Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 66

7

PRECAST CONCRETE DESIGN


Gene R. Stevens, P.E. and James Robert Harris, P.E., Ph.D.

This chapter illustrates the seismic design of precast concrete members using the NEHRP Recommended
Provisions (referred to herein as the Provisions) for buildings in several different seismic design
categories. Very briefly, for precast concrete structural systems, the Provisions:

1. Requires the system (even if the precast carries only gravity loads) to satisfy one of the following two
sets of provisions:

a. Resist amplified chord forces in diaphragms and, if moment-resisting frames are used as the
vertical system, provide a minimum degree of redundancy measured as a fraction of available
bays, or
b. Provide a moment-resisting connection at all beam-to-column joints with positive lateral support
for columns and with special considerations for bearing lengths.

(In the authors’ opinion this does not apply to buildings in Seismic Design Category A.)

2. Requires assurance of ductility at connections that resist overturning for ordinary precast concrete
shear walls. (Because ordinary shear walls are used in lower Seismic Design Categories, this
requirement applies in Seismic Design Categories B and C.)

3. Allows special moment frames and special shear walls of precast concrete to either emulate the
behavior of monolithic concrete or behave as jointed precast systems. Some detail is given for special
moment frame designs that emulate monolithic concrete. To validate designs that do not emulate
monolithic concrete, reference is made to a new ACI testing standard (ACI T1.1-01).

4. Defines that monolithic emulation may be achieved through the use of either:

a. Ductile connections, in which the nonlinear response occurs at a connection between a precast
unit and another structural element, precast or not, or
b. Strong connections, in which the nonlinear response occurs in reinforced concrete sections
(generally precast) away from connections that are strong enough to avoid yield even as the
forces at the nonlinear response location increase with strain hardening.

5. Defines both ductile and strong connections can be either:

a. Wet connections where reinforcement is spliced with mechanical couplers, welds, or lap splices
(observing the restrictions regarding the location of splices given for monolithic concrete) and the
connection is completed with grout, or

7-1
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

b. Dry connections, which are defined as any connection that is not a wet connection.

6. Requires that ductile connections be either:

a. Type Y, with a minimum ductility ratio of 4 and specific anchorage requirements, or


b. Type Z, with a minimum ductility ratio of 8 and stronger anchorage requirements.

Many of these requirements have been adopted into the 2002 edition of ACI 318, but some differences
remain. Where those differences are pertinent to the examples illustrated here, they are explained.

The examples in Sec. 7.1 illustrate the design of untopped and topped precast concrete floor and roof
diaphragms of the five-story masonry buildings described in Sec. 9.2 of this volume of design examples.
The two untopped precast concrete diaphragms of Sec. 7.1.1 show the requirements for Seismic Design
Categories B and C using 8-in.-thick hollow core precast, prestressed concrete planks. Sec. 7.1.2 shows
the same precast plank with a 2 ½ in.-thick composite lightweight concrete topping for the five-story
masonry building in Seismic Design Category D described in Sec. 9.2. Although untopped diaphragms
are commonly used in regions of low seismic hazard, the only place they are addressed in the Provisions
is the Appendix to Chapter 9. The reader should bear in mind that the appendices of the Provisions are
prepared for trial use and comment, and future changes should be expected.

The example in Sec. 7.2 illustrates the design of an ordinary precast concrete shear wall building in a
region of low or moderate seismicity, which is where most precast concrete seismic-force-resisting
systems are constructed. The precast concrete walls in this example resist the seismic forces for a three-
story office building, located in southern New England (Seismic Design Category B). There are very few
seismic requirements for such walls in the Provisions. One such requirement qualifies is that overturning
connections qualify as the newly defined Type Y or Z. ACI 318-02 identifies this system as an
“intermediate precast concrete shear wall” and does not specifically define the Type Y or Z connections.
Given the brief nature of the requirements in both the Provisions and ACI 318, the authors offer some
interpretation. This example identifies points of yielding for the system and connection features that are
required to maintain stable cyclic behavior for yielding.

The example in Sec. 7.3 illustrates the design of a special precast concrete shear wall for a single-story
industrial warehouse building in the Los Angeles. For buildings in Seismic Design Category D,
Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 [9.2.2.4] requires that the precast seismic-force-resisting system emulate the
behavior of monolithic reinforced concrete construction or that the system’s cyclic capacity be
demonstrated by testing. The Provisions describes methods specifically intended to emulate the behavior
of monolithic construction, and dry connections are permitted. Sec. 7.3 presents an interpretation of
monolithic emulation of precast shear wall panels with ductile, dry connections. Whether this connection
would qualify under ACI 318-02 is a matter of interpretation. The design is computed using the
Provisions rules for monolithic emulation; however, the system probably would behave more like a
jointed precast system. Additional clarity in the definition and application of design provisions of such
precast systems is needed.

Tilt-up concrete wall buildings in all seismic zones have long been designed using the precast wall panels
as shear walls in the seismic-force-resisting system. Such designs have usually been performed using
design force coefficients and strength limits as if the precast walls emulated the performance of cast-in-
place reinforced concrete shear walls, which they usually do not. In tilt-up buildings subject to strong
ground shaking, the in-plane performance of the precast panels has rarely been a problem, primarily
because there has been little demand for post-elastic performance in that direction. Conventional tilt-up
buildings may deserve a unique treatment for seismic-resistant design, and they are not the subject of any
of the examples in this chapter, although tilt-up panels with large height-to-width ratios could behave in
the fashion described in design example 7.3.

7-2
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

In addition to the Provisions, the following documents are either referred to directly or are useful design
aids for precast concrete construction:

ACI 318-99 American Concrete Institute. 1999. Building Code Requirements and
Commentary for Structural Concrete.

ACI 318-02 American Concrete Institute. 2002. Building Code Requirements and
Commentary for Structural Concrete.

AISC LRFD American Institute of Steel Construction. 2002. Manual of Steel Construction,
Load & Resistance Factor Design, Third Edition.

ASCE 7 American Society of Civil Engineers. 1998 [2002]. Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures.

Hawkins Hawkins, Neil M., and S. K. Ghosh. 2000. “Proposed Revisions to 1997
NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for Precast Concrete
Structures, Parts 1, 2, and 3.” PCI Journal, Vol. 45, No. 3 (May-June), No. 5
(Sept.-Oct.), and No. 6 (Nov.-Dec.).

Moustafa Moustafa, Saad E. 1981 and 1982. “Effectiveness of Shear-Friction


Reinforcement in Shear Diaphragm Capacity of Hollow-Core Slabs.” PCI
Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1981) and the discussion contained in PCI
Journal, Vol. 27, No. 3 (May-June 1982).

PCI Handbook Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. 1999. PCI Design Handbook, Fifth
Edition.

PCI Details Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. 1988. Design and Typical Details of
Connections for Precast and Prestressed Concrete, Second Edition.

SEAA Hollow Core Structural Engineers Association of Arizona, Central Chapter. Design and
Detailing of Untopped Hollow-Core Slab Systems for Diaphragm Shear.

The following style is used when referring to a section of ACI 318 for which a change or insertion is
proposed by the Provisions: Provisions Sec. xxx (ACI Sec. yyy) where “xxx” is the section in the
Provisions and “yyy” is the section proposed for insertion into ACI 318-99.

Although this volume of design examples is based on the 2000 Provisions, it has been annotated to reflect
changes made for the 2003 Provisions. Annotations within brackets, [ ], indicate both organizational
changes (as a result of a reformatting of all chapters for the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical
changes to the Provisions and its primary reference documents. Although the general conepts of the
changes are described, the design examples and calculations have not been revised to reflect the changes
made for the 2003 Provisions.

The most significant change related to precast concrete in the 2003 Provisions is that precast shear wall
systems are now recognized separately from cast-in-place systems. The 2003 Provisions recognizes
ordinary and intermediate precast concrete shear walls. The design of ordinary precast shear walls is
based on ACI 318-02 excluding Chapter 21 and the design of intermediate shear walls is based on ACI
318-02 Sec. 21.13 (with limited modifications in Chapter 9 of the 2003 Provisions). The 2003 Provisions
does not distinguish between precast and cast-in-place concrete for special shear walls. Special precast
shear walls either need to satisfy the design requirements for special cast-in-place concrete shear walls

7-3
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

(ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.7) or most be substantiated using experimental evidence and analysis (2003
Provisions Sec. 9.2.2.4 and 9.6). Many of the design provisions for precast shear walls in the 2000
Provisions have been removed, and the requirements in ACI 318-02 are in some ways less specific.
Where this occurs, the 2000 Provisions references in this chapter are simply annotated as “[not applicable
in the 2003 Provisions].” Commentary on how the specific design provision was incorporated into ACI
318-02 is included where appropriate.

Some general technical changes for the 2003 Provisions that relate to the calculations and/or designs in
this chapter include updated seismic hazard maps, revisions to the redundancy requirements, and
revisions to the minimum base shear equation. Where they affect the design examples in the chapter,
other significant changes for the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. However,
some minor changes may not be noted.

7-4
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

7.1 HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS

Structural diaphragms are horizontal or nearly horizontal elements, such as floors and roofs, that transfer
seismic inertial forces to the vertical seismic-force-resisting members. Precast concrete diaphragms may
be constructed using topped or untopped precast elements depending on the Seismic Design Category of
the building. Reinforced concrete diaphragms constructed using untopped precast concrete elements are
addressed in the Appendix to Chapter 9 of the Provisions. Topped precast concrete elements, which act
compositely or noncompositely for gravity loads, are designed using the requirements of ACI 318-99 Sec.
21.7 [ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.9].

7.1.1 Untopped Precast Concrete Units for Five-Story Masonry Buildings Located in
Birmingham, Alabama, and New York, New York

This example illustrates floor and roof diaphragm design for the five-story masonry buildings located in
Birmingham, Alabama, on soft rock (Seismic Design Category B) and in New York, New York (Seismic
Design Category C). The example in Sec. 9.2 provides design parameters used in this example. The
floors and roofs of these buildings are to be untopped 8-in.-thick hollow core precast, prestressed concrete
plank. Figure 9.2-1 shows the typical floor plan of the diaphragms.

7.1.1.1 General Design Requirements

In accordance with the Provisions and ACI 318, untopped precast diaphragms are permitted only in
Seismic Design Categories A through C. The Appendix to Chapter 9 provides design provisions for
untopped precast concrete diaphragms without limits as to the Seismic Design Category. Diaphragms
with untopped precast elements are designed to remain elastic, and connections are designed for limited
ductility. No out-of-plane offsets in vertical seismic-force-resisting members (Type 4 plan irregularities)
are permitted with untopped diaphragms. Static rational models are used to determine shears and
moments on joints as well as shear and tension/compression forces on connections. Dynamic modeling of
seismic response is not required.

The design method used here is that proposed by Moustafa. This method makes use of the shear friction
provisions of ACI 318 with the friction coefficient, µ, being equal to 1.0. To use µ = 1.0, ACI 318
requires grout or concrete placed against hardened concrete to have clean, laitance free, and intentionally
roughened surfaces with a total amplitude of about 1/4 in. (peak to valley). Roughness for formed edges
is provided either by sawtooth keys along the length of the plank or by hand roughening with chipping
hammers. Details from the SEAA Hollow Core reference are used to develop the connection details.

The terminology used is defined in ACI 318 Chapter 21 and Provisions Chapter 9. These two sources
occasionally conflict (such as the symbol µ used above), but the source is clear from the context of the
discussion. Other definitions (e.g., chord elements) are provided as needed for clarity in this example.

7.1.1.2 General In-Plane Seismic Design Forces for Untopped Diaphragms

The in-plane diaphragm seismic design force (F!px) for untopped precast concrete in Provisions Sec.
9A.3.3 [A9.2.2] “shall not be less than the forcee calculated from either of the following two criteria:”

1. ρΩ0Fpx but not less than ρΩ0Cswpx where


Fpx is calculated from Provisions Eq. 5.2.6.4.41 [4.6-3], which also bounds Fpx to be not less than
0.2SDSIwpx and not more than 0.4SDSIwpx. This equation normally is specified for Seismic Design

1
Note that this equation is incorrectly numbered as 5.2.5.4 in the first printing of the 2000 Provisions.

7-5
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Categories D and higher; it is intended in the Provisions Appendix to Chapter 9 that the same
equation be used for untopped diaphragms in Seismic Design Categories B and C.

ρ is the reliability factor, which is 1.0 for Seismic Design Categories A through C per Provisions Sec.
5.2.4.1 [4.3.3.1].

Ω0 is the overstrength factor (Provisions Table 5.2.2 [4.3-1])

Cs is the seismic response coefficient (Provisions Sec. 5.4.1.1 [5.2.1.1])

wpx is the weight tributary to the diaphragm at Level x

SDS is the spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods (Provisions Sec. 4.1.2 [3.3.3])

I is the occupancy importance factor (Provisions Sec. 1.4 [1.3])

2. 1.25 times the shear force to cause yielding of the vertical seismic-force-resisting system.

For the five-story masonry buildings of this example, the shear force to cause yielding is first
estimated to be that force associated with the development of the nominal bending strength of the
shear walls at their base. This approach to yielding uses the first mode force distribution along the
height of the building and basic pushover analysis concepts, which can be approximated as:

F!px = 1.25KFpx* where

K is the ratio of the yield strength in bending to the demand, My/Mu. (Note that φ = 1.0)

Fpx* is the seismic force at each level for the diaphragm as defined above by Provisions Eq. 5.2.6.4.4
[4.6-2] and not limited by the minima and maxima for that equation.

This requirement is different from similar requirements elsewhere in the Provisions. For components
thought likely to behave in a brittle fashion, the designer is required to apply the overstrength factor and
then given an option to check the maximum force that can be delivered by the remainder of the structural
system to the element in question. The maximum force would normally be computed from a plastic
mechanism analysis. If the option is exercised, the designer can then use the smaller of the two forces.
Here the Provisions requires the designer to compute both an overstrength level force and a yield level
force and then use the larger. This appears to conflict with the Commentary.

For Seismic Design Categories B and C, Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.2.6 [4.6.1.9] defines a minimum diaphragm
seismic design force that will always be less than the forces computed above.

For Seismic Design Category C, Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.3.1 [4.6.2.2] requires that collector elements,
collector splices, and collector connections to the vertical seismic-force-resisting members be designed in
accordance with Provisions Sec. 5.2.7.1 [4.2.2.2], which places the overstrength factor on horizontal
seismic forces and combines the horizontal and vertical seismic forces with the effects of gravity forces.
Because vertical forces do not normally affect diaphragm collector elements, splices, and connections, the
authors believe that Provisions Sec. 5.2.7.1 [4.2.2.2] is satisfied by the requirements of Provisions Sec.
9A.3.3 [A9.2.2], which requires use of the overstrength factor.

Parameters from the example in Sec. 9.2 used to calculate in-plane seismic design forces for the
diaphragms are provided in Table 7.1-1.

7-6
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Table 7.1-1 Design Parameters from Example 9.2


Design Parameter Birmingham 1 New York City
ρ 1.0 1.0
Ωo 2.5 2.5
Cs 0.12 0.156
wi (roof) 861 kips 869 kips
wi (floor) 963 kips 978 kips
SDS 0.24 0.39
I 1.0 1.0
1.0 kip = 4.45 kN, 1.0 ft-kip = 1.36 kN-m.

The Provisions Appendix to Chapter 9 does not give the option of using the overstrength factor Ω0 to
estimate the yield of the vertical system, so Mn for the wall is computed from the axial load moment
interaction diagram data developed in Sec. 9.2. The shape of the interaction diagram between the
balanced point and pure bending is far enough from a straight line (see Figure 9.2-6) in the region of
interest that simply interpolating between the points for pure bending and balanced conditions is
unacceptably unconservative for this particular check. An intermediate point on the interaction diagram
was computed for each wall in Sec. 9.2, and that point is utilized here. Yielding begins before the
nominal bending capacity is reached, particularly when the reinforcement is distributed uniformly along
the wall rather than being concentrated at the ends of the wall. For lightly reinforced walls with
distributed reinforcement and with axial loads about one-third of the balanced load, such as these, the
yield moment is on the order of 90 to 95 percent of the nominal capacity. It is feasible to compute the
moment at which the extreme bar yields, but that does not appear necessary for design. A simple factor
of 0.95 was applied to the nominal capacity here. Thus, Table 7.1-2 shows the load information from
Sec. 9.2 (the final numbers in this section may have changed, because this example was completed first).

The factor K is large primarily due to consideration of axial load. The strength for design is controlled by
minimum axial load, whereas K is maximum for the maximum axial load, which includes some live load
and a vertical acceleration on dead load.

7-7
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Table 7.1-2 Shear Wall Overstrength


Birmingham 1 New York City
Pure Bending, Mn0 963 ft-kips 1,723 ft-kips
Intermediate Load, MnB 5,355 ft-kips 6,229 ft-kips
Intermediate Load, PnB 335 kips 363 kips
Maximum Design Load, Pu 315 kips 327 kips
Interpolated Mn 5,092 ft-kips 5,782 ft-kips
Approximate My 4,837 ft-kips 5,493 ft-kips
Design Mu 2,640 ft-kips 3,483 ft-kips
Factor K = My/Mu 1.83 1.58

7.1.1.3 Diaphragm Forces for Birmingham Building 1

The weight tributary to the roof and floor diaphragms (wpx) is the total story weight (wi) at Level i minus
the weight of the walls parallel to the direction of loading.

Compute diaphragm weight (wpx) for the roof and floor as follows:

Roof

Total weight = 861 kips


Walls parallel to force = (45 psf)(277 ft)(8.67 ft/2) = -54 kips
wpx = 807 kips

Floors

Total weight = 963 kips


Walls parallel to force = (45 psf)(277 ft)(8.67 ft) = -108 kips
wpx = 855 kips

Compute diaphragm demands in accordance with Provisions Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 [4.6.3.4]:


n
∑ Fi
i=x
Fpx = n
w px
∑ wi
i=x

Calculations for Fpx are provided in Table 7.1-3.

7-8
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Table 7.1-3 Birmingham 1 Fpx Calculations


n n
∑ wi ∑ Fi = Vi
wi i= x Fi i=x wpx Fpx
Level (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips)
Roof 861 861 175 175 807 164
4 963 1,820 156 331 855 155
3 963 2,790 117 448 855 137
2 963 3,750 78 527 855 120
1 963 4,710 39 566 855 103
1.0 kip = 4.45 kN.

The values for Fi and Vi used in Table 7.1-3 are listed in Table 9.2-2.

The minimum value of Fpx = 0.2SDSIwpx = 0.2(0.24)1.0(807 kips) = 38.7 kips (at the roof)
= 0.2(0.24)1.0(855 kips) = 41.0 kips (at floors)

The maximum value of Fpx = 0.4SDSIwpx = 2(38.7 kips) = 77.5 kips (at the roof)
= 2(41.0 kips) = 82.1 kips (at floors)

Note that Fpx by Table 7.1-3 is substantially larger than the maximum Fpx. This is generally true at upper
levels if the R factor is less than 5. The value of Fpx used for the roof diaphragm is 82.1 kips. Compare
this value to Cswpx to determine the minimum diaphragm force for untopped diaphragms as indicated
previously.

Cswpx = 0.12(807 kips) = 96.8 kips (at the roof)


Cswpx = 0.12(855 kips) = 103 kips (at the floors)

Since Cswpx is larger than Fpx, the controlling force is Cswpx. Note that this will always be true when I =
1.0 and R is less than or equal to 2.5. Therefore, the diaphragm seismic design forces are as follows:

F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1.0(2.5)(96.8 kips) = 242 kips (at the roof)


F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1.0(2.5)(103 kips) = 256 kips (at the floors)

The second check on design force is based on yielding of the shear walls:

F!px = 1.25KFpx* = 1.25(1.85)164 kips = 379 kips (at the roof)


F!px = 1.25KFpx* = 1.25(1.85)155 kips = 358 kips (at the floors)

For this example, the force to yield the walls clearly controls the design. To simplify the design, the
diaphragm design force used for all levels will be the maximum force at any level, 379 kips.

7.1.1.4 Diaphragm Forces for New York Building

The weight tributary to the roof and floor diaphragms (wpx) is the total story weight (wi) at Level i minus
the weight of the walls parallel to the force.

7-9
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Compute diaphragm weight (wpx) for the roof and floor as follows:

Roof

Total weight = 870 kips


Walls parallel to force = (48 psf)(277 ft)(8.67 ft/2) = -58 kips
wpx = 812 kips

Floors

Total weight = 978 kips


Walls parallel to force = (48 psf)(277 ft)(8.67 ft) = -115 kips
wpx = 863 kips

Calculations for Fpx using Provisions Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 [4.6.3.4] are not required for the first set of forces
because Cswpx will be greater than or equal to the maximum value of Fpx = 0.4SDSIwpx when I = 1.0 and R
is less than or equal to 2.5. Compute Cswpx as:

Cswpx = 0.156(812 kips) = 127 kips (at the roof)


Cswpx = 0.156(863 kips) = 135 kips (at the floors)

The diaphragm seismic design forces are:

F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1.0(2.5)(127 kips) = 318 kips (at the roof)


F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1.0(2.5)(135 kips) = 337 kips (at the floors)

Calculations for Fpx using Provisions Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 [4.6.3.4] are required for the second check F!px =
1.25KFpx. Following the same procedure as illustrated in the previous section, the maximum Fpx is 214
kips at the roof. Thus,

1.25KFpx* = 1.25(1.58)214 kips = 423 kips (at the roof)

To simplify the design, the diaphragm design force used for all levels will be the maximum force at any
level. The diaphragm seismic design force (423 kips) is controlled by yielding at the base of the walls,
just as with the Birmingham 1 building.

7.1.1.5 Static Analysis of Diaphragms

The balance of this example will use the controlling diaphragm seismic design force of 423 kips for the
New York building. In the transverse direction, the loads will be distributed as shown in Figure 7.1-1.

7-10
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

W1 W1
W2

F F F F

40'-0" 3 at 24'-0" = 72'-0" 40'-0"


152'-0"

Figure 7.1-1 Diaphragm force distribution and analytical model (1.0 ft =


0.3048 m).

Assuming the four shear walls have the same stiffness and ignoring torsion, the diaphragm reactions at
the transverse shear walls (F as shown in Figure 7.1-1) are computed as follows:

F = 423 kips/4 = 105.8 kips

The uniform diaphragm demands are proportional to the distributed weights of the diaphragm in different
areas (see Figure 7.1-1).

W1 = [67 psf(72 ft) + 48 psf(8.67 ft)4](423 kips / 863 kips) = 3,180 lb/ft
W2 = [67 psf(72 ft)](423 kips / 863 kips) = 2,364 lb/ft

Figure 7.1-2 identifies critical regions of the diaphragm to be considered in this design. These regions
are:

Joint 1 – maximum transverse shear parallel to the panels at panel-to-panel joints

Joint 2 – maximum transverse shear parallel to the panels at the panel-to-wall joint

Joint 3 – maximum transverse moment and chord force

Joint 4 – maximum longitudinal shear perpendicular to the panels at the panel-to-wall connection
(exterior longitudinal walls) and anchorage of exterior masonry wall to the diaphragm for out-of-
plane forces

Joint 5 – collector element and shear for the interior longitudinal walls

7-11
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

4 1 2 3

5
72'-0"

36'-0" 24'-0"
4'-0"
Figure 7.1-2 Diaphragm plan and critical design regions (1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.4 [not applicable in 2003 Provisions] defines a chord amplification factor for
diaphragms in structures having precast gravity-load systems. [The chord amplification factor has been
dropped in the 2003 Provisions and does not occur in ASC 318-02. See the initial section of this chapter
for additional discussion on changes for the 2003 Provisions.] This amplification factor appears to apply
to buildings with vertical seismic-force-resisting members constructed of precast or monolithic concrete.
Because these masonry wall buildings are similar to buildings with concrete walls, this amplification
factor has been included in calculating the chord forces. The amplification factor is:

⎡ ⎛ Leff ⎞ ⎤
2
⎢1 + 0.4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎥⎦
bd ≥ 1.0
12hs

where

Leff = length of the diaphragm between inflection points. Since the diaphragms have no infection
points, twice the length of the 40-ft-long cantilevers is used for Leff = 80 ft
hs = story height = 8.67 ft
bd = diaphragm width = 72 ft

⎡ ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎤
2
⎢1 + 0.4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎢ ⎝ 72 ⎠ ⎦⎥
The amplification factor = ( 72 ) ⎣ = 1.03
12 ( 8.67 )

7-12
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Joint forces are:

Joint 1 – Transverse forces

Shear, Vu1 = 3.18 kips/ft (36 ft) = 114.5 kips


Moment, Mu1 = 114.5 kips (36 ft/2) = 2,061 ft-kips
Chord tension force, Tu1 = M/d = 1.03(2,061 ft-kips/71 ft) = 29.9 kips

Joint 2 – Transverse forces

Shear, Vu2 = 3.18 kips/ft (40 ft) = 127 kips


Moment, Mu2 = 127 kips (40 ft/2) = 2,540 ft-kips
Chord tension force, Tu2 = M/d = 1.03(2,540 ft-kips/71 ft) = 36.9 kips

Joint 3 – Transverse forces

Shear, Vu3 = 127 kips + 2.36 kips/ft (24 ft) - 105.8 kips = 78.1 kips
Moment, Mu3 = 127 kips (44 ft) + 56.7 kips (12 ft) - 105.8 kips (24 ft) = 3,738 ft-kips
Chord tension force, Tu3 = M/d = 1.03(3,738 ft-kips/71 ft) = 54.2 kips

Joint 4 – Longitudinal forces

Wall Force, F = 423 kips/8 = 52.9 kips


Wall shear along wall length, Vu4 = 52.9 kips (36 ft)/(152 ft /2) = 25.0 kips
Collector force at wall end, Tu4 = Cu4 = 52.9 kips - 25.0 kips = 27.9 kips

Joint 4 – Out-of-plane forces

The Provisions have several requirements for out-of-plane forces. None are unique to precast
diaphragms and all are less than the requirements in ACI 318 for precast construction regardless
of seismic considerations. Assuming the planks are similar to beams and comply with the
minimum requirements of Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.1.1 [4.6.1.1] (Seismic Design Category A and
greater) [In the 2003 Provisions, all requirements for Seismic Design Category A are in Sec. 1.5
but they generally are the same as those in the 2000 Provisions. The design and detailing
requirements in 2003 Provisions Sec. 4.6 apply to Seismic Design Category B and greater], the
required out-of-plane horizontal force is:

0.05(D + L)plank = 0.05(67 psf + 40 psf)(24 ft/2) = 64.2 plf

According to Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.1.2 [4.6.1.2] (Seismic Design Category A and greater), the
minimum anchorage for masonry walls is:

Fp = 400(SDS)I = 400(0.39)1.0 = 156 plf

According to Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.2.7 [4.6.1.3] (Seismic Design Category B and greater),
bearing wall anchorage shall be designed for a force computed as:

0.4(SDS)Wwall = 0.4(0.39)(48 psf)(8.67 ft) = 64.9 plf

Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.3.2 [4.6.2.1] (Seismic Design Category C and greater) requires masonry
wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms to be designed for a larger force. This diaphragm is

7-13
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

considered rigid with respect to the walls, and considering that it is designed to avoid yield under
the loads that will yield the walls, this is a reasonable assumption.

Fp = 1.2(SDS)Iwp = 1.2(0.39)1.0[(48 psf)(8.67 ft)] = 195 plf

[In the 2003 Provisions, Eq. 4.6-1 in Sec. 4.6.2.1 has been changed to 0.85SDSIWp.]

The force requirements in ACI 318 Sec. 16.5 will be described later.

Joint 5 – Longitudinal forces

Wall force, F = 423 kips/8 = 52.9 kips


Wall shear along each side of wall, Vu4 = 52.9 kips [2(36 ft)/152 ft]/2 = 12.5 kips
Collector force at wall end, Tu5 = Cu5 = 52.9 kips - 25.0 kips = 27.9 kips

ACI 318 Sec. 16.5 also has minimum connection force requirements for structural integrity of precast
concrete bearing wall building construction. For buildings over two stories there are force requirements
for horizontal and vertical members. This building has no vertical precast members. However, ACI 318
Sec. 16.5.1 specifies that the strengths “. . . for structural integrity shall apply to all precast concrete
structures.” This is interpreted to apply to the precast elements of this masonry bearing wall structure.
The horizontal tie force requirements are:

1. 1,500 lb/ft parallel and perpendicular to the span of the floor members. The maximum spacing of ties
parallel to the span is 10 ft. The maximum spacing of ties perpendicular to the span is the distance
between supporting walls or beams.

2. 16,000 lb parallel to the perimeter of a floor or roof located within 4 ft of the edge at all edges.

ACI’s tie forces are far greater than the minimum tie forces given in the Provisions for beam supports and
anchorage for of masonry walls. They do control some of the reinforcement provided, but most of the
reinforcement is controlled by the computed connections for diaphragm action.

7.1.1.6 Diaphragm Design and Details

Before beginning the proportioning of reinforcement, a note about ACI’s φ factors is necessary. The
Provisions cites ASCE 7 for combination of seismic load effects with the effects of other loads. Both
ASCE 7 and the Provisions make it clear that the appropriate φ factors within ACI 318 are those
contained within Appendix C of ACI 318-99. These factors are about 10% less than the comparable
factors within the main body of the standard. The 2002 edition of ACI 318 has placed the ASCE 7 load
combinations within the main body of the standard and revised the φ factors accordingly. This example
uses the φ factors given in the 2002 edition of ACI 318, which are the same as those given in Appendix C
of the 1999 edition with one exception. Thus, the φ factors used here are:

Tension control (bending and ties) φ = 0.90


Shear φ = 0.75
Compression control in tied members φ = 0.65.

The minimum tie force requirements given in ACI 318 Sec. 16.5 are specified as nominal values, meaning
that φ = 1.00 for those forces.

7-14
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

7.1.1.6.1 Design and Detailing at Joint 3

Joint 3 is designed first to check the requirements of Provisions Sec. 9A.3.9 [A9.2.4], which references
ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.8.3 [21.9.8.3], which then refers to ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.5.3 [21.9.5.3]. This section
provides requirements for transverse reinforcement in the chords of the diaphragm. The compressive
stress in the chord is computed using the ultimate moment based on a linear elastic model and gross
section properties. To determine the in-plane section modulus (S) of the diaphragm, an equivalent
thickness (t) based on the cross sectional area is used for the hollow core precast units as follows.

t = area/width = 215/48 = 4.5 in.


S = td2/6

Chord compressive stress is computed as:

Mu/S = 6Mu3/td2 = 6(3,738 × 12)/(4.5)(72 × 12)2 = 80.1 psi

The design 28-day compressive strength of the grout is 4,000 psi. Since the chord compressive stress is
less than 0.2 fc' = 0.2(4,000) = 800 psi, the transverse reinforcement indicated in ACI 318 Sec. 21.4.4.1
through 21.4.4.3 is not required.

Compute the required amount of chord reinforcement as:

Chord reinforcement, As3 = Tu3/φfy = (54.2 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 1.00 in.2

Use two #7 bars, As = 2(0.60) = 1.20 in.2 along the exterior edges (top and bottom of the plan in Figure
7.1- 2). Require cover for chord bars and spacing between bars at splices and anchorage zones by ACI
318 Sec. 21.7.8.3 [21.9.8.3].

Minimum cover = 2.5(7/8) = 2.19 in., but not less than 2.0 in.
Minimum spacing = 3(7/8) = 2.63 in., but not less than 1-1/2 in.

Figure 7.1-3 shows the chord element at the exterior edges of the diaphragm. The chord bars extend
along the length of the exterior longitudinal walls and act as collectors for these walls in the longitudinal
direction (see Joint 4 collector reinforcement and Figure 7.1-7).

4"Ø spiral of 1 4" wire


with 2" pitch over each Artificially roughened Prestressed
lap splice may be required surfaces of void as hollow core
depending on geometry required plank
of specific voids in plank.
(2) #7 bars
(chord bars)
3"

Contact
lap splice
3"±

Splice bars
2"±

Grouted
3" 3" chord / collector
element along exterior
edge of precast plank

Figure 7.1-3 Joint 3 chord reinforcement at the exterior edge (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm).

7-15
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Joint 3 must also be checked for the minimum ACI tie forces. The chord reinforcement obviously
exceeds the 16 kip perimeter force requirement. The 1.5 kips per foot requirement requires a 6 kip tie at
each joint between the planks, which is satisfied with a #3 bar in each joint (0.11 in.2 at 60 ksi = 6.6 kips).
This bar is required at all bearing walls and is shown in subsequent details.

7.1.1.6.2 Joint 1 Design and Detailing

The design must provide sufficient reinforcement for chord forces as well as shear friction connection
forces as follows:

Chord reinforcement, As1 = Tu1/φfy = (29.9 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 0.55 in.2 (collector force from Joint 4
calculations at 27.9 kips is not directly additive).

Shear friction reinforcement, Avf1 = Vu1/φµfy = (114.5 kips)/[(0.75)(1.0)(60 ksi)] = 2.54 in.2

Total reinforcement required = 2(0.55 in.2) + 2.54 in.2 = 3.65 in.2

ACI tie force = (3 kips/ft)(72 ft) = 216 kips; reinforcement = (216 kips)/(60 ksi) = 3.60 in.2

Provide four #7 bars (two at each of the outside edges) plus four #6 bars (two each at the interior joint at
the ends of the plank) for a total area of reinforcement of 4(0.60 in2) + 4(0.44 in.2) = 4.16 in.2

Because the interior joint reinforcement acts as the collector reinforcement in the longitudinal direction
for the interior longitudinal walls, the cover and spacing of the two # 6 bars in the interior joints will be
provided to meet the requirements of ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.8.3 [21.9.8.3]:

Minimum cover = 2.5(6/8) = 1.88 in., but not less than 2.0 in.
Minimum spacing = 3(6/8) = 2.25 in., but not less than 1-1/2 in.

Figure 7.1-4 shows the reinforcement in the interior joints at the ends of the plank, which is also the
collector reinforcement for the interior longitudinal walls (Joint 5). The two #6 bars extend along the
length of the interior longitudinal walls as shown in Figure 7.1-8.
33 4"
(2) #6
(collector bars)

#3 x 4'-0" (behind)
21 2" 2"

at each joint
between planks
31 2"

Figure 7.1-4 Interior joint reinforcement at the ends of plank


and the collector reinforcement at the end of the interior
longitudinal walls - Joints 1 and 5 (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm).

7-16
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Figure 7.1-5 shows the extension of the two #6 bars of Figure 7.1-4 into the region where the plank is
parallel to the bars. The bars will need to be extended the full length of the diaphragm unless
supplemental plank reinforcement is provided. This detail makes use of this supplement plank
reinforcement (two #6 bars or an equal area of strand per ACI 318-99 Sec. 21.7.5.2 [21.9.5.2]) and shows
the bars anchored at each end of the plank. The anchorage length of the #6 bars is calculated using ACI
318-99 Sec. 21.7.5.4 [21.9.5.4] which references ACI 318 Sec. 21.5.4:

⎛ f y db ⎞ ⎡ 60,000( db ) ⎤
ld = 1.6(2.5) ⎜ ⎟ = 1.6(2.5) ⎢ ⎥ = 58.2db
⎜ 65 f ′ ⎟ 65 4,000
⎝ c ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

The 2.5 factor is for the difference between straight and hooked bars, and the 1.6 factor applies when the
development length is not within a confined core. Using #6 bars, the required ld = 58.2(0.75 in.) = 43.7
in. Therefore, use ld = 4 ft, which is the width of the plank.

2" (2) #6 anchored 4'-0"


into plank at ends.

2"
11 2" 21 2"
Figure 7.1-5 Anchorage region of shear reinforcement for Joint 1 and collector
reinforcement for Joint 5 (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm).

7.1.1.6.3 Joint 2 Design and Detailing

The chord design is similar to the previous calculations:

Chord reinforcement, As2 = Tu2/φfy = (36.9 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 0.68 in.2

The shear force may be reduced along Joint 2 by the shear friction resistance provided by the
supplemental chord reinforcement (2Achord - As2) and by the four #6 bars projecting from the interior
longitudinal walls across this joint. The supplemental chord bars, which are located at the end of the
walls, are conservatively excluded here. The shear force along the outer joint of the wall where the plank
is parallel to the wall is modified as:

VuMod
2 = Vu 2 − ⎣⎡φ f y µ ( A4#6 ) ⎦⎤ = 127 − ⎡⎣0.75 ( 60 )(1.0 )( 4 × 0.44 ) ⎤⎦ = 47.8 kips

This force must be transferred from the planks to the wall. Using the arrangement shown in Figure 7.1-6,
the required shear friction reinforcement (Avf2) is computed as:
VuMod 47.8
Avf 2 = 2
= = 0.79 in.2
(
φ f y µ sin α f + cos α f )
0.75 ( 60 )(1.0 sin 26.6° + cos 26.6° )

7-17
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Use two #3 bars placed at 26.6 degrees (2-to-1 slope) across the joint at 4 ft from the ends of the plank
and at 8 ft on center (three sets per plank). The angle (αf) used above provides development of the #3 bars
while limiting the grouting to the outside core of the plank. The total shear reinforcement provided is
9(0.11 in.2) = 0.99 in.2

The shear force between the other face of this wall and the diaphragm is:

Vu2 - F = 127 - 106 = 21 kips

The shear friction resistance provided by #3 bars in the grout key between each plank (provided for the
1.5 klf requirement of the ACI) is computed as:

φAvffyµ = (0.75)(10 bars)(0.11 in.2)(60 ksi)(1.0) = 49.5 kips

The development length of the #3 and #4 bars will now be checked. For the 180 degree standard hook
use ACI 318 Sec. 12.5, ldh = lhb times the factors of ACI 318 Sec. 12.5.3, but not less than 8db or 6 in.
Side cover exceeds 2-1/2 in. and cover on the bar extension beyond the hook is provided by the grout and
the planks, which is close enough to 2 in. to apply the 0.7 factor of ACI 318 Sec. 12.5.3.2. The
continuous #5 provides transverse reinforcement, but it is not arranged to take advantage of ACI 318’s
0.8 factor. For the #3 hook:

0.7 (1,200) db 0.7 (1,200) 0.375


ldh = = = 4.95 in. (6" minimum)
fc′ 4,000

The available distance for the perpendicular hook is about 5-1/2 in. The bar will not be fully developed at
the end of the plank because of the 6 in. minimum requirement. The full strength is not required for shear
transfer. By inspection, the diagonal #3 hook will be developed in the wall as required for the computed
diaphragm-to-shear-wall transfer. The straight end of the #3 will now be checked. The standard
development length of ACI 318 Sec. 12.2 is used for ld.

f y db 60,000 ( 0.375)
ld = = = 14.2 in.
25 fc′ 25 4,000

Figure 7.1-6 shows the reinforcement along each side of the wall on Joint 2.

7-18
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

2'-2
2

"
#3 x 1 standard hooks

"
#3x 2'-6"

2'-2
embedded in grouted standard hook
edge cell of plank. Provide grouted into
3 sets for each plank. each key joint

2" cover

71 2"

(1) #5
(2) #5 in continuous
masonry in joint to
bond beam anchor hooks

Vertical
reinforcement
in wall

Figure 7.1-6 Joint 2 transverse wall joint reinforcement (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm,
1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.1.1.6.4 Joint 4 Design and Detailing

The required shear friction reinforcement along the wall length is computed as:

Avf4 = Vu4/φµfy = (25.0 kips)/[(0.75)(1.0)(60 ksi)] = 0.56 in.2

Based upon the ACI tie requirement, provide #3 bars at each plank-to-plank joint. For eight bars total, the
area of reinforcement is 8(0.11) = 0.88 in.2, which is more than sufficient even considering the marginal
development length, which is less favorable at Joint 2. The bars are extended 2 ft into the grout key,
which is more than the development length and equal to half the width of the plank.

The required collector reinforcement is computed as:

As4 = Tu4/φfy = (27.9 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 0.52 in.2

The two #7 bars, which are an extension of the transverse chord reinforcement, provide an area of
reinforcement of 1.20 in.2

The reinforcement required by the Provisions for out-of-plane force is (195 plf) is far less than the ACI
318 requirement.

Figure 7.1-7 shows this joint along the wall.

7-19
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Vertical wall
reinforcement
beyond #3x 2'-6"

standard hook
grouted into
each key joint
2"
cover

(2) #7 bars
in joint
(chord bars)

(2) #5 in
bond beam

Figure 7.1-7 Joint 4 exterior longitudinal walls to diaphragm


reinforcement and out-of-plane anchorage (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm,
1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.1.1.6.5 Joint 5 Design and Detailing

The required shear friction reinforcement along the wall length is computed as:

Avf5 = Vu5/φµfy = (12.5 kips)/[(0.75)(1.0)(60 ksi)] = 0.28 in.2

Provide #3 bars at each plank-to-plank joint for a total of 8 bars.

The required collector reinforcement is computed as:

As5 = Tu5/φfy = (27.9 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 0.52 in.2

Two #6 bars specified for the design of Joint 1 above provide an area of reinforcement of 0.88 in.2 Figure
7.1-8 shows this joint along the wall.

7-20
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Vertical wall
reinforcement
beyond

#3 x 4'-8"
4" grouted into
each key joint

(2) #6 bars
in joint
(collector bars)

(2) #5 in
bond beam

Figure 7.1-8 Wall-to-diaphragm reinforcement along interior


longitudinal walls - Joint 5 (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.1.2 Topped Precast Concrete Units for Five-Story Masonry Building, Los Angeles,
California (see Sec. 9.2)

This design shows the floor and roof diaphragms using topped precast units in the five-story masonry
building in Los Angeles, California. The topping thickness exceeds the minimum thickness of 2 in. as
required for composite topping slabs by ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.4 [21.9.4]. The topping shall be lightweight
concrete (weight = 115 pcf) with a 28-day compressive strength (fc' ) of 4,000 psi and is to act
compositely with the 8-in.-thick hollow-core precast, prestressed concrete plank. Design parameters are
provided in Sec. 9.2. Figure 9.2-1 shows the typical floor and roof plan.

7.1.2.1 General Design Requirements

Topped diaphragms may be used in any Seismic Design Category. ACI 318 Sec. 21.7 [21.9]provides
design provisions for topped precast concrete diaphragms. Provisions Sec. 5.2.6 [4.6] specifies the forces
to be used in designing the diaphragms. The amplification factor of Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.4 [not
applicable in the 2003 Provisions] is 1.03, the same as previously computed for the untopped diaphragm.

7-21
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

[As noted above, the chord amplification factor has been dropped for the 2003 Provisions and does not
occur in ASC 318-02.]

7.1.2.2 General In-Plane Seismic Design Forces for Topped Diaphragms

The in-plane diaphragm seismic design force (Fpx) is calculated using Provisions Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 [4.6-2] but
must not be less than 0.2SDSIwpx and need not be more than 0.4SDSIwpx. Vx must be added to Fpx calculated
using Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 [4.6-2] where:

wpx = the weight tributary to the diaphragm at Level x


SDS = the spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods (Provisions Sec. 4.1.2 [3.3.5])
I = occupancy importance factor (Provisions Sec. 1.4 [1.3])
Vx = the portion of the seismic shear force required to be transferred to the components of the
vertical seismic-force-resisting system due to offsets or changes in stiffness of the vertical
resisting member at the diaphragm being designed.

For Seismic Design Category C and higher, Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.3.1 [4.6.2.2] requires that collector
elements, collector splices, and collector connections to the vertical seismic-force-resisting members be
designed in accordance with Provisions Sec. 5.2.7.1 [4.2.2.2], which combines the diaphragm forces
times the overstrength factor (Ω0) and the effects of gravity forces. The parameters from example in Sec.
9.2 used to calculate in-plane seismic design forces for the diaphragms are provided in Table 7.1-4.

Table 7.1-4 Design Parameters from Sec. 9.2


Design Parameter Value
Ωo 2.5
wi (roof) 1,166 kips
wi (floor) 1,302 kips
SDS 1.0
I 1.0
Seismic Design Category D
1.0 kip = 4.45 kN.

7.1.2.3 Diaphragm Forces

As indicated previously, the weight tributary to the roof and floor diaphragms (wpx) is the total story
weight (wi) at Level i minus the weight of the walls parallel to the force.

Compute diaphragm weight (wpx) for the roof and floor as:

Roof

Total weight = 1,166 kips


Walls parallel to force = (60 psf)(277 ft)(8.67 ft/2) = -72 kips
wpx = 1,094 kips

7-22
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Floors

Total weight = 1,302 kips


Walls parallel to force = (60 psf)(277 ft)(8.67 ft) = -144 kips
wpx = 1,158 kips

Compute diaphragm demands in accordance with Provisions Eq. 5.2.6.4.4 [4.6-2]:

n
∑ Fi
i=x
Fpx = n
w px
∑ wi
i=x

Calculations for Fpx are provided in Table 7.1-5. The values for Fi and Vi are listed in Table 9.2-17.

Table 7.1-5 Fpx Calculations from Sec. 9.2


n n
∑ wi ∑ Fi = Vi
wi i=x Fi i= x wpx Fpx
Level (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips)
Roof 1,166 1,166 564 564 1,094 529
4 1,302 2,468 504 1,068 1,158 501
3 1,302 3,770 378 1,446 1,158 444
2 1,302 5,072 252 1,698 1,158 387
1 1,302 6,384 126 1,824 1,158 331
1.0 kip = 4.45 kN.

The minimum value of Fpx = 0.2SDSIwpx = 0.2(1.0)1.0(1,094 kips) = 219 kips (at the roof)
= 0.2(1.0)1.0(1,158 kips) = 232 kips (at floors)

The maximum value of Fpx = 0.4SDSIwpx = 2(219 kips) = 438 kips (at the roof)
= 2(232 kips) = 463 kips (at floors)

The value of Fpx used for design of the diaphragms is 463 kips, except for collector elements where forces
will be computed below.

7.1.2.4 Static Analysis of Diaphragms

The seismic design force of 463 kips is distributed as in Sec. 7.1.1.6 (Figure 7.1-1 shows the distribution).
The force is only 9.5 percent higher than that used to design the untopped diaphragm for the New York
design due to the intent to prevent yielding in the untopped diaphragm. Figure 7.1-2 shows critical
regions of the diaphragm to be considered in this design. Collector elements will be designed for 2.5
times the diaphragm force based on the overstrength factor (Ω0).

Joint forces taken from Sec. 7.1.1.5 times 1.095 are as:

7-23
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Joint 1 – Transverse forces

Shear, Vu1 = 114.5 kips × 1.095 = 125 kips


Moment, Mu1 = 2,061 ft-kips × 1.095 = 2,250 ft-kips
Chord tension force, Tu1 = M/d = 1.03 × 2,250 ft-kips / 71 ft = 32.6 kips

Joint 2 – Transverse forces

Shear, Vu2 = 127 kips × 1.095 = 139 kips


Moment, Mu2 = 2,540 ft-kips × 1.095 = 2,780 ft-kips
Chord tension force, Tu2 = M/d = 1.03 × 2,780 ft-kips / 71 ft = 39.3 kips

Joint 3 – Transverse forces

Shear, Vu3 = 78.1 kips × 1.095 = 85.5 kips


Moment, Mu2 = 3,738 ft-kips × 1.095 = 4,090 ft-kips
Chord tension force, Tu3 = M/d = 1.03 × 4,090 ft-kips/71 ft = 59.3 kips

Joint 4 – Longitudinal forces

Wall Force, F = 52.9 kips × 1.095 = 57.9 kips


Wall shear along wall length, Vu4 =25 kips × 1.095 = 27.4 kips
Collector force at wall end, Ω0Tu4 = 2.5(27.9 kips)(1.095) = 76.4 kips

Out-of-Plane forces

Just as with the untopped diaphragm, the out-of-plane forces are controlled by ACI 318 Sec. 16.5,
which requires horizontal ties of 1.5 kips per foot from floor to walls.

Joint 5 – Longitudinal forces

Wall Force, F = 463 kips / 8 walls = 57.9 kips


Wall shear along each side of wall, Vu4 = 12.5 kips × 1.095 = 13.7 kips
Collector force at wall end, Ω0Tu4 = 2.5(27.9 kips)(1.095) = 76.4 kips

7.1.2.5 Diaphragm Design and Details

7.1.2.5.1 Minimum Reinforcement for 2.5 in. Topping

ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.5.1 [21.9.5.1] references ACI 318 Sec. 7.12, which requires a minimum As = 0.0018bd
for welded wire fabric. For a 2.5 in. topping, the required As = 0.054 in.2/ft. WWF 10×10 - W4.5×W4.5
provides 0.054 in.2/ft. The minimum spacing of wires is 10 in. and the maximum spacing is 18 in. Note
that the ACI 318 Sec. 7.12 limit on spacing of five times thickness is interpreted such that the topping
thickness is not the pertinent thickness.

7.1.2.5.2 Boundary Members

Joint 3 has the maximum bending moment and is used to determine the boundary member reinforcement
of the chord along the exterior edge. The need for transverse boundary member reinforcement is
reviewed using ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.5.3 [21.9.5.3]. Calculate the compressive stress in the chord with the
ultimate moment using a linear elastic model and gross section properties of the topping. It is

7-24
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

conservative to ignore the precast units, but not necessary. As developed previously, the chord
compressive stress is:

6Mu3/td2 = 6(4,090 × 12)/(2.5)(72 × 12)2 = 158 psi

The chord compressive stress is less than 0.2fc' = 0.2(4,000) = 800 psi. Transverse reinforcement in the
boundary member is not required.

The required chord reinforcement is:

As3 = Tu3/φfy = (59.3 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 1.10 in.2

7.1.2.5.3 Collectors

The design for Joint 4 collector reinforcement at the end of the exterior longitudinal walls and for Joint 5
at the interior longitudinal walls is the same.

As4 = As5 = Ω0Tu4/φfy = (76.4 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 1.41 in.2

Use two #8 bars (As = 2 × 0.79 = 1.58 in.2) along the exterior edges, along the length of the exterior
longitudinal walls, and along the length of the interior longitudinal walls. Provide cover for chord and
collector bars and spacing between bars per ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.8.3 [21.9.8.3].

Minimum cover = 2.5(8/8) = 2.5 in., but not less than 2.0 in.
Minimum spacing = 3(8/8) = 3.0 in., but not less than 1-1/2 in.

Figure 7.1-9 shows the diaphragm plan and section cuts of the details and Figure 7.1-10, the boundary
member and chord/collector reinforcement along the edge. Given the close margin on cover, the
transverse reinforcement at lap splices also is shown.

Figure 7.1-9 Diaphragm plan and section cuts.

7-25
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Prestressed
hollow core
Splice bars Artificially WWF bend plank with
roughened down into roughened
(2) #8 bars edge top surface
chord
(chord bars)

3"

topping)
(concrete
21 2" min
3"
41 2"Ø spiral of 1 4" wire
with 2" pitch over each
lap splice.

Contact Grouted
lap splice chord / collector
element along exterior
31 2" 21 2"
edge of precast plank

Figure 7.1-10 Boundary member, and chord and collector reinforcement (1.0 in. = 25.4
mm).

Figure 7.1-11 shows the collector reinforcement for the interior longitudinal walls. The side cover of
2-1/2 in. is provided by casting the topping into the cores and by the stems of the plank. A minimum
space of 1 in. is provided between the plank stems and the sides of the bars.
WWF
21 2" min
topping

3" (2) #8
(collector bars)
21 2"
3"
21 2"

Figure 7.1-11 Collector reinforcement at the end


of the interior longitudinal walls - Joint 5 (1.0 in.
= 25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.1.2.5.4 Shear Resistance

7-26
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Thin composite and noncomposite topping slabs on precast floor and roof members may not have reliable
shear strength provided by the concrete. In accordance with ACI 318 Sec. 21.7.7.2 [21.9.7.2], all of the
shear resistance must be provided by the reinforcement (that is, Vc = 0).

φVn = φAcvρnfy = 0.75(0.054 in.2/ft)60 ksi = 2.43 kips/ft

The shear resistance in the transverse direction is:

2.43 kips/ft (72 ft) = 175 kips

which is greater than the Joint 2 shear (maximum transverse shear) of 139 kips. No. 3 dowels are used to
make the welded wire fabric continuous across the masonry walls. The topping is to be cast into the
masonry walls as shown in Figure 7.1-12, and the spacing of the No. 3 bars is set to be modular with the
CMU.

Vertical Cut out alternate face shells


reinforcement (16" o.c. each side) and place
topping completely through
wall and between planks
1" clear
#3x4'-0" at 16" to
lap with WWF

WWF 10 x 10
W4.5 x W4.5

(2) #8 (2) #5 in
collector bars masonry
bond beam

Figure 7.1-12 Wall-to-diaphragm reinforcement along interior


longitudinal walls - Joint 5 (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

The required shear reinforcement along the exterior longitudinal wall (Joint 4) is:

Avf4 = Vu4/φµfy = (27.4 kips)/[(0.75)(1.0)(60 ksi)] = 0.61 in.2

7.1.2.5.5 Check Out-of-Plane Forces

At Joint 4 with bars at 2 ft on center, Fp = 624 plf = 2 ft(624 plf) = 1.25 kips. The required reinforcement,
As = 1.25/(0.9)(60ksi) = 0.023 in.2. Provide #3 bars at 2 ft on center, which provides a nominal strength
of 0.11 x 60 / 2 = 3.3 klf. The detail provides more than required by ACI 318 Sec. 16.5 for the 1.5 klf tie
force. The development length was checked in the prior example. Using #3 bars at 2 ft on center will be
adequate, and the detail is shown in Figure 7.1-13. The detail at joint 2 is similar.

7-27
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Cut out face shells


Vertical wall @ 2'-0" and place
reinforcement topping into wall
beyond
2" WWF 10 x10
W4.5 x W4.5

#3x STD HK
2'-6"
at 2'-0" o.c.

(2) #8
(collector bars)

(2) #5 in
masonry
bond beam

Figure 7.1-13 Exterior longitudinal wall-to-diaphragm


reinforcement and out-of-plane anchorage - Joint 4 (1.0 in. =
25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7-28
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

7.2 THREE-STORY OFFICE BUILDING WITH PRECAST CONCRETE SHEAR


WALLS

This example illustrates the seismic design of ordinary precast concrete shear walls that may be used in
regions of low to moderate seismicity. The Provisions has one requirement for detailing such walls:
connections that resist overturning shall be Type Y or Z. ACI 318-02 has incorporated a less specific
requirement, renamed the system as intermediate precast structural walls, and removed some of the detail.
This example shows an interpretation of the intent of the Provisions for precast shear wall systems in
regions of moderate and low seismicity, which should also meet the cited ACI 318-02 requirements.

[As indicated at the beginning of this chapter, the requirements for precast shear wall systems in the 2003
Provisions have been revised – primarily to point to ACI 318-02 by reference. See also Sec. 7.2.2.1 for
more discussion of system requirements.]

7.2.1 Building Description

This precast concrete building is a three-story office building (Seismic Use Group I) in southern New
England on Site Class D soils. The structure utilizes 10-ft-wide by 18-in.-deep prestressed double tees
(DTs) spanning 40 ft to prestressed inverted tee beams for the floors and the roof. The DTs are to be
constructed using lightweight concrete. Each of the above-grade floors and the roof are covered with a 2-
in.-thick (minimum), normal weight cast-in-place concrete topping. The vertical seismic-force-resisting
system is to be constructed entirely of precast concrete walls located around the stairs and
elevator/mechanical shafts. The only features illustrated in this example are the rational selection of the
seismic design parameters and the design of the reinforcement and connections of the precast concrete
shear walls. The diaphragm design is not illustrated.

As shown in Figure 7.2-1, the building has a regular plan. The precast shear walls are continuous from
the ground level to 12 ft above the roof. Walls of the elevator/mechanical pits are cast-in-place below
grade. The building has no vertical irregularities. The story-to-story height is 12 ft.

7-29
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

150'-0"
25'-0" 25'-0" 25'-0" 25'-0" 25'-0" 25'-0"

40'-0"

26 IT 28
precast
beams
120'-0"
40'-0"

15'-0"

18" DT roof and floor


slabs (10 DT 18)
8'-0"
8'-0"

8" precast
shear walls
40'-0"

Figure 7.2-1 Three-story building plan (1.0 in. = 25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

The precast walls are estimated to be 8 in. thick for building mass calculations. These walls are normal
weight concrete with a 28-day compressive strength, fc' = 5,000 psi. Reinforcing bars used at the ends of
the walls and in welded connectors are ASTM A706 (60 ksi yield strength). The concrete for the
foundations and below-grade walls has a 28-day compressive strength, fc' = 4,000 psi.

7.2.2 Design Requirements

7.2.2.1 Seismic Parameters of the Provisions

The basic parameters affecting the design and detailing of the building are shown in Table 7.2-1.

7-30
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Table 7.2-1 Design Parameters


Design Parameter Value
Seismic Use Group I I = 1.0
SS (Map 1 [Figure 3.3-1]) 0.266
S1 (Map 2 [Figure 3.3-2]) 0.08
Site Class D
Fa 1.59
Fv 2.4
SMS = FaSS 0.425
SM1 = FvS1 0.192
SDS = 2/3 SMS 0.283
SD1 = 2/3 SM1 0.128
Seismic Design Category B
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System Bearing Wall System
*
Wall Type Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls
R 4
Ω0 2.5
Cd 4
*
Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.3 [9.2.2.1.3] provides for the use of ordinary reinforced concrete shear
walls in Seismic Design Category B, which does not require adherence to the special seismic
design provisions of ACI 318 Chapter 21.

[The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic seismic hazard maps
and the maps have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3. These figures
replace the previously used separate map package.]

[Ordinary precast concrete shear walls is recognized as a system in Table 4.3-1 of the 2003 Provisions.
Consistent with the philosophy that precast systems are not expected to perform as well as cast-in-place
systems, the design factors for the ordinary precast concrete shear walls per 2003 Provisions Table 4.3-1
are: R = 3, Ω0 = 2.5, and Cd = 3. Note that while this system is permitted in Seismic Design Category B,
unline ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls, it is not permitted in Seismic Design Category C.
Alternatively, as this example indicates conceptually, this building could be designed incorporating
intermediate precast concrete shear walls with the following design values per 2003 Provisions Table 4.3-
1: R = 4, Ω0 = 2.5, and Cd = 4.]

7.2.2.2 Structural Design Considerations

7.2.2.2.1 Precast Shear Wall System

This system is designed to yield in bending at the base of the precast shear walls without shear slippage at
any of the joints. Although not a stated design requirement of the Provisions or ACI 318-02 for this
Seismic Design Category, shear slip could kink the vertical rebar at the connection and sabotage the
intended performance, which counts on an R factor of 4. The flexural connections at the ends of the

7-31
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

walls, which are highly stressed by seismic forces, are designed to be the Type Y connection specified in
the Provisions. See Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.2 [9.2.2.1.1] (ACI Sec. 21.1 [21.1]) for the definitions of
ordinary precast concrete structural walls and Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 [not applicable for the 2003
Provisions] (ACI Sec. 21.11.6) for the connections. The remainder of the connections (shear connectors)
are then made strong enough to ensure that the inelastic straining is forced to the intended location.

[Per 2003 Provisions Sec. 9.2.2.1.1 (ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.1), ordinary precast concrete shear walls need
only satisfy the requirements of ACI 318-02 Chapters 1-18 (with Chapter 16 superceding Chapter 14).
Therefore, the connections are to be designed in accordance with ACI 318-02 Sec. 16.6.]

Although it would be desirable to force yielding to occur in a significant portion of the connections, it
frequently is not possible to do so with common configurations of precast elements and connections. The
connections are often unavoidable weak links. Careful attention to detail is required to assure adequate
ductility in the location of first yield and that no other connections yield prematurely. For this particular
example, the vertical bars at the ends of the shear walls act as flexural reinforcement for the walls and are
selected as the location of first yield. The yielding will not propagate far into the wall vertically due to
the unavoidable increase in flexural strength provided by unspliced reinforcement within the panel. The
issue of most significant concern is the performance of the shear connections at the same joint. The
connections are designed to provide the necessary shear resistance and avoid slip without unwittingly
increasing the flexural capacity of the connection because such an increase would also increase the
maximum shear force on the joint. At the base of the panel, welded steel angles are designed to be
flexible for uplift but stiff for in-plane shear.

7.2.2.2.2 Building System

No height limitations are imposed (Provisions Table 5.2.2 [4.3-1]).

For structural design, the floors are assumed to act as rigid horizontal diaphragms to distribute seismic
inertial forces to the walls parallel to the motion. The building is regular both in plan and elevation, for
which, according to Provisions Table 5.2.5.1 [4.4-4], use of the ELF procedure (Provisions Sec. 5.4 [5.2])
is permitted.

Orthogonal load combinations are not required for this building (Provisions Sec. 5.2.5.2.1 [4.4.2.1]).

Ties, continuity, and anchorage (Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.1 and 5.2.6.2 [4.6.1.1 and 4.6.1.2]) must be
explicitly considered when detailing connections between the floors and roof, and the walls and columns.

This example does not include consideration of nonstructural elements.

Collector elements are required due to the short length of shear walls as compared to the diaphragm
dimensions, but are not designed in this example.

Diaphragms need to be designed for the required forces (Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.2.6 [4.6.1.9]), but that
design is not illustrated here.

The bearing walls must be designed for a force perpendicular to their plane (Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.2.7
[4.6.1.3]), but this requirement is of no real consequence for this building.

The drift limit is 0.025hsx (Provisions Table 5.2.8 [4.5-1]), but drift is not computed here.

7-32
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

ACI 318 Sec. 16.5 requires minimum strengths for connections between elements of precast building
structures. The horizontal forces were described in Sec. 7.1; the vertical forces will be described in this
example.

7.2.3 Load Combinations

The basic load combinations (Provisions Sec. 5.2.7 [4.2.2]) require that seismic forces and gravity loads
be combined in accordance with the factored load combinations presented in ASCE 7 except that the
factors for seismic loads (E) are defined by Provisions Eq. 5.2.7-1 and 5.2.7-2 [4.2-1 and 4.2-2]:

E = ρQE ± 0.2SDSD = (1.0)QE ± (0.2)(0.283)D = QE ± 0.0567D

According to Provisions Sec. 5.2.4.1 [4.3.3.1], ρ = 1.0 for structures in Seismic Design Categories A, B,
and C, even though this seismic resisting system is not particularly redundant.

The relevant load combinations from ASCE 7 are:

1.2D ± 1.0E + 0.5L


0.9D ± 1.0E

Into each of these load combinations, substitute E as determined above:

1.26D + QE + 0.5L
1.14D - QE + 0.5L (will not control)
0.96D + QE (will not control)
0.843D - QE

These load combinations are for loading in the plane of the shear walls.

7.2.4 Seismic Force Analysis

7.2.4.1 Weight Calculations

For the roof and two floors

18 in. double tees (32 psf) + 2 in. topping (24 psf) = 56.0 psf
Precast beams at 40 ft = 12.5 psf
16 in. square columns = 4.5 psf
Ceiling, mechanical, miscellaneous = 4.0 psf
Exterior cladding (per floor area) = 5.0 psf
Partitions = 10.0 psf
Total = 92.0 psf

The weight of each floor including the precast shear walls is:

(120 ft)(150 ft)(92 psf/1,000) + [15 ft(4) + 25 ft(2)](12 ft)(0.10 ksf) = 1,790 kips

Considering the roof to be the same weight as a floor, the total building weight is W = 3(1,790 kips) =
5,360 kips.

7.2.4.2 Base Shear

7-33
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

The seismic response coefficient (Cs) is computed using Provisions Eq. 5.4.1.1-1 [5.2-2]:

S DS 0.283
CS = = = 0.0708
R/I 41

except that it need not exceed the value from Provisions Eq. 5.4.1.1-2 [5.2-3] computed as:

S D1 0128
.
CS = = = 0110
.
T ( R / I ) 0.29(4 / 1)

where T is the fundamental period of the building computed using the approximate method of Provisions
Eq. 5.4.2.1-1 [5.2-6]:

Ta = Cr hnx = (0.02)(36) 0.75 = 0.29 sec

Therefore, use Cs = 0.0708, which is larger than the minimum specified in Provisions Eq. 5.4.1.1-3 [not
applicable in the 2003 Provisions]:

Cs = 0.044ISDS = (.044)(1.0)(0.283) = 0 .0125

[The minimum Cs has been changed to 0.01 in the 2003 Provisions.]

The total seismic base shear is then calculated using Provisions Eq. 5.4-1 [5.2-1] as:

V = CsW = (0.0708)(5,370) = 380 kips

Note that this force is substantially larger than a design wind would be. If a nominal 20 psf were applied
to the long face and then amplified by a load factor of 1.6, the result would be less than half this seismic
force already reduced by an R factor of 4.

7.2.4.3 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces

The seismic lateral force (Fx) at any level is determined in accordance with Provisions Sec. 5.4.3 [5.2.3]:

Fx = CvxV

where

wx hxk
Cvx = n
k
∑ wi hi
i =1

Since the period, T < 0.5 sec, k = l in both building directions. With equal weights at each floor level, the
resulting values of Cvx and Fx are as follows:

Roof Cvr = 0.50 Fr = 190 kips


Third Floor Cv3 = 0.33 F3 = 127 kips
Second Floor Cv2 = 0.17 F2 = 63.0 kips

7-34
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

7.2.4.4 Horizontal Shear Distribution and Torsion

7.2.4.4.1 Longitudinal Direction

Design each of the 25-ft-long walls at the elevator/mechanical shafts for half the total shear. Since the
longitudinal walls are very close to the center of rigidity, assume that torsion will be resisted by the 15-ft-
long stairwell walls in the transverse direction. The forces for each of the longitudinal walls are shown in
Figure 7.2-2.

12'-0" 95 kips

63.5 kips
12'-0"

31.5 kips
12'-0"

Grade

V = ∑F = 190 kips
25'-0"

Figure 7.2-2 Forces on the longitudinal walls


(1.0 kip = 4.45 kN, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.2.4.4.2 Transverse Direction

Design the four 15-ft-long stairwell walls for the total shear including 5 percent accidental torsion
(Provisions Sec. 5.4.4.2 [5.2.4.2]). A rough approximation is used in place of a more rigorous analysis
considering all of the walls. The maximum force on the walls is computed as:

V = 380/4 + 380(0.05)(150)/[(100 ft moment arm) × (2 walls in each set)] = 109 kips

Thus

Fr = 109(0.50) = 54.5 kips


F3 = 109(0.33) = 36.3 kips
F2 = 109(0.167) = 18.2 kips

Seismic forces on the transverse walls of the stairwells are shown in Figure 7.2-3.

7-35
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

54.5 kips

12'-0"
36.3 kips

12'-0"
18.2 kips

12'-0"

Grade

V= ∑F = 109 kips
15'-0"

Figure 7.2-3 Forces on the transverse walls


(1.0 kip = 4.45 kN, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.2.5 PROPORTIONING AND DETAILING

The strength of members and components is determined using the strengths permitted and required in
ACI 318 excluding Chapter 21 (see Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.3 [9.2.2.1.3]).

7.2.5.1 Overturning Moment and End Reinforcement

Design shear panels to resist overturning by means of reinforcing bars at each end with a direct tension
coupler at the joints. A commonly used alternative is a threaded post-tensioning bar inserted through the
stack of panels, but the behavior is different, and the application of the rules for a Type Y connection to
such a design is not clear.

7.2.5.1.1 Longitudinal Direction

The free-body diagram for the longitudinal walls is shown in Figure 7.2-4. The tension connection at the
base of the precast panel to the below grade wall is governed by the seismic overturning moment and the
dead loads of the panel and supported floors and roof. In this example, the weights for an elevator
penthouse, with a floor and equipment at 180 psf between the shafts and a roof at 20 psf, are included.
The weight for the floors includes double tees, ceiling and partition (total of 70 psf), but not beams and
columns. Floor live load is 50 psf, except 100 psf is used in the elevator lobby. Roof snow load is 30 psf.
(The elevator penthouse is so small that it was ignored in computing the gross seismic forces on the
building, but it is not ignored in the following calculations.)

7-36
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

12'-0"
D

95 kips

12'-0"
D

63.5 kips

12'-0"
D

12'-0" 31.5 kips

V C
T 12'-0"

9" 23'-6" 9"

Figure 7.2-4 Free-body diagram for


longitudinal walls (1.0 kip = 4.45 kN,
1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

At the base

ME = (95 kips)(36 ft) + (63.5 kips)(24 ft) + (31.5 kips)(12 ft) = 5,520 ft-kips

3D = wall + exterior floors (& roof) + lobby floors + penthouse floor + penthouse roof
= (25 ft)(48 ft)(0.1 ksf) + (25 ft)(48 ft/2)(0.070 ksf)(3) + (25 ft)(8 ft/2)(0.070 ksf)(2) +
(25 ft)(8 ft/2)(0.18 ksf) + (25ft )(24 ft/2)(0.02 ksf)
= 120 + 126 + 14 + 18 + 6 = 284 kips

3L = (25 ft)(48 ft/2)(0.05 ksf)(2) + (25 ft)(8 ft/2)(0.1 ksf) = 60 + 10 = 70 kips

3S = (25ft)(48 ft + 24 ft)(0.03 ksf)/2 = 27 kips

Using the load combinations described above, the vertical loads for combining with the overturning
moment are computed as:

Pmax = 1.26 D + 0.5 L + 0.2 S = 397 kips


Pmin = 0.843 D = 239 kips

The axial load is quite small for the wall panel. The average compression Pmax / Ag = 0.165 ksi (3.3
percent of f'c). Therefore, the tension reinforcement can easily be found from the simple couple shown on
Figure 7.2-4.

The effective moment arm is:

jd = 25 - 1.5 = 23.5 ft

7-37
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

and the net tension on the uplift side is:

M Pmin 5320 239


Tu = − = − = 107 kips
jd 2 23.5 2

The required reinforcement is:

As = Tu/φfy = (107 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 1.98 in.2

Use two #9 bars (As = 2.0 in.2 ) at each end with direct tension couplers for each bar at each panel joint.
Since the flexural reinforcement must extend a minimum distance d (the flexural depth)beyond where it is
no longer required, use both #9 bars at each end of the panel at all three levels for simplicity.

At this point a check of ACI 318 Sec. 16.5 will be made. Bearing walls must have vertical ties with a
nominal strength exceeding 3 kips/ft, and there must be at least two ties per panel. With one tie at each
end of a 25 ft panel, the demand on the tie is:

Tn = (3 kip/ft)(25 ft)/2 = 37.5 kip

The two #9 bars are more than adequate for the ACI requirement.

Although no check for confinement of the compression boundary is required for ordinary precast concrete
shear walls, it is shown here for interest. Using the check from ACI 318-99 Sec. 21.6.6.2 [21.7.6.2], the
depth to the neutral axis is:

Total compression force = As fy + Pmax = (2.0)(60) + 397 = 517 kips


Compression block a = (517 kips)/[(0.85)(5 ksi)(8 in. width)] = 15.2 in.
Neutral axis depth c = a/(0.80) = 19.0 in.

The maximum depth (c) with no boundary member per ACI 318-99 Eq. 21-8 [21-8] is:

l
c≤
600(δ u / hw )

where the term (δu/hw) shall not be taken less than 0.007. Once the base joint yields, it is unlikely that
there will be any flexural cracking in the wall more than a few feet above the base. An analysis of the
wall for the design lateral forces using 50% of the gross moment of inertia, ignoring the effect of axial
loads, and applying the Cd factor of 4 to the results gives a ratio (δu/hw) far less than 0.007. Therefore,
applying the 0.007 in the equation results in a distance c of 71 in., far in excess of the 19 in. required.
Thus, ACI 318-99 would not require transverse reinforcement of the boundary even if this wall were
designed as a special reinforced concrete shear wall. For those used to checking the compression stress as
an index:

P M 389 6 ( 5,520 )
σ= + = + = 742 psi
A S 8 ( 25 )12 8 ( 25 )2 (12 )

The limiting stress is 0.2fc' , which is 1000 psi, so no transverse reinforcement is required at the ends of
the longitudinal walls.

7.2.5.1.2 Transverse Direction

7-38
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

The free-body diagram of the transverse walls is shown in Figure 7.2-5. The weight of the precast
concrete stairs is 100 psf and the roof over the stairs is 70 psf.

12'-0"
D

54.5 kips

12'-0"
D

36.3 kips

12'-0"
D

18.2 kips
12'-0"

V C
7'-0"
T
9" 13'-6" 9"

Figure 7.2-5 Free-body diagram of the transverse walls


(1.0 kip = 4.45 kN, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

The transverse wall is similar to the longitudinal wall.

At the base

ME = (54.5 kips)(36 ft) + (36.3 kips)(24 ft) + (18.2 kips)(12 ft) = 3,052 ft-kips

3D = (15 ft)(48 ft)(0.1 ksf) + 2(12.5 ft/2)(10 ft/2)(0.07 ksf)(3) + (15 ft)(8 ft/2)[(0.1 ksf)(3) +
(0.07 ksf)] = 72 + 13 + 18 + 4 = 107 kips

3L = 2(12.5 ft/2)(10 ft/2)(0.05 ksf)(2) + (15 ft)(8 ft/2)(0.1 ksf)(3) = 6 + 18 = 24 kips

3S = [2(12.5 ft/2)(10 ft/2) + (15 ft)(8 ft/2)](0.03 ksf) = 3.7 kips

Pmax = 1.26(107) + 0.5(24) + 0.2(4) = 148 kips

Pmin = 0.843(107) = 90.5 kips

jd = 15 - 1.5 = 13.5 ft

Tu = (Mnet/jd) - Pmin/2 = (3,052/13.5) - 90.5/2 = 181 kips

As = Tu/φfy = (181 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 3.35 in.2

7-39
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Use two #10 and one #9 bars (As = 3.54 in.2 ) at each end of each wall with a direct tension coupler at each
bar for each panel joint. All three bars at each end of the panel will also extend up through all three levels
for simplicity. Following the same method for boundary member check as on the longitudinal walls:

Total compression force = As fy + Pmax = (3.54)(60) + 148 = 360 kips


Compression block a = (360 kips)/[(0.85)(5 ksi)(8 in. width)] = 10.6 in.
Neutral axis depth c = a/(0.80) = 13.3 in.

Even though this wall is more flexible and the lateral loads will induce more flexural cracking, the
computed deflections are still small and the minimum value of 0.007 is used for the ratio (δu/hw). This
yields a maximum value of c = 42.9 in., thus confinement of the boundary would not be required. The
check of compression stress as an index gives:

P M 140 6 ( 2,930 )
σ= + = + = 951 psi
A S 8 (15 )12 8 (15 )2 (12 )

Since σ < 1,000 psi, no transverse reinforcement is required at the ends of the transverse walls. Note how
much closer to the criterion this transverse wall is by the compression stress check.

The overturning reinforcement and connection are shown in Figures 7.2-6. Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 [not
applicable in the 2003 Provisions] (ACI 21.11.6.4) requires that this Type Y connection develop a
probable strength of 125% of the nominal strength and that the anchorage on either side of the connection
develop 130% of the defined probable strength. [As already noted, the connection requirements for
ordianry precast concrete shear walls have been removed in the 2003 Provisions and the ACI 318-02
requirements are less specific.] The 125% requirement applies to the grouted mechanical splice, and the
requirement that a mechanical coupler develop 125% of specified yield strength of the bar is identical to
the Type 1 coupler defined by ACI 318 Sec. 21.2.6.1. Some of the grouted splices on the market can
qualify as the Type 2 coupler defined by ACI, which must develop the specified tensile strength of the
bar. The development length, ld, for the spliced bars is multiplied by both the 1.25 and the 1.3 factors to
satisfy the Provisions requirement. The bar in the panel is made continuous to the roof, therefore no
calculation of development length is necessary in the panel. The dowel from the foundation will be
hooked, otherwise the depth of the foundation would be more than required for structural reasons. The
size of the foundation will provide adequate cover to allow the 0.7 factor on ACI’s standard development
length for hooked bars. For the # 9 bar:

(1.6.25)0.7(1200)d b 1365(1.128)
1.3(1.25)ldh = = = 24.3 in.
f c' 4000

Similarly, for the #10 bar, the length is 27.4 in.

Like many shear wall designs, this design does concentrate a demand for overturning resistance on the
foundation. In this instance the resistance may be provided by a large footing (on the order of 20 ft by 28
ft by 3 ft thick) under the entire stairwell, or by deep piers or piles with an appropriate cap for load
transfer. Refer to Chapter 4 for examples of design of each type of foundation, although not for this
particular example.

7-40
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

8" 8"

Direct tension
coupler-(typical)

1" shim and drypack


(typical)

8" precast wall

(2) #9 ea. end, full height


of 25' longitudinal
wall panel

(2) #10 & (1) #9 ea. end,


full ht. of 15' transverse
wall panel

Longitudinal Wall Transverse Wall

Reinforced foundation
not designed in the
example
28" min for #10
25" min for #9

Standard hook to develop


overturning reinforcement
3" min

Development at Foundation

Figure 7.2-6 Overturning connection detail at the base of the


walls (1.0 in = 25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.2.5.2 Shear Connections and Reinforcement

Panel joints often are designed to resist the shear force by means of shear friction but that technique is not
used for this example because the joint at the foundation will open due to flexural yielding. This opening
would concentrate the shear stress on the small area of the dry-packed joint that remains in compression.
This distribution can be affected by the shims used in construction. Tests have shown that this often leads
to slip of the joint, which could lead to a kink in the principal tension reinforcement at or near its splice
and destroy the integrity of the system. Therefore, the joint will be designed with direct shear connectors
that will prevent slip along the joint. This is the authors’ interpretation of the Provisions text indicating
that “Type Y connections shall develop under flexural, shear, and axial load actions, as required, a
probable strength. . . .” based upon 125 percent of the specified yield in the connection. It would not be
required by the ACI 318-02 rules for intermediate precast walls.

7-41
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

7.2.5.2.1 Longitudinal Direction

The shear amplification factor is determined as:

M capacity As (1.25) f y jd + Pmax jd / 2 (2.0 in.2 )(1.25)(60 ksi)(23.5 ft) + (397 kip)(23.5 ft / 2)
= =
M demand Mu 5320 ft-kip

=1.54

Therefore, the design shear (Vu) at the base is 1.54(190 kips) = 292 kips

The base shear connection is shown in Figure 7.2-7 and is to be flexible vertically but stiff horizontally in
the plane of the panel. The vertical flexibility is intended to minimize the contribution of these
connections to overturning resistance, which would simply increase the shear demand.

1
4

#5, see (c)

Welded wire
fabric Plate 3 8x4x1'-0"

L4x3x516x0'-8"
LLH
1 8
4

(b) Side elevation


3
4"Ø H.A.S.

Drypack Plate 1 2x12x1'-0" 4

C8x18.75

(a) Section through connection


1
4

(c) Section through embedded assembly

Figure 7.2-7 Shear connection at base (1.0 in = 25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

In the panel, provide an assembly with two face plates 3/8 in. × 4 in. × 12 in. connected by a C8x18.75
and with diagonal #5 bars as shown in the figure. In the foundation provide an embedded plate 1/2 × 12 ×
1'-6" with six 3/4 in. diameter headed anchor studs. In the field, weld an L 4 × 3 × 5/16 × 0'-8", long leg
horizontal, on each face. The shear capacity of this connection is checked:

7-42
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Shear in the two loose angles

φVn = φ(0.6Fu)tl(2) = (0.75)(0.6)(58 ksi)(0.3125 in.)(8 in.)(2) = 130.5 kip

Weld at toe of loose angles

φVn = φ(0.6Fu)tel(2) = (0.75)(0.6)(70 ksi)(0.25 in. / o 2)(8 in.)(2) = 89.1 kip

Weld at face plates, using Table 8-9 in AISC Manual (3rd edition; same table is 8-42 in 2nd edition)

φVn = CC1Dl(2 sides)


C1 = 1.0 for E70 electrodes
l = 8 in.
D = 4 (sixteenths of an inch)
k = 2 in. / 8 in. = 0.25
` a = eccentricity, summed vectorially: horizontal component is 4 in.; vertical component is 2.67
in.; thus, al = 4.80 in. and a = 4.8 in./8 in. = 0.6 from the table. By interpolation, C = 1.29
φVn = (1.29)(1.0)(4)(8)(2) = 82.6 kip

Weld from channel to plate has at least as much capacity, but less demand.

Bearing of concrete at steel channel

fc = φ(0.85f'c) = 0.65(0.85)(5 ksi) = 2.76 ksi

The C8 has the following properties:

tw = 0.487 in.
bf = 2.53 in.
tf = 0.39 in. (average)

The bearing will be controlled by bending in the web (because of the tapered flange, the critical
flange thickness is greater than the web thickness). Conservatively ignoring the concrete’s
resistance to vertical deformation of the flange, compute the width (b) of flange loaded at 2.76 ksi
that develops the plastic moment in the web:

Mp = φFytw2/4 = (0.9)(50 ksi)(0.4872 in.2)/4 = 2.67 in.-kip/in.


Mu = fc[(b-tw)2/2 - (tw/2)2/2] = 2.76[(b - 0.243 in.)2 - (0.243 in.)2]/2
setting the two equal results in b = 1.65 in.

Therefore bearing on the channel is

φVc = fc(2 - tw)(l) = (2.76 ksi)[(2(1.65) - 0.487 in.](6 in.) = 46.6 kip

To the bearing capacity on the channel is added the 4 - #5 diagonal bars, which are effective in
tension and compression; φ = 0.75 for shear is used here:

φVs = φfyAscosα = (0.75)(60 ksi)(4)(0.31 in.2)(cos 45E) = 39.5 kip

Thus, the total capacity for transfer to concrete is:

φVn = φVc + φVs = 46.6 + 39.6 = 86.1 kip

7-43
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

The capacity of the plate in the foundation is governed by the headed anchor studs. The Provisions
contain the new anchorage to concrete provisions that are in ACI 318-02 Appendix D. [In the 2003
Provisions, the anchorage to concrete provisions have been removed and replaced by the reference to
ACI 318-02.] Capacity in shear for anchors located far from an edge of concrete, such as these, and
with sufficient embedment to avoid the pryout failure mode is governed by the capacity of the steel:

φVs = φ n Ase fut = (0.65)(6 studs)(0.44 in.2 per stud)(60 ksi) = 103 kip

Provisions Sec 9.2.3.3.2 (ACI 318-02 Sec. D.3.3.3) specifies an additional factor of 0.75 to derate
anchors in structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories C and higher.

In summary the various shear capacities of the connection are:

Shear in the two loose angles: 130.5 kip


Weld at toe of loose angles: 89.1 kip
Weld at face plates: 82.6 kip
Transfer to concrete: 86.1 kip
Headed anchor studs at foundation: 103 kip

The number of embedded plates (n) required for a panel is:

n = 292/82.6 = 3.5

Use four connection assemblies, equally spaced along each side (5'-0" on center works well to avoid the
end reinforcement). The plates are recessed to position the #5 bars within the thickness of the panel and
within the reinforcement of the panel.

It is instructive to consider how much moment capacity is added by the resistance of these connections to
vertical lift at the joint. The vertical force at the tip of the angle that will create the plastic moment in the
leg of the angle is:

T = Mp / x = Fylt2/4 / (l-k) = (36 ksi)(8 in)(0.31252 in.2)/4]/(4 in. - 0.69 in.) = 2.12 kips

There are four assemblies with two loose angles each, giving a total vertical force of 17 kips. The
moment resistance is this force times half the length of the panel, which yields 212 ft-kips. The total
demand moment, for which the entire system is proportioned, is 5320 ft - kips. Thus, these connections
will add about 4% to the resistance and ignoring this contribution is reasonable. If a straight plate 1/4 in.
x 8 in., which would be sufficient, were used and if the welds and foundation embedment did not fail first,
the tensile capacity would be 72 kips each, a factor of 42 increase over the angles, and the shear
connections would have the unintended effect of more than doubling the flexural resistance, which could
easily cause failures in the system.

Using ACI 318 Sec. 11.10, check the shear strength of the precast panel at the first floor:

φVc = φ 2 Acv fc′ hd = 0.85( 2) 5,000 ( 8)( 23.5)(12) = 271 kips

Because φVc $Vu = 190 kips, the wall is adequate for shear without even considering the reinforcement.
Note that the shear strength of wall itself is not governed by the overstrength required for the connection.
However, since Vu $ φVc/2 = 136 kips, ACI Sec. 11.10.8 requires minimum wall reinforcement in
accordance with ACI 318 Sec. 11.10.9.4 rather than Chapter 14 or 16. For the minimum required ρh =
0.0025, the required reinforcement is:

7-44
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Av = 0.0025(8)(12) = 0.24 in.2/ft

As before, use two layers of welded wire fabric, WWF 4×4 - W4.0×W4.0, one on each face. Shear
reinforcement provided, Av = 0.12(2) = 0.24 in.2/ft

Next, compute the shear strength at Level 2. Since the end reinforcement at the base extends to the top of
the shear wall, bending is not a concern. Yield of the vertical bars will not occur, the second floor joint
will not open (unlike at the base) and, therefore, shear friction could rationally be used to design the
connections at this level and above. Shear keys in the surface of both panels would be advisable. Also,
because of the lack of flexural yield at the joint, it is not necessary to make the shear connection be
flexible with respect to vertical movement. To be consistent with the seismic force increase from yielding
at the base, the shear at this level will be increased using the same amplification factor as calculated for
the first story.

The design shear, Vu2 = 1.54(95 + 63.5) = 244 kips.

Using the same recessed embedded plate assemblies in the panel as at the base, but welded with a straight
plate, the number of plates, n = 244/82.6 = 2.96. Use three plates, equally spaced along each side.

Figure 7.2-8 shows the shear connection at the second and third floors of the longitudinal precast concrete
shear wall panels.

See Figure 7.2-7


for embedded
plates

Horizontal and
1 vertical edges
4

Plate 516x5"x0'-8"
Shim and
drypack

Figure 7.2-8 Shear connections on each side of the wall at the


second and third floors (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).

7-45
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

7.2.5.2.2 Transverse Direction

Use the same procedure as for the longitudinal walls:

M capacity As (1.25) f y jd + Pmax jd / 2 (3.54 in.2 )(1.25)(60 ksi)(13.5 ft) + (148 kip)(23.5 ft / 2)
= =
M demand Mu 3052 ft-kip

= 1.50

Design shear, Vu at base is 1.50(105 kips) = 157.5 kips.

Use the same shear connections as at the base of the longitudinal walls (Figure 7.2-7). The connection
capacity is 82.6 kips and the number of connections required is n = 157.5/82.6 = 1.9. Provide two
connections on each panel.

Check the shear strength of the first floor panel as described previously:

φVc = φ 2 fc′hd = 0.85( 2) 5,000 ( 8)(13.5)(12) = 156 kips

Similar to the longitudinal direction, φVc $Vu = 142 kips, but Vu $ φVc/2 so provide two layers of welded
wire fabric, WWF 4×4 - W4.0×W4.0, one on each face as in the longitudinal walls.

Compute the shear demand at the second floor level joint as indicated below.

The design shear, Vu = 1.50(52.3+ 34.9) = 130.8 kips.

Use the same plates as in the longitudinal walls. The number of plates, n = 130.8/82.6 = 1.6. Use two
plates, equally spaced. Use the same shear connections for the transverse walls as for the longitudinal
walls as shown in Figures 7.2-7 and 7.2-8.

7-46
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

7.3 ONE-STORY PRECAST SHEAR WALL BUILDING

This example illustrates precast shear wall seismic design using monolithic emulation as defined in the
Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] (ACI Sec. 21.11.3) for a single-story
building in a region of high seismicity. For buildings in Seismic Design Category D, Provisions Sec.
9.1.1.12 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] (ACI Sec. 21.11.2.1) requires that the precast seismic-
force-resisting system emulate the behavior of monolithic reinforced concrete construction or that the
system’s cyclic capacity be demonstrated by testing. This example presents an interpretation of
monolithic emulation design with ductile connections. Here the connections in tension at the base of the
wall panels yield by bending steel angles out-of-plane. The same connections at the bottom of the panel
are detailed and designed to be very strong in shear and to resist the nominal shear strength of the
concrete panel.

[Many of the provisions for precast concrete shear walls in areas of high seismicity have been moved out
of the 2003 Provisions and into ACI 318-02. For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D,
2003 Provisions Sec. 9.2.2.1.3 (ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.21.1.4) permits special precast concrete shear walls
(ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.8) or intermediate precast concrete shear walls (ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.13). The 2003
Provisions does not differentiate between precast or cast-in-place concrete for special shear walls. This is
because ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.8 essentially requires special precast concrete shear walls to satisfy the same
design requirements as special reinforced concrete shear walls (ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.7). Alternatively,
special precast concrete shear walls are permitted if they satisfy experimental and analytical requirements
contained in 2003 Provisions Sec. 9.2.2.4 and 9.6.]

7.3.1 Building Description

The precast concrete building is a single-story industrial warehouse building (Seismic Use Group I)
located in the Los Angeles area on Site Class C soils. The structure has 8-ft-wide by 12-1/2-in.-deep
prestressed double tee (DT) wall panels. The roof is light gage metal decking spanning to bar joists that
are spaced at 4 ft on center to match the location of the DT legs. The center supports for the joists are
joist girders spanning 40 ft to steel tube columns. The vertical seismic-force-resisting system is the
precast/prestressed DT wall panels located around the perimeter of the building. The average roof height
is 20 ft, and there is a 3 ft parapet. The building is located in the Los Angeles area on Site Class C soils.
Figure 7.3-1 shows the plan of the building, which is regular.

7-47
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

15 DT at 8'-0" = 120'-0"

48'-0"

at 4'-0" o.c.
24LH03
12 DT at 8'-0" = 96'-0"

Joist girder
(typical)
Steel tube
columns

at 4'-0" o.c.
24LH03
48'-0"

3 DT at 8'-0" = 16'-0" 5 DT at 8'-0" = 40'-0" 16'-0" 3 DT at 8'-0" =


24'-0" O.H. O.H. 24'-0"
door door
Figure 7.3-1 Single-story industrial warehouse building plan (1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

The precast wall panels used in this building are typical DT wall panels commonly found in many
locations but not normally used in Southern California. For these wall panels, an extra 1/2 in. has been
added to the thickness of the deck (flange). This extra thickness is intended to reduce cracking of the
flanges and provide cover for the bars used in the deck at the base. The use of thicker flanges is
addressed later.

Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.5 [9.2.2.1.5.4] (ACI Sec. 21.2.5.1 [21.2.5.1]) limits the grade and type of
reinforcement in boundary elements of shear walls and excludes the use of bonded prestressing tendons
(strand) due to seismic loads. ACI 318-99 Sec. 21.7.5.2 [21.9.5.2] permits the use of strand in boundary
elements of diaphragms provided the stress is limited to 60,000 psi. This design example uses the strand
as the reinforcement based on that analogy. The rationale for this is that the primary reinforcement of the
DT, the strand, is not working as the ductile element of the wall panel and is not expected to yield in an
earthquake.

The wall panels are normal-weight concrete with a 28-day compressive strength, fc' = 5,000 psi.
Reinforcing bars used in the welded connections of the panels and footings are ASTM A706 (60 ksi).
The concrete for the foundations has a 28-day compressive strength, fc' = 4,000 psi.

7-48
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

7.3.2 Design Requirements

7.3.2.1 Seismic Parameters of the Provisions

The basic parameters affecting the design and detailing of the building are shown in Table 7.3-1.

Table 7.3-1 Design Parameters


Design Parameter Value
Seismic Use Group I I = 1.0
SS (Map 1 [Figure 3.3-1]) 1.5
S1 (Map 2 [Figure 3.3-2]) 0.60
Site Class C
Fa 1.0
Fv 1.3
SMS = FaSS 1.5
SM1 = FvS1 0.78
SDS = 2/3 SMS 1.0
SD1 = 2/3 SM1 0.52
Seismic Design Category D
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System Bearing Walls System
Wall Type * Special Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall
R 5
Ω0 2.5
Cd 5
*
Provisions Sec. 9.7.1.2 [9.2.2.1.3] requires special reinforced concrete shear walls in Seismic
Design Category D and requires adherence to the special seismic design provisions of ACI 318
Chapter 21.

[The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps and the maps
have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3 (instead of the previously
used separate map package).]

7.3.2.2 Structural Design Considerations

7.3.2.2.1 Precast Shear Wall System

The criteria for the design is to provide yielding in a dry connection for bending at the base of each
precast shear wall panel while maintaining significant shear resistance in the connection. The flexural
connection for a wall panel at the base is located in one DT leg while the connection at the other leg is
used for compression. Per Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 (ACI Sec. 21.11.3.1) [not applicable in the 2003
Provisions], these connections resist the shear force equal to the nominal shear strength of the panel and
have a nominal strength equal to twice the shear that exists when the actual moment is equal to Mpr

7-49
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

(which ACI defines as φ = 1.0 and a steel stress equal to 125% of specified yield). Yielding will develop
in the dry connection at the base by bending the horizontal leg of the steel angle welded between the
embedded plates of the DT and footing. The horizontal leg of this angle is designed in a manner to resist
the seismic tension of the shear wall due to overturning and then yield and deform inelastically. The
connections on the two legs of the DT are each designed to resist 50 percent of the shear. The anchorage
of the connection into the concrete is designed to satisfy the Type Z requirements in Provisions Sec.
9.1.1.12 (ACI Sec. 21.11.6.5) [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions.]. Careful attention to structural
details of these connections is required to ensure tension ductility and resistance to large shear forces that
are applied to the embedded plates in the DT and footing.

[Based on the 2003 Provisions, unless the design of special precast shear walls is substantiated by
experimental evidence and analysis per 2003 Provisions Sec. 9.2.2.4 (ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.8.2), the design
must satisfy ACI 318-02 Sec. 21.7 requirements for special structural walls as referenced by ACI 318-02
Sec. 21.8.1. The connection requirements are not as clearly defined as in the 2000 Provisions.]

7.3.2.2.2 Building System

Height limit is 160 ft (Provisions Table 5.2.2 [4.3-1]).

The metal deck roof acts as a flexible horizontal diaphragm to distribute seismic inertia forces to the walls
parallel to the earthquake motion (Provisions Sec. 5.2.3.1 [4.3.2.1]).

The building is regular both in plan and elevation.

The reliability factor, ρ is computed in accordance with Provisions Sec. 5.2.4.2 [4.3.3]. The maximum ρx
value is given when rmaxx is the largest value. rmaxx is the ratio of design story shear resisted by the
single element carrying the most shear force to the total story shear. All shear wall elements (8-ft-wide
panels) have the same stiffness. Therefore, the shear in each element is the total shear along a side
divided by the number of elements (wall panels). The largest rmaxx value is along the side with the least
number of panels. Along the side with 11 panels, rmaxx is computed as:

12
rmaxx = 11 = 0.0455
1.0

Ax = 96 ft × 120 ft = 11,520 ft2

20 20
ρx = 2 − = 2− = -2.10
rmaxx Ax 0.0455 11,520

Therefore, use ρ = 1.0.

[The redundancy requirements have been substantially changed for the 2003 Provisions. For a shear wall
building assigned to Seismic Design Category D, ρ = 1.0 as long as it can be shown that failure of a single
shear wall with an aspect ratio greater than 1.0 would not result in more than a 33 percent reduction in
story strength or create an extreme torsional irregularity. Based on the design procedures for the walls,
each individual panel should be considered a separate wall with an aspect ratio greater than 1.0.
Alternatively, if the structure is regular in plan and there are at least two bays of perimeter framing on
each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction, the exception in 2003 Provisions Sec. 4.3.3.2

7-50
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

permits the use of D, ρ = 1.0. This exception could be interpreted as applying to this example, which is
regular and has more than two wall panels (bays) in both directions.]

The structural analysis to be used is the ELF procedure (Provisions Sec. 5.4 [5.2]) as permitted by
Provisions Table 5.2.5 [4.4-1].

Orthogonal load combinations are not required for flexible diaphragms in Seismic Design Category D
(Provisions Sec. 5.2.5.2.3 [4.4.2.3]).

This example does not include design of the foundation system, the metal deck diaphragm, or the
nonstructural elements.

Ties, continuity, and anchorage (Provisions 5.2.6.1 through 5.2.6.4 [4.6]) must be explicitly considered
when detailing connections between the roof and the wall panels. This example does not include the
design of these connections, but sketches of details are provided to guide the design engineer.

There are no drift limitations for single-story buildings as long as they are designed to accommodate
predicted lateral displacements (Provisions Table 5.2.8, footnote b [4.5-1, footnote c]).

7.3.3 Load Combinations

The basic load combinations (Provisions Sec. 5.2.7) require that seismic forces and gravity loads be
combined in accordance with the factored load combinations as presented in ASCE 7, except that the load
factor for earthquake effects (E) is defined by Provisions Eq. 5.2.7-1 and 5.2.7-2 [4.2-1 and 4.2-2]:

E = ρQE ± 0.2SDSD = (1.0)QE ± (0.2)(1.0)D = QE ± 0.2D

The relevant load combinations from ASCE 7 are:

1.2D ± 1.0E + 0.5L


0.9D ± 1.0E

Note that roof live load need not be combined with seismic loads, so the live load term, L, can be omitted
from the equation.

Into each of these load combinations, substitute E as determined above:

1.4D + QE
1.0D - QE (will not control)
1.1D + QE (will not control)
0.7D - QE

These load combinations are for the in-plane direction of the shear walls.

7-51
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

7.3.4 Seismic Force Analysis

7.3.4.1 Weight Calculations

Compute the weight tributary to the roof diaphragm

Roofing = 2.0 psf


Metal decking = 1.8 psf
Insulation = 1.5 psf
Lights, mechanical, sprinkler system etc. = 3.2 psf
Bar joists = 2.7 psf
Joist girder and columns = 0.8 psf
Total = 12.0 psf

The total weight of the roof is computed as:

(120 ft × 96 ft)(12 psf/1,000) = 138 kips

The exterior double tee wall weight tributary to the roof is:

(20 ft/2 + 3 ft)[42 psf/1,000](120 ft + 96 ft)2 = 236 kips

Total building weight for seismic lateral load, W = 138 + 236 = 374 kips

7.3.4.2 Base Shear

The seismic response coefficient (Cs) is computed using Provisions Eq. 5.4.1.1-1 [5.2-2] as:

S DS 1.0
Cs = = = 0.20
R/I 5 1

except that it need not exceed the value from Provisions Eq. 5.4.1.1-2 [5.2-3] as follows:

S D1 0.52
Cs = = = 0.55
T ( R I ) 0.189 ( 5 1)

where T is the fundamental period of the building computed using the approximate method of Provisions
Eq. 5.4.2.1-1 [5.2-6]:

Ta = Cr hnx = (0.02) ( 20.0 )


0.75
= 0.189 sec

Therefore, use Cs = 0.20, which is larger than the minimum specified in Provisions Eq. 5.4.1.1-3 [not
applicable in the 2003 Provisions]:

Cs = 0.044ISDS = (0.044)(1.0)(1.0) = 0 .044

[The minimum Cs value has been changed to 0.01 in. the 2003 Provisions.

The total seismic base shear is then calculated using Provisions Eq. 5.4-1 [5.2-1] as:

7-52
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

V = CsW = (0.20)(374) = 74.8 kips

7.3.4.3 Horizontal Shear Distribution and Torsion

Torsion is not considered in the shear distribution in buildings with flexible diaphragms. The shear along
each side of the building will be equal, based on a tributary area force distribution.

7.3.4.3.1 Longitudinal Direction

The total shear along each side of the building is V/2 = 37.4 kips. The maximum shear on longitudinal
panels (at the side with the openings) is:

Vlu = 37.4/11 = 3.4 kips

On each side, each longitudinal wall panel resists the same shear force as shown in the free-body diagram
of Figure 7.3-2, where D1 represents roof joist reactions and D2 is the panel weight.

8'-0"
3'-0"

V lu
D1 D1

D2
20'-0"

2'-0" 2'-0" 2'-0" 2'-0"

DT leg

Foundation

Vlu
T C

Figure 7.3-2 Free-body diagram of a panel in the


longitudinal direction (1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7-53
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

7.3.4.3.2 Transverse Direction

Seismic forces on the transverse wall panels are all equal and are:

Vtu = 37.4/12 = 3.12 kips

Figure 7.3-3 shows the transverse wall panel free-body diagram.

Note the assumption of uniform distribution to the wall panels in a line requires that the roof diaphragm
be provided with a collector element along its edge. The chord designed for diaphragm action in the
perpendicular direction will normally be capable of fulfilling this function, but an explicit check should
be made in the design.

8'-0"
3'-0"

V tu

D
20'-0"

2'-0" 2'-0"

DT leg

Foundation

Vtu
T C

Figure 7.3-3 Free-body diagram of a panel in the


transverse direction (1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7.3.5 Proportioning and Detailing

The strength of members and components is determined using the strengths permitted and required in
ACI 318 including Chapter 21.

7-54
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

7.3.5.1 Tension and Shear Forces at the Panel Base

Design each precast shear panel to resist the seismic overturning moment by means of a ductile tension
connector at the base of the panel. A steel angle connector will be provided at the connection of each leg
of the DT panel to the concrete footing. The horizontal leg of the angle is designed to yield in bending as
needed in an earthquake. Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] requires that
dry connections at locations of nonlinear action comply with applicable requirements of monolithic
concrete construction and satisfy the following:

1. Where the moment action on the connection is assumed equal to Mpr, the co-existing shear on the
connection shall be no greater than 0.5SnConnection and

2. The nominal shear strength for the connection shall not be less than the shear strengths of the
members immediately adjacent to that connection.

Precisely how ductile dry connections emulate monolithic construction is not clearly explained. The dry
connections used here do meet the definition of a yielding steel element at a connection contained in ACI
318-02. For the purposes of this example, these two additional requirements are interpreted as:

1. When tension from the seismic overturning moment causes 1.25 times the yield moment in the angle,
the horizontal shear on this connection shall not exceed one-half the nominal shear strength of the
connection. For this design, one-half the total shear will be resisted by the angle at the DT leg in
tension and the remainder by the angle at the DT leg in compression.

2. The nominal shear strength of the connections at the legs need to be designed to exceed the in-plane
shear strength of the DT.

Determine the forces for design of the DT connection at the base.

7.3.5.1.1 Longitudinal Direction

Use the free-body diagram shown in Figure 7.3-2. The maximum tension for the connection at the base
of the precast panel to the concrete footing is governed by the seismic overturning moment and the dead
loads of the panel and the roof. The weight for the roof is 11.2 psf, which excludes the joist girders and
columns.

At the base

ME = (3.4 kips)(20 ft) = 68.0 ft-kips

Dead loads

⎛ 48 ⎞
D1 = (11.2 1,000 ) ⎜ ⎟ 4 = 1.08 kips
⎝ 2 ⎠

D2 = 0.042(23)(8) = 7.73 kips


ΣD = 2(1.08) + 7.73 = 9.89 kips
1.4D = 13.8 kips
0.7 D = 6.92 kips

Compute the tension force due to net overturning based on an effective moment arm, d = 4.0 ft (distance
between the DT legs). The maximum is found when combined with 0.7D:

7-55
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Tu = ME/d - 0.7D/2 = 68.0/4 - 6.92/2 = 13.5 kips

7.3.5.1.2 Transverse Direction

For the transverse direction, use the free-body diagram of Figure 7.3-3. The maximum tension for
connection at the base of the precast panel to the concrete footing is governed by the seismic overturning
moment and the dead loads of just the panel. No load from the roof is included, since it is negligible.

At the base

ME = (3.12 kips)(20 ft) = 62.4 ft-kips

The dead load of the panel (as computed above) is D2 = 7.73 kips, and 0.7D = 5.41.

The tension force is computed as above for d = 4.0 ft (distance between the DT legs):

Tu = 62.4/4 - 5.41/2 = 12.9 kips

This tension force is less than that at the longitudinal wall panels. Use the tension force of the
longitudinal wall panels for the design of the angle connections.

7.3.5.2 Panel Reinforcement 21 2" 10"

23 8"
Check the maximum compressive stress in the DT leg for the
requirement of transverse boundary element reinforcement per ACI
318 Sec. 21.6.6.3 [21.7.6.3]. Figure 7.3-4 shows the cross section
used. The section is limited by the area of dry-pack under the DT at
the footing.
4'-0"

M
The reason to limit the area of dry-pack at the footing is to locate the
boundary elements in the legs of the DT, at least at the bottom of the
panel. The flange between the legs of the DT is not as susceptible to
cracking during transportation as are the corners of DT flanges

average
outside the confines of the legs. The compressive stress due to the
43 4"
23 8"

overturning moment at the top of the footing and dead load is:

A = 227 in.2 Figure 7.3-4 Cross section of the DT


S = 3240 in.3 dry-packed at the footing (1.0 in = 25.4
P M 13,800 12 ( 68,000 ) mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).
σ= + E = + = 313psi
A S 227 3, 240

Roof live loads need not be included as a factored axial load in the compressive stress check, but the force
from the prestress steel will be added to the compression stress above because the prestress force will be
effective a few feet above the base and will add compression to the DT leg. Each leg of the DT will be
reinforced with one 1/2-in. diameter and one 3/8-in. diameter strand. Figure 7.3-5 shows the location of
these prestressed strands.

7-56
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Deck mesh

21 2"
(1) 1 2" dia. strand

4" (1) 3 8" dia. strand

Leg mesh
6"

43 4"
average

Figure 7.3-5 Cross section of one DT leg showing the location of the
bonded prestressing tendons or strand (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).

Next, compute the compressive stress resulting from these strands. Note the moment at the height of
strand development above the footing, about 26 in. for the effective stress (fse), is less than at the top of
footing. This reduces the compressive stress by:

(3.4)(26)
x 1000 = 27 psi
3, 240

In each leg, use

P = 0.58fpu Aps = 0.58(270 ksi)[0.153 + 0.085] = 37.3 kips


A = 168 in.2
e = yb - CGStrand = 9.48 - 8.57 = 0.91 in.
Sb = 189 in.3

P Pe 37,300 0.91( 37,300 )


σ= + = + = 402 psi
A S 168 189

Therefore, the total compressive stress is approximately 313 + 402 - 27 = 688 psi.

The limiting stress is 0.2 fc', which is 1000 psi, so no special boundary elements are required in the
longitudinal wall panels.

Reinforcement in the DT for tension is checked at 26 in. above the footing. The strand reinforcement of
the DT leg resisting tension is limited to 60,000 psi. The rationale for using this stress is discussed at the
beginning of this example.

D2 = (0.042)(20.83)(8) = 7.0 kips

7-57
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Pmin = 0.7(7.0 + 2(1.08)) = 6.41 kips


ME = (3.4)(17.83) = 60.6 ft-kips
Tu = Mnet/d - Pmin/2= 12.0 kips

The area of tension reinforcement required is:

As = Tu/φfy = (12.0 kips)/[0.9(60 ksi)] = 0.22 in.2

The area of one ½ in. diameter and one 3/8 in. diameter strand is 0.153 in.2 + 0.085 in.2 = 0.236 in.2 The
mesh in the legs is available for tension resistance, but not required in this check.

To determine the nominal shear strength of the concrete for the connection design, complete the shear
calculation for the panel in accordance with ACI Sec. 21.6 [21.7]. The demand on each panel is:

Vu = Vlu = 3.4 kips

Only the deck between the DT legs is used to resist the in-plane shear (the legs act like flanges, meaning
that the area effective for shear is the deck between the legs). First, determine the minimum required
shear reinforcement based on ACI Sec. 21.6.2.1 [21.7.2]. Since

Acv f c′ = 2.5 ( 48 ) 5,000 = 8.49 kips

exceeds Vu = 3.4 kips, the reinforcement of the deck is per ACI 318 Sec. 16.4.2. Using welded wire
fabric, the required areas of reinforcement are:

Ash = Asv = (0.001)(2.5)(12) = 0.03 in.2/ft

Provide 6 × 6 - W2.5 × W2.0 welded wire fabric.

Ash = 0.05 in.2/ft


Asv = 0.04 in.2/ft

The nominal shear strength of the wall panel by ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.4.1 is:

(
Vn = Acv α c )
f c′ + ρ n f y = ( 2.5 )( 48 )
2 5,000
1,000
+ 0.05 ( 4 )( 60 ) = 29.0 kips

where αc is 2.0 for hw/lw = 23/4 = 5.75, which is greater than 2.0. Given that the connections will be
designed for a shear of 29 kips, it is obvious that half the nominal shear strength will exceed the seismic
shear demand, which is 3.4 kips.

The prestress force and the area of the DT legs are excluded from the calculation of the nominal shear
strength of the DT wall panel. The prestress force is not effective at the base, where the connection is,
and the legs are like the flanges of a channel, which are not effective in shear.

7.3.5.3 Size the Yielding Angle

The angle, which is the ductile element of the connection, is welded between the plates embedded in the
DT leg and the footing. This angle is a L5 × 3-1/2 × 3/4 × 0 ft-5 in. with the long leg vertical. The steel
for the angle and embedded plates will be ASTM A572, Grade 50. The horizontal leg of the angle needs
to be long enough to provide significant displacement at the roof, although this is not stated as a

7-58
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

requirement in either the Provisions or ACI 318. This will be examined briefly here. The angle and its
welds are shown in Figure 7.3-6.

y
y
z
x My
5" t

L5x31 2x3 4x5


Tu' (LLV) Tu'
t

CG Vu'
Vu'
Mx Mz
Mz
4"

My

yB
Mx

Fillet
weld "t"
1"
Vu' Vu'
Fillet 21 4" k = 11 4"
Tu'
weld
Tu' Location
of plastic
hinge

Figure 7.3-6 Free-body of the angle and the fillet weld connecting the embedded plates in
the DT and the footing (elevation and section) (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).

The bending moment at a distance k from the heel of the angle (location of the plastic hinge in the angle)
is:

Mu = Tu(3.5 - k) = 13.5(3.5 - 1.25) = 30.4 in.-kips

⎡ 5 ( 0.75 )2 ⎤
φb M n = 0.9 Fy Z = 0.9 ( 50 ) ⎢ ⎥ = 31.6 in.-kips
⎢⎣ 4 ⎥⎦

Providing a stronger angle (e.g., a shorter horizontal leg) will simply increase the demands on the
remainder of the assembly. Using Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 (ACI Sec. 21.11.6.5) [not applicable in the
2003 Provisions], the tension force for the remainder of this connection other than the angle is based upon
a probable strength equal to 140% of the nominal strength. Thus

M n (1.4) (50)(5)(0.75) 2 / 4
Tu′ = = × 1.4 = 21.9 kips
3.5 − k 3.5 − 1.25

Check the welds for the tension force of 21.9 kips and a shear force (Vu')of 29.0/2 = 14.5 kips, or the
shear associated with Tu', whichever is greater. The bearing panel, with its larger vertical load, will give a
larger shear.

7-59
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

1.4D = 13.8 kips, and V = [Tu'(4) + 1.4D(2)]/20 = [21.9/4 + 13.8(2)]/20 = 5.76 kips. Vn for the panel
obviously controls.

But before checking the welds, consider the deformability of the system as controlled by the yielding
angle. Ignore all sources of deformation except the angle. (This is not a bad assumption regarding the
double tee itself, but other aspects of the connections, particularly the plate and reinforcement embedded
in the DT, will contribute to the overall deformation. Also, the diaphragm deformation will overwhelm
all other aspects of deformation, but this is not the place to address flexible diaphragm issues.) The angle
deformation will be idealized as a cantilever with a length from the tip to the center of the corner, then
upward to the level of the bottom of the DT, which amounts to:

L = 3.5 in. - t/2 + 1 in. - t/2 = 3.75 in.

Using an elastic-plastic idealization, the vertical deformation at the design moment in the leg is

δv = TL3/3EI = (13.5 kips)(3.75 in.)3/[3(29000 ksi)(5 in.)(0.75 in.)3/12] = 0.047 in.

This translates into a horizontal motion at the roof of 0.24 in. (20 ft to the roof, divided by the 4 ft from
leg to leg at the base of the DT.) With Cd of 4, the predicted total displacement is 0.96 in. These
displacements are not very large, but now compare with the expectations of the Provisions. The
approximate period predicted for a 20-ft-tall shear wall building is 0.19 sec. Given a weight of 374 kips,
as computed previously, this would imply a stiffness from the fundamental equation of dynamics:

W /g
T = 2π ⇒ K = 4π 2W /( gT ) = 4π 2 374 /(386 × 0.19) = 201 kip/in.
K

Now, given the design seismic base shear of 74.8 kips, this would imply an elastic displacement of

δh = 74.8 kip / (201 kip/in.) = 0.37 in.

This is about 50% larger than the simplistic calculation considering only the angle. The bending of angle
legs about their weak axis has a long history of providing ductility and, thus, it appears that this dry
connection will provide enough deformability to be in the range of expectation of the Provisions.

7.3.5.4 Welds to Connection Angle

Welds will be fillet welds using E70 electrodes.

For the base metal, φRn = φ(Fy)ABM.

For which the limiting stress is φFy = 0.9(50) = 45.0 ksi.

For the weld metal, φRn = φ(Fy)Aw = 0.75(0.6)70(0.707)Aw.

For which limiting stress is 22.3 ksi.


Size a fillet weld, 5 in. long at the angle to embedded plate in the footing:

Using an elastic approach

Resultant force = V 2 + T 2 = 14.52 + 219


. 2 = 26.3 kips

7-60
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

Aw = 26.3/22.3 = 1.18 in.2

t = Aw/l =1.18 in.2/5 in. = 0.24 in.

For a 3/4 in. angle leg, use a 5/16 in. fillet weld. Given the importance of this weld, increasing the size to
3/8 in. would be a reasonable step. With ordinary quality control to avoid flaws, increasing the strength
of this weld by such an amount should not have a detrimental effect elsewhere in the connection.

Now size the weld to the plate in the DT. Continue to use the conservative elastic method to calculate
weld stresses. Try a fillet weld 5 in. long across the top and 4 in. long on each vertical leg of the angle.
Using the free-body diagram of Figure 7.3-6 for tension and Figure 7.3-7 for shear, the weld moments
and stresses are:

Mx = Tu'(3.5) = 21.9(3.5) = 76.7 in.-kips


My = Vu'(3.5) = (14.5)(3.5) = 50.8 in.-kips
Mz = Vu'(yb + 1.0)
= 14.5(2.77 + 1.0) = 54.7 in.-kips

Mz

My

Z
V
Figure 7.3-7 Free-body of angle with welds, top view,
showing only shear forces and resisting moments.

For the weld between the angle and the embedded plate in the DT as shown in Figure 7.3-7 the section
properties for a weld leg (t) are:

A = 13t in.2
Ix = 23.0t in.4
Iy = 60.4t in.4

7-61
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

Ip = Ix + Iy = 83.4t in.4
yb = 2.77 in.
xL = 2.5 in.

To check the weld, stresses are computed at all four ends (and corners). The maximum stress is at the
lower right end of the inverted U shown in Figure 7.3-6.

Vu′ M z yb 14.5 (54)(2.77) ⎛ 2.93 ⎞


σx = + = + =⎜ ⎟ ksi
A Ip 13t 83.4t ⎝ t ⎠

Tu′ M z xL 21.9 (54.7)(2.5) ⎛ 0.045 ⎞


σy =− + =− + =⎜ ⎟ ksi
A Ip 13t 83.4t ⎝ t ⎠

M y xL M x yb (50.8)(2.5) (76.7)(2.77) ⎛ 11.3 ⎞


σz = − − =- - = ⎜- ⎟ ksi
Iy Ix 60.4t 23.0t ⎝ t ⎠

1 ⎛ 11.67 ⎞
σ R = σ x2 + σ y2 + σ z2 = (2.93) 2 + (0.045) 2 + (−11.3) 2 = ⎜ ⎟ ksi
t ⎝ t ⎠

Thus, t = 11.67/22.3 = 0.52 in., say 9/16 in. Field welds are conservatively sized with the elastic method
for simplicity and to minimize construction issues.

7.3.5.5 Tension and Shear at the Footing Embedment

Reinforcement to anchor the embedded plates is sized for the same tension and shear, and the
development lengths are lengthened by an additional 30%, per Provisions Sec. 9.1.1.12 (ACI Sec.
21.11.6.5) [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]. Reinforcement in the DT leg and in the footing will be
welded to embedded plates as shown in Figure 7.3-8.

The welded reinforcement is sloped to provide concrete cover and to embed the bars in the central region
of the DT leg and footing. The tension reinforcement area required in the footing is:

Tu′ 21.9
As,Sloped = = = 0.45 in.2
(
φ f y cosθ 0.9 ( 60) cos26.5o
)
Use two #5 bars (As = 0.62 in.2 ) at each embedded plate in the footing.

The shear bars in the footing will be two #4 placed on an angle of two (plus)-to-one. The resultant shear
resistance is:

φVn = 0.75(0.2)(2)(60)(cos 26.5E) = 16.1 kips

7-62
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

(2) #4x48"
(See Fig 7.3-9)

(2) #4 with
(2) #4x24" standard hooks
(see Fig 7.3-9)
9
DT
Plate 1 2 x 6 x 0'-10"
1

9 4 9
16 16 5
(2) #3 with
L5x31 3
2x 4x5 standard hooks
(LLV)
weld
on #4
5 5
16 Plate 6x41 2x1 2

"
2'-6
(2) #4x 1

1 2

2'-6
Interior slab

"
2 C.I.P.
L6x4x1 2x10" concrete
footing

(2) #5

Figure 7.3-8 Section at the connection of the precast/prestressed shear wall panel and
the footing (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).

7.3.5.6 Tension and Shear at the DT Embedment

The area of reinforcement for the welded bars of the embedded plate in the DT, which develop tension as
the angle bends through cycles is:

Tu′ 21.9
As = = = 0.408 in.2
φ f y cosθ 0.9(60) cos 6.3o

Two #4 bars are adequate. Note that the bars in the DT leg are required to extend upward 1.3 times the
development length, which would be 22 in. In this case they will be extended 22 in. past the point of
development of the effective stress in the strand, which totals about 48 in.

The same embedded plate used for tension will also be used to resist one-half the nominal shear. This
shear force is 14.5 kips. The transfer of direct shear to the concrete is easily accomplished with bearing
on the sides of the reinforcing bars welded to the plate. Two #5 and two #4 bars (explained later) are
welded to the plate. The available bearing area is approximately Abr = 4(0.5 in.)(5 in.(available)) = 10 in.2
and the bearing capacity of the concrete is φVn = (0.65)(0.85)(5 ksi)(10 in.2) = 27.6 kips > 14.5 kip
demand.

7-63
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

The weld of these bars to the plate must develop both the tensile demand and this shear force. The weld
is a flare bevel weld, with an effective throat of 0.2 times the bar diameter along each side of the bar.
(Refer to the PCI Handbook.) For the #4 bar, the weld capacity is

φVn = (0.75)(0.6)(70 ksi)(0.2)(0.5 in.)(2) = 6.3 kips/in.

The shear demand is prorated among the four bars as (14.5 kip)/4 = 3.5 kip. The tension demand is the
larger of 1.25 fy on the bar (15 kip) or Tu/2 (11.0 kip). The vectorial sum of shear and tension demand is
15.4 kip. Thus, the minimum length of weld is 15.4 / 6.3 = 2.4 in.

7.3.5.7 Resolution of Eccentricities at the DT Embedment

Check the twisting of the embedded plate in the DT for Mz.

Use Mz = 54.7 in.-kips.

Mz 54.7
As = = = 0.11 in.2
φ f y ( jd ) 0.9 ( 60 )( 9.0 )

Use one #4 bar on each side of the vertical embedded plate in the DT as shown in Figure 7.3-9. This is
the same bar used to transfer direct shear in bearing.

Check the DT embedded plate for My (50.8 in.-kips) and Mx (76.7 in.-kips) using the two #4 bars welded
to the back side of the plate near the corners of the weld on the loose angle and the two #3 bars welded to
the back side of the plate near the bottom of the DT leg (as shown in Figure 7.3-9). It is relatively
straightforward to compute the resultant moment magnitude and direction, assume a triangular shaped
compression block in the concrete, and then compute the resisting moment. It is quicker to make a
reasonable assumption as to the bars that are effective and then compute resisting moments about the X
and Y axes. This approximate method is demonstrated here. The #4 bars are effective in resisting Mx,
and one each of the #3 and #4 bars are effective in resisting My. For My assume that the effective depth
extends 1 in. beyond the edge of the angle (equal to twice the thickness of the plate). Begin by assigning
one-half of the “corner” #4 to each component.

With Asx = 0.20 + 0.20/2 = 0.30 in.2 ,


φMnx = φAs fy jd = (0.9)(0.3 in.2)(60 ksi)(0.95)(5 in.) = 77 in.-kips (>76.7).

With Asy = 0.11 + 0.20/2 = 0.21 in.2,


φMny = φAs fy jd = (0.9)(0.21 in.2)(60 ksi)(0.95)(5 in.) = 54 in.-kips (>50.8).

Each component is strong enough, so the proposed bars are satisfactory.

7-64
Chapter 7, Precast Concrete Design

3" 2" 3"

#4

(2) #4 with
standard hook

For 1.25 Fy
1"
3"

Plate 10"x6"x1 2"


2"

(2) #3 with
standard hook

Plate 41 2"x6"x1 2"


10" with 5 8" slot
at center

Figure 7.3-9 Details of the embedded plate in the DT at the base (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).

DT

Plate at each DT leg

L4x3x1 4x
continuous
Metal deck

Bar joists

DT corbel at
each leg

Figure 7.3-11 Sketch of connection of load-bearing DT wall panel at the roof (1.0 in =
25.4 mm).

7-65
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples

7.3.5.8 Other Connections

This design assumes that there is no in-plane shear transmitted from panel to panel. Therefore, if
connections are installed along the vertical joints between DT panels to control the out-of-plane
alignment, they should not constrain relative movement in-plane. In a practical sense, this means the
chord for the roof diaphragm should not be a part of the panels. Figures 7.3-10 and 7.3-11 show the
connections at the roof and DT wall panels. These connections are not designed here. Note that the
continuous steel angle would be expected to undergo vertical deformations as the panels deform laterally.

Because the diaphragm supports concrete walls out of their plane, Provisions Sec. 5.2.6.3.2 [4.6.2.1]
requires specific force minimums for the connection and requires continuous ties across the diaphragm.
Also, it specifically prohibits use of the metal deck as the ties in the direction perpendicular to the deck
span. In that direction, the designer may wish to use the top chord of the bar joists, with an appropriate
connection at the joist girder, as the continuous cross ties. In the direction parallel to the deck span, the
deck may be used but the laps should be detailed appropriately.

In precast double tee shear wall panels with flanges thicker than 2-1/2 in., consideration may be given to
using vertical connections between the wall panels to transfer vertical forces resulting from overturning
moments and thereby reduce the overturning moment demand. These types of connections are not
considered here, since the uplift force is small relative to the shear force and cyclic loading of bars in thin
concrete flanges is not always reliable in earthquakes.

Plate at each
DT leg
Deck straps
as needed

Metal deck
#4 continuous
weld to plates

L4x3x1 4 Bar joist


continuous

2'-0"

Figure 7.3-10 Sketch of connection of non-load-bearing DT wall panel at the


roof (1.0 in = 25.4 mm, 1.0 ft = 0.3048 m).

7-66