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Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu,[2] 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known
as the Tipu Sahib,[3] was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder
Ali of Mysore.[4] Tipu introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, [5] including
his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar,[6] and a new land revenue system which initiated
the growth of the Mysore silk industry.[7] He expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and
commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin, and is considered a pioneer in the use
of rocket artillery.[8] He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies
during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam. He also
embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major
economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th
Napoleon was the French commander-in-chief, and he sought an alliance with Tipu. Both Tipu and
his father used their French-trained army[10] in alliance with the French in their struggle with the
British, and in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas, Sira, and
rulers of Malabar, Kodagu, Bednore, Carnatic, and Travancore. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to
power in Mysore, and Tipu succeeded to a large kingdom upon his father's death in 1782,
bordered by the Krishna River in the north, the Eastern Ghats in the east, and the Arabian Sea in
the west.[11] He won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore Warand
negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December
1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
Tipu became involved in conflicts with his neighbors, including the Maratha–Mysore War which
ended with Maratha and Tipu signing treaty of Gajendragad,[12] as per which Tipu Sultan was
obligated to pay 4.8 million rupees as a one time war cost to the Marathas, and an annual tribute
of 1.2 million rupees, In addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali.[13][14]
Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, renewing conflict with
his attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced into
the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of previously conquered territories, including Malabar
and Mangalore. He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan,
and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British.
In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the forces of the British East India Company were supported by
the Nizam of Hyderabad. They defeated Tipu, and he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending
his fort of Srirangapatna.
He was one of the few South Indian kings to provide stiff resistance to British imperialism, along
with Hyder Ali and Kerala Varma Pazhassi. He is applauded as ruler who fought against British
colonialism.[15] Similarly he has been a controversial figure and criticized for his atrocities
against Hindus, Christians, and Mappla Muslims.[16][17]
Abul Kalam Azad
Maulana Sayyid Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed Azad( pronunciation (help·info); 11 November 1888 –
22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress during
the Indian independence movement. Following India's independence, he became the first Minister of Education
in the Indian government. He is commonly remembered as Maulana Azad; the word Maulana is an honorific
meaning 'Our Master', and he had adopted Azad (Free) as his pen name. His contribution to establishing the
education foundation in India is recognised by celebrating his birthday as "National Education Day" across
As a young man, Azad composed poetry in Urdu language, as well as treaties on religion and philosophy. He
rose to prominence through his work as a journalist, publishing works critical of the British Raj and espousing the
causes of Indian nationalism. Azad became the leader of the Khilafat Movement, during which he came into
close contact with the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. Azad became an enthusiastic supporter of Gandhi's ideas
of non-violent civil disobedience, and worked to organise the non-co-operation movement in protest of the
1919 Rowlatt Acts. Azad committed himself to Gandhi's ideals, including promoting Swadeshi (indigenous)
products and the cause of Swaraj (Self-rule) for India. In 1923, at an age of 35, he became the youngest person
to serve as the President of the Indian National Congress.
In October 1920, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was elected as a member of foundation committee to establish
Jamia Millia Islamia at Aligarh in U. P. without taking help from British colonial government. He helped a lot in
shifting of the campus of the university to New Delhi from Aligarh in 1934. The main gate (Gate No. 7) to main
campus of the university is named after him.
Azad was one of the main organizers of the Dharasana Satyagraha in 1931, and emerged as one of the most
important national leaders of the time, prominently leading the causes of Hindu-Muslim unity as well as
espousing secularism and socialism. He served as Congress president from 1940 to 1945, during which the Quit
India rebellion was launched. Azad was imprisoned, together with the entire Congress leadership.
Amidst communal turmoil following the partition of India, he worked for religious harmony. As India's Education
Minister, Azad oversaw the establishment of a national education system with free primary education and
modern institutions of higher education. He is also credited with the establishment of the Indian Institutes of
Technology and the foundation of the University Grants Commission, an important institution to supervise and
advance the higher education in the nation.
National Education Day (India) an annual observance in India to commemorate the birth anniversary of Maulana
Abul Kalam Azad, the first education minister of independent India, who served from 15 August 1947 until 2
February 1958. National Education Day of India is celebrated on 11 November every year in India. He also
worked for Hindu-Muslim unity through the Al-Hilal newspaper.[3]
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak, pronunciation (help·info); 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born
as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence
activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement. The British colonial authorities called him
"The father of the Indian unrest." He was also conferred with the title of "Lokmanya", which means "accepted by
the people (as their leader)".[2]
Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of Swaraj ("self-rule") and a strong radical in Indian
consciousness. He is known for his quote in Marathi, "सससससससस सस सससस ससससससससस सससस ससस
ससस सस सस सससससससस" ("Swarajya is my birthright and I shall have it!") in India. He formed a close alliance
with many Indian National Congress leaders including Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghose, V.
O. Chidambaram Pillai and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Early life[edit]
Tilak was born in a Marathi Chitpavan Brahmin family in Ratnagiri as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, as mentioned
above. In headquarters of the eponymous district of present-day Maharashtra (then British India) on 23 July
1856.[1] His ancestral village was Chikhali. His father, Gangadhar Tilak was a school teacher and
a Sanskrit scholar who died when Tilak was sixteen. Tilak graduated from Deccan College, Pune in 1877. Tilak
was amongst one of the first generation of Indians to receive a college education.[citation needed] In 1871 Tilak was
married to Tapibai ( Née Bal) when he was sixteen, a few months before his father's death. After marriage, her
name was changed to Satyabhamabai. He obtained his Bachelor of Arts in first class in Mathematics
from Deccan College of Pune in 1877. He left his M.A. course of study midway to join the L.L.B course instead,
and in 1879 he obtained his L.L.B degree from Government Law College .[3] After graduating, Tilak started
teaching mathematics at a private school in Pune. Later, due to ideological differences with the colleagues in the
new school, he withdrew and became a journalist. Tilak actively participated in public affairs. He stated: "Religion
and practical life are not different. To take Sanyas (renunciation) is not to abandon life. The real spirit is to make
the country your family work together instead of working only for your own. The step beyond is to serve humanity
and the next step is to serve God."[4]
He organised the Deccan Education Society in 1884 with a few of his college friends, including Gopal Ganesh
Agarkar, Mahadev Ballal Namjoshi and Vishnushastri Chiplunkar. Their goal was to improve the quality of
education for India's youth. The Deccan Education Society was set up to create a new system that taught young
Indians nationalist ideas through an emphasis on Indian culture.[5] The Society established the New English
School for secondary education and Fergusson College in 1885 for post-secondary studies. Tilak taught
mathematics at Fergusson College. He began a mass movement towards independence by an emphasis on a
religious and cultural revival.[6] In 1890, Tilak left the society for more openly political work.[7]
Bahadur Shah Zafar
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was
the last Mughal emperor. He was the second son[1] of and became the successor to his father, Akbar II,
upon his death on 28 September 1837. He was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name
only and his authority was limited only to the city of Delhi (Shahjahanbad). Following his involvement in
the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma, after convicting
him on conspiracy charges.
Zafar's father, Akbar II had been imprisoned by the British and he was not his father’s preferred choice as
his successor. One of Akbar Shah's queens, Mumtaz Begum, pressured him to declare her son, Mirza
Jahangir, as his successor. However, The East India Company exiled Jahangir after he attacked their
resident, in the Red Fort,[1] paving the way for Zafar to assume the throne.

The Maratha Empire had brought an end to the Mughal Empire in the Deccan in the 18th century and the
regions of India under Mughal rule had either been absorbed by the Marathas or declared independence
and turned into smaller kingdoms.[2] The Marathas installed Shah Alam II in the throne in 1772, under the
protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde and maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi.
The East India Company became the dominant political and military power in mid-nineteenth-century India.
Outside the region controlled by the Company, hundreds of kingdoms and principalities, fragmented their
land. The emperor was respected by the Company and had given him a pension. The emperor permitted
the Company to collect taxes from Delhi and maintain a military force in it. Bhadur Shah never had any
interest in statecraft or had any "imperial ambition". After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him
from Delhi.
Bahadur Shah Zafar was a noted Urdu poet, having written a number of Urdu ghazals. While some part of
his opus was lost or destroyed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a large collection did survive, and was
compiled into the Kulliyyat-i-Zafar. The court that he maintained was home to several prolific Urdu writers,
including Mirza Ghalib, Dagh, Mumin, and Zauq.
After his defeat, he said:[3]