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CM2110/CM3110

Professor Faith A. Morrison

December 4, 2008

References

1. (FR) R. M. Felder, and R. W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processe, 2nd Edition

(Wiley, NY: 1986).

2. (G) C. J. Geankoplis, Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd Edition (Prentice Hall:

Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993).

• Is it adiabatic? (if yes, Qin=0)

• Are there moving parts, e.g. do the walls move? (if no, Won=0)

• Is the system moving? (if no, ∆ Ek=0)

• Is there a change in elevation of the system? (if no, ∆Ep = 0 )

• Does T, phase, or chemical composition change? (if no to all, ∆U=0)

(turbulent, α=1; laminar, α=0.5; F= total frictional loss)

∆ ,

• + ∆v2 + g ∆z + F = (FR)

∆

• + ∆v + g ∆z + F = -Ws,by fluid

2

(G)

The mechanical energy balance is only valid for systems for which the following is true:

ii. small or zero Qin

iii. incompressible fluid (ρ = constant)

iv. small or zero ∆T

∆ Ek + ∆ Ep + ∆ H = Qin + Ws,on (FR)

Is it adiabatic? (if yes, Qin=0)

Are there moving parts, e.g. pump, turbine, mixing shaft? (if no, Ws,on=0)

Energy_Balance_Notes_2008_b.docx 4-Dec-08

2

Does the average velocity of the fluid change between the input and the output?

3

3

(if no, ∆ Ek=0); remember <v> = vav = v = , where ) is volumetric flow

²

rate.

Is there a change in elevation of the system between the input and the output? (if

no, ∆ Ep = 0 )

Does T, phase, chemical composition, or P change? (if no to all, ∆H=0)

Energy_Balance_Notes_2008_b.docx 4-Dec-08

3

1. Constant T, P changes only

(a) real gases => look it up in a table (e.g. steam, Tables B4, B5, B6)

(b) ideal gases => ∆û=0

(c) liquids, solids => ∆û=0

2. Constant P, T changes only

(a) real gases => look it up in a table (e.g. steam),

/2

or, if V is constant, ∆û = , Ĉ. (T) dT

/1

/2

(b) ideal gases => ∆û = , Ĉ. (T) dT

/1

also, Ĉp= Ĉv + R

/2

(c) liquids, solids ∆û = , Ĉ. (T) dT

/1

also Ĉp ≈ Ĉv

3. Constant T, P, phase changes

(a) real gases => look it up in a table (e.g. steam)

(b) liquid to vapor => ∆û = ∆Ĥvap(T) - P∆34vap ≈ ∆Ĥvap - RT

(c) solid to vapor => ∆û = ∆Ĥsub(T) - P∆34sub ≈ ∆Ĥsub - RT

(d) solid to liquid => ∆û = ∆Ĥmelt(T) - P∆34melt ≈ ∆Ĥmelt

4. Constant T, P, mixing occurs

(a) gases => ∆û =0

(b) similar liquids => ∆û =0

(c) dissimilar liquids/solids => ∆û = ∆Ĥsolution, Table 8.5-1, FR page 380

56

Note: be careful with units, ∆Ĥsolution [=] 789 78:;9

5. Constant T, P, reaction occurs: ∆û = ΔĤ>?@

Energy_Balance_Notes_2008_b.docx 4-Dec-08

4

Calculating Enthalpy

1. Constant T, P changes only (Note: Since T is constant, Û does not change.)

(a) real gases - look it up in a table (e.g. steam, Tables B4, B5, B6)

(b) ideal gases

Ĥ= Û + P34 (1)

= Û + RT (2)

(Ĥ2 - Ĥ1) = (Û2 - Û1) + R(T2-T1) (3)

∆Ĥ = ∆Û = 0 (4)

Ĥ = Û + P34 (5)

∆ Ĥ = ∆(P34) (6)

34 ≈ constant wrt P (7)

∆ Ĥ = 34(∆ P) (8)

(a) real gases => look it up in a table to be most accurate (e.g. steam),

/2

otherwise ∆Ĥ = ,/ ĈA (T) dT

1

/2

(b) ideal gases => ∆Ĥ = ,/ ĈA (T) dT

1

/2

(c) liquids, solids => ∆Ĥ = ,/ ĈA (T) dT

1

3. Constant T, P, phase changes

(a) liquid to vapor => ∆Ĥ = ∆Ĥvap(T)

B 8@C H Ĥ.IA

Note: BDE/G = Clapeyron equation

J

(b) solid to vapor => ∆Ĥ = ∆Ĥsub(T)

(c) solid to liquid => ∆Ĥ = ∆Ĥmelt(T)

4. Constant T, P, mixing occurs

(a) gases => ∆Ĥ =0

(b) similar liquids => ∆Ĥ =0

(c) dissimilar liquids/solids => ∆Ĥ = ∆Ĥ solution, Table 8.5-1, FR page 380

6

Note: be careful with units, ∆Ĥ solution [=] 789 78:;9

5. Constant T, P, reaction occurs:: ∆û = ΔĤ>?@

Energy_Balance_Notes_2008_b.docx 4-Dec-08

5

Problem-Solving Strategies

for Energy Balances

1. Write down neatly everything you are doing so that you and the grader both understand better

what you are thinking.

2. Draw your flow sheet Large . Leave yourself plenty of room to add information to the

drawing. Draw it over if it becomes too crowded. Do not erase; start a new sheet. You may want

to come back to the original information.

3. Always write complete units with quantities, e.g., for mole fraction A the units are

789

789 ;7;L8

; quantities are meaningless without the units.

4. What are you looking for? What balance can help you find it?

b. Is it an open or a closed system?

c. Is it a mechanical energy balance problem?

5. Convert inconvenient units, e.g., convert volumes and volume fractions into moles or masses,

since mass is conserved and volume is not. Also, convert dew points and other similar

information (e.g. percent humidity, molal saturation, etc.) to compositions if possible.

6. Do you have a piece of information you do not know what to do with? What is its definition?

Look it up in the index, if necessary. Write it with its proper units and try to interpret how it

impacts the problem.

7. What has remained constant in the problem? Is it isothermal (T constant)? Isobaric (P constant)?

Constant V or 34? Adiabatic (Q=0)? Is the mass flow constant? Is the volumetric flow constant? Is

the heat flow constant or known?

8. Remember that if a system is saturated, you know a great deal about it:

a. If it is a pure component, you only need to know the phase (i.e. solid, liquid, vapor) and

one of the following to know everything about the stream: T, P, 34, Û, Ĥ.

b. If it is a mixture, Raoult's law applies to each component, yiP = xiPi*(T).

9. When looking for Û, Ĥ, or 34, always take it from a table, if it is available. It is available in a table

for water/steam:

b. Table B.5, FR page 630, “Properties of Saturated Steam,”' sorted by Pressure

Energy_Balance_Notes_2008_b.docx 4-Dec-08

6

pressure and temperature. Saturated steam properties are also presented in the first two

columns of Table B.6, but the steps in pressure are large, and therefore Tables B.4 and

B.5 are more accurate for saturated steam properties at lower T and P.

10. If the problem is complex, break it down into smaller pieces and draw separate flow-sheets which

correspond to the smaller pieces.

11. Name unknown streams, compositions, and enthalpies or internal energies. See if there are few

unknowns which can be solved for. Try different methods of naming the unknowns if the first

way you think of does not turn out to be convenient.

a. mass balance

b. mole fractions and mass fractions sum to 1.

c. If a stream is just split, with no special process unit present, the mole or mass fractions

are the same in all streams before and after the split.

d. For a fixed, closed system, V, 34, and mass are constant.

13. The last step is to answer the question. Always present your answer with the correct number of

significant figures and a box around it.

Energy_Balance_Notes_2008_b.docx 4-Dec-08

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