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# PILE CAP DESIGN

## Design steps (reflecting shear sensitive structural element….recommended)

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

f) Select analytical approach for tension reinforcement design (either Truss Analogy or Bending
Theory). Design for tension/moment reinforcement and determine As,req.

## g) Check As,min, As,max, As,pro and crack requirement (bar spacing).

h) Check shear requirement at critical section. Enhanced shear resistance (if allowed).

• Flowchart 2

## Analyze for Bending Determine VEd

Moment/Tensile
Force
Check for shear resistance
(vertical shear) at Ø/5 from
Design for column face Unknown = ρ1
bending/tension VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd
reinforcement, As,req
Take VRd,c = VEd

As,req1
Solve for ρ1

As,min, As,max
Solve for As1
(AS,req2)

## Compare, use the

highest. As,pro
M2
M1
PILE CAP DESIGN
Example 4 (Bending Theory)
1) Punching shear check at 2.0 d from column face
Design and provide full detailing of a pile is not required because pile spacing ≤ 3x pile
cap given the followings :- diameter .
a) Column Dead Load (unfactored) = 2800 kN 2) Max shear resistance at column face
b) Column Live Load (unfactored) = 1200 kN
c) Assume pile cap s/w = 100 VRd,max = 0.5 ud [0.6 (1-fck/250)]fck/1.5
d) Allowable pile working load = 750 kN = 472,200 (0.516)(23.33)
e) Pile size = 300 mm square =
f) Pile spacing = 3 x pile dia.
g) fcu (pile cap) = 35 N/mm2 3) Main reinforcement
h) clear edge distance = 150 mm
i) pile embedded length = 75 mm Length = (3x300 x 2) + 300 + (2x150) = 2400 mm
j) column size = 400 × 600 mm Width = (3 x 300) + 300 + (2x150) = 1500
k) main rebar = 25 mm Load per pile = 5580/6 = 930 kN
l) cover = 50 mm
M1 = 2 x 930 x (0.9- 0.3) =
Pile group size = 4100/750 M2 = 3 x 930 x (0.45 – 0.2) =
= 5.47 d1 = 912 mm
Use = k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.026
z1 = 0.95d = 866 mm
Ultimate column load = (2800 x 1.35) + (1200 x 1.5) As,req1 =
VEd,max = 5580 kN
As,min1 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
Try pile cap thickness = 1000 mm = 0.0017 (1500)(912)
Effective depth, d1 = 100-75-13 = 2326 mm2
= 912 mm As,max1 = 0.04 Ac
d2 = 887 mm = 60,000 mm2
Column perimeter (u) = 1000 × 2 = 2000 mm
PILE CAP DESIGN
Provide = 7 H25 (overdesign) Steel stress2 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
As,pro1 = 3437 mm2 = 0.55 (435)(0.527)
= 126 N/mm2
d2 = 887 mm
k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.011 Crack width = 0.3 mm
z1 = 0.95d = 842 mm Max allowable spacing = 300 mm
As,req2 = Actual bar spacing = (2400 - 50 - 50- 25)/8
=
As,min2 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
= 0.0017 (2400)(887)
= 5) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile
As,max2 = 0.04 Ac
= 96,000 mm2 Load per pile = 930 kN
Provide = Number of pile outside critical section = 2
As,pro2 = Shear Force, VEd = 930 x 2 = 1860 kN

4) Check Bar Spacing (for Main Reinforcement) Shear distance, av = 1200 – 150 – 300 – 300 + 60
Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent = 510 mm
loading and design crack width =0.3mm For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear
force
Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
= 0.55 (435)(0.862) VEd = 1860 x (510/1824)
= 206 N/mm2 =

## Crack width = 0.3 mm

Max allowable spacing ≈ 250 mm
Actual bar spacing = (1500 - 50 - 50- 25)/6
= 229 mm ….ok
PILE CAP DESIGN
Design shear resistance (check for Max moment only)

## VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd

k = 1+(200/912)1/2 ≤ 2.0 STRESS ???
= 1.47
ρ1 = As1/bd
= 3437/(1500 x 912) = 0.00251

=

=

## (Section failed for shear at scritical section)

Normally, we treat this issue by
Re-design providing more reinforcement
(increase the percentage)

## But….how much such we

increase??? Another 1 bar or
2 bars or 3 bars
PILE CAP DESIGN
Provide = 10 H25 Steel stress2 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
As,pro1 = = 0.55 (435)(0.527)
= 126 N/mm2
d2 = 887 mm
k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.011 Crack width = 0.3 mm
z1 = 0.95d = 842 mm Max allowable spacing = 300 mm
As,req2 = 1906 mm2 Actual bar spacing = (2400 - 50 - 50- 25)/8
= 284 mm ….ok
As,min2 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
= 0.0017 (2400)(887)
= 3619 mm2 5) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile
As,max2 = 0.04 Ac
= 96,000 mm2 Load per pile = 930 kN
Provide = 9 H25 Number of pile outside critical section = 2
As,pro2 = 4419 mm2 Shear Force, VEd = 930 x 2 = 1860 kN

## 4) Check Bar Spacing Shear distance, av = 1200 – 150 – 300 – 300 + 60

Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent = 510 mm
loading and design crack width =0.3mm For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear
force
Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
= 0.55 (435)(0.6) VEd = 1860 x (510/1824)
= 144 N/mm2 = 520 kN

## Crack width = 0.3 mm

Max allowable spacing = 200 mm
Actual bar spacing = (1500 - 50 - 50- 25)/9
= 153 mm ….ok
PILE CAP DESIGN
Design shear resistance (check for Max moment only) Basic Anchorage, assume ‘poor’ bond condition

## VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd lbd = (fyk/4.6fbd) Ø

k = 1+(200/912)1/2 ≤ 2.0 = [500/(4.6 x 2.4) 25
= 1.47 =
ρ1 = As1/bd
= 4910/(1500 x 912) = 0.00359 Required anchorage length
= α1α2 (1132) mm
VRd,c = 0.12 (1.47)(12.56)1/3 (1500)(912)/1000 α1 =0.7 (bent bars)
= α2 = 1.0 (Cd < 3Ø)
lbd =
Vmin = 0.035(k3/2fck1/2)bd /1000
= Anchorage length = 150 + 150 – 50 – 13
(horizontal) = 237 mm
Since 561 kN > 520 kN….ok Bent up length = 1000-75-25-13-50
= 837
Total anchorage length = 1074 mm > 793

PILE CAP DESIGN

that

## …and we know that shear is can be a serious issue in

pile cap design due to the high column load. Or
when the vertical shear cannot be reduced (av =
close to d)

## •In some cases, it is not ‘wise’ to provide ‘just

enough’ reinforcement for As,pro compared to As,req
(high percentage of As,pro/As,req as it will effect the Re-arranging the equation,
above equation….(you have it in the previous
example) 520 x 10-3 = (0.12)(1.47) (100)1/3(35)1/3(ρ1)1/3 (1500)(912)

## •Similarly providing excessive amount of (ρ1)1/3 =

reinforcement will lead to uneconomical design.
ρ1 =
• As such, it is more ‘practical’ to manipulate the
above equation in order to optimize ρ1. As1 = 0.002858 × 1500 × 912
= 3911 mm2 (compare to 2962 mm2 based
on bending moment requirement)
Using example 4, we know that VRd,c must be at least
equal to VEd = 520 kN. Provide, at least 8 H25.
PILE CAP DESIGN

2400

900 900

10 H25 (BB)
1500

9 H25 (B)

3 3

PLAN: 6 PG
PILE CAP DESIGN

## Stump starter bar

4 H12 (Loop Bar)

(min 40 d)
9 H25 (B)
75 mm embedded length

10 H25 (BB)
1000

50 mm thk.
lean concrete

300 mm diameter
reinforced concrete
square piles

Section 3-3
PILE CAP DESIGN
Example 5 (Bending Theory)
Design and provide full detailing of a pile cap using Ultimate Load = (800 × 1.35) + (300 × 1.5)
Bending Theory given the followings:- = 1530kN
Load per pile = 1530/2 = 765 kN
a) Dead Load (unfactored) = 800 kN Effective depth, d = 600 – 75 – 8 = 517 mm
b) Pile cap s/w (assume) = 20 kN Column perimeter = (550 x 2) = 1100 mm
b) Column Live Load (unfactored) = 300 kN
d) Allowable pile working load = 620 kN 1) Punching shear check at 2.0 d from column face
e) Pile size = 300 mm square is not required because pile spacing ≤ 3x pile
f) Pile spacing = 3 × pile dia. diameter .
g) fcu (pile cap) = 30 N/mm2
h) Pile cap thickness = 600 mm 2) Max shear resistance at column face
i) clear edge distance = 150 mm
j) pile embedded length = 75 mm VRd,max = 0.5 ud [0.6 (1-fck/250)]fck/1.5
k) column size = 200 × 350 mm = 284,350 (0.528)(20)
l) main rebar , fyk = 500 N/mm 2 = H16
2
= 3,,002 kN > VEd,max 1530 kN ….ok
m) Distribution bar, fyk = 500 N/mm = H12
n) cover = 50 mm 3) Bending reinforcement

## Estimate PG = (800 + 300 + 20)/620 Length = (3x300 ) + 300 + (2x150) = 1500 mm

= 1.81 Width = (300) + (2x150) = 600
= use 2 PG arrangement
M = 765 x (0.45- 0.175) = 211 kNm
1500 k = M/(fck bd2) = 0.044
z = 0.948d = 490mm
600

## As,req = 990 mm2

av
PILE CAP DESIGN
As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd
= 0.0015 (600)(517) k = 1+(200/517)1/2 ≤ 2.0
= 468mm2 = 1.62
As,max1 = 0.04 Ac
= 14,400 mm2 Let V Rd,c = VEd = 137 kN

## 137 x 10-3 = (0.12)(1.62) (100)1/3(35)1/3(ρ1)1/3 (600)(517)

As,min distribution = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
= 0.0015 (1500)(503) (ρ1)1/3 = 0.149
= 1,132 mm2
Provide = 11 H12 ρ1 = 0.00335
As,pro = 1243 mm2
As1 = 0.00335 × 600 × 517
4) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile = 1039 mm2

## Load per pile = 765 As,pro = 6H16

Number of pile outside critical section = 1
Shear Force, VEd = 765x 1 = 765 kN Vmin = 0.035(k3/2fck1/2)bd /1000
= 132 kN
Shear distance, av = 450– 150 – 175 + 60
= 185 mm
For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear
force

## VEd = 765 x (185/1034)

= 137kN
PILE CAP DESIGN
4) Check Bar Spacing Basic Anchorage, assume ‘poor’ bond condition
Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent
loading and design crack width = 0.3mm lbd = (fyk/4.6fbd) Ø
= [500/(4.6 x 2.4) 16
Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro) = 725 mm
= 0.55 (435)(0.86)
= 206 N/mm2 Required anchorage length
= α1α2 (725) mm
Crack width = 0.3 mm α1 =0.7 (bent bars)
Max allowable spacing ≈250 mm α2 = 1.0 (Cd < 3Ø)
Actual bar spacing = (600 - 50 - 50- 16)/5 lbd = 507 mm
= 97 mm ….ok
Anchorage length = 150 + 150 – 50 – 8
(horizontal) = 242 mm
Bent up length = 600-75-25-8-50
= 442
Total anchorage length = 684 mm > 507

PILE CAP DESIGN

1500

900 900
900

3 3

PLAN: 2 PG
PILE CAP DESIGN

## Stump starter bar

3 H12 (Loop Bar)

(min 40 d)
75 mm embedded length
9 H16 (B)

6 H16 (BB)
600

50 mm thk.
lean concrete

300 mm diameter
reinforced concrete
square piles

Section 3-3
PILE CAP DESIGN
Class exercise

## 1. Change the main reinforcement in Example 4 from 9 H25 to 7 H25 and

proceed with the calculation. Provide comment. Change the depth of the
pile cap to 1200 mm and re-design the pile cap (pile cap selfweight is 104
kN)

2. Design the 2PG in Example 5 using Truss Analogy. Compare the results
with Bending Theory.