when all transformer ratios do not match as mentioned in the first several paragraphs.

Notice that since our base power and base voltage for T1 equal the base values we

were changing to, there is no actual change in the percent impedance. We started

with 5% and ended with 5%.

Last bit of importance is to notice the imaginary “j” term placed in front of the final

per unit impedance value for T1.

Transformers are made up of large inductive coils and their impedance is mostly

reactive.

The PE exam may not remind you of this and it will be up to you to not

only recognize that this is actually a reactive impedance but to also add

the imaginary j term to it.

Let’s move on and calculate the per unit impedance for transformer T2:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Now that we have both per unit impedances let’s fill in the remaining values in our

per unit impedance diagram. again, notice both

Again, notice that both transformer per unit impedances are reactive terms and we

had to add the “j” multiplier:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Now that we have all impedances converted to per unit values of the same base, it’s

time to calculate the per unit current using Ohm’s law:

However, in order to calculate the per unit impedance, we will need to calculate the

per unit voltage.

Luckily for us, the voltage on our input bus is equal to the base voltage selected in

that zone which simplifies the math since both terms cancel:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

This greatly simplifies solving for the per unit current which will now equal the

inverse of the total series per unit impedance of the system:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

The per unit current will be the same value for each voltage section.

Now that we know the per unit current, we can finally calculate the actual current in

each voltage section by multiplying by the per unit current by each base current:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

However, this requires us to know what the base current in each voltage section is

equal to.

We can calculate it using the chosen base power and the chosen base voltage in each

section as shown below.

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Now that we have each of the base current values we can complete the problem and

solve for the actual current in each section in amps:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

We can now fill in the current in amps for each section to the original system diagram

that we started with:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

For a quick check of our work, we can use the transformer voltage ratios to verify our

currents are equal in each zone depending on voltage level.

If we did our work correctly we should get almost the exact same answer for each

current by starting with one and using the transformer ratios to solve for the rest

Let’s start with current I3 and work our way back to I2 and I1:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Looks good!

Here is our final answer solving for the individual currents in amps of the original

system using the per unit method:

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Filed Under: per unit , Sample Exam Question Tagged With: per unit

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Comments

Ria says

October 13, 2017 at 12:08 pm

Hi Zach,

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

I got familiar with your website and the course you provide on YouTube just two

weeks ago. I absolutely love listening to your lectures and solving the the quiz

problems (the free courses). I wish I knew about your website at least 2 months ago!

Never the less, I highly recommend people to go over your course, as you go over

concepts and basics and not just to pass the exam which I appreciate a lot. I am a first

time taken and have benefited from the free videos you have posted.

The PU problem was very well and neatly explained with all steps. I do not have a

problem with PU, but I was still glad you posted something. Keep doing the good

work! You are a great instructor. Thanks for your help. Fingers crossed I pass.

Reply

October 13, 2017 at 1:26 pm

Thanks for the complements Ria! Good luck on the October exam. If for some

reason you don’t pass this time around and need some extra help, you know right

where to find me.

Reply

October 14, 2017 at 2:37 pm

Hi Zach,

Thank you so much for the thorough explanations on this topic. PU calculations are

one of the most important and fundamental concepts in Power System modeling and

Protection Systems. We were running Transient Stability Analysis utilizing PSS/E the

other day at our office and we were given the machine’s data in machine’s base.

However, the line data provided from transmission planner was given in system’s

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

base. It was easy to enter the values in program and move on with the simulation but

we verified the simulation results with the technique you explained above and the

outcome brought smile to our face! Thanks for your help and keep up with awesome

work!

Reply

October 16, 2017 at 3:42 pm

That’s a neat story Maysam thanks for sharing, I’m glad the information in the

article helped you and your colleagues!

Reply

Patrick says

October 16, 2017 at 6:05 pm

Hi Zach,

Great article on the PU method! The way you broke down the process is both simple

and effective. Following you methods has helped mitigate any small errors that could

be difference between getting the question right versus getting the question wrong!

Reply

October 17, 2017 at 10:06 am

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Reply

October 17, 2017 at 11:26 am

Zach,

Thanks for posting this. Per Unit analysis has definitely been one of my most

challenging concepts to consistently perform correctly. I’m definitely going to use

this during my last couple weeks of preparation before the test to hopefully solidify

my understanding of per unit problems.

Reply

October 20, 2017 at 1:37 pm

Hi Seth,

Reply

October 17, 2017 at 11:31 am

This is wonderful. It was the easiest way to understand one of the most complected

topics for me.

Reply

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

October 20, 2017 at 1:37 pm

Reply

Steven says

October 17, 2017 at 11:31 am

Thanks for posting Zach! The way you break down the different steps based on the

different sections of the system is very helpful! It simplifies per unit analysis

tremendously.

Reply

Egis says

October 17, 2017 at 11:44 am

Thanks for posting. Since PU method is not my favorite, but with this example makes

easier to understand and follow the steps to solution. what a great example and

hopefully able to solve PU problems during exam.

Reply

October 17, 2017 at 11:53 am

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

What a great article! Per unit can be very intimidating, but I’m feeling confident after

these examples. Thanks!

Reply

October 17, 2017 at 12:35 pm

Thank you for posting this Zach, you simplified the PU and going step by step with

all the explanation made it very easy. I feel very confident that any question in Per

unit will be a piece of cake. it could have not been described better. thanks again

Reply

Sam says

October 17, 2017 at 12:58 pm

calculation, very detailed explanation so that I can easily follow.

Reply

Orlando says

October 17, 2017 at 5:44 pm

has been very helpful and help me understand PU analysis and much more. Thanks

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Zach!

Reply

October 20, 2017 at 1:38 pm

Thanks Orlando!

Reply

Jason says

October 17, 2017 at 9:56 pm

Excellent article on per unit analysis. Between this article and your live webinar I feel

much more confident solving per unit analysis problems.

Reply

October 18, 2017 at 3:14 pm

Hi Zach.

Once again, my course work in the Electrical PE Review has helped to clear up my

confusion in problem solving. This time regarding the PU System performed on a

complex transmission line consisting of two series transformers, step up and step

down configurations. The solution for this problem was presented step by step in a

smooth and coherent fashion. Specifically, the technique shown of drawing a vertical

line below each transformer, separating out the base voltages and power, allowed me

to see more clearly what information the problem had presented me and what

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

information was left for me to solve. I will use the technique going forward both in

the PE Exam and my own future circuit analysis. Thank you again!

Reply

October 20, 2017 at 1:38 pm

Reply

October 20, 2017 at 1:48 pm

Very helpful and complete discussion. I was always confused about the different

bases, and struggled to pick one; but now it has become a whole lot clear. I specially

like the discussion on the MVA method. Thank you for doing such a great job!

Reply

Will says

December 19, 2017 at 2:01 pm

I really like how you’ve laid out this problem; though I can’t imagine a problem this

long on the actual PE test. I’m following well up to the point where you simplify Ipu.

That step could use some explanation. It might be good to add a step where you

multiply by the complex conjugate and convert to polar notation to get the simplified

answer for Ipu.

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

Thank You!

Reply

December 19, 2017 at 10:14 pm

I agree that this is not a 6-minute problem that you’d likely expect on the actual

PE exam.

However, you could definitely expect to see any number of quicker to solve but

still challenging per unit problems that are designed to be explained and

demonstrated by this single, more in-depth, example. It was a way for me to

compact a series of helpful lessons for per unit analysis contained within a single

article.

Do you mind pointing out which exact step you are referring to with simplifying

Ipu? If you do, I’d be happy to expand on it in both the article and here in the

comment section as an update.

Thanks!

Reply

Justin says

February 23, 2018 at 8:48 pm

Toward the end of the article, you indicate your currents are off due to rounding when

checking your currents in each section using the transformer voltage ratios. The error

is actually due to using the incorrect current 2 base value in your current 2 calculation

Per Unit Example - How To, Tips, Tricks, and What to Watch Out For on the Electrical PE exam - Electrical PE Review

(you used 367.5A instead of 376.5A). This leads you to calculate I2 as 7.8A as

opposed to 7.96A.

Very helpful, concise, easy to understand article on how per unit analysis works;

greatly helped me. Thank you!

Reply

February 25, 2018 at 6:33 pm

Hi Justin,

you are absolutely correct! Great catch, that was bothering me for a long time

when I made the article because it should have been identical. Thanks for taking

the time to point this out, I went and corrected the values. I’m glad you enjoyed

the article on per unit analysis.

Reply

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