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PILE CAP DESIGN

Design steps (reflecting shear sensitive structural element….recommended)

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

f) Select analytical approach for tension reinforcement design (either Truss Analogy or Bending
Theory). Design for tension/moment reinforcement and determine As,req.

g) Determine V,Ed . Reduced V,Ed (if allowed).

g) Check As,min, As,max, As,pro and crack requirement (bar spacing).

h) Check shear requirement at critical section. Enhanced shear resistance (if allowed).

i) Provide relevant detailing.


• Flowchart 2

Analyze for Bending Determine VEd


Moment/Tensile
Force
Check for shear resistance
(vertical shear) at Ø/5 from
Design for column face Unknown = ρ1
bending/tension VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd
reinforcement, As,req
Take VRd,c = VEd

As,req1
Solve for ρ1

As,min, As,max
Solve for As1
(AS,req2)

Compare, use the


highest. As,pro
M2
M1
PILE CAP DESIGN
Example 4 (Bending Theory)
1) Punching shear check at 2.0 d from column face
Design and provide full detailing of a pile is not required because pile spacing ≤ 3x pile
cap given the followings :- diameter .
a) Column Dead Load (unfactored) = 2800 kN 2) Max shear resistance at column face
b) Column Live Load (unfactored) = 1200 kN
c) Assume pile cap s/w = 100 VRd,max = 0.5 ud [0.6 (1-fck/250)]fck/1.5
d) Allowable pile working load = 750 kN = 472,200 (0.516)(23.33)
e) Pile size = 300 mm square =
f) Pile spacing = 3 x pile dia.
g) fcu (pile cap) = 35 N/mm2 3) Main reinforcement
h) clear edge distance = 150 mm
i) pile embedded length = 75 mm Length = (3x300 x 2) + 300 + (2x150) = 2400 mm
j) column size = 400 × 600 mm Width = (3 x 300) + 300 + (2x150) = 1500
k) main rebar = 25 mm Load per pile = 5580/6 = 930 kN
l) cover = 50 mm
M1 = 2 x 930 x (0.9- 0.3) =
Pile group size = 4100/750 M2 = 3 x 930 x (0.45 – 0.2) =
= 5.47 d1 = 912 mm
Use = k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.026
z1 = 0.95d = 866 mm
Ultimate column load = (2800 x 1.35) + (1200 x 1.5) As,req1 =
VEd,max = 5580 kN
As,min1 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
Try pile cap thickness = 1000 mm = 0.0017 (1500)(912)
Effective depth, d1 = 100-75-13 = 2326 mm2
= 912 mm As,max1 = 0.04 Ac
d2 = 887 mm = 60,000 mm2
Column perimeter (u) = 1000 × 2 = 2000 mm
PILE CAP DESIGN
Provide = 7 H25 (overdesign) Steel stress2 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
As,pro1 = 3437 mm2 = 0.55 (435)(0.527)
= 126 N/mm2
d2 = 887 mm
k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.011 Crack width = 0.3 mm
z1 = 0.95d = 842 mm Max allowable spacing = 300 mm
As,req2 = Actual bar spacing = (2400 - 50 - 50- 25)/8
=
As,min2 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
= 0.0017 (2400)(887)
= 5) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile
As,max2 = 0.04 Ac
= 96,000 mm2 Load per pile = 930 kN
Provide = Number of pile outside critical section = 2
As,pro2 = Shear Force, VEd = 930 x 2 = 1860 kN

4) Check Bar Spacing (for Main Reinforcement) Shear distance, av = 1200 – 150 – 300 – 300 + 60
Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent = 510 mm
loading and design crack width =0.3mm For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear
force
Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
= 0.55 (435)(0.862) VEd = 1860 x (510/1824)
= 206 N/mm2 =

Crack width = 0.3 mm


Max allowable spacing ≈ 250 mm
Actual bar spacing = (1500 - 50 - 50- 25)/6
= 229 mm ….ok
PILE CAP DESIGN
Design shear resistance (check for Max moment only)

VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd


k = 1+(200/912)1/2 ≤ 2.0 STRESS ???
= 1.47
ρ1 = As1/bd
= 3437/(1500 x 912) = 0.00251

VRd,c = 0.12 (1.47)(12.56)1/3 (1500)(912)/1000


=

Vmin = 0.035(k3/2fck1/2)bd /1000


=

Since 498 and 505 kN < 520 kN….not ok

(Section failed for shear at scritical section)


Normally, we treat this issue by
Re-design providing more reinforcement
(increase the percentage)

But….how much such we


increase??? Another 1 bar or
2 bars or 3 bars
PILE CAP DESIGN
Provide = 10 H25 Steel stress2 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
As,pro1 = = 0.55 (435)(0.527)
= 126 N/mm2
d2 = 887 mm
k1 = M/(fck bd2) = 0.011 Crack width = 0.3 mm
z1 = 0.95d = 842 mm Max allowable spacing = 300 mm
As,req2 = 1906 mm2 Actual bar spacing = (2400 - 50 - 50- 25)/8
= 284 mm ….ok
As,min2 = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
= 0.0017 (2400)(887)
= 3619 mm2 5) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile
As,max2 = 0.04 Ac
= 96,000 mm2 Load per pile = 930 kN
Provide = 9 H25 Number of pile outside critical section = 2
As,pro2 = 4419 mm2 Shear Force, VEd = 930 x 2 = 1860 kN

4) Check Bar Spacing Shear distance, av = 1200 – 150 – 300 – 300 + 60


Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent = 510 mm
loading and design crack width =0.3mm For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear
force
Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro)
= 0.55 (435)(0.6) VEd = 1860 x (510/1824)
= 144 N/mm2 = 520 kN

Crack width = 0.3 mm


Max allowable spacing = 200 mm
Actual bar spacing = (1500 - 50 - 50- 25)/9
= 153 mm ….ok
PILE CAP DESIGN
Design shear resistance (check for Max moment only) Basic Anchorage, assume ‘poor’ bond condition

VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd lbd = (fyk/4.6fbd) Ø


k = 1+(200/912)1/2 ≤ 2.0 = [500/(4.6 x 2.4) 25
= 1.47 =
ρ1 = As1/bd
= 4910/(1500 x 912) = 0.00359 Required anchorage length
= α1α2 (1132) mm
VRd,c = 0.12 (1.47)(12.56)1/3 (1500)(912)/1000 α1 =0.7 (bent bars)
= α2 = 1.0 (Cd < 3Ø)
lbd =
Vmin = 0.035(k3/2fck1/2)bd /1000
= Anchorage length = 150 + 150 – 50 – 13
(horizontal) = 237 mm
Since 561 kN > 520 kN….ok Bent up length = 1000-75-25-13-50
= 837
Total anchorage length = 1074 mm > 793

Loop Bar* = 4 H12 (assume)


PILE CAP DESIGN

Mechanics of Structural Design for pile cap Flowchart 2

•The checking for vertical shear requirement shows


that

VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd

…and we know that shear is can be a serious issue in


pile cap design due to the high column load. Or
when the vertical shear cannot be reduced (av =
close to d)

•In some cases, it is not ‘wise’ to provide ‘just


enough’ reinforcement for As,pro compared to As,req
(high percentage of As,pro/As,req as it will effect the Re-arranging the equation,
above equation….(you have it in the previous
example) 520 x 10-3 = (0.12)(1.47) (100)1/3(35)1/3(ρ1)1/3 (1500)(912)

•Similarly providing excessive amount of (ρ1)1/3 =


reinforcement will lead to uneconomical design.
ρ1 =
• As such, it is more ‘practical’ to manipulate the
above equation in order to optimize ρ1. As1 = 0.002858 × 1500 × 912
= 3911 mm2 (compare to 2962 mm2 based
on bending moment requirement)
Using example 4, we know that VRd,c must be at least
equal to VEd = 520 kN. Provide, at least 8 H25.
PILE CAP DESIGN

2400

900 900

10 H25 (BB)
1500

9 H25 (B)

3 3

PLAN: 6 PG
PILE CAP DESIGN

Stump starter bar


4 H12 (Loop Bar)

(min 40 d)
9 H25 (B)
75 mm embedded length

10 H25 (BB)
1000

50 mm thk.
lean concrete

300 mm diameter
reinforced concrete
square piles

Section 3-3
PILE CAP DESIGN
Example 5 (Bending Theory)
Design and provide full detailing of a pile cap using Ultimate Load = (800 × 1.35) + (300 × 1.5)
Bending Theory given the followings:- = 1530kN
Load per pile = 1530/2 = 765 kN
a) Dead Load (unfactored) = 800 kN Effective depth, d = 600 – 75 – 8 = 517 mm
b) Pile cap s/w (assume) = 20 kN Column perimeter = (550 x 2) = 1100 mm
b) Column Live Load (unfactored) = 300 kN
d) Allowable pile working load = 620 kN 1) Punching shear check at 2.0 d from column face
e) Pile size = 300 mm square is not required because pile spacing ≤ 3x pile
f) Pile spacing = 3 × pile dia. diameter .
g) fcu (pile cap) = 30 N/mm2
h) Pile cap thickness = 600 mm 2) Max shear resistance at column face
i) clear edge distance = 150 mm
j) pile embedded length = 75 mm VRd,max = 0.5 ud [0.6 (1-fck/250)]fck/1.5
k) column size = 200 × 350 mm = 284,350 (0.528)(20)
l) main rebar , fyk = 500 N/mm 2 = H16
2
= 3,,002 kN > VEd,max 1530 kN ….ok
m) Distribution bar, fyk = 500 N/mm = H12
n) cover = 50 mm 3) Bending reinforcement

Estimate PG = (800 + 300 + 20)/620 Length = (3x300 ) + 300 + (2x150) = 1500 mm


= 1.81 Width = (300) + (2x150) = 600
= use 2 PG arrangement
M = 765 x (0.45- 0.175) = 211 kNm
1500 k = M/(fck bd2) = 0.044
z = 0.948d = 490mm
600

As,req = 990 mm2

av
PILE CAP DESIGN
As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd VRd,c = 0.12k (100ρ1fck)1/3 bd
= 0.0015 (600)(517) k = 1+(200/517)1/2 ≤ 2.0
= 468mm2 = 1.62
As,max1 = 0.04 Ac
= 14,400 mm2 Let V Rd,c = VEd = 137 kN

137 x 10-3 = (0.12)(1.62) (100)1/3(35)1/3(ρ1)1/3 (600)(517)


As,min distribution = 0.26(fctm/fyk)bd
= 0.0015 (1500)(503) (ρ1)1/3 = 0.149
= 1,132 mm2
Provide = 11 H12 ρ1 = 0.00335
As,pro = 1243 mm2
As1 = 0.00335 × 600 × 517
4) Vertical shear at Ø/5 inside pile = 1039 mm2

Load per pile = 765 As,pro = 6H16


Number of pile outside critical section = 1
Shear Force, VEd = 765x 1 = 765 kN Vmin = 0.035(k3/2fck1/2)bd /1000
= 132 kN
Shear distance, av = 450– 150 – 175 + 60
= 185 mm
For pile spacing < 3 pile diameter, reduced shear
force

VEd = 765 x (185/1034)


= 137kN
PILE CAP DESIGN
4) Check Bar Spacing Basic Anchorage, assume ‘poor’ bond condition
Assume steel stress under quasi-permanent
loading and design crack width = 0.3mm lbd = (fyk/4.6fbd) Ø
= [500/(4.6 x 2.4) 16
Steel stress1 = 0.55(fyk/1.15)(As,req/As,pro) = 725 mm
= 0.55 (435)(0.86)
= 206 N/mm2 Required anchorage length
= α1α2 (725) mm
Crack width = 0.3 mm α1 =0.7 (bent bars)
Max allowable spacing ≈250 mm α2 = 1.0 (Cd < 3Ø)
Actual bar spacing = (600 - 50 - 50- 16)/5 lbd = 507 mm
= 97 mm ….ok
Anchorage length = 150 + 150 – 50 – 8
(horizontal) = 242 mm
Bent up length = 600-75-25-8-50
= 442
Total anchorage length = 684 mm > 507

Loop Bar* = 3H12 (assume)


PILE CAP DESIGN

1500

900 900
900

3 3

PLAN: 2 PG
PILE CAP DESIGN

Stump starter bar


3 H12 (Loop Bar)

(min 40 d)
75 mm embedded length
9 H16 (B)

6 H16 (BB)
600

50 mm thk.
lean concrete

300 mm diameter
reinforced concrete
square piles

Section 3-3
PILE CAP DESIGN
Class exercise

1. Change the main reinforcement in Example 4 from 9 H25 to 7 H25 and


proceed with the calculation. Provide comment. Change the depth of the
pile cap to 1200 mm and re-design the pile cap (pile cap selfweight is 104
kN)

2. Design the 2PG in Example 5 using Truss Analogy. Compare the results
with Bending Theory.