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pile cap design lecturer note

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a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f) Select analytical approach for tension reinforcement design (either Truss Analogy or Bending

Theory). Design for tension/moment reinforcement and determine As,req.

h) Check shear requirement at critical section. Enhanced shear resistance (if allowed).

• Flowchart 2

Moment/Tensile

Force

Check for shear resistance

(vertical shear) at Ø/5 from

Design for column face Unknown = ρ1

bending/tension VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd

reinforcement, As,req

Take VRd,c = VEd

As,req1

Solve for ρ1

As,min, As,max

Solve for As1

(AS,req2)

highest. As,pro

M2

M1

PILE CAP DESIGN

Example 4 (Bending Theory)

1) Punching shear check at 2.0 d from column face

Design and provide full detailing of a pile is not required because pile spacing ≤ 3x pile

cap given the followings :- diameter .

a) Column Dead Load (unfactored) = 2800 kN 2) Max shear resistance at column face

b) Column Live Load (unfactored) = 1200 kN

c) Assume pile cap s/w = 100 VRd,max = 0.5 ud [0.6 (1-fck/250)]fck/1.5

d) Allowable pile working load = 750 kN = 472,200 (0.516)(23.33)

e) Pile size = 300 mm square =

f) Pile spacing = 3 x pile dia.

g) fcu (pile cap) = 35 N/mm2 3) Main reinforcement

h) clear edge distance = 150 mm

i) pile embedded length = 75 mm Length = (3x300 x 2) + 300 + (2x150) = 2400 mm

j) column size = 400 × 600 mm Width = (3 x 300) + 300 + (2x150) = 1500

k) main rebar = 25 mm Load per pile = 5580/6 = 930 kN

l) cover = 50 mm

M1 = 2 x 930 x (0.9- 0.3) =

Pile group size = 4100/750 M2 = 3 x 930 x (0.45 – 0.2) =

= 5.47 d1 = 912 mm

Use = k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.026

z1 = 0.95d = 866 mm

Ultimate column load = (2800 x 1.35) + (1200 x 1.5) As,req1 =

VEd,max = 5580 kN

As,min1 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd

Try pile cap thickness = 1000 mm = 0.0017 (1500)(912)

Effective depth, d1 = 100-75-13 = 2326 mm2

= 912 mm As,max1 = 0.04 Ac

d2 = 887 mm = 60,000 mm2

Column perimeter (u) = 1000 × 2 = 2000 mm

PILE CAP DESIGN

Provide = 7 H25 (overdesign) Steel stress2 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)

As,pro1 = 3437 mm2 = 0.55 (435)(0.527)

= 126 N/mm2

d2 = 887 mm

k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.011 Crack width = 0.3 mm

z1 = 0.95d = 842 mm Max allowable spacing = 300 mm

As,req2 = Actual bar spacing = (2400 - 50 - 50- 25)/8

=

As,min2 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd

= 0.0017 (2400)(887)

= 5) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile

As,max2 = 0.04 Ac

= 96,000 mm2 Load per pile = 930 kN

Provide = Number of pile outside critical section = 2

As,pro2 = Shear Force, VEd = 930 x 2 = 1860 kN

4) Check Bar Spacing (for Main Reinforcement) Shear distance, av = 1200 – 150 – 300 – 300 + 60

Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent = 510 mm

loading and design crack width =0.3mm For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear

force

Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)

= 0.55 (435)(0.862) VEd = 1860 x (510/1824)

= 206 N/mm2 =

Max allowable spacing ≈ 250 mm

Actual bar spacing = (1500 - 50 - 50- 25)/6

= 229 mm ….ok

PILE CAP DESIGN

Design shear resistance (check for Max moment only)

k = 1+(200/912)1/2 ≤ 2.0 STRESS ???

= 1.47

ρ1 = As1/bd

= 3437/(1500 x 912) = 0.00251

=

=

Normally, we treat this issue by

Re-design providing more reinforcement

(increase the percentage)

increase??? Another 1 bar or

2 bars or 3 bars

PILE CAP DESIGN

Provide = 10 H25 Steel stress2 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)

As,pro1 = = 0.55 (435)(0.527)

= 126 N/mm2

d2 = 887 mm

k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.011 Crack width = 0.3 mm

z1 = 0.95d = 842 mm Max allowable spacing = 300 mm

As,req2 = 1906 mm2 Actual bar spacing = (2400 - 50 - 50- 25)/8

= 284 mm ….ok

As,min2 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd

= 0.0017 (2400)(887)

= 3619 mm2 5) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile

As,max2 = 0.04 Ac

= 96,000 mm2 Load per pile = 930 kN

Provide = 9 H25 Number of pile outside critical section = 2

As,pro2 = 4419 mm2 Shear Force, VEd = 930 x 2 = 1860 kN

Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent = 510 mm

loading and design crack width =0.3mm For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear

force

Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)

= 0.55 (435)(0.6) VEd = 1860 x (510/1824)

= 144 N/mm2 = 520 kN

Max allowable spacing = 200 mm

Actual bar spacing = (1500 - 50 - 50- 25)/9

= 153 mm ….ok

PILE CAP DESIGN

Design shear resistance (check for Max moment only) Basic Anchorage, assume ‘poor’ bond condition

k = 1+(200/912)1/2 ≤ 2.0 = [500/(4.6 x 2.4) 25

= 1.47 =

ρ1 = As1/bd

= 4910/(1500 x 912) = 0.00359 Required anchorage length

= α1α2 (1132) mm

VRd,c = 0.12 (1.47)(12.56)1/3 (1500)(912)/1000 α1 =0.7 (bent bars)

= α2 = 1.0 (Cd < 3Ø)

lbd =

Vmin = 0.035(k3/2fck1/2)bd /1000

= Anchorage length = 150 + 150 – 50 – 13

(horizontal) = 237 mm

Since 561 kN > 520 kN….ok Bent up length = 1000-75-25-13-50

= 837

Total anchorage length = 1074 mm > 793

PILE CAP DESIGN

that

pile cap design due to the high column load. Or

when the vertical shear cannot be reduced (av =

close to d)

enough’ reinforcement for As,pro compared to As,req

(high percentage of As,pro/As,req as it will effect the Re-arranging the equation,

above equation….(you have it in the previous

example) 520 x 10-3 = (0.12)(1.47) (100)1/3(35)1/3(ρ1)1/3 (1500)(912)

reinforcement will lead to uneconomical design.

ρ1 =

• As such, it is more ‘practical’ to manipulate the

above equation in order to optimize ρ1. As1 = 0.002858 × 1500 × 912

= 3911 mm2 (compare to 2962 mm2 based

on bending moment requirement)

Using example 4, we know that VRd,c must be at least

equal to VEd = 520 kN. Provide, at least 8 H25.

PILE CAP DESIGN

2400

900 900

10 H25 (BB)

1500

9 H25 (B)

3 3

PLAN: 6 PG

PILE CAP DESIGN

4 H12 (Loop Bar)

(min 40 d)

9 H25 (B)

75 mm embedded length

10 H25 (BB)

1000

50 mm thk.

lean concrete

300 mm diameter

reinforced concrete

square piles

Section 3-3

PILE CAP DESIGN

Example 5 (Bending Theory)

Design and provide full detailing of a pile cap using Ultimate Load = (800 × 1.35) + (300 × 1.5)

Bending Theory given the followings:- = 1530kN

Load per pile = 1530/2 = 765 kN

a) Dead Load (unfactored) = 800 kN Effective depth, d = 600 – 75 – 8 = 517 mm

b) Pile cap s/w (assume) = 20 kN Column perimeter = (550 x 2) = 1100 mm

b) Column Live Load (unfactored) = 300 kN

d) Allowable pile working load = 620 kN 1) Punching shear check at 2.0 d from column face

e) Pile size = 300 mm square is not required because pile spacing ≤ 3x pile

f) Pile spacing = 3 × pile dia. diameter .

g) fcu (pile cap) = 30 N/mm2

h) Pile cap thickness = 600 mm 2) Max shear resistance at column face

i) clear edge distance = 150 mm

j) pile embedded length = 75 mm VRd,max = 0.5 ud [0.6 (1-fck/250)]fck/1.5

k) column size = 200 × 350 mm = 284,350 (0.528)(20)

l) main rebar , fyk = 500 N/mm 2 = H16

2

= 3,,002 kN > VEd,max 1530 kN ….ok

m) Distribution bar, fyk = 500 N/mm = H12

n) cover = 50 mm 3) Bending reinforcement

= 1.81 Width = (300) + (2x150) = 600

= use 2 PG arrangement

M = 765 x (0.45- 0.175) = 211 kNm

1500 k = M/(fck bd2) = 0.044

z = 0.948d = 490mm

600

av

PILE CAP DESIGN

As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd

= 0.0015 (600)(517) k = 1+(200/517)1/2 ≤ 2.0

= 468mm2 = 1.62

As,max1 = 0.04 Ac

= 14,400 mm2 Let V Rd,c = VEd = 137 kN

As,min distribution = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd

= 0.0015 (1500)(503) (ρ1)1/3 = 0.149

= 1,132 mm2

Provide = 11 H12 ρ1 = 0.00335

As,pro = 1243 mm2

As1 = 0.00335 × 600 × 517

4) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile = 1039 mm2

Number of pile outside critical section = 1

Shear Force, VEd = 765x 1 = 765 kN Vmin = 0.035(k3/2fck1/2)bd /1000

= 132 kN

Shear distance, av = 450– 150 – 175 + 60

= 185 mm

For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear

force

= 137kN

PILE CAP DESIGN

4) Check Bar Spacing Basic Anchorage, assume ‘poor’ bond condition

Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent

loading and design crack width = 0.3mm lbd = (fyk/4.6fbd) Ø

= [500/(4.6 x 2.4) 16

Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro) = 725 mm

= 0.55 (435)(0.86)

= 206 N/mm2 Required anchorage length

= α1α2 (725) mm

Crack width = 0.3 mm α1 =0.7 (bent bars)

Max allowable spacing ≈250 mm α2 = 1.0 (Cd < 3Ø)

Actual bar spacing = (600 - 50 - 50- 16)/5 lbd = 507 mm

= 97 mm ….ok

Anchorage length = 150 + 150 – 50 – 8

(horizontal) = 242 mm

Bent up length = 600-75-25-8-50

= 442

Total anchorage length = 684 mm > 507

PILE CAP DESIGN

1500

900 900

900

3 3

PLAN: 2 PG

PILE CAP DESIGN

3 H12 (Loop Bar)

(min 40 d)

75 mm embedded length

9 H16 (B)

6 H16 (BB)

600

50 mm thk.

lean concrete

300 mm diameter

reinforced concrete

square piles

Section 3-3

PILE CAP DESIGN

Class exercise

proceed with the calculation. Provide comment. Change the depth of the

pile cap to 1200 mm and re-design the pile cap (pile cap selfweight is 104

kN)

2. Design the 2PG in Example 5 using Truss Analogy. Compare the results

with Bending Theory.

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