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What is Artificial Intelligence or A.I.?

is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI)


displayed by humans and other animals. In computer science AI research is defined as the study
of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that
maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals.
the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally
require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and
translation between languages.
 commonly A.I. or Artificial Intelligence is a machine or computer program that
learns how to do task the require forms of intelligence that usually done by us
humans.
 intelligence comes in many forms and has many different aspects.
 AI was first coined by John McCarthy in 1955

Examples of AI used in todays life

NEST(GOOGLE)
Nest was one of the most famous and successful artificial intelligence startups and it
was acquired by Google in 2014 for $3.2 billion. The Nest Learning Thermostat uses behavioral
algorithms to save energy based on your behavior and schedule.

It employs a very intelligent machine learning process that learns the temperature you like and
programs itself in about a week. Moreover, it will automatically turn off to save energy, if
nobody is at home.

In fact, it is a combination of both – artificial intelligence as well as Bluetooth low-energy


because some components of this solution will use BLE services and solutions.

JOHN MCCARTHY
was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. He is also one of the
founders of the discipline of Artificial Intelligence together with Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell
and Herbert A. Simon.
In 1958, he proposed the “Advice Taker”,which inspired later work on question-
answering and logic programming.
He also invented “Lisp” in the late 1950’s. Based on Lambda Calculus, Lisp soon became
the programming language of choice for AI applications after its publication in 1960.
Around 1959, he invented so-called “Garbage collection” methods to solve problems in
Lisp.
Lisp
is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive,
fully parenthesized prefix notation. Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-
level programming language in widespread use today. Only Fortran is older, by one year. Lisp
has changed since its early days, and many dialects have existed over its history. Today, the
best known general-purpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme.

Original Definition/Concept of AI

“Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so


precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. An attempt will be made to find
how to make machines use languages,form of abstractsions and concepts, solve kinds of
problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves.”

Original 7 Aspects of AI

1. Simulating higher functions of the human brain.


2. Programming a computer to use general language.
3. Arranging hypothetical neurons in a manner so that they can form concepts.
4. A way to determine and measure problem complexity.
5. Self-improvement.
6. Abstraction: “Defined as the quality of dealing with ideas rather than events.”
7. Randomness and creativity.

Important factors in the form of intelligence

Generalization Learning
Reasoning
Problem Solving
Perception
Language Understanding

Examples of AI
Machine Learning
Computer Vision
Natural Language Processing
Robotics
Pattern Recognition
Knowledge Management

Different types of AI in terms of Approach (STRONG A.I. & WEAK A.I.)

Strong AI
is simulating the human brain by building systems that think and in a process gives us an
insights into how our brain works.
Can do anything as well/better than human.

Weak AI
Is a systems the we have as a human, but it doesn’t gives us an insight to how our brain
works.
Achieves only the result of a human.