Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 81

CONTROL

AND
PROTECTION
Protection and Safety
Interlocks
Protection – General understanding?
What we already know.

n Operation of the BOILER, TURBINE, GENERATOR are closely


coupled

n A trip on any one of the three has a direct impact on the


continued operation of the other two causing interruption to
power production process

n Why Trip – On occurrence of any unsafe or abnormal operating


condition the BOILER, TURBINE, GENERATOR are tripped
individually
Protection – General understanding?
What does TRIP mean

n Boiler trip :
q Stops fuel feed to Furnace
q Purpose – To clear out combustibles from the Boiler and prevent any
explosive condition from persisting

n Turbine trip :
q Close all steam admission valves (ESV, GOV Valves)
q Purpose – Stop steam admission to ensure turbine coasts down and
Open all drain lines of steam admission pipes upstream / down stream
valves to prevent accumulation of water which may enter the Turbine

n Generator trip :
q Opens CB connecting Generator to Grid
n Purpose – Isolate system from faulty generator
q Opens Field Circuit Breaker to cut-off excitation
Signal Voting
A
1oo1
A

A B 1oo2
B

A
2oo2
C
B

A B

A C 2oo3

B C
Dual Systems
1oo2 Config = Shut down

High Pressure Set Point

?
Process Variable

Which Signal
is Correct ?

Time
TMR Systems
2oo3 = Continue to operate

High Pressure Set Point


Process Variable

High Certainty this is


a bad signal

Time
TMR Systems
2oo3 = Shut Down

High Pressure Set Point


Process Variable

High Certainty these are


good signals

High Certainty this is


a BAD signal

Time
TURBINE TRIP CONDITIONS
q TG BEARING OIL PRESSURE LOW
q CONDENSER VACUUM LOW
q CONDENSER EHWL
q HP EXHAUST TEMPERATURE HIGH
q 3 OUT OF 4 GOVERNOR VALVES TRIPPED
q 2 OUT OF 2 INTERCEPT VALVES TRIPPED
q EHG FAULT
q THRUST WEAR HIGH
q STATOR COOLANT FLOW LOW
q MAIN STEAM PRESSURE LOW
q MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE LOW
q MFT OPERATED
q 86U OPERATED NEXT
86T – TG Bearing oil pressure low
n TG BEARING OIL PRESSURE LOW

Source : Pressure switch (2/3)

Implication: Will result in in-sufficient lubrication in


between rotor and bearing journal leading to breaking of
oil film and resulting in metal to metal rubbing and thus
damaging the Turbine

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – Condenser Vacuum Low
n Condenser Vacuum Low

Source : Pressure Transmitter (2/3)….. EHG…..

Implication: Will produce undue stress on Turbine blades due to


reduction of “available enthalpy” (rise in exhaust conditions). Usually
a Trip is preceded by “de-loading of turbine” as per Turbine
manufacturer recommendation

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – Condenser EHWL
n Condenser EHWL

Source : Level switch (2/3)

Implication: Flooding of the condenser will result in


a. limited heat exchange area and hence vacuum will fall
b. excessive strain on the condenser neck hanging
from LP Turbine
c. After EHWL there is no control on the level nor can it be monitored
and hence is used as a last stage of protection
b. water may reach LP blades at a later stage

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – HP Exhaust Temperature High

n HP Exhaust Tempertaure High

Source : Thermocouple (2/3)…EHG ….

Implication: Deviation in “available enthalpy” across HP Turbine


from design value will produce stress on HP blades . This is special
protection feature for Tubines equipped with HPLP Bypass.

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – 3 out of 4 Governor valves tripped

n 3 out of 4 Governor valves tripped

Source : Median Select Controller …EHG ….

Implication: Failure of HP Gov valves stops steam admission to HP


Turbine. Admission of steam thru’ single Gov valve will result in non
uniform temperature distribution within the Turbine which may result
in distortion of blades , rotor.

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – 2 out of 2 Intercept valves closed

n 2 out of 2 Intercept valves closed


Source : Median Select Controller …EHG ….

Implication: Failure of IP Intercept valves stops steam


admission to IP & LP Turbine. This will disturb the HP IP
work ratio.

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – EHG FAULT

n EHG Fault

Source : Speed sensed thru’ eddy current probe…EHG ….

Implication: Failure of governing system as basic input on the basis


of which governing occurs is not available
EHG fault signifies either channel failure or speed sensor failure

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – Thrust Wear High

n Thrust Wear High

Source : Eddy Current Probe…TSE ….

Implication: Indicates axial shift of rotor with respect to stator in the


axial direction and may result in fixed and moving blades fouling .
The reference point of rotor located with the stator will shift as a
result of wear on the thrust pads / collar.

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – Stator Coolant Flow Low
n Stator Coolant Flow Low
Source : Flow switch (2/3) + timer….

Implication: Will result in heating up of the hollow conductors in


generator as little or no cooling medium is present and lead to
insulation failure. This has been purposely introduced under Turbine
protection rather than generator protection due to implications in
house load operation.

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – Main Steam Pressure Low

n Main Steam Pressure Low

Source : Pressure transmitter (2/3) ….EHG….

Implication: Will produce undue stress on Turbine blades due to


reduction of “available enthalpy” (reduction in input conditions).
Usually a Trip is preceded by an “de-loading of turbine” as per
Turbine manufacturer recommendation.

Action: 86T

Turbine Trip Conditions


86T – Main Steam Temperature Low

n Main Steam Temperature Low


Source : Temperature transmitter (2/3) ….DCS….

Implication: Will produce undue stress on Turbine


blades due to reduction of “available enthalpy” (reduction
in input conditions).

Action: 86T
86T – Main Steam Temperature Low Logic

Turbine Trip Conditions


Effects on Turbine Trip

n Runback of Turbine via EHG


n Generator/Electrical Protection operates
n Preferential Tripping of MILLS
n Quick Opening of HP Bypass valve if Load>
22 %
n De-aerator and Heaters NRV closes
n Turbine and Heater drain valves open

Turbine Trip Conditions


Boiler

ØProtection and Safety Interlocks


Situations Causing Explosive conditions?

Numerous situations can arise in connection with the operation of a


boiler furnace that will produce explosive conditions.
q Interruption of Fuel or air supply or ignition energy to the burners.

q Fuel Leakage into an idle furnace and the ignition of the


accumulation

q Repeated Unsuccessful attempts to light up without appropriate


purging

q The Accumulation of an explosive mixture of fuel and air as a


result of a complete furnace flameout
Requirement

Multiple burner boilers require two independent


control systems.

q One to control steam production i.e. Boiler


Control System and

q One to control the fuel burning equipment i.e.


Burner Management System
BMS - What are the basic Functions?
The BMS shall be designed to perform the following functions:

n Prevent firing unless a satisfactory furnace purge has first been completed.

n Prohibit start-up of the equipment unless certain permissive interlocks have first
been completed.

n Monitor and control the correct component sequencing during start-up and shut-
down of the equipment.

n Provide component condition feedback to the operator and, if so equipped, to


the plant control systems and/or data loggers.

n Provide automatic supervision when the equipment is in service and provide


means to make a Master Fuel Trip (MFT) should certain unacceptable firing
conditions occur.

n Execute a MFT upon certain adverse unit operating conditions.


How do we categorize the different
controls
A Boiler Control System shall have the following
applications
n Combustion control
n Excess air control
n Steam drum level control
A Burner Management System shall have the
following applications
n Boiler purge control
n Fuel safety control
n Pre-light up control
n Individual burner control
Boiler Purge Control
Why: For removing all combustibles from the boiler furnace and replacing them
with air to prevent any explosive mixture from remaining in the furnace prior to
light up.

When: After a Master Fuel Trip has occurred


How:
A. Ensuring that a predetermined set of fuel and air related permissive
conditions are satisfied which shall include
q All fuel valves (Shut-off valves, oil valves) closed
q Either of one FD Fan & ID Fan running
q All Mills and Feeders stopped and Mill discharge valves closed
q All PA Fans stopped and PA to Mill inlet dampers closed
q All scanners sense no flame
q Air flow is not less than 25% - 35 % (multiple burner boilers) of full load air flow
q 4 out of 6 secondary air dampers at Purge position
q No MFT conditions present
q MFT relay tripped

Now the Boiler is Ready for Purge


Boiler Purge Control
B. Initiate Boiler Purge
q Dampers are initiated to move to Purge position (air flow 30 to 80 T/hr)
q 5 minute purge timer triggers
q Boiler purge in progress is indicated
After 5 minutes has elapsed the Purge process is complete and the boiler is ready for firing
If any of the condition mentioned in ‘A’ fails during purging process, purging is interrupted and
the timer resets.
Fuel Safety Control
Why: To prevent any explosive condition in the furnace

What: Withdraws fuel feed to the Furnace

When: If any of the predetermined trip conditions has occurred.

Classification
Depending on the fuels involved the fuel safety control can be
made up of the following:
q Master fuel trip

q Oil fuel trip


Master Fuel Trip
If any of the predetermined master fuel trip condition occurs a master fuel
trip is initiated. The first out cause of trip indication is displayed and
alarmed. Conditions of a master fuel trip are:

q All FD Fans off


q All ID Fans off
q Boiler air flow low for 3 secs
q Loss of all fuel
q Loss of all flame
q Furnace pressure very high/Low
q Drum level very high/low
q Critical Flameout
q Delayed light-up
q Re-heater protection operated
Master Fuel Trip
Some more Conditions of a master fuel trip (continued) :
q Loss of HT power
q Loss of UPS power
q Loss of 220V DC power

q Condenser vacuum very low


q MFT hard relay tripped

q 2 out of 3 main processors failed

q Both emergency trip push buttons operated


Any of the above occasions will result in a MFT

MFT can be reset when


q None of the above trip conditions exist
q Boiler purge is complete
q Reset MFT is initiated
NEXT
MFT – all FD fans off

n All FD fans Off

Source : Breaker off signal from both fans

Implication: Will result in in-sufficient air for the


combustion process and the fuel cannot burn

Action: MFT

MFT conditions
MFT – all ID fans off

n All ID fans Off

Source : Breaker off signal from all 3 fans

Implication: Will result in an uncontrolled furnace


pressurization.

Action: MFT

MFT conditions
MFT – Air flow less than 25%

n Boiler air flow less than < 25% for 3 secs

Source : Flow transmitters at FD suction

Implication: Will result in in-sufficient air for the


combustion process and the fuel cannot burn completely

Action: MFT

MFT conditions
MFT – Loss of all fuel

n Loss of all fuel


Source : Any oil burner in operation (MFT trip resets)
and closure of all burner valves and all Mills ‘off’ and no
mill in shutdown mode.

Implication: As no fuel is being fed into the furnace


generation of heat for sustenance of combustion and
subsequent production of steam cannot take place

Action: MFT
MFT conditions
MFT – Loss of all flame

n Loss of all flame

Source : Any oil burner in operation and no scanners see


flame.

Implication: Will proactively safeguard all adverse effect


due to non burning of fuel (detected from the intensity of
flame) being injected into the furnace

Action: MFT
MFT conditions
MFT – Furnace pressure very high/low

n Furnace pressure very high /low

Source : Pressure switch and transmitter.

Implication: Will result in explosion or implosion of the


furnace resulting in mechanical deformity

Action: MFT

MFT conditions
MFT – Drum level very high/low
n Drum level very high / low
Source : Hydrastep and drum level transmitter

Implication:
High: Will result in Flooding of superheaters causing
a. carryover of dissolved solids and hence deposition downstream effecting
heat transfer
b. fall of steam temperature and quenching of Turbine

Low: Will result in starvation of water in the furnace tubes which will lead to
tube metal overheating as no cooling medium is present

Action: MFT
MFT conditions
MFT – Critical flameout

n Critical Flameout
Source : Furnace flame scanners detect 2 out of 3 zones
no flame

Implication: Is a consequence of improper combustion in


pre-identified zones within the furnace resulting in flame
instability which may give rise to improper heat
distribution

Action: MFT
MFT conditions
MFT – Delayed light-up

n Delayed light up
Source : MFT reset , LDO shut off valves open and no oil
gun in operation (or in other words put into service)
within 10 mins of opening of LDO shut-off valves.

Implication: Repeated unsuccessful attempts to light up


the boiler with oil gun has resulted in accumulation of
un-burnt fuel (oil) in the furnace and hence the furnace
requires purging.

Action: MFT
MFT conditions
MFT – Re-heater protection

n Re-heater protection
Source : All governor valves closed, HP bypass valve < 2% open
with
a. at least one feeder running from remote
or
b. More than 8 out of 12 oil guns in operation

Implication: Damage to tubes that can result from firing in excess of


safe limit which will cause overheating of re-heater tubes due to
absence of a steam flow through it.

Action: MFT

MFT conditions
MFT – Condenser Vacuum Low

n Condenser Vacuum Very Low


Source : Pressure switch installed at condenser (500 mmHg abs)

Implication: Under turbine tripped condition and bypass in operation


steam dumping continues at condenser which can result in
pressurization. Under such poor vacuum conditions the condenser is
not capable of dissipating the heat load with existing CW flow and
with effect the temperature rises.

Action: MFT

MFT conditions
Oil Fuel Trip
If any of the predetermined oil fuel trip conditions is exceeded the oil fuel trip is initiated. The first
out cause of trip indication is displayed and alarmed. All oil fuel is removed from the boiler and all
oil burners are shutdown. Depending on other conditions a master fuel trip may be generated.
Conditions of an oil fuel trip are:

q LDO trip valves close command


q LDO trip valves not closed and LDOT condition is present
q LDOT relay fail to trip and LDOT condition is present
q LDO pressure very low for 3 secs and any LDO burner valves not closed
q Atomising air pressure very low for 3 secs and any LDO burner valves not closed
q LDO trip valve not open within 10 secs of LDOT reset
q Any burner valve fail to close despite boiler load being > 50%
q LDOT hard relay tripped

LDOT can be reset when


q None of the above trip conditions exist
q MFT relay is reset
q Trip valve open is initiated
q All LDO burner valves are closed
Mill Trip Conditions

The following conditions shall cause a Mill to trip


q LOS or emergency stop pressed
q Mill and feeder running from remote, oil flame not detected with either feeder
speed <30 % or coal flame not detected signifying low coal and no ignition
source
q Feeder running from remote and coal and oil flame neither detected assuming
flame monitoring system is healthy signifying loss of coal flame without ignition
source
q Loading gas pressure very low
q Lub oil pressure very low signifying no lubrication to Mill gear box and bearings
q Both PA fans stopped
q Mill running from remote for >30 secs and PA flow below minimum
q Mill running from remote for >30 secs and Secondary air flow < 45%
q Seal air pressure very low
q MFT or Mill hard relay
Preferential Mill Tripping
Why : To take out certain running Mills out of service as per preference in
order to reduce firing and compensate for the furnace conditions prevailing

When :
q On Turbine trip
q Load rejection >50 %
q Single FD or PA fan running

How : It ensures that extreme burners shall trip


q Under 4 mill condition
n if Mill D is not in service then Mill A trips
n If Mill A is not in service then Mill D trips
n If both Mill A and Mill D are in service, Mill A trips if Mill D is the single Mill in the rear OR Mill D trips if
Mill A is the single Mill in the front
n If Mill A and Mill D both are not in service then Mill B trips
q Under 5 mill condition
n Mill A and Mill D trips if they are both in service
n Mill A and Mill B trips if Mill D is not in service
n Mill B and Mill D trips if Mill A is not in service
Reverse power Trip condn for
Loss of excitation 86G

Excitation Trip

Other Fault conditions


86U 86G

132KV diffl protn Open GCB Open GCB


Condenser
Bus Zone Trip Open FCB vacuum
V.Low
GCB Not
open O/S Bolt GCB Not
operated open
&
LBB 2
&
Turbine trip condn

LBB 1
86T
Boiler trip condn

Reheater protn
FCB Closed
&

MFR &

Low Forward
power
Governor Vv closed
Firing rate high
& Bypass < 2%
Turbine Trip Conditions
Control & Instrumentation in
Thermal Power Plant
COAL EXPORT OF
ASH TO
BANGLADESH
WAGON

C DRY
H ASH
RAILWAY SILO
TRACK I
M
N
E HCSS TO
PRIMARY Y DISTRIBUTION
CRUSHER SYSTEM
TO AMBUJA
FOR
DRUM S PPC
U ID CEMENT
P FAN
SECONDARY E ESP
CRUSHER R TRANSFORMER
COAL
STOCK H
E ISH
BUNKER
COAL & A GOVERNER
PRIMARY T VALVE ELECTRICITY
AIR E
R
FEEDER

STEAM
APH TURBINE GENERATOR
GENERATOR
COAL
MILL SECON- BOILER
DARY
AIR
PA FAN BOTTOM D/A
ASH FEED
HOPPER
WATER LPH CEP
CONDENSER
HPH
AIR AIR PRE
INTAKE FD FAN HEATER
MAKE UP BFP
ZERO WATER
DISCHARGE SYSTEM
SYSTEM

DM
PLANT COOLING CONDENSER COOLING
TOWER WATER SYSTEM

BOTTOM ASH
FORE BAY CW
PUMP
RAW WATER
TREATMENT

COAL ELECTRICITY
INTAKE RIVER
PUMPS GANGES
Process schematic

Input Control System for Output


Processes

- DCS
Input Output
Devices - PLC Devices
-Transmitter - EHG - Actuators
s
- AVR - Drives
- Switches
- AV6 (for Bypass) - Indicators
-Transducer
s
Controlled Parameters

Most commonly controlled parameters in


Industry are:
1. Flow
2. Level
3. Temperature
4. Pressure
5. Speed (RPM)
6. Position
FLOW
n Measured with
q Orifice, Nozzle

n Pressure drop measured with


q DP Transmitter
DCS
n Flow ∞ K √DP
Input
4 to 20 mA
signal
Actuator D
P

Processor

FLOW

Output
Valve

4 to 20 mA
signal
LEVEL

n Measured using
q Constant Head Unit

n Pressure difference measured with


q DP Transmitter
DCS
n Level ∞ Head
Input
4 to 20 mA
Actuator signal

CHU

Valve Processor

D
P
Output
TANK

4 to 20 mA
signal
TEMPERATURE
n Measured by
n RTD (Pt 100)
q Output Resistance (ohms)

q At 0°C value is 100 ohms

q Change is 0.385 ohm / °C (Linear)


TEMPERATURE
n Measured by
n Thermocouple
q Output mV

q Types: J,K,T,S….

• Temperature Transmitter
n Output 4 to 20 mA
Controlling Devices

n Most common final control devices are:

1. Pneumatic actuators – modulating type


2. Pneumatic actuators – On/ Off type
3. Motorised actuators – On/ Off type
4. Hydraulic actuators – servo operated
5. Variable frequency drives
6. Servo motors
WHAT IS AUTOMATION?
What is in a Automation System?

Control Processor
Input to the System
system output

INPUT MODULES OUTPUT MODULES

Field Inputs (Transmitters Field Outputs (Valves /


/ Switches / Sensor) Pumps / others)
Examples of Boiler Controls
n Boiler Control System comprises the following functions

q Boiler Master Pressure Control

q Fuel Flow Control

q Feeder Speed Control

q Mill Air Flow Control and Temperature Control

q Excess Air Control

q Drum Level control

q Furnace Draft Control

q Super-heater Steam temperature Control

q Various other Pressure, Temperature, Level, Flow , Position Controls


Examples of Turbine Controls

n Turbine Control System comprises the following functions

q Heater Level Control

q Hotwell level Control (Condenser)

q Lub Oil Temperature Control

q BFP Scoop Position Control

q De-aerator Level control

q Governor Control
Control System Hardware

PLC
DCS
What is TMR architecture?

n It means Triple Modular Redundant

n TMR architecture integrates three isolated parallel


control systems ( as evident in diagram)

n The system uses TWO-OUT-OF-THREE voting to


provide high integrity, error free uninterrupted
process operation with no single point failure
Hardware - PLC
n EFFECTIVE AND RELIABLE SYSTEM Transferring control to Fault
FOR OVERALL SUPERVISION OF Tolerant pair and running
BOILER SAFETY IN A POWER
self diagnostics
PLANT.

n CONTAINS SAFETY GUIDELINES


PROGRAMMED INSIDE FOR
Chassis
– TAKING PREVENTIVE MEASURES with
– IN EXTREME CASES TO TAKE THE Processo
WHOLE SYSTEM TO STEP-BY-STEP r and I/O
SHUTDOWN. cards

n IT FORESEES FUTURE ERROR AND


GENERATE ALARMS. Running self
diagnostics and
monitoring
Hardware - PLC
n THE BMS IS A PLC, PROGRAMMED ACCORDING TO USER NEED.
n LIKE CONVENTIONAL PLC SYSTEMS THE BMS ALSO CONSISTS
OF THE FOLLOWING PARTS:-
1. MOUNTING RACK FOR HOUSING THE WHOLE PLC
SYSTEM.
2. POWER SUPPLY FOR SUPPLYING POWER TO THE
PLC SYSTEM.
3. MAIN PROCESSOR THE BRAIN OF THE SYSTEM
4. I/O CARDS INTERFACING UNITS BETWEEN
SYSTEM & FIELD
5. SPECIAL MODULES COMMUNICATION WITH OTHER
SYSTEMS, ETC.
6. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS HIGH SPEED COUNTER,
THERMOCOUPLE SENSORS (NOT IN BBGS)
Distributed Control System (DCS)

n Comprises CLCS ,OLCS and DAS


q CLCS – Various closed loop controls for process
are incorporated here

q OLCS – Various open loop controls for


unidirectional and bidirectional drives are
incorporated here

q DAS – Data for indication purpose, historian,


trending, logs, SOE
DCS Hardware

Ø Application processors (File server) - AW Stations –


Processor
Ø Control Processors - CP modules
Ø Workstation Processors (Client – user interface) - WP

Ø Field Bus Modules (FBM) types

Ø 0 to 20 mA input INPUT /
Ø TC / mV input
OUTPUT
Interfacing
Ø RTD input modules
Ø 0 to 20 mA input / output

Ø Contact/dc input/output main


DCS Architecture – Bus Topology
Ethernet
IEEE
802.3 Application Processor Workstation Processor

Control Processor
FT NODE
BUS

FIELD
FBMS BUS
FOR CLCS/OLCS & DAS

Input &
Output
DCS SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE - Mesh Network
AW70P
24 SFP Port Uplink Switches
WP70P

WP70P

100 MBPS
100 MBPS
100 MBPS

WP70P
1 GBPS 1 GBPS 1 GBPS

100 MBPS

WP70P
UNIT-1 UNIT-2 AWCS
Redundant Redundant Switches
100 MBPS Redundant Switches Switches
100 MBPS

FCP270(F
T)

WP70P 100 MBPS


100 MBPS

FCP270(F
T)
100 MBPS

WP70P
100 MBPS

FCP270(FT
100 MBPS )
100 MBPS

WP70P 100 MBPS


100 MBPS
FCP270(FT
)
100 MBPS

FCP270(F
T) 100 Series FBMs
FCP270(FT
)
FCP270(F
FBMs for Triconex T)
LEGEND:
AW70P

WP70P
Engineering cum
Operator Station on Operator Station
Windows XP on Windows XP

24 Port Fiber FCP270 in Fault


Ethernet Switch Tolerant Mode
DCS Hardware (OLCS)

n Field Input
INPUT
n DCS Marshalling Rack
n IA Enclosure – DCS (Logic)
n DCS Relay Rack
n DCS Marshalling Rack
OUTPUT
n MCC Module
n Drive (Motor)
DCS Hardware (CLCS)

n Field Input (Sensors)


n DCS Marshalling Rack INPUT
n IA Enclosure – DCS (Control loops)
n DCS Marshalling Rack
OUTPUT
n Final Control Element (Actuators)
DCS Software

n The software comprises of mainly

q Operating System
q Application soft wares for
n display building – creating drawings and display pages
n display configuration – connecting inputs to show in display
page
n control configurations – comprises various control blocks , its
connectivity with other blocks to derive a control loop
n Pre-trip and Post-trip software – data logging
n Historian software – historical data for analysis
n Event recorders – Operator action, process alarms etc
IFL-1 CIN-2 OFL-10 CIN-20 TC02-S CIN-6 INT-04 CO-1

CRT START SS IN PUMP IN JOP SUC NO MOD IN STOP STR / STP


REMOTE MANUAL PR LO ELEC TR8 SERV ACJOP

CIN-17 CIN-1 CIN-7

LOCAL SS IN
START LOCAL MOD IN
TEST
INT-02

ACJOP
AUT STR

CO-1

STR / STP
ACJOP

IFL-2 CIN-2 INT-04

CRT STOP SS IN STOP


REMOTE

CIN-18

LOCAL
STOP
OPEN LOOP CONTROL
CIN-19 OFL-11 CIN-2

TRB SPD PUMP IN SS IN EXAMPLE : LADDER LOGIC


LT 1000 AUTO REMOTE
START / STOP LOGIC
TC01-S

JOP SUC
PR LO
SAMA Functional Diagram
n SAMA is an acronym standing for Scientific Apparatus Makers Association, referring
to a unique form of diagram used primarily in the power generation industry to
document control strategies.
Standard SAMA Symbols
PID Controller
DRUM LEVEL CONTROL

DRUM LEVEL LHS DRUM PRESSURE DRUM LEVEL RHS

LT LT LT PT PT PT LT LT LT

AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN

CALC f(x) CALC

∑/2

1
DENSITY
COMPENSATED
DRUM LEVEL
DRUM LEVEL CONTROL

MAIN STEAM
MAIN STEAM FLOW PRESSURE MAIN STEAM TEMP

FT FT FT PT PT TT TT TT

BAD
AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN

CALC CALC

AUXILIARY STEAM
FLOW

2
PRESSURE,TEMP COMPENSATED
TOTAL STEAM FLOW
DRUM LEVEL CONTROL

FEED WATER FLOW FEED WATER TEMP

FT FT FT TT TT TT

AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN AIN

CALC f(x)

3
TEMP COMPENSATED
FEED WATER FLOW
Drum Level Main Steam Feed Water
Flow Flow

1 2 3

LC-1 LC-2 FC
Δ SP Δ
RSP Δ
PI PI
3E PI
TR ∑
TR
1E
MANSW 1E
T TR

f(x) f(x)

+/- +/- +/- DRUM


MANSW
T T
MANSW MANSW
T SEL
VLV LEVEL
CONTROL

AOUT AOUT AOUT

LLFCV FLFCV-1 FLFCV-2


Drum Level Main Steam Feed Water
Flow Flow

1 2 3

LC-1 LC-2 FC
Δ SP Δ
RSP Δ
PI PI
3E PI
TR ∑
TR
1E
MANSW 1E
T TR

f(x) f(x)

+/- +/- +/- DRUM


MANSW
T T
MANSW MANSW
T SEL
VLV LEVEL
CONTROL

AOUT AOUT AOUT

LLFCV FLFCV-1 FLFCV-2


Drum Level Main Steam Feed Water
Flow Flow

1 2 3

LC-1 LC-2 FC
Δ SP Δ
RSP Δ
PI PI
3E PI
TR ∑
TR
1E
MANSW 1E
T TR

f(x) f(x)

+/- +/- +/- DRUM


MANSW
T T
MANSW MANSW
T SEL
VLV LEVEL
CONTROL

AOUT AOUT AOUT

LLFCV FLFCV-1 FLFCV-2

Похожие интересы