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ECE 427

5.1 The dc converter in Figure 5.2a has a resistive load. R=20 Ohms and input voltage, V=220V.
When the converer remains on, its voltage drop is Vch=1.5V and chopping frequency is f=10kHz. If
the duty cycle is 80%, determine
a. the average output voltage Va
b. the rms output voltage Vo
c. the converter efficiency
d. the effective input resistance Ri, and
e. the rms value of the fundamental component of harmonics on the output voltage.

Figure 5.2a shows a chopper, a form of buck converter with a purely resistive load.

RO  20 Ω VS  220 V Vch  1.5 V fs  10 kHz k  80 %

1
The average output voltage is Ts  Ts  100 μs
fs


VO  k  VS  Vch  VO  174.8V

The rms output voltage is

v o ( t)  VS  Vch if 0  s  t  k  Ts

( 0  V) if k  Ts  t  Ts

Ts
vo ( t) 1 
is( t)  IS    is( t) dt IS  8.74 A
RO Ts 
0

Ts
1 
 
2
Vo   v o ( t ) dt Vo  195.432 V
Ts 
0
The converter efficiency is
Ts
1 
PO    v o ( t)  is( t) dt PO  1.91 kW
Ts 
0
Ts
1 
PS    VS is( t) dt PS  1.923  kW
Ts 
0
PO
η  η  99.318 %
PS

The effective input resistance:

VS
Req  Req  25.172 Ω
IS

Ts
2 
v o1s   
  v o ( t)  sin 2  π fs t dt
Ts 
v o1s  48.058 V
0

Ts
2 
v o1c   
  v o ( t)  cos 2  π fs t dt
Ts 
v o1c  66.147 V
0

2 2
Vo1  v o1s  v o1c Vo1  81.762 V

Vo1 The textbook answer of 98.36V is valid


Vo1rms  Vo1rms  57.814 V for a 50% duty cycle.
2

5.4 The dc converter shown in Figure 5.8a is used to control power flow from a dc voltage Vs =
110V to a battery voltage E=220V. The power transferred to the battery is 25kV. The current ripple
of the inductor is negligible. Determine
a. the duty cycle k,
b. the effective load resistance Req, and
c. the average input current Is.

E  220  V VS  110  V PE  25 kW

We assume ideal switches.


E 1
=
VS 1k

VS = E  k  E
E  VS
k  k  0.5
E
Equivalent load resistance Req

VS  110 V PE  25 kW

PE
IS  IS  227.273 A
VS

VS
Req  Req  0.484 Ω
IS

Checking,
How the author found 0.4033 Ohms, I do not know.
PE
Req  Req  0.484 Ω
2
IS

Average input current IS,

PE
IS  IS  227.273 A
VS

Second problem group: 1. Problem 6.10 on page 233. Design a buck converter such that the
output voltage is 28V when the input is 48V. The load is 8 Ohms. Design for continuous inductor
current. The output voltage ripple must be no greater than 0.5%. Specify the switching
frequency and the value of each of the components. Assume ideal components.

This is a design problem. There are a great host of answers. Your task is to find one of them.

Start with restating the given.

Vo  28 V Vs  48 V ΔVor  0.5% RL  8  Ω

Calculate some of the important quantities from the given, such as the DC inductor current
component and the duty cycle.

Vo
Io  Io  3.5 A IL  Io IL  3.5 A
RL

Vo
k  k  0.583
Vs

The inductor ripple must give continuous conduction. The minimum value to do so in this situation
is:
( 1  k )  RL
Lmin =
2 f

Voltage ripple is complicated. The textbook does have a formula for an ideal buck converter's
voltage ripple:

1k
ΔVor =
2
8  L C  f

Now do the design work. Pick a switching frequency. Typical switching frequencies in power
supplies these days vary from about 50kHz in the bigger supplies to 1 MHz in the smaller ones. At
28V and 3.5A, this is about 100W, which is a medium size power supply. Let's try 400kHz. Then
apply the design formulae, rearranging the voltage formula to find the capacitance.
1
f  400  kHz Ts  Ts  2.5 μs
f
( 1  k )  RL
Lmin  Lmin  4.167  μH
2 f

1k
C  C  15.625 μF
2
8  Lmin f  ΔVor

That is a mimimum set of elements. It would probably be a good thing to reduce the current ripple
in the inductor to keep continuous conduction.

Vo
ΔiL   ( 1  k )  Ts ΔiL  7  A
Lmin

Reduce to 10% peak current ripple.

Vo  ( 1  k )  Ts
ΔiL  ( 10 %)  Io ΔiL  0.35 A Lmin  Lmin  83.333 μH
ΔiL

Recalculate the capacitance.


1k
CL  CL  0.781  μF
2
8  Lmin f  ΔVor

This is one answer. Depending on what components are available at what cost, better solutions
may be appropriate.
Problem 6.15 The boost converter of Fig 6-6 has the following parameters: Vs=20V, D=0.6,
R=12.5Ω, L=65μH, C=200μF, and switching frequency = 40kHz.
a. Determine the output voltage.
b. Determine the average, maximum, and minimum inductor current.
c. Determine the output voltage ripple.
d. Dermine the average current in the diode.

Vs  20 V D  0.60 R0  12.5 Ω L  65 μH C0  200  μF fs  40 kHz

1
a. Determine the output voltage. Ts   25 μs
fs

1
V0  Vs  50 V
1D

b. Determine the average, maximum, and minimum inductor current.


2
V0
P0   200 W
R0

Ps  P0  200 W

Ps
Is   10 A IL  Is  10 A
Vs
Vs
ΔIL   D Ts  4.615 A
L
ΔIL ΔIL
ILmax  IL   12.308 A ILmin  IL   7.692 A
2 2

c. Determine the output voltage ripple.

We see the output ripple is defined as

D V0
ΔV0   300  mV
R0  C0  fs

We can also express this a per unit ripple.

ΔV0
 0.006
V0

d. Dermine the average current in the diode.


IDave  IL ( 1  D)  4 A
Problem 6.17 For the boost converer of Problem 6-15, sketch the inductor and capacitor
currents. Determine the rms values of these currents.
NN i
NN  12 pts  2 i  0 1  pts tt   Ts
i pts

 ILmax  ILmin  Inductor current rises from min to max


iL( t)    t  ILmin if 0  s  t  D Ts value in a time equal to DTs and then
D Ts
  falls back to its min value to complete
the cycle by time Ts
 ILmin  ILmax 
   t  D Ts  ILmax if D Ts  t  Ts
 Ts  D Ts 
13
12
11
iL tt i 10
9
8
7
5 5
0 1 10 2 10
tt i

Ts
1 
 
2
iLrms   i L( t ) dt iLrms  10.088 A
Ts 
0

iC( t)  IDave if 0  s  t  D Ts

 ILmin  ILmax 
 T  D T   t  D Ts  ILmax  IDave if D Ts  t  Ts
 s s 

10

5
iC tti
0

5
5 5
0 1 10 2 10
tt i

Ts
1 
 
2
iCrms   i C ( t ) dt iCrms  4.971 A
Ts 
0
Problem 6.29 on page 235. For a boost converter with a nonideal inductor, product a family o
curves of Vo /Vs similar to Fig 6-11a for rL /R=0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7.

Restate the given.


Ls  65 μH RL  12.5 Ω

Define the rL /R ratio.

rL
rk =
RL

The effect of inductor resistance as a function of rL/R ration and duty cycle is:

Vs 1
Vo = 
1k rL
1
2
R L ( 1  k )

Express this as a function:

 
1 1
Vgain rk k  
( 1  k) rk
1
2
( 1  k) Typical values of inductor resistance as a fraction of
load resistance are near 0.01 .
Set up the plot.
i
i  0 1  99 k 
i 100

Vgain  0.1 ki 1.5

Vgain  0.3 ki

Vgain  0.5 ki 1

Vgain  0.7 ki


0.5

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
ki
Problem 6.32 on page 235. The buck converter of Example 6-2 was designed for a 10 Ohm load.
a. What is the limitation on the load resistance for continuous current operation?
b. What woud be the range of output voltage for a load resistance range of 5 Ohms to 20 Ohms?
c. Redesign the converter so inductor current remains continuous for a load resistance range of 25
Ohms to 100 Ohms.
1
D  0.375 Ls  97.5 μH fs  40 kHz Ts  Ts  25 μs Cs  100  μF RL  10 Ω
fs
Vs  48 V
2 8  Ls
D  D 
R L Ts
D1 
2

For continuous current, the limit is the D1 =1-D condition.


1  D  0.625

RL  12.5 Ω
Solve by guess:

2 8  Ls
D  D 
R L Ts
D1  D1  0.624
2

A load resistance of RL  12.5 Ω gives the boundary of continuous conduction.

part b

For resistances less than RL  12.5 Ω

Vo  Vs D Vo  18 V

For resistances greater than RL  12.5 Ω up to RL  20 Ω

The voltage increases with increasing load resistance value. The maximum output voltage in the
given interval occurs as its upper limit:

2 D
Vo  Vs Vo  21.44 V RL  20 Ω
2 8  Ls
D D 
R L Ts

Therefore, the range of voltage is 18V  Vo  21.44  V


Redesign the converter so inductor current remains continuous for a load resistance
range of 5 Ohms to 20 Ohms.

This can be done by increasing the inductor value until we meet the boundary of continuous
conduction at 20 Ohms load.
RL  20 Ω D  0.375 Ts  25 μs D1  1  D D1  0.625

Solving, we find that Ls  156.25 μH gives continuous conduction for the least inductance.

RL ( 1  D)
Ls   156.25 μH
2  fs

2 8  Ls
D  D 
R L Ts
D1 
2 D1  0.625

Checking,
2 D
Vo  Vs Vo  18 V RL  20 Ω
2 8  Ls
D D 
R L Ts

D
Vo  Vs Vo  18 V
D  D1

Any load resistance less than this gives continuous conduction.

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