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ECLIPSE* reservoir simulation software

Version 2010.1

User Guide
Proprietary notice
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under applicable law.

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Table of Contents
List of Figures ..... ...................................................................................................................................................................9
List of Tables ...... .................................................................................................................................................................12

Chapter 1 - New developments ..................................................................................................... 13


Developments in 2007.1 .......................................................................................................................................................13
Developments in FloGrid 2006.1 ..........................................................................................................................................14

Chapter 2 - Introduction ................................................................................................................. 15


Overview............. .................................................................................................................................................................15
FloGrid Tools ...... .................................................................................................................................................................17
Create a Model .. .................................................................................................................................................................26
Typical Workflows.................................................................................................................................................................30
Main Window ...... .................................................................................................................................................................35

Chapter 3 - Getting started............................................................................................................. 37


Starting FloGrid .. .................................................................................................................................................................37

Chapter 4 - Short Tutorials............................................................................................................. 39


Introduction ......... .................................................................................................................................................................39
Building a simulation model from maps ................................................................................................................................42
Building a simulation model from a RESCUE model ............................................................................................................46
Building a simulation model by upgridding another model and comparing volumetrics .......................................................48
Building an unstructured simulation model ...........................................................................................................................51
Planning New Wells..............................................................................................................................................................53
Updating a simulation model and building a derived model .................................................................................................56
Deriving Fault Transmissibility Multipliers for Simulation......................................................................................................59
Generating geostatistical properties .....................................................................................................................................61
Running a Streamline Simulation with Multiple Realizations ................................................................................................66
Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping .......................................................................................................70

Chapter 5 - User Interface .............................................................................................................. 75


Introduction ......... .................................................................................................................................................................75
Windows and Panels ............................................................................................................................................................76
Data Tables ........ .................................................................................................................................................................83
Window Items ..... .................................................................................................................................................................84
Common options .................................................................................................................................................................87
Preferences Menu ................................................................................................................................................................94

Chapter 6 - Save and Restore ........................................................................................................ 97


Workspace save and restore ................................................................................................................................................97
The workspace - technical background ................................................................................................................................98
File menu options .................................................................................................................................................................99

Chapter 7 - Commands................................................................................................................. 101


Commands ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................101

Chapter 8 - 3D Viewer ................................................................................................................... 107


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................107
File Menu ............ ...............................................................................................................................................................109
Edit Menu ........... ...............................................................................................................................................................112

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Table of Contents
View menu .......... ...............................................................................................................................................................130
Tools menu ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................140
Scene Menu........ ...............................................................................................................................................................144

Chapter 9 - Structural Framework ............................................................................................... 175


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................175
Creating and deleting models .............................................................................................................................................177
Displaying model status ......................................................................................................................................................178
Creating and displaying boundaries....................................................................................................................................179
Specifying units .. ...............................................................................................................................................................182
Fault block splitting .............................................................................................................................................................186
Creating FloGrid data models .............................................................................................................................................190

Chapter 10 - Fault framework editor ........................................................................................... 191


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................191
Selecting faults/gridding controls for display.......................................................................................................................192
Editors................. ...............................................................................................................................................................193
Editing lines and vertices ....................................................................................................................................................195
Editing faults/gridding controls ............................................................................................................................................199
Fault block splitting .............................................................................................................................................................209

Chapter 11 - Geological Property model .................................................................................... 215


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................215
Creating and deleting models .............................................................................................................................................217
Importing data ..... ...............................................................................................................................................................218
External model .... ...............................................................................................................................................................220
External properties..............................................................................................................................................................221
Scenarios ............ ...............................................................................................................................................................222
Creating and editing model properties ................................................................................................................................223
Creating property maps ......................................................................................................................................................228
Property data model ...........................................................................................................................................................229

Chapter 12 - Property population................................................................................................ 231


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................231
File menu ............ ...............................................................................................................................................................233
Population Parameter Set...................................................................................................................................................234
Primary Input ...... ...............................................................................................................................................................236
Lumping .............. ...............................................................................................................................................................240
Secondary Input.. ...............................................................................................................................................................242
Algorithm............. ...............................................................................................................................................................243
Realizations ........ ...............................................................................................................................................................262
Proportions (Global, Vertical and Secondary Data Weights) ..............................................................................................264
Search ................ ...............................................................................................................................................................266
Output Mask ....... ...............................................................................................................................................................268
Current Property Grid..........................................................................................................................................................270
Creating and specifying data ..............................................................................................................................................272
Property Population menu ..................................................................................................................................................280
Indicator Classification ........................................................................................................................................................284
Property Population Data Analysis .....................................................................................................................................288
Data Analysis ...... ...............................................................................................................................................................292
Histogram Settings..............................................................................................................................................................297
Univariate Statistics ............................................................................................................................................................298
Bivariate Statistics...............................................................................................................................................................300
Variogram Specification ......................................................................................................................................................302

4 FloGrid User Guide


Table of Contents
Chapter 13 - Creating a structured grid ...................................................................................... 309
Structured Gridder Module .................................................................................................................................................309
Corner point gridding ..........................................................................................................................................................311
Rectangular gridding ..........................................................................................................................................................330

Chapter 14 - Data tree................................................................................................................... 333


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................333
Using the data tree .............................................................................................................................................................334
Surfaces Data .... ...............................................................................................................................................................341
Faults Data ........ ...............................................................................................................................................................360
Wells Data ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................374
Well Markers Data .............................................................................................................................................................383
Well Logs Data ... ...............................................................................................................................................................386
Boundaries Data ...............................................................................................................................................................390
Structural Frameworks Data ..............................................................................................................................................393
FloGrid Models Data ..........................................................................................................................................................396

Chapter 15 - LGRs, Resizing, Aquifers and NNCs ..................................................................... 407


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................407
Refining a structured grid ...................................................................................................................................................408
Resizing a structured grid ...................................................................................................................................................412
Region multipliers ...............................................................................................................................................................417
Aquifers .............. ...............................................................................................................................................................419
NNCs .................. ...............................................................................................................................................................421

Chapter 16 - Structured gridder properties ................................................................................ 427


Structured gridder properties/Upscaler ..............................................................................................................................427
File: Import, Export and Status ...........................................................................................................................................430
Phase folders...... ...............................................................................................................................................................434
Property editor tree .............................................................................................................................................................435
1 Phase .............. ...............................................................................................................................................................451
2 Phase .............. ...............................................................................................................................................................453
Multilevel upscaling ............................................................................................................................................................459
Diagnostics ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................461
Upscaling and diagnostics ..................................................................................................................................................463
Upscaling relative permeability ...........................................................................................................................................479
Statistical diagnostics .........................................................................................................................................................484
Building the micro grid in a grid block .................................................................................................................................485
Single phase flow equations in curvilinear coordinates ......................................................................................................486

Chapter 17 - Upgridder ................................................................................................................. 487


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................487
Upgridding Folder ...............................................................................................................................................................488
Upgridder - Technical Description ......................................................................................................................................493
Generating and using fluxes for Upgridding .......................................................................................................................496

Chapter 18 - Generating an unstructured grid ........................................................................... 499


Unstructured Gridder module .............................................................................................................................................499
Creating and editing unstructured grid................................................................................................................................501
Gridding order..... ...............................................................................................................................................................524
Generating a grid ...............................................................................................................................................................525
Gridding Preferences..........................................................................................................................................................532

Chapter 19 - LGRs, Aquifers and Properties for an unstructured grid.................................... 535


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................535

FloGrid User Guide 5


Table of Contents
LGR... ................. ...............................................................................................................................................................536
Aquifers............... ...............................................................................................................................................................540
Property .............. ...............................................................................................................................................................542

Chapter 20 - Fault Property Calculator ....................................................................................... 551


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................551
Faults Tab ........... ...............................................................................................................................................................553
Derived Multiplier Folder .....................................................................................................................................................555
Fault Export folder ..............................................................................................................................................................558
Fault Property Calculator - technical background ...............................................................................................................559

Chapter 21 - Volumetrics.............................................................................................................. 569


Volumetrics ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................569
Measurements .... ...............................................................................................................................................................570
Reporting options ...............................................................................................................................................................573
Volumetric run definitions....................................................................................................................................................574
Using contact sets with volumetrics ....................................................................................................................................575
Single run operation............................................................................................................................................................576
Multiple realization operation ..............................................................................................................................................577

Chapter 22 - Contact Sets ............................................................................................................ 579


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................579
The ContactRegion property...............................................................................................................................................580
Defining a contact set .........................................................................................................................................................581
Displaying a contact set ......................................................................................................................................................582
Using a contact set .............................................................................................................................................................583

Chapter 23 - Streamline Simulation ............................................................................................ 585


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................585
Simulation Setup. ...............................................................................................................................................................587
Simulation Manager (Volumetrics Graphics) ......................................................................................................................595
File menu ............ ...............................................................................................................................................................596
Graphics Window ...............................................................................................................................................................603
Management Options .........................................................................................................................................................605
Schedule section keyword generation ................................................................................................................................611
Black Oil correlations ..........................................................................................................................................................613
Calculation of Kh and connection factor .............................................................................................................................617
Orthogonalization of vectors ...............................................................................................................................................620

Chapter 24 - Multiple Realizations .............................................................................................. 623


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................623
Realizations Dialog (Volumetrics) .......................................................................................................................................625
Executing Realizations........................................................................................................................................................628
Multiple Realizations for FrontSim simulations ...................................................................................................................629
The Realizations Dialog (Simulation)..................................................................................................................................630

Chapter 25 - Well Planning........................................................................................................... 631


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................631
Wells node .......... ...............................................................................................................................................................632
Well node ............ ...............................................................................................................................................................637

Chapter 26 - Core Analysis .......................................................................................................... 645


Core .................... ...............................................................................................................................................................645

6 FloGrid User Guide


Table of Contents
Chapter 27 - 2D Mapping Canvas ................................................................................................ 647
Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................647
Edit menu ........... ...............................................................................................................................................................653
Display menu ...... ...............................................................................................................................................................654
Options menu ..... ...............................................................................................................................................................658
Others menu ....... ...............................................................................................................................................................659
2D Viewer ........... ...............................................................................................................................................................660
2D Viewer options ..............................................................................................................................................................669
2D Viewer Editors ...............................................................................................................................................................671
Common Workflows............................................................................................................................................................674

Chapter 28 - 2D Well Log Correlation Canvas............................................................................ 679


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................679
Selecting data for display ...................................................................................................................................................680
Removing data from display ...............................................................................................................................................682
Color shading the well logs.................................................................................................................................................685

Chapter 29 - Expression Calculator ............................................................................................ 687


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................687
Common features ...............................................................................................................................................................688
Multi-Apply Calculator.........................................................................................................................................................690
Expression calculator language..........................................................................................................................................695

Appendix A - Calculator Language ............................................................................................. 701


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................701
Language definition ............................................................................................................................................................702
Keywords ............ ...............................................................................................................................................................705
Built-in constants ...............................................................................................................................................................710
Built-in functions . ...............................................................................................................................................................711
Operators............ ...............................................................................................................................................................713
Symbol functions ...............................................................................................................................................................714
Unit support ........ ...............................................................................................................................................................717
Special variables ...............................................................................................................................................................727
Calculator utilities ...............................................................................................................................................................729
Startup files......... ...............................................................................................................................................................731
Debugging .......... ...............................................................................................................................................................732

Appendix B - Configuring FloGrid............................................................................................... 735


Configuring on-line help......................................................................................................................................................735
FloGrid License Features ...................................................................................................................................................756

Appendix C - Construction of Units and Horizons from Mesh Maps ....................................... 757
Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................757

Appendix D - Corner point gridding............................................................................................ 761


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................761
Corner point grids ...............................................................................................................................................................762
Building a corner point grid .................................................................................................................................................764
Further remarks on the user specified parameters, and user choices................................................................................769

Appendix E - Input file formats .................................................................................................... 773


Input file formats . ...............................................................................................................................................................773
Contour Map Control files ...................................................................................................................................................774
Mesh Map Data .. ...............................................................................................................................................................781

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Table of Contents
Scatter sets data . ...............................................................................................................................................................783
Faults .................. ...............................................................................................................................................................784
Wells ................... ...............................................................................................................................................................791
Property model input formats..............................................................................................................................................798
Geolith / Chears input format ..............................................................................................................................................799

Appendix F - Importing Data From GeoFrame ........................................................................... 803


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................803

Appendix G - Unstructured Gridder files.................................................................................... 805


Import files .......... ...............................................................................................................................................................805
Export files .......... ...............................................................................................................................................................808
Converting old dual porosity files command files................................................................................................................811

Appendix H - Property Population Glossary.............................................................................. 813


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................813

Appendix I - Reference Tutorials ................................................................................................. 823


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................823
Fault trace handling ............................................................................................................................................................824

Appendix J - Mapping Packages................................................................................................. 839


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................839
Convergent Gridder ............................................................................................................................................................840
Conpac ............... ...............................................................................................................................................................847
Contouring .......... ...............................................................................................................................................................850

Appendix K - Printing images...................................................................................................... 853


Saving Images as Print Files ..............................................................................................................................................853
Related information for supported file save formats ...........................................................................................................857

Appendix L - History of developments ....................................................................................... 859


Developments in FloGrid 2004A_1 .....................................................................................................................................859
Developments in FloGrid 2004A .........................................................................................................................................860
Developments in FloGrid 2003A_1 .....................................................................................................................................862
Developments in FloGrid 2003A .........................................................................................................................................864
Developments in FloGrid 2002A_1 .....................................................................................................................................870
Developments in FloGrid 2002A .........................................................................................................................................874
Developments in FloGrid 2001A_1 .....................................................................................................................................878
Developments in FloGrid 2001A .........................................................................................................................................879
Developments in FloGrid 2000A .........................................................................................................................................885
Developments in FloGrid 99B .............................................................................................................................................891
Developments for FloGrid 98B............................................................................................................................................899

Appendix M - Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 905

Appendix N - Index ....................................................................................................................... 909

8 FloGrid User Guide


Table of Contents
List of Figures
Figure 5.1 .......... Tile 3D Windows panel ...........................................................................................................................77
Figure 5.2 .......... Example of tiling 2 viewers in one row....................................................................................................78
Figure 5.3 .......... Example of tiling 3 viewers in two rows ..................................................................................................78
Figure 5.4 .......... The Text Editor window ..........................................................................................................................79
Figure 5.5 .......... Example of a modal panel ......................................................................................................................80
Figure 5.6 .......... Example of a modeless panel.................................................................................................................81
Figure 5.7 .......... Example window items ...........................................................................................................................85
Figure 8.1 .......... Print Setup panel ..................................................................................................................................109
Figure 8.2 .......... Edit Boundaries panel...........................................................................................................................113
Figure 8.3 .......... Map Editor Controls panel ....................................................................................................................117
Figure 8.4 .......... The Edit NNC Values panel..................................................................................................................120
Figure 8.5 .......... The Create New NNC panel .................................................................................................................121
Figure 8.6 .......... The Animate Time panel.......................................................................................................................131
Figure 8.7 .......... The timestep control buttons ................................................................................................................131
Figure 8.8 .......... The Animate Time Options panel .........................................................................................................132
Figure 8.9 .......... Object Appearance panel .....................................................................................................................132
Figure 8.10 ........ Normalization panel .............................................................................................................................133
Figure 8.11 ........ Object Rotation panel ...........................................................................................................................136
Figure 8.12 ........ Lighting panel .......................................................................................................................................137
Figure 8.13 ........ Stereo Panel .........................................................................................................................................137
Figure 8.14 ........ Property Display panel..........................................................................................................................146
Figure 8.15 ........ Cell Probe panel ...................................................................................................................................147
Figure 8.16 ........ Threshold Properties ............................................................................................................................148
Figure 8.17 ........ Integer Threshold panel........................................................................................................................149
Figure 8.18 ........ Real Threshold panel............................................................................................................................149
Figure 8.19 ........ IJK Slicer panel.....................................................................................................................................151
Figure 8.20 ........ VOI Grid Cells panel .............................................................................................................................152
Figure 8.21 ........ VOI Domain Selection panel.................................................................................................................153
Figure 8.22 ........ Create VOI From Boundary panel ........................................................................................................154
Figure 8.23 ........ The Cell Face Selection panel ..............................................................................................................159
Figure 8.24 ........ Integer Threshold panel........................................................................................................................163
Figure 8.25 ........ Real Threshold panel............................................................................................................................164
Figure 8.26 ........ Wells panel ...........................................................................................................................................165
Figure 8.27 ........ Ternary legend......................................................................................................................................167
Figure 8.28 ........ Color legend .........................................................................................................................................168
Figure 8.29 ........ Color legend .........................................................................................................................................168
Figure 8.30 ........ Object Appearance panel .....................................................................................................................171
Figure 8.31 ........ Edit Titles panel ....................................................................................................................................172
Figure 8.32 ........ Axes panel ............................................................................................................................................173
Figure 10.1 ........ Two intersecting faults ..........................................................................................................................192
Figure 10.2 ........ A fault in the process of being edited by moving the vertices...............................................................193
Figure 10.3 ........ Magnification Controls dialog................................................................................................................198
Figure 10.4 ........ Intersecting faults following selection of a position along the major fault (shown in yellow) .................200
Figure 10.5 ........ The same faults, after selecting a section of the major fault (shown in yellow) ....................................200
Figure 10.6 ........ Potentially ambiguous multiple intersections between pairs of faults/gridding controls (areal view) ....201
Figure 10.7 ........ Digitize New Control dialog...................................................................................................................203
Figure 10.8 ........ Digitizing an extension to the top line of an existing gridding control ...................................................205
Figure 10.9 ........ The same control after digitizing the extension to the bottom line ........................................................205
Figure 10.10 ...... The same control after extension .........................................................................................................206
Figure 10.11 ...... Rescue model fault with incorrectly specified top (magenta) and bottom (cyan) edges .......................206
Figure 10.12 ...... The same fault after placing the four beads to define the correct top and bottom edges .....................207
Figure 10.13 ...... The corrected fault................................................................................................................................208
Figure 10.14 ...... How FloGrid analyzes and orders faults ...............................................................................................210
Figure 10.15 ...... Faults with a cyclic set of major-minor relationships.............................................................................211

FloGrid User Guide 9


List of Figures
Figure 10.16 ....... How FloGrid splits fault blocks with a cyclic set of major-minor fault relationships...............................211
Figure 10.17 ....... How FloGrid creates new mesh maps for each block and horizon .......................................................212
Figure 10.18 ....... How FloGrid applies re-samples of the 2D fault traces to the new block unit horizons ........................212
Figure 12.1 ......... Algorithm Decision Tree........................................................................................................................260
Figure 12.2 ......... Facies Property Population ...................................................................................................................260
Figure 12.3 ......... Petrophysical Property Population .......................................................................................................261
Figure 12.4 ......... Features of a variogram ........................................................................................................................295
Figure 13.1 ......... Top conforming (offlap) sub-unit layering to a user-specified surface ..................................................326
Figure 13.2 ......... Bottom conforming (onlap) sub-unit layering to a user-specified surface .............................................326
Figure 14.1 ......... Areal view of the fault traces for three horizon maps ............................................................................362
Figure 14.2 ......... Areal view of the splitting traces for all three fault traces ......................................................................362
Figure 14.3 ......... Three model fault traces demonstrating digitizing of splitting trace ......................................................363
Figure 14.4 ......... The splitting trace concept seen in cross section. ................................................................................363
Figure 14.5 ......... A listric fault seen in cross section ........................................................................................................364
Figure 14.6 ......... The original and replacement fault surface seen in cross section ........................................................364
Figure 14.7 ......... The replacement fault trace seen in cross section................................................................................365
Figure 15.1 ......... Splitting a selected existing layer of grid cells into two new sub layers (side view). .............................414
Figure 15.2 ......... As Figure 15.1, but splitting the upper sub-layer into three sub-layers, and the lower sub-layer into two...
415
Figure 15.3 ......... Adding a new layer above the existing grid (side view) ........................................................................416
Figure 15.4 ......... The Create Transmissibilities and NNCs panel. ...................................................................................422
Figure 15.5 ......... The Vertical Pinchout tab......................................................................................................................424
Figure 15.6 ......... The Areal Pinchout tab .........................................................................................................................424
Figure 15.7 ......... The Advanced Options tab ...................................................................................................................425
Figure 16.1 ......... Property to edit or create panel.............................................................................................................436
Figure 16.2 ......... Create Property Type panel ..................................................................................................................437
Figure 16.3 ......... Property creation parameters section ...................................................................................................438
Figure 16.4 ......... Edit scope section.................................................................................................................................438
Figure 16.5 ......... Generate by section..............................................................................................................................439
Figure 16.6 ......... Expression Builder panel ......................................................................................................................441
Figure 16.7 ......... Calculator folder ....................................................................................................................................444
Figure 16.8 ......... Run Differencing folder .........................................................................................................................444
Figure 16.9 ......... Boundary interpolation .........................................................................................................................445
Figure 16.10 ....... Points Interpolation ..............................................................................................................................445
Figure 16.11 ....... Control buttons......................................................................................................................................446
Figure 16.12 ....... Grid block boundaries do not follow the detailed fine grid ....................................................................465
Figure 16.13 ....... Logical coordinate interpolation property assignment honors layers ....................................................465
Figure 16.14 ....... Determining the saturation given a capillary pressure value.................................................................477
Figure 16.15 ....... Relative permeability curves .................................................................................................................480
Figure 16.16 ....... Determining the saturation given a fractional flow value.......................................................................482
Figure 16.17 ....... Point labels on the reference cube and the grid block ..........................................................................485
Figure 16.18 ....... Interpolating a 2x1x3 fine grid in a grid block........................................................................................485
Figure 18.1 ......... Vertical fractured well grid, showing well control parameters ...............................................................506
Figure 18.2 ......... Horizontal fractured well, showing well controls parameters ................................................................507
Figure 20.1 ......... Example of determining the component weightings across an I fault ...................................................562
Figure 20.2 ......... Illustration of fault thickness calculation incorporating rock types brittleness .......................................563
Figure 20.3 ......... After Yielding et al, 1997.......................................................................................................................564
Figure 20.4 ......... A schematic diagram of two cells separated by a fault .........................................................................566
Figure D.1 .......... An example of a structured grid of quadrilaterals .................................................................................762
Figure D.2 .......... The coordinate tube with coordinate lines as edges.............................................................................763
Figure D.3 .......... Grid blocks obtained by slicing coordinate tubes..................................................................................763
Figure D.4 .......... A boundary, two i-faults and a single j-fault ..........................................................................................765
Figure D.5 .......... Smooth extensions of faults to the boundary .......................................................................................766
Figure D.6 .......... Control lines with some additional lines - zero smoothness..................................................................767
Figure D.7 .......... Control lines with some additional lines - with smoothness ..................................................................767
Figure D.8 .......... Fig. 5. An example of isotropic gridding between two faults .................................................................770
Figure D.9 .......... Fig. 6. An example of anisotropic gridding between two faults .............................................................770
Figure D.10 ........ An example where FAULTS keyword cannot fully represent simulation grid location ..........................771
Figure H.1 .......... Pairs used in an experimental variogram calculation............................................................................816

10 FloGrid User Guide


List of Figures
Figure H.2 .......... Octant search .......................................................................................................................................817
Figure H.3 .......... Super block search ...............................................................................................................................821
Figure I.1 ........... 3D Viewer in Digitize mode...................................................................................................................830
Figure I.2 ........... Digitized sloping fault............................................................................................................................831
Figure I.3 ........... Invalid fault polygon ..............................................................................................................................834
Figure I.4 ........... Valid fault polygon ................................................................................................................................834
Figure I.5 ........... Digitizing a bounding polygon...............................................................................................................836
Figure J.1 ........... Convergent Gridding.............................................................................................................................840
Figure J.2 ........... Convergent Gridding: First Iteration......................................................................................................841
Figure J.3 ........... Convergent Gridding: Second Iteration ................................................................................................842
Figure J.4 ........... Convergent Gridding: Third Iteration ....................................................................................................843
Figure J.5 ........... Convergent Gridding: Fourth Iteration ..................................................................................................844
Figure J.6 ........... Faulted Surface from Convergent Gridding ..........................................................................................845
Figure K.1 .......... PostScript panel....................................................................................................................................853
Figure K.2 .......... Write Image panel.................................................................................................................................855

FloGrid User Guide 11


List of Figures
List of Tables
Table 2.1 Type of operations allowed on FloGrid models........................................................................................28
Table 5.1 The default push button action.................................................................................................................80
Table 5.2 Panel interaction ......................................................................................................................................82
Table 5.3 Table navigation.......................................................................................................................................83
Table 5.4 Window items...........................................................................................................................................84
Table 5.5 Interaction with a dropdown list box .........................................................................................................85
Table 5.6 Open Inventor settings .............................................................................................................................95
Table 5.7 OIFloViz Settings .....................................................................................................................................96
Table 5.8 GeoFrame settings ..................................................................................................................................96
Table 5.9 RTView settings .......................................................................................................................................96
Table 12.1 Algorithms available for selection in the algorithm tab ...........................................................................243
Table 15.1 Effects of the PINCH keyword arguments .............................................................................................425
Table 16.1 Examples of operands and property types ............................................................................................439
Table 16.2 Arithmetic operators grouped by precedence, highest at top ................................................................442
Table 16.3 Relative and combinational operators in order of precedence...............................................................443
Table 17.1 Upgridding methods ...............................................................................................................................489
Table 25.1 Event names and associated event related data ...................................................................................634
Table 25.2 Event file UNITS keywords ....................................................................................................................635
Table 25.3 Recognized event file length UNITS (units) ...........................................................................................635
Table 27.1 Nodes available in the 2D tree ...............................................................................................................650
Table 29.1 Expression Calculator standard operators .............................................................................................697
Table 29.2 Expression Calculator relational operators ............................................................................................697
Table 29.3 Expression Calculator functions.............................................................................................................697
Table 29.4 NULL handling rules ..............................................................................................................................698
Table A.1 Standard Calculator keyword descriptions.............................................................................................705
Table A.2 Built-in constants....................................................................................................................................710
Table A.3 Built-in functions.....................................................................................................................................711
Table A.4 Supported operators ..............................................................................................................................713
Table A.5 Symbol functions....................................................................................................................................714
Table A.6 Variables defined when simulation property editing...............................................................................727
Table A.7 Variables defined when editing Property Model properties....................................................................728
Table A.8 Simulation Property Editor example scripts ...........................................................................................734
Table A.9 Property Model Property Editor example scripts....................................................................................734
Table B.1 FloGrid License Features.......................................................................................................................756
Table E.1 Geolith keywords supported by FloGrid .................................................................................................801
Table F.1 Data types and methods of I/O ..............................................................................................................803
Table G.1 Property names......................................................................................................................................811
Table I.1 Mouse controls for digitizing using pick points .......................................................................................837
Table K.1 Configuration file settings.......................................................................................................................855

12 FloGrid User Guide


List of Tables
New developments
Chapter 1

Developments in 2007.1
Maintenance of this application is continuing until further notice.

FloGrid User Guide New developments 13


Developments in 2007.1
Developments in FloGrid 2006.1
Seismic data handling is no longer supported in FloGrid. We recommend use of Petrel for the
complete workflow from seismic data to reservoir simulation. Please contact your local support
organization for further information.

14 New developments FloGrid User Guide


Developments in FloGrid 2006.1
Introduction
Chapter 2

Overview
FloGrid is an interactive application designed to build high quality reservoir models from
interpreted geological and geophysical data for reserves estimation, fluid flow simulation using
ECLIPSE, and reservoir development planning. The core 3D structured corner point gridding
and upscaling technology employed is recognized to be one of the most advanced, robust and
reliable in the engineering and petroleum industry for the construction of reservoir simulation
models.
This is augmented by advanced geostatistical property population methods, detailed fault
transmissibility computation, and a simulator interface for the creation, conditioning and
calibration of reservoir models. Drillable wells and laterals can be easily located and quickly
simulated to evaluate reservoir development options.
FloGrid has basic structural modeling capabilities that are complemented by the ability to
interface with external geological modeling packages. FloGrid receives 3D geological models
delivered in the POSC standard RESCUE format from all vendors that are able to export in this
format. Traditional 2D workflows are also supported through the mapping canvas.
Multiphase and multilevel upscaling techniques are available for generating relative
permeability and capillary pressure curves that are strongly coupled to the underlying
geological model. Unstructured grids can be generated and properties upscaled for simulation
of both full field and detailed well models.

Major Features
• Comprehensive 3D visualization of all input and generated data (maps, well paths,
completions, logs, markers, scatter sets, contours, faults traces/surfaces, RESCUE
geological models, simulation models, streamlines, line graphs).
• 2D mapping canvas
• Structural framework construction

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 15


Overview
• Geological and simulation model creation
• Structured grid generation
• 2D well log correlation canvas
• Geostatistical property population and data analysis
• Volumetrics
• Fault property calculation
• Streamline simulation setup and management
• Well planning
• Multiple realization generation and statistical analysis tools
• Unstructured grid generation
• A command language for recording and replaying all activities.
• Interactive and programmable calculators
The above functionality is presented to you using a data tree, a 3D Viewer, a set of 2D viewers
and application modules. Tool bars and drop-down menus on data tree nodes provide access to
most frequently used features.

16 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


Overview
FloGrid Tools

New Workflow
In previous versions of FloGrid, the workflow was essentially:
• Load maps, fault traces, wells
• Build the Structural Model
• Build the Property Model
• Build the simulation grid
• Upscale
• Export grids, properties, well trajectories to ECLIPSE.
Or, when a 3D property model was available from an external application, for example
RESCUE, the workflow was:
• Load wells, property model (RESCUE, SGM, GeoLith)
• Build the simulation grid
• Upscale and Export
The inclusion of the Property Population feature in version 2002A has resulted in a change to
this workflow. Note that a corner point grid is used for both property modeling and simulation.
Therefore, gridding is performed immediately after building structure. A Fault Framework is
built when creating the wireframe structure and this combination is now called a Structural
Framework; it replaces the old Structural Model.
The new workflow is:
• Load maps, fault, traces, wells
• Build the Structural Framework
• Build the corner point grid
• Populate grid with properties to create the property model.
• The rest of the workflow follows as before.
The new features and enhancements to existing features mean that the number of possible
workflows is immense. A special module, Create Model, has been designed to aid you in
managing the various workflows. The old workflows are still supported.

Tasks in a common modeling workflow


1 Set preferred units system.
2 Load data, visualize and perform quality and consistency checks.
3 Define the surface model.
4 Construct depth structure and thickness maps or import from external application.
5 Build structural framework from maps and faults.
6 Create model for geological property population.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 17


FloGrid Tools
7 Build 3D structured corner point grid on the Structural Framework.
8 Populate 3D grid with properties.
9 Run volumetrics and assess reserves.
10 Compute fault properties.
11 Run streamline simulation.
12 Create simulation grid on ‘best’ geological model, upscale and export to ECLIPSE Office.
A number of loops and iterations are possible based around this fundament workflow, especially
the analysis of uncertainty through multiple realizations, and well planning tasks. For more
examples on possible workflows see "Typical Workflows" on page 30.

Data Loading
The first task in the model construction workflow is the loading of basic data into the
application. A variety of generic loaders and formatted loaders for available data types are
provided to make data loading an efficient process.
As FloGrid works, data loading commands are being automatically saved to a command file.
This file can be played back at the start of any session to quickly reload all data back into the
system. Alternatively, a workspace of the entire project can be saved at anytime and restored
later.

Structural Framework
The Structural Framework module supports the creation of 3D Structural Frameworks from
surface maps and fault traces. It creates unit surfaces (horizons) from maps using surface type
(horizon/unconformity) and topology (above/below). These units are split into block units using
fault centre lines and the user defined boundary. The collection of the outlines/edges of the
block units forms what is known as the wireframe of the Structural Framework.
The 3D Fault Framework is automatically created by constructing fault planes using up and
down thrown fault traces. You can now visualize the entire fault system in 3D and correct fault
slopes and fault-fault intersection errors. The intersection of two faults is represented by a
common coordinate line.
The block split model is used to sample depth structure during 3D grid construction. The Fault
Framework is the source for a gridding control framework which is used by both the Structured
and the Unstructured Gridders. The slope of the 3D grid coordinate lines is entirely dependent
on the gridding control framework and controls the shape of a grid around faults. The Fault
Framework / Gridding Controls Editor module, is launched using the Edit menu on a fault
framework or from the gridding controls node.
The gridding control framework can be edited to custom design the 3D grid. In edit mode you
can visualize the possible orientation of the 3D grid coordinate lines. Changing the shape of the
gridding controls only affects the grid, the original Fault Framework is untouched.
Importing a RESCUE model automatically creates a wireframe and an editable Fault
Framework. ECLIPSE corner point grid geometry files can be imported and the Structural
Framework reverse engineered. The faults are extracted by analyzing the split node information
and the simulation layers are assigned to a single unit.

18 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


FloGrid Tools
Model Creation
A FloGrid model is a 3D model with structure and properties. They are central to FloGrid and
all the major workflows and tools operate on FloGrid models. The structure of these models are
defined either by structured corner point grids, implicit grid geometry, or unstructured grids.
This gridded structure is based on the Structural Framework model. The pre-2002A map based
property model is an example of a FloGrid model with implicit geometry. In the new workflow
geological models have a structured corner point grid. RESCUE 3D geological models can have
either implicit or corner point geometry depending on the vendor implementation. Simulation
models are either structured corner point or unstructured. The underlying principal is that all of
them have structure and properties.
The Model Creation module is the starting point in the FloGrid Model construction workflow.
You can choose either to build a new grid, import a model or create a map-based model.
Depending on your intent the following options are provided for you to choose the basis;
structural framework, the grid type or the filename of the model to import.
You can choose to derive another model by upgridding an existing FloGrid Model. This is a
scientific way of quickly producing a coarsened model from a fine scale geological model. Such
a model can sometimes provide better upscaled properties for fluid flow simulation.
Existing ECLIPSE models can be imported and used a FloGrid Model or edited, updated with
LGRs and globally refined or coarsened.

Structured gridder
The Structured Gridder module is used to build structured corner-point grids and properties
using the Fault Framework. For each FloGrid Model the basic Fault Framework is copied to
create a gridding controls. This gridding controls control the areal shape of the grid and the slope
of coordinate lines. The gridding control framework can be edited to produce a grid that
adequately represents complex geometry and/or is suitable for flow simulation.
You can choose individual gridding control parameters; to distort the grid to conform to faults
in the I and J directions, zigzag faults, slope to a fault, ignore the fault slope and slope-snap to
a fault. Ignore implies that the gridding control is not used in the slope control the corresponding
fault is not verticalized but coordinate lines along the fault align with the local slope. The slope-
snap option applies to zigzag faults and snaps the grid corners to the closest point on the
gridding control plane.

Note Gridding from frameworks is new in FloGrid 2002A and uses a revised algorithm. The
old workflow using control lines is still available. However, the control line workflow
does not provide the flexibility of specifying individual slope controls for faults.

Three gridding approaches are supported:

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 19


FloGrid Tools
Corner point gridding
This option allows you to specify a flexible gridding boundary and to control areal and vertical
grid size and quality. Areal Grid control parameters include global Nx, Ny or Dx and DY,
orthogonality, and smoothness factors. Sub gridding Nx and Ny parameters fine control the
distribution of i- and j-rows and columns in different areas of the grid. Coordinate lines may be
sloped or vertical. Vertical layering is based on the reservoir units with common and advanced
options for subdividing units into layers.
Cartesian and radial local grid refinement is supported. Cartesian local grid refinements can be
structure sampled to include a high amount of detail.
Faults can be vertically zigzagged using the IJK Faults option. This allows you to model
complex geometry with minimal interaction provided the FloGrid Model has the appropriate
structural representation. The flow across such fault is controlled by generating MULTNUM
regions and transmissibility modifiers.

Rectangular gridding
This allows you to specify a rectangular boundary with constant or variable dx and dy spacing.
The coordinate lines are restricted to vertical. Similar vertical layering, local grid refinement
options, and fault modeling options are available as in the corner point approach.

Upgridding
This approach constructs simulation grids by combining rows, columns and layers of a
geological model into coarser simulation cells. Upgridding allows significant geological
features such as high permeability streaks or large contrasts in properties between geological
layers to be captured more accurately in the resulting simulation grid. Algorithmic (flow based
and variability) and manual upgridding techniques are supported.

Note This option can only be used to construct a simulation model from a single block unit
of a geological model, except in the case of geological models that have an underlying
single grid. For this case only the Global grid can be used for variability based
upgridding. A further restriction on upgridded Flogrid models is that the simulation
model boundary matches the block unit boundary.

Flow based upgridding is restricted to GEOLITH and SGM models without inactive cells. The
variation method is available on all types of model, with or without inactive cells.
The Structured Gridder module can be used to import ECLIPSE / FrontSim initial and
recurrent properties and display streamlines. Imported simulation properties can be back
populated onto the fine scale model from which the simulation model was generated. This
allows simulation properties to be used in the modeling of the static geological model.

Using an imported grid


This option, in the Structured Gridder, allows you to import, visualize and edit an existing
structured simulation grid from a file. The grid file can be in GRID or EGRID format. The grid
can contain LGRs, but these must all be structured LGRs. An imported grid is not built from a
property model, so properties can not be upscaled on it. The Simulation Property Editor can
be used on an imported grid.

20 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


FloGrid Tools
GRDECL import
You can read the grid and properties from an ECLIPSE keywords file in ASCII format
(GRDECL file). This includes LGRs. Property types found in the file are assigned to the correct
FloGrid property type whenever possible.

Property Population
Property Population provides the ability to populate 3D structured grids with facies and
petrophysical properties. Fluvial channel systems can be realized using object simulation
techniques. The module contains integrated data analysis tools.
The Property Population dialog allows you to select the geological units to populate, specify
the primary and secondary input data, select population algorithms and specify output masks to
select specific zones within the units for population. Population parameters can be saved in
parameter sets and the model populated in batch mode using multiple parameter sets.
The following input data types are supported: Well Logs, Property Maps, 3D Property Grids,
and Scatter Sets.
The following property population algorithms are available: Distance To Nearest Neighbor,
Constant Assignment, Nearest Neighbor, Inverse Distance, Ordinary Kriging, Simple
Kriging, Collocated Cokriging, Sequential Indicator Simulation, Sequential Gaussian
Simulation, Sequential Gaussian Cosimulation, Truncated Gaussian Simulation, Fluvial
Object Simulation.

Volumetrics
The Volumetrics module is launched on a FloGrid Model to produce volumetric parameters
and summations for estimating reserves. Porosity and net-to-gross parameters are provided as
arrays or constants. You can define equilibration regions using units, block or the property
editor. Fluid contact sets can are assigned to the various equilibration regions. Saturations
maybe derived from contacts, arrays or input as constants.
Volumetrics can be performed on the entire model or a selected potion of the model. Reporting
by equilibration regions, block, units or any user defined integer property array is possible.
Reports can be displayed in tabular form, graphed or saved to spread-sheet compatible files.
Volumetrics on multiple realizations can be performed and the result analyzed using statistical
tools.

Upscaling
The Structured Gridder Properties module allows you to generate single and multi-phase
properties for structured grids using a suite of upscaling and editing tools. Upscaling is normally
done from the source FloGrid Model that was the basis for the creation of the target model.
However, you could choose to upscale from another FloGrid Model provided the two models
are structurally consistent.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 21


FloGrid Tools
A variety of upscaling, averaging and cell geometrical attribute computation methods are
available. Upscaling is done on a cell by cell process involves rigorous sampling of the fine
scale model. Permeability upscaling can be done using statistical, flow based algebraic, and
pressure solver methods with complex boundary conditions. An adjoint method is available for
high speed flow based upscaling. Strictly, upscaling should be validated by flow simulations on
fine and coarse scale models however one could use the statistical diagnostics properties for
preliminary analyses. In addition half block permeability can be upscaled to check that variance
in permeability with a grid block is acceptable.
Upscaling methods can be applied selectively to different areas of the model. The fine scale
permeability distribution may provide clues to the optimal usage of the different upscaling
methods in different regions of the model.
Multiphase and multilevel upscaling methods are available for computing relative permeability
and capillary pressure curves for use in simulation models. The multiphase upscaling module
requires that the core level data has been loaded after launching the SCAL module. The main
methods for computation of relative permeability involve the pressure solver upscaling method
with the assumptions of capillary equilibrium (segregated flow) or constant fractional flow
(diffused flow). In addition there are simpler methods assuming constant saturation or using a
majority vote.
The Multi-level option provides the functionality required to pass data between models which
are typically built at different scales. This is done by loading selected upscaled properties from
one model into SCAL records and then using the data in the SCAL records to create new
properties on the fine scale representation of the other (typically, the next level up) model.

Fault Property Calculation


The Fault Property Calculator module allows you to systematically calculate fluid flow
properties and sealing potential for faults in a structured corner point FloGrid model. The first
objective is to describe the thickness and permeability of the fault zone. Since the fault zone is
not explicitly modeled in the grid the effect of the fault is communicated to the simulator using
transmissibility modifiers on cell faces on either side of the fault.
The module uses geological parameters such as Vshale, fault displacements, and the rock types
on both sides of the fault to estimate fault zone thickness, permeability, and sealing potential.
Cell face transmissibility are computed and exported as keywords for use by the ECLIPSE and
FrontSim simulators.
The Fault Property Calculator module also enables you to assign blanket modifiers to
completely or partially seal a fault and define threshold pressures that control when flow is
allowed to occur depending on the pressure differential across the fault. All calculated fault
properties may be visualized as Allen Diagram type displays in the 3D Viewer.

Simulation Interface
The Streamline Simulation module is intended to assist you to quickly set up and run simple
simulation models using FrontSim or ECLIPSE, for the purpose of dynamic conditioning, tracer
analysis, well placement analysis, waterflood pattern optimization, ranking geological models,
etc. Basic simulations can be set up with minimal user input for PVT, equilibration, and
saturation tables. Quickly define constant well production and injection rates and the length and
number of simulation timesteps. The wells trajectory locations are automatically computed for

22 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


FloGrid Tools
the current 3D grid. Select options for producing various outputs (including streamlines from
FrontSim), write out the simulation deck, add the run to a queue and start the run. When the run
finishes summary results are automatically loaded. Streamlines are loaded on demand and
displayed on the 3D Viewer along with the model and other data, for example wells, simulation
grid, fault properties or property model slices.
The module comprises two windows, the Simulation Manager and the Simulation Setup.
The Simulation Manager is for viewing graphical output from the simulator and for managing
and running queued simulation data sets.
Multiple realizations of porosity and permeability for the current model can be used to generate
multiple runs. Runs for other models can be generated and queued as well. The queue can be
started when all possible realizations from one or several models are ready.
The Simulation Manager provides the statistical tools for analyzing multiple realization from
both simulation and volumetric runs.

Well Planning
The Well Planning tool is a collection of features that allow the creation and placement of well
paths within the reservoir. Well paths can be edited in the 3D Viewer and constrained to honor
drilling constraints while passing through target points. Well paths can be constrained to follow
a geological unit, layer or surface. A quick and easy way of defining vertical wells to target
remaining hydrocarbon areas is provided. Wells can be auto completed to lie within units or
completion ranges can be edited interactively on the well bore in the 3D Viewer. When a well
path is satisfactorily placed the target points or the deviation points can be transferred to the
Drilling Office application for defining the complete drilling plan.

Special Core Analysis


This module provides integrated core, relative permeability and capillary pressure functionality
for use when doing multiphase and / or multilevel upscaling within FloGrid. The module is also
available as stand alone application.
The module has facilities to store SCAL data on a core plug basis. Core plug defined attributes
can be used to organize this data, for example, data from cores of a certain rock type and
different porosity range can be grouped / sub grouped. This data can then be averaged, smoothed
and fitted to standard relative permeability models and capillary pressure converted to J-
functions.
Saturation logs can be used to create saturation versus height relationships.
Capillary pressure and relatively permeability curves are merged into tables with consistent
end-points. The tables are output in a format for input into ECLIPSE and FrontSim simulators.
The tables are assigned to each cell in the simulation model according to specified criteria, for
example, rocktype and porosity.
The module can be used for direct creation of saturation tables and region distributions without
performing multiphase upscaling.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 23


FloGrid Tools
Mapping
The 2D Mapping Canvas module is used to generate mesh maps and to display contour and
color filled maps. The canvas has its own data tree which duplicates the tree in the associated
with the 3D Viewer with relevant items. All items can be viewed on the 2D canvas. Mesh maps
can be generated using proprietary interpolation algorithms and a choice of input data; scatter,
markers, fault traces, user defined contours, simulation properties, and input mesh maps.
Generated contours can be saved and viewed in the 3D overlaid on surfaces.
An option exists to quickly create thickness scatter sets from well markers. Scatter data,
contours and fault traces can be created by digitalization using a mouse. A mesh map calculator
is available to perform arithmetic and logical operations to derive new mesh maps or update
existing maps.
You can lump initial 3D grid properties across multiple layers. Lumped or single layer
properties can be used to generate and display contours to show trends. and back contour
simulation grids. You can compute a new map from another map using the Mesh Map
Calculator panel.

2D Well Log Correlation Canvas


The Well Log Correlation Canvas is intended to display well log curves, markers, and marker
correlation in a 2D view for the purposes of visual inspection of input logs, correlations, lumped
logs used for property population and synthetic logs. Logs for multiple wells can be displayed
and flattened or hung from a selected marker to check correlations. Multiple logs can be
displayed per well. The canvas also allows creation and editing of markers.

Unstructured gridder
The Unstructured Gridder generates simulation grids, cell properties, and well connections for
simulation using geological model definitions from the "Structural Framework" on page 175
and "Geological Property model" on page 215. It can generate prismatic PEBI and triangular
grids with vertical or piece wise linear (segmented) coordinate lines as well as handle cross-
sections of models.
All reservoir data must be imported and structural or property models must be built before
creating a model within the Unstructured Gridder module. If any changes are subsequently
made to the reservoir data they may not be correctly reflected in the gridder.
Open the Unstructured Gridder window using Tools | Old Workflows | Unstructured
Gridder.... This window has a menu bar from which various menu options can be selected that
allow you to create and edit unstructured grid models and a display area.

24 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


FloGrid Tools
Multiple Realizations
The Multiple Realization facility allows you to generate realizations based on combinations of
properties that exist on structured grid models. Model property realizations can be generated by
geostatistical simulation algorithms in the Property Population module. In addition, you could
construct different 3D grid model on the same reservoir, for example, fine and coarse scaled
models. The Volumetrics and Simulation modules can process these multiple realizations; and
the results are viewed in the Simulation Manager.
A single realization can only contain one property of any given type. For example, only one
Porosity property or PermX property is allowed. If a model has two Porosity properties defined
(called Poro1 and Poro2, say) and three Perm properties defined (perm1, perm2, perm3), then
six realizations of the model (2 x 3) can be generated which use these property combinations:
Poro1 , Perm1
Poro2 , Perm1
Poro1 , Perm2
Poro2 , Perm2
Poro1 , Perm3
Poro2 , Perm3
If there are many variations of properties existing on a model then many realizations can be
generated. You can choose to use a selected subset of the generated realizations for processing
by omitting invalid combinations.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 25


FloGrid Tools
Create a Model
A FloGrid model is a 3D object with structure and properties. They are central to FloGrid and
all the major workflows and tools operate on FloGrid models. They can be map based, multi-
block with a grid for each block, corner point or unstructured grid based. The underlying
principle is that all of them have structure and properties. For models built in FloGrid, the
properties are created in a second step using upscaling or geostatistical techniques. For imported
models, both structure and properties can be imported as one unit.
This section contains information on the following options:
• "Model creation" on page 26.
• "Options" on page 26.
• "Confirmation dialogs" on page 28.

Model creation
The Model Creation module gives you a set of options for three major aspects of model
creation - the how to build it option, the structural basis for the model and the grid type.
The how to build it option specifies the process by which the new model is to be created. The
structural basis option allows you to choose between different structures (already loaded into
FloGrid) on which you can base the new model. Last, you must select the type of grid
(structured or unstructured) that you wish to create.
The intent text box always shows what workflow options are available to you for any
combination of choices.

Options
This section contains information on:
• "Name" on page 26.
• "How to build it" on page 26.
• "Structural basis" on page 27.
• "Grid type" on page 27.
• "Data Selections" on page 27.

Name
This is the name of the new model.

How to build it
These options allow you to choose how to build the model.

Build new grid


A new 3D grid is to be constructed.

26 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


Create a Model
Import model
The 3D grid structure is to be imported.

Map-based property model


A map-based model has direct assignment of property maps to the block units in a map based
structural framework.

Note If the file is an ECLIPSE grid, you have choose whether to create a structured or an
unstructured model and it is possible to optionally create a Structural Framework for
further model creation.

Structural basis
The Structural Basis of the new model is one of:

Structural Framework
The new model’s grid structure is to be based on the faults and surfaces in a Structural
Framework.
A Structural Framework is either built in FloGrid or “back populated” from an imported
model (for example an ECLIPSE grid or a RESCUE model).

Existing FloGrid Model


The new model’s grid structure is to be based on the grids inside the chosen existing FloGrid
model. For example, a new model can be created by upgridding a corner point grid inside an
existing FloGrid model.

Imported file
The new model’s grid structure is to be taken directly from an imported model.
This can be an ECLIPSE grid, RESCUE, OpenSGM or Geolith.

Grid type
You may select the grid type of the model.

Structured

Unstructured

Unstructured (dual source)


The dual source option allows a grid to be built from one Structural Framework and the
properties to be upscaled from a model based on another Structural Framework.

Data Selections
Existing Structural Frameworks
A selection list box with existing Structural Frameworks.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 27


Create a Model
Existing FloGrid Models
A selection list box with existing FloGrid models

File to import
A file selection dialog.

Table 2.1 Type of operations allowed on FloGrid models

Map based 2D
Structural Basis Build New Grid Import File
Model
Create rectangular, Create a property model
corner point or by assigning property
Structural unstructured grid, maps to a structural
Framework usable for property framework
population or upscaling
from another model
Existing FloGrid Create new grid by
Model upgridding

Refine, coarsen, add Import and visualize.


LGRs, edit cell Subsequently, edit or
geometry and create derived models.
properties. Also, you Also, you can create a
Imported file:
can create a structural structural framework
ECLIPSE grid framework from which from which you can
you can create new create new structured or
structured or unstructured grids
unstructured grids
Create rectangular, Import and visualize.
Imported file: corner point or Subsequently, edit or
RESCUE unstructured grid or create derived models.
upgrid
Create rectangular, Import and visualize.
Imported file: corner point or Subsequently, edit or
OpenSGM unstructured grid or create derived models.
upgrid
Create rectangular, Import and visualize.
Imported file: corner point or Subsequently, edit or
Geolith unstructured grid or create derived models.
upgrid

Confirmation dialogs
When you have chosen how to build the new model, its structural basis and grid type, you may
be presented with further sub-options dependent on your initial choices.
This section contains information on the following options:
• "More detailed grid types" on page 29
• "Gridding controls" on page 29.
• "Dual Porosity" on page 29.

28 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


Create a Model
• "Grid conversion" on page 29.

More detailed grid types


Structured

Corner Point Grid


Allows you to create a corner point grid with sloping coordinate lines.

Vertical Rectangular
Allows you to create a rectangular areal grid with vertical coordinate lines.

Upgridded
Allows you to build a model whose structure is based directly on the 3D grid inside an imported
geological model.

Gridding controls
This allows you to choose to control your areal grid and slope on either the new (2002A or later)
Fault Framework or the older (2001A) Control lines.

ECLIPSE grid use


You can choose to create a Structural Framework (an automatic geological interpretation of
the imported ECLIPSE grid) or you can choose to modify the imported grid by adding LGRs or
refining or coarsening the grid.

.GRID format options


If you have chosen to import a .GRID file then you can have it converted during the import to
EGRID (corner point) format.
If it is converted to EGRID format then you can take advantage of the Structural Framework
creation, the Grid Editor and the Refine and Coarsening options.

Note If the grid has curved coordinate lines they are made straight during the conversion.

Dual Porosity
Certain grid import formats (for example .GRID) do not carry the information about whether
they are to be treated as dual porosity models or not. In these cases the confirmation dialog
allows you to choose how the grid (and subsequently imported properties) are to be treated.

Grid conversion
You can choose to convert your structured grid to an unstructured data structure on import. Use
this option if you want to generate multi-point transmissibility using the Multi-point Flux
option.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 29


Create a Model
Typical Workflows
FloGrid has a multitude of entry and exit points, and a large set of tools or application modules.
Hence, the total number of distinct workflows is quite significant. This section provides an
overview of some typical workflows, whilst covering most of the major modules. Your own
workflow may involve a part of one of the workflows here or an amalgamation of several.

Building a simulation model from maps


The input data is a set of mesh maps and fault traces generated in an external mapping package;
and well deviation surveys. The output is a simulation grid and cell properties. The workflow
steps are:
• Creating a structural framework, a property model, a simulation grid and upscaling
properties.
• Set the unit system in which you wish to work, using menu option Preferences | Set
External Units. Import mesh maps (see "Data tree" on page 333), fault traces (see "Fault
trace import" on page 365) and well deviation surveys (see "Import well deviation surveys"
on page 376) using the File Import menu or the drop-down menus from the respective
parent nodes on the data tree.
• View the imported data by ticking the selection boxes on the data tree and edit and clean up
any data item using the appropriate editor (see "Edit Menu" on page 112) launched using
the drop-down menus on the tree nodes.
• Once the data is acceptable, create a Structural Framework (see "Structural Framework"
on page 175) using the module launched from the tool bar or the tools menu. The Fault
Framework may be edited (see "Fault framework editor" on page 191), intersections
redefined prior to model building.
The model building for this workflow has two stages. The first stage is building a map based
property model. The second stage is to build a 3D cellular model for simulation.
• A map based model is built with the Create Model tool (see "Create a Model" on page 26).
On the panel the build method should be set to Map-based Property Model and the
structural basis is Structural Framework. This opens the Map Based Property Model
Builder (see "Geological Property model" on page 215). The appropriate properties should
be dragged and dropped on to each unit.
• At the second stage, a 3D cellular model is built with the Create Model tool. On the panel
the build method should be set to Build New Grid, the structural basis is Structural
Framework and the grid type is Structured. This launches the Structured Gridder (see
"LGRs, Resizing, Aquifers and NNCs" on page 407), on which the boundary, gridding
controls, areal grid and vertical gridding must be defined and a 3D grid should be built.
• The cell properties on the structured grid are generated using the Upscaling tool (see
"Structured gridder properties" on page 427). The upscaling is from the map based
model to the cell based simulation model.
• Once the properties have been upscaled, launch the Structured Gridder on the
simulation model using the edit option on the drop-down menu. Note that the edit
option on a FloGrid model opens the model editor appropriate to the type of model.
• Export the grid, cell properties and well data using the File | Export option on the
Structured Gridder module.

30 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


Typical Workflows
Building a simulation model from a RESCUE
model
The input data is a RESCUE model created in an external modelling product. The output is a
simulation grid and cell properties. The workflow steps are; creating a simulation grid,
upscaling properties.
• Import a RESCUE model (see "Importing data" on page 218) using File | Import or the
drop-down menu from the model node on the data tree.
• View the model and the structural framework in the 3D Viewer. Use model slice controls
to interrogate the model.
• Open the Create Model tool (see "Create a Model" on page 26) and set the build method
to Build New Grid, the structural basis to Structural Framework and the grid type to
Structured.
This opens the Structured Gridder module (see "LGRs, Resizing, Aquifers and NNCs" on
page 407), which should be used to build a grid.
• Generate cell properties using the Upscaler (see "Structured gridder properties" on
page 427) tool and export the grid and properties using the File | Export option in the
Structured Gridder.

Building a simulation model by upgridding


another model
The input data is an existing FloGrid model. This could be an imported RESCUE model, an
imported corner point model or one built in FloGrid. The output is a simulation grid and cell
properties. The workflow steps are:
• Creating a simulation grid using the Upgridder ("Structured Gridder Module" on
page 309), upscaling properties, running volumetrics on input and output models.
• Ensure there is a FloGrid model, for instance by importing a RESCUE model (see
"Importing data" on page 218).
• Open the Create Model tool (see "Create a Model" on page 26) and set the build method
to Build New Grid, the structural basis to Existing FloGrid Model and the grid type to
Structured.
This opens the Upgridder module (see "LGRs, Resizing, Aquifers and NNCs" on
page 407), which should be used to build a grid. Note that if the parent model is not a corner
point model, for example from a fault block based RESCUE model, the Upgridder is
restricted to create a simulation model only for a single fault block at a time.
• Generate cell properties using the Upscaler (see "Structured gridder properties" on
page 427) tool.
• Open the Volumetrics tool (see "Volumetrics" on page 569), select the parent model, set
Output, Properties, Contacts, Volume of Interest Reporting and perform a single
volumetrics run.
• Repeat for the upgridded model and compare volumes.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 31


Typical Workflows
Building an unstructured simulation model
The input data is a FloGrid Model and well deviation surveys. The model can be an imported
RESCUE model, built from maps or an existing structured grid. The output is an unstructured
simulation grid, cell properties and well connections. The workflow steps are:
• Creating a simulation grid using the Unstructured Gridder), and then generating cell
properties and well connections.
• Ensure there is a FloGrid model, for instance by importing a RESCUE model (see
"Geological Property model" on page 215).
• Open the Create Model tool (see "Create a Model" on page 26) and set the build method
to Build New Grid, the structural basis to Structural Framework and the grid type to
Unstructured (normal).
This opens the Unstructured Gridder.
• Set well, fault, bulk and layer gridding controls using the Edit menus.
• Generate a grid, generate properties and connect wells using Grid, Property and Wells
menus. Export all simulation data using the File | Export options.

Planning new wells


The input data is an existing FloGrid Model, for instance a corner point grid (see "FloGrid
Models Data" on page 396). The output is a well trajectory file for the Schedule program and a
well target file for Drilling Office. The workflow steps are:
• Defining well heads, creating well targets, using drilling constraints and creating well
deviations. These are performed using the Well Planning tool (see "Well Planning" on
page 631).
• Once well paths have been defined, perforation intervals can be defined and synthetic logs
can be created by launching panels using the drop-down menu on selected wells (see "Wells
Data" on page 374).
• A table of targets can be exported using the drop-down menu on a well path table and a
trajectory file can be exported using the Structured or Unstructured Gridder module File
| Export menus.

Updating a simulation model and building a


derived model
The input data is an ECLIPSE grid and properties (see "ECLIPSE grid use" on page 29). The
output is an updated simulation model or a new one. The workflow steps are; open the Create
Model tool (see "Create a Model" on page 26), set build option to Use grid from imported file,
structural basis to Imported file: Eclipse grid, grid type to Structured. View the model. Add
LGRs, refine or coarsen the model using the Structured Gridder (see "LGRs, Resizing,
Aquifers and NNCs" on page 407) launched using the model Edit menu. Edit the grid nodes
using the Edit grid option on the main window. Export the modified simulation model from the
Structured Gridder.
In another scenario, instead of modifying the imported model, build a derived new model. The
workflow steps are:

32 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


Typical Workflows
• Create the imported model as before, but use the Create Structural Framework option on
the pop up panel.
• Edit the structural framework. Create a new derived model using the Create Model tool
with build type Build new grid, structural basis Structural Framework, grid type
Unstructured.
This opens the Unstructured Gridder using which a new grid and cell properties can be
created, viewed and exported.

Deriving fault transmissibility multipliers for


simulation
The input data is a RESCUE model. The output is simulator keywords defining the
transmissibility multipliers. The workflow steps are:
• Generate a structured grid. Open the Fault Property Calculator (see "Fault Property
Calculator" on page 551).
• Execute Faults, Derived Multiplier and Fault Export tabs.
This calculates fault displacement, fault thickness, shale gouge ratio, fault permeability and
fault transmissibility.

Generating and assigning relative permeability


and capillary pressure curves for simulation
The input data is a structured or unstructured FloGrid model with a simulation grid and
properties and laboratory SCAL data. The output is simulator keywords for the PROPS and
REGIONS sections defining the relative permeability and capillary pressure curves and their
assigned regions. The workflow steps are:
• Launch SCAL from the toolbar, see "Core Analysis" on page 645.
• Import lab data into it, prepare curves, average as required, generate SATNUM property for
the 3D model based on lithotypes or other derived criterion for assigning the tables.
• Export the tables and the SATNUM property.

Generating geostatistical properties


The input data is a structural framework, well logs, and markers. The structure may be imported
using a RESCUE model or built within FloGrid using map and fault data. The other data may
be imported as flat files. The output is a geological scale corner point model with geostatistical
properties. The workflow steps are:
• Create a geological scale corner point grid using the Structured Gridder,
• Determine the layering scheme for the vertical gridding by investigating the property logs
in the Well Correlation Canvas (see "2D Mapping Canvas" on page 647), opened using
the well drop-down menu.
• Open the Property Population tool (see "Property population" on page 231) and set up
primary input, lumping, algorithms, search parameters and populate porosity.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 33


Typical Workflows
• Use the data analysis tools throughout the process.

Running a streamline simulation with multiple


realizations
The input data is a set of FloGrid models with corner point grids and multiple properties and a
set of well paths. The multiple models may be due to different layering schemes or fault
realizations and multiple properties may be due to multiple geostatistical realizations or history
matching scenarios. The output is a production profile report from a streamline simulation. The
workflow steps are:
• Open the Streamline Simulation tool (see "Streamline Simulation" on page 585) and
define the initial conditions, well targets and data set file names in the Simulation Setup
panel (see "Simulation Setup" on page 587).
• Launch the Multiple Realization Manager (see "Multiple Realizations" on page 623)
from the Simulation Setup panel, run realizations, view production profiles graphically
and export report.

Generating structure and properties from 2D


mapping
The input data is markers, contours, scatter sets and fault traces, imported using File | Import.
The output is a map based FloGrid model with structure and properties, ready for 3D gridding.
The workflow steps are:
• Open the 2D Mapping Canvas tool, see "2D Mapping Canvas" on page 647.
• Create structural and property mesh maps using the Create Mesh Map panel using the raw
data.
• Once the maps are of sufficient quality, use the Structural Framework tool to create a
structural framework and the Create Model tool to create a model using the Map-based
Property Model build type.

34 Introduction FloGrid User Guide


Typical Workflows
Main Window
The main window consists of a data tree, a 3D Viewer and a small log window. The main menus
are:
• "File Menu" on page 109
• "Edit Menu" on page 112
• "View menu" on page 130.
• "Tools menu" on page 140
• "Scene Menu" on page 144
• "Preferences Menu" on page 94
• "Window Items" on page 84
• and Help.
There are also a set of toolbars, to launch the major tools and to control the 3D Viewer.

Data Tree
The data tree displays all data items in FloGrid. Imported raw data is ordered towards the top of
the tree and derived data is ordered at the bottom of the tree. The nodes can be expanded or
collapsed as required by double clicking on the squares to left of the nodes. Data items can be
displayed on the 3D Viewer using the check boxes to the right of the nodes. Dropdown menus
launched by right mouse button clicks over the nodes provide the most frequently used features.
The tree contains the following data types:
• Surface, see "Surfaces Data" on page 341.
• Faults, see "Faults Data" on page 360.
• Wells, see "Wells Data" on page 374.
• Well Markers, see "Well Markers Data" on page 383.
• Well Logs, see "Well Logs Data" on page 386.
• Boundaries, see "Boundaries Data" on page 390.
• Structural Frameworks, see "Structural Frameworks Data" on page 393.
• FloGrid Models, see "FloGrid Models Data" on page 396.

FloGrid User Guide Introduction 35


Main Window
36 Introduction FloGrid User Guide
Main Window
Getting started
Chapter 3

Starting FloGrid
FloGrid can be started in three ways.

Using the ECLIPSE Launcher


This is available on Windows platforms. After successful installation of the SIS Simulation
Software, a program icon/short-cut is installed on the machine.
1 To start the ECLIPSE Launcher select the program short-cut from the taskbar or click on
the icon.
2 To start FloGrid program click on the FloGrid button on the launcher, select a start-up
directory when the FloGrid Launcher panel appears by browsing through the directory
tree, and click on the Run button.

Starting FloGrid on UNIX


1 Typing the @flogrid command at the prompt on the selected start-up directory in UNIX
platforms to run the start-up macro.

FloGrid User Guide Getting started 37


Starting FloGrid
38 Getting started FloGrid User Guide
Starting FloGrid
Short Tutorials
Chapter 4

Introduction
This section provides a set of short tutorials, which take you through the major workflows of
the program. It is strongly advised that you run the appropriate short tutorial prior to attempting
to using your own data and scenario. Your own workflow may involve a part of one of the
workflows here or an amalgamation of several.
Note that all tutorials require the basic FloGrid license features. Additional license feature
requirements are noted below. See "FloGrid License Features" on page 756 for more
information on licensing.
The available tutorials are:
1 "Building a simulation model from maps" on page 42.
2 "Building a simulation model from a RESCUE model" on page 46.
3 "Building a simulation model by upgridding another model and comparing volumetrics" on
page 48. (Requires gf_fg_analysis license feature.)
4 "Building an unstructured simulation model" on page 51. (Requires gf_petragrid
license feature.)
5 "Planning New Wells" on page 53. (Requires gf_fg_analysis license feature.)
6 "Updating a simulation model and building a derived model" on page 56. (Requires
gf_petragrid license feature for unstructured gridding at end.)
7 "Deriving Fault Transmissibility Multipliers for Simulation" on page 59. (Requires
gf_fg_populate license feature.)
8 "Generating geostatistical properties" on page 61. (Requires gf_fg_populate license
feature.)
9 "Running a Streamline Simulation with Multiple Realizations" on page 66. (Requires
gf_fg_analysis and gf_fg_populate license features.)
10 "Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping" on page 70.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 39


Introduction
How to interact with the 3D Viewer

Note For the 2004A release we switched the underlying graphics libraries to OpenInventor,
giving greatly improved graphics performance. We took this opportunity to adopt the
OpenInventor standard mouse interactions, giving us consistency with other
OpenInventor applications such as Petrel.

The 3D Viewer has 2 distinct modes of operation: 'viewing' and 'picking'. The 3D Viewer is by
default in 'view' mode (the default cursor is a hand ), which means that you can use the
mouse buttons to rotate, translate and zoom the display. To pick on objects in the display you
must select the 'pick' mode (the cursor changes to an arrow ). In pick mode you cannot
change the orientation of the display, just pick on objects in the display.
To change mode you can either:

• use the hand and arrow button on the top left toolbar,
• use the 'P' (pick) and 'V' (view) keys,
• or use the <Esc> key to toggle between modes.

View mode
When in 'view' mode, interaction is as follows:

Rotate
Press the left mouse button and move the mouse to rotate about the model.

Translate
Press the middle mouse button and move the mouse to pan from side to side.

Zoom
Press both the Ctrl key and the middle mouse button (or left and middle mouse buttons
simultaneously) and move the mouse to zoom the display.

Note Note that the 3D Viewer displays a Perspective view by default.

Other buttons of interest on the left hand toolbar are:

Normalize Returns the model to the middle of the window.

Seek to Point Select this button and then click on a point on the model. The
3D Viewer zooms to the selected point. The ’S’ key provides a
short cut to this button.
Perspective Toggles between Perspective and Orthogonal views of the
model.

40 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Introduction
User View Returns the view to its orientation prior to a fixed view being
set (with the Set View buttons below).
Set View These 6 buttons align the view with each of the primary axes.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 41


Introduction
Building a simulation model from maps

Introduction
The input data are a set of mesh maps and fault traces, generated in an external mapping
package, and well deviation surveys. The output is a simulation grid and cell properties. The
workflow steps are; creating a structural framework, a property model, a simulation grid and
upscaling properties.
The files for this tutorial are in the directory flogrid/tutorials/grainne.

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_sim_from_maps.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New
Workspace…(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing data
1 Set the unit system for the model to metric by selecting Preferences | Set External
Units... and choosing ECLIPSE-METRIC.
2 Right-click on the Surfaces data tree node to reach the drop-down menu and select Import
Mesh Maps | CPS3....
3 Select maps:
• TOPS1.SVS, TOPS2.SVS, TOPS3.SVS, TOPS4.SVS, TOPS5.SVS
• PORO1.SVS, PORO2.SVS, PORO3.SVS, PORO4.SVS, PORO5.SVS
• PERMX1.SVS, PERMX2.SVS, PERMX3.SVS, PERMX4.SVS, PERMX5.SVS
4 On the pop-up dialog with the table of maps to import, press button Create Surface.
5 On the next pop-up dialog set number of surfaces to 5 and number them top to bottom. On
the next pop-up dialog, accept the default surface names.
6 Back on the Mesh Map Import dialog, set the Surface names for the tops, porosity and
permeability maps.
• Set TOPS1, PORO1 and PERMX1 to Surface1 etc.
• Set the property of the horizon maps to Horizon,
• Set the property of porosity maps to Porosity and permeability maps to Perm.
• Press Edit and set the Vertical Unit to FEET.
7 Back on the Mesh Map Import dialog, click on OK.
8 Expand the Surfaces node on the data tree and check all the horizon nodes to display them
on the 3D Viewer.

Hint You may want to increase the vertical exaggeration and change the angle of
display to obtain a better view.

42 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Building a simulation model from maps
9 Use the drop-down menu on the Faults data tree node and select Import Fault Traces |
Generic....
10 Select file ID.FLT and accept defaults, press OK.
11 Check the Faults node to display all fault traces in the 3D Viewer.
12 Use the drop-down menu on the Wells data tree node and select Import Well Deviation
Surveys | GRID....
13 Select file _wells.ctl.
14 Check the Wells node to display all wells in the 3D Viewer.

Using a thickness map to define the bottom


surface
1 For each unit (layer) in the structural model, data are needed to define the top and bottom
surface. The maps imported so far define 5 surfaces and associated properties, which can
be used to build a model with 4 units. The following steps describe how to define the
bottom surface by adding a thickness map, which will result in a model with 5 units. (You
may omit these steps and build a model with 4 units.)
2 Use the drop-down menu on the Surfaces data tree node, select Import Mesh Maps |
CPS3... and select the thickness map DZ5.SVS
3 Press Edit and set the Vertical Unit to FEET.
4 Back on the Mesh Map Import dialog, set the property to Thickness and press OK.
5 Note that the imported map is listed under Unassigned Maps.
6 From the drop-down menu on the Surfaces data tree node, select Surface Table... and
press the Add Below button to add a surface representing the bottom of the reservoir.
7 On the data tree, select the Thickness - DZ5 map, drag and drop it onto the node for
Surface6
8 Return to the Surface Table and set the Thickness Reference to Surface5 (in the column
headed Th. Reference). This indicates that DZ5 represents the thickness between
Surface5 and Surface6.
9 Close the Surface Table panel.

Building a structural framework


1 Launch Structural Framework Builder from the toolbar by pressing the Structural
Framework Creation button, .

2 Create a framework, using File | Create Structural Framework... on the Structural


Framework module.
• Accept the defaults.
3 On the Boundary folder, set the boundary to Use Map Extents.
4 On the Units folder, build units using all the defaults by pressing press Build Units.
5 On the Faults folder, create fault block units using all the defaults by pressing Auto Split
Into Blocks & Block Units.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 43


Building a simulation model from maps
6 View the fault framework and the wireframe.

Building a map based property model


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar by pressing the Create Models button,
.
2 Give the model a name and set the build type to Map-based property model.
3 Set the structural basis to Structural Framework, select the framework from the list and
press OK.
This creates a model and opens the Property Model dialog, from which you can create and
edit property models. You can close it without any actions.

Building a structured grid


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar, .
2 Give the model a name and set the build type to Build new grid.
3 Set the structural basis to Structural Framework and select one from the list.
4 Set the Grid Type to Structured and press OK.
5 On the pop-up dialog, select Corner Point grid type and Fault Framework gridding
controls.
6 On the Boundary folder of the Structured Gridder, press Create, Copy... to create a new
boundary. Press Create... on the pop-up dialog and select Polygon, projection plane XY
and Top.
7 Add a horizon map to the 3D Viewer to locate the valid area of the model.
8 Digitize a boundary within the valid area of the map with four major points and any number
of minor points.

Hint The first point is major by default and the subsequent points are minor unless Ctrl is
pressed while digitizing.

9 Define an approximate quadrilateral boundary, since we are building a structured grid and
commit the edit by pressing the tickmark button. And close the Create or edit model
boundary dialog
10 On the Gridding Controls folder, of the Structured Gridder, set the type of control ID1
to J Line, ID2 to I Line, ID3 to I Line and press Apply.

Note If the fault crosses the new boundary it may not be possible to change the type.

11 On the Areal Grid folder, enter the Total Nx and Total Ny (40, 30) and build an areal grid,
by pressing Build.
12 On the Vertical Grid folder, accept the default layering and press Set Layering.
13 On the 3D Grid section, press Build..Click “continue” on the message box

44 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Building a simulation model from maps
14 Display the grid.

Upscaling properties
1 Launch the Upscaling module from the toolbar by clicking on the Upscaling button .
2 For the Upscale from model select the map based model and for the Upscale to model
select the structured grid.
3 Accept the default properties of porosity and permeability to upscale using the default
methods and press Upscale.
4 Expand the Properties node on the data tree and view required properties.

Exporting the upscaled model for simulation


1 Launch the Export Data dialog using the drop-down menu Export | Model item on the
corresponding FloGrid Models node, on the data tree.
2 Set the following:
• output format to GRDECL (Eclipse.GRDECL keywords),
• select Grid by checking the box in the Geometry section, then press Set Location,
enter a file name and Save
• select Well Trajectories and set file location
• select Grid Properties.
3 Press Export to export all files.

Hint When you press Save on the file name dialog, this saves the name of the file to be
created. You must press Export to write out the data.

Note For the wells defined in the file _wells.dev, WELL_4 and WELL_8 do not
intersect the grid.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 45


Building a simulation model from maps
Building a simulation model from a RESCUE model

Introduction
The input data are loaded from a RESCUE model created in an external modeling product. The
output is a simulation grid and cell properties. The workflow steps are; creating a simulation
grid, upscaling properties.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory
flogrid/tutorials/RESCUE/cloudspin.

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_sim_from_rescue.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New Workspace…
(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing data
1 Use the right mouse button floating menu on the FloGrid Models tree node and select
Import Model | RESCUE... Select the file cloudspin.bin. The Set External
Property Types dialog appears. Press OK.
2 Display model on the 3D Viewer by checking the Rescue model node on the tree.
3 Expand the Properties node on the tree and select a property to view and use the IJK
buttons and the video buttons on the 3D
Viewer toolbar to view slices through the model.
4 Use the floating menu on the Wells tree node and select Import Well Deviation Surveys
| GRID....
• Select file _wells.ctl.
5 Display the wells on the 3D Viewer by checking the Wells node.

Building a structured grid


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar, .
2 Give the model a name and set the build type to Build new grid.
3 Set the structural basis to Structural Framework and select one from the list.
4 Set the grid type to Structured and click on OK.
5 On the pop-up dialog, select Corner Point grid type and Fault Framework (New
Workflow) for Gridding Controls.
6 On the Boundary folder of the Structured Gridder, click on Create from Structural
Framework Boundary.
7 On the Gridding Controls folder accept the default controls and click on Apply.

46 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Building a simulation model from a RESCUE model
8 On the Areal Grid folder, enter the Total Nx and Total Ny (20, 40) and build an areal grid,
by clicking on Build.
9 On the Vertical Grid folder, set Layers Per Unit to 10.
10 On the 3D Grid section, select Set Layering and then Build.Click “continue” on the
message box.
11 Dismiss the Structured Gridder and display the grid.

Upscaling properties
1 Launch the Upscaling module from the toolbar, .
2 Set the Upscale from model to the RESCUE model and the Upscale to model to the
structured grid.
3 Accept the default properties of porosity and permeability to upscale using the default
methods and click on Upscale.
4 Expand the Properties node on the data tree and view required properties.

Exporting the model for simulation


1 Launch the Export Data using the drop-down menu Export | Model item on the
corresponding FloGrid Model node, in the data tree.
2 Set the following:
• output format to GRDECL (Eclipse.GRDECL keywords),
• select Grid by checking the box in Geometry section and set the file name and
location,
• select Well Trajectories and set file location,
• select Grid Properties.
3 Press Export to export all files.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 47


Building a simulation model from a RESCUE model
Building a simulation model by upgridding another model
and comparing volumetrics

Introduction
The input data are loaded from an existing FloGrid model. This could be an imported RESCUE
model, an imported corner point model or one built in FloGrid. The output is a simulation grid
and cell properties. The workflow steps are; creating a simulation grid using the Upgridder,
upscaling properties, running volumetrics on input and output models.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory
flogrid/tutorials/RESCUE/cloudspin.
• This tutorial requires the gf_fg_analysis license feature.

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_upgrid_volumetrics.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New
Workspace…(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing Data
1 Use the drop-down menu on the FloGrid Models tree node and select Import Model |
RESCUE.... Select the file cloudspin.bin. The Set External Property Types dialog
appears. Press OK.
2 Display model on the 3D Viewer by checking the Rescue model node on the tree.
3 Expand the Properties node on the tree and select a property to view.

4 Use the IJK buttons, , , , and the video buttons, , , , , ,

, on the 3D Viewer toolbar to view slices through the model.


5 Use the drop-down menu on the Wells tree node and select Import Well Deviation
Surveys | GRID....
• Select file _wells.ctl.
6 Display the wells on the 3D Viewer by checking the Wells node.

Building a structured grid


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar, .
2 Give the model name Fine and set the build type to Build new grid.
3 Set the structural basis to Structural Framework and select one from the list.
4 Set the grid type to Structured and press OK.

48 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Building a simulation model by upgridding another model and comparing volumetrics
5 On the pop-up dialog, select Corner Point grid type and Fault Framework Gridding
Controls.
6 On the Boundary folder of the Structured Gridder, press Create from Structural
Framework Boundary.
7 On the Gridding Controls folder accept the default controls and press Apply.
8 On the Areal Grid folder, enter the Total Nx and Total Ny (20, 40) and build an areal grid,
by pressing Build.
9 On the Vertical Grid folder, set Layers Per Unit to 10.
10 On the 3D Grid section, press Set Layering and then press Build. Click “continue” on
the message box.
11 Display the grid.

Upscaling properties on the fine grid


1 Launch the Upscaling module from the toolbar, .
2 Set the Upscale from model to Rescue cloudspin and the Upscale to model to Fine.
3 Select Porosity, Perm and CellVolume to upscale using the default methods and press
Upscale, and close the Structured Gridder Properties dialog.
4 Expand the Properties node on the data tree and view required properties.

Building a structured grid by upgridding


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar, .

2 Give the model name Coarse and set the build type to Build new grid.
3 Set the structural basis to Existing FloGrid Model, select Fine from the list and press OK.
4 On the Upgridding folder of the Structured Gridder, set the Select fine BUG to Global
grid and press Options.
5 On the Var Upgridding Controls panel, enable the I, J and K options and select
Porosity_v0 as the upgridding property in each group on IJK directions and press OK.
6 Press Create to create the upgridded BUG and press Convert to Sim Grid to create a 3D
grid.
7 Display the grid and close the Structured Gridder.

Upscaling properties on the coarse grid


1 Launch the Upscaling module from the toolbar, .

2 Set the Upscale from model to Fine and the Upscale to model to Coarse.
3 Select Porosity, PermX, PermY and PermZ, and CellVolume to upscale using the
default methods and press Upscale and close the Structured Gridder Properties dialog.
4 Expand the Properties node on the data tree and view the required properties.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 49


Building a simulation model by upgridding another model and comparing volumetrics
Running volumetrics on fine and coarse models
1 Launch the Volumetrics module from the toolbar, .

2 Set a report name and select model Fine.


3 On the Output folder, set all outputs to On and Source to Calculate....
4 On the Properties folder:
• For the NTG property use a constant value of 0.5
• Set the Porosity property to the available porosity property array.
• For Oil Saturation use a constant value of 0.5.
• For Gas Saturation use a constant value of 0.25
• For Water Saturation set to Calculate....
5 In the Reporting folder set the level of details to Totals only, and the output units for Rock
volume to ft^3, Liquid volume to bbl and Gas volume to ft^3.
6 Press Single Run.
7 Repeat the process for model Coarse and compare the results reported to the Log Window.

50 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Building a simulation model by upgridding another model and comparing volumetrics
Building an unstructured simulation model

Introduction
The input data are a FloGrid Model and well deviation surveys. The model can be an imported
RESCUE model, built from maps or an existing structured grid. The output is an unstructured
simulation grid, cell properties and well connections. The workflow steps are; creating a
simulation grid using the Unstructured Gridder, generating cell properties and well
connections.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory
flogrid/tutorials/RESCUE/cloudspin.
• This tutorial requires the gf_petragrid license feature.

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_unstr_sim.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New
Workspace…(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing data
1 Use the drop-down menu on the FloGrid Models tree node and select Import Model |
RESCUE.... Select the file cloudspin.bin. The Set External Property Types dialog
appears. Press OK.
2 Display model on the 3D Viewer by checking the Rescue model node on the tree.
3 Expand the Properties node on the tree and select a property to view.

4 Use the IJK buttons, , , , and the video buttons, , , , , ,

, on the 3D Viewer toolbar to view slices through the model.


5 Use the drop-down menu on the Wells tree node and select Import Well Deviation
Surveys | GRID....
• Select file _wells.ctl.
6 Display the wells on the 3D Viewer by checking the Wells node.

Building an unstructured grid


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar, .

2 Give the model a name and set the build type to Build new grid.
3 Set the structural basis to Structural Framework and select one from the list.
4 Set the grid type to Unstructured (normal) and press OK.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 51


Building an unstructured simulation model
5 On the pop-up dialog, select Fault Framework Gridding Controls.
6 On the Unstructured Gridder, inspect the well gridding controls and the fault gridding
controls using Edit | Well Controls... and Edit | Fault Controls....
• And close both dialogs.
7 On the Edit Bulk Controls panel, launched with Edit | Bulk Controls..., set the Cells in J
to 40 and Apply, and close this dialog.
8 On the Edit Layer Controls panel, launched with Edit | Layer Controls..., set the
Number of layers per unit to 10,
9 Press Refine Selected BlockUnit(s) button, accept the default weights and press OK.
10 Press OK on the Edit Layer Controls panel.
11 Generate a grid using Grid | Generate menu, on the Unstructured Gridder, and inspect
the grid using the IJK Slicer.

Upscaling properties and connecting wells


1 Generate cell properties and transmissibilities using Property | Generate Real... on the
Unstructured Gridder module and accept the defaults.
2 Inspect the properties in the 3D Viewer.
3 Generate well connections using Wells | Auto Connect....

Exporting the model for simulation


1 Export a grid file for ECLIPSE using File | Export Grid Keywords... and accept all the
defaults on the Export Grid Keywords panel.
2 Export a well completions file for ECLIPSE using File | Export Well Keywords....
3 Export a well trajectory file for Schedule using File | Export Well Trajectory....

52 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Building an unstructured simulation model
Planning New Wells

Introduction
The input data are loaded from an existing FloGrid Model, for instance a corner point grid. The
output is a well trajectory file for the Schedule program and a well target file for Drilling Office.
The workflow steps are; defining well heads, creating well targets, using drilling constraints and
creating well deviations are performed using the Well Planning tool. Once well paths have been
defined, perforation intervals can be defined and synthetic logs can be created. A table of targets
can be exported using the drop-down menu on a well path table and a trajectory file can be
exported using the Structured or Unstructured Gridder module.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory -
flogrid/tutorials/RESCUE/cloudspin.
• This tutorial requires the gf_fg_analysis license feature.

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_plan_wells.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New
Workspace…(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing data and building a structured grid and


upscaling
This part of the tutorial is already documented in a previous tutorial, "Building a simulation
model from a RESCUE model" on page 46.
1 Please run that tutorial or its command file, _sim_from_rescue.cmd, first.

Plan Wells
1 Display all the existing wells by checking the Wells node.

2 Launch the Well Planning module from the toolbar, .

3 Enter well name New1 on the empty last row of the table.
New1 will be a new horizontal well.
4 Switch on the Pick New Wellhead Locations option and click on the 3D Viewer to define
a location for the well head. Press Apply to create the well.
5 Expand the Wells node on the data tree and find New1. Right-mouse click on the node for
New1 and select Edit Wellpath... from the drop-down menu.
6 On the Edit Wellpath panel, select as Constraint, Structural Framework “Rescue
cloudspin (sm)” and the default Constraint Option to Center in “Houston”.
This constrains the horizontal well track, to be digitized in the center of unit Houston.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 53


Planning New Wells
7 Switch on the Apply drilling constraints to generate trajectory option.
8 Digitize a set of points on the 3D Viewer as targets for a horizontal well and press OK.

Note The points seen on the 3D Viewer are projected normal to the view to center in the unit
Houston.

9 Back on the Well Planning panel in the new empty last row, enter New2 as a well name.
New2 will be a new vertical well.
10 Tick Pick New Wellhead Locations toggle and click on the 3D Viewer to define a
location for the well head. Press Apply to create the well.
11 Select Edit Well Path... from the drop-down menu for New2. On the Edit Wellpath panel
press Make Vertical From WellHead. Click Yes on the warning message box stating the
existing well deviation will be lost.
12 Click "continue" on the message box. Then click on OK.
This creates a vertical well path.

Exporting targets and trajectory


1 The next step is to output a set of targets as a table for Drilling Office.
2 Select Edit Well Path... from the drop-down menu for New1.
This re-launches the Edit Wellpath panel for New1.
3 Use the right mouse button drop-down menu on the table to export it into a file. Having
exported a file Cancel the panel.
4 Launch the Export Data panel using the drop-down menu Export | Model item on the
FloGrid Model node for the structured grid struct.
5 Select only Well Trajectories for export, set the file name and location, and Export.
6 Close the Export Data and Well Planning dialogs.

Creating synthetic logs


1 Expand the Wells node, use the Create Synthetic Well Logs... item from the drop-down
menu on well New1.
2 Select Porosity_v0 as the Property Grid and press OK.
3 Repeat the process for well New2.
4 Expand the Well Logs node and check Porosity.
5 Remove the FloGrid Models from display to see the logs better in the 3D Viewer.
6 Use the drop-down menu on wells New1 and New2 to add them to the Well Correlation
Canvas.
7 Use the drop-down menu on the Porosity logs to add the logs to the Well Correlation
Canvas. Inspect the logs in the correlation canvas.

54 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Planning New Wells
Note The Well Correlation Canvas functionality is supported in the Sun Solaris 8 and
Windows 2000 PC 32-bit platforms only.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 55


Planning New Wells
Updating a simulation model and building a derived
model

Introduction
The input data are an ECLIPSE grid and properties. The output is an updated simulation model
or a new one. The workflow steps are:
• Create a structured grid based on an imported ECLIPSE grid. Add LGRs, refine or coarsen
the model.
• Edit the grid nodes, and export the modified simulation model from the Structured
Gridder.
In another scenario, instead of modifying the imported model, build a derived new model. The
workflow steps are create the imported model as before, but use the Create Structural
Framework option. Edit the structural framework and create a new derived model, with the
Unstructured Gridder.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory flogrid/tutorials/brilld.
• This tutorial requires the gf_petragrid license feature for use of the unstructured
gridder at the end of the tutorial

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_update_derive_model.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running use File | New
Workspace…(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing a model and updating it


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar, .

2 Set the following parameters


• model name,
• build type to Import model,
• structural basis to Imported file: ECLIPSE grid and
• grid type to Structured,
• select BRILLD.EGRID as the file to import
• and press OK.
3 On the pop-up Grid Use panel select the Refine, coarsen or add LGRs option.
4 From the drop-down menu on the model node use Import | Properties | ECLIPSE... and
import BRILLD.INIT file to import the static properties. View the grid and properties.
5 Launch the Structured Gridder panel by selecting the Edit... item from the drop-down
menu on the model node.

56 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Updating a simulation model and building a derived model
6 Select the Resize folder, and to refine the last two grid columns set I1 to 19 and, I2 to 20,
and the I Factor to 4. Leave J1, J2, K1, K2 and the corresponding J and K factors set to
1. Then press Refine.
7 To coarsen the last 8 columns back to 2 set I1 to 19, and I2 to 26, and I Factor to 4. (Other
parameters should be set to 1 as before.) Then, press Coarsen.
This coarsens 8 columns by a factor of 4 to 2 columns.
8 Select the LGRs folder and give the LGR a name.
9 Click on a cell in the 3D Viewer to set the StartIJ.
10 Select the EndIJ toggle on the LGR folder and click on a cell in the 3D Viewer to set the
end IJ.
11 Use the default values for NXFIN, NYFIN and NZFIN to refine by a factor of 2 in the I and
J directions only.
12 Press Save LGR and then Update 3DGrid.
13 Launch the Export Data dialog from the File | Export... menu on the gridder.
14 Set the following parameters:
• output format to Eclipse.GRDECL keywords,
• select Grid, LGR Grids in the Geometry section and set file location,
15 In the Properties section, select Grid Properties and LGR Properties and select
Property Types: NTG, PermX, PermY, PermZ, and Porosity to export.
16 In the Well Trajectories section toggle off the option to export Well Trajectories.
17 Press Export to export the file.
18 Close the Export Data dialog and the Structured Gridder panel.

Importing a model and deriving a new model


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar, .

2 Set the following parameters


• model name,
• build type to Import model,
• structural basis to Imported File ECLIPSE grid and
• grid type to Structured,
• select BRILLD.EGRID as the file to import
• and press OK.
3 On the pop-up Please Select Grid Use panel select the Create structural framework
option.
4 From the drop-down menu on the model node use Import | Properties | ECLIPSE... and
import BRILLD.INIT file to import the static properties. View the grid and properties.
5 Remove the grid from the view and add the Fault Framework to the view.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 57


Updating a simulation model and building a derived model
Hint The Fault Framework node is under the corresponding Structural Framework node
in the data tree.

6 Use the drop-down menu and the item Edit on the Fault Framework node to open the
Framework Editor.
This editor can be used to clean up imperfections in a Fault Framework. We will now perform
a dummy edit as an example.
7 Rotate the model and zoom as necessary to access the fault data in the 3D window.
8 Double-click on the major fault on the 3D Viewer to make that particular fault editable.
You should see the top and bottom lines turn into tubes and white vertical control lines
appear.
Click on the top line to make it editable.
You should see yellow cube handles and a 3D cursor appear. Drag the 3D cursor slightly in
away from the minor fault to give the major fault a slope.

9 Cancel the edit by clicking .

Note When editing it is important to move the bottom line in the symmetrically opposite
direction and line up the red center line of the Fault Framework item with its
wireframe representation. This ensures the throw in the grid coincides with the Fault
Framework item.

10 Build a new unstructured (normal) gridding model in the Create Model module using the
edited Structural Framework. In the Please Select Gridding Option dialog select the
Gridding Controls to Fault Framework (New Workflow) option.
11 In the Unstructured Gridder, use the Edit | Layer Controls... option to set the layering
for the new grid.
12 Set Number of layers per unit to 7 and set the Layering method to Use property
model.
13 Press Refine Selected BlockUnit(s).
14 Accept defaults, press OK on the Refinement panel and on the Layering panel.
15 Generate a grid using, Grid | Generate and generate properties using Property |
Generate Real... and accept the defaults.
16 View the resulting grid and properties.

58 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Updating a simulation model and building a derived model
Deriving Fault Transmissibility Multipliers for Simulation

Introduction
The input data are loaded from a RESCUE model. The output is simulator keywords defining
the transmissibility multipliers. The workflow steps are:
• generate a structured grid.
• use the Fault Property Calculator to determine fault displacement, thickness, shale
gouge ratio, fault permeability and transmissibility.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory -
flogrid/tutorials/RESCUE/cloudspin.
• This tutorial requires the gf_fg_populate license feature

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_fault_trans.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New Workspace…
(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing data and building a structured grid and


upscaling
This part of the tutorial is already documented in a previous tutorial: "Building a simulation
model from a RESCUE model" on page 46.
1 Please run that tutorial or its command file, _sim_from_rescue.cmd, first.

Calculating Fault Properties


1 Launch the Fault Property Calculator from the toolbar.
2 On the Faults folder, use the radio button to set the Style for all faults to Derived.
Now, we will calculate the transmissibility based on fault throw, shale gouge ratio and fault
permeability.
3 Select the Derived Multiplier folder.
On the Thickness folder, choose the default thickness calculation formula based on a
constant brittleness factor. Select Calculate Fault Displacement and Thickness. Accept
the pop-up dialog on calculating IJKFAULTMULTNUM.
4 In the Shale folder, set a constant value of 0.2 as the Shale Content and select Set Shale
Content=Constant.
5 Calculate Shale Gouge Ratio to perform calculation.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 59


Deriving Fault Transmissibility Multipliers for Simulation
6 On the Perm folder, select the permeability function to be
log kf = ( – A1 × SGR ) – ( A2 × log(D) × ( 1 – SGR ) **A3 ) and Calculate Fault Permeability.

7 On the Trans folder, press Calculate Cross Fault Transmissibility to perform


calculation.
Inspect the fault properties in the 3D Viewer using the steps below.
1 Display the 3D Grid and in the Properties node, select the face-based property
Faultid_Face.
2 Launch the thresholding dialog using menu Scene | Grid | Threshold....
3 Select values 1-4 as the values to be displayed.
Apply.
This culls out faces with index 0, leaving only the fault faces on display.
4 On the tree, select properties Displacement_Face, Thickness_Face,
Permeability_Face and TransM_Face to display in sequence and inspect their values.
5 Go to the Fault Export folder on the Fault Property Calculator.
Select all keywords to export.
Export Keywords for Faults.
6 Set file name to faults_grid.grdecl for the GRID keywords and
faults_edit.grdecl for the EDIT keywords on the respective file selection dialogs
that pop up to export the files.

60 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Deriving Fault Transmissibility Multipliers for Simulation
Generating geostatistical properties

Introduction
The input data are a structural framework, well logs, and markers. The structure may be
imported using a RESCUE model or built within FloGrid using map and fault data. The other
data may be imported as flat files. The output is a geological scale corner point model with
petrophysical properties that have been distributed using a geostatisical method. The workflow
steps are:
• create a geological scale corner point grid using the Structured Gridder,
• determine the layering scheme for the vertical gridding by investigating the property
logs in the Well Correlation Canvas,
• populate a grid with porosity values using a geostatistical algorithm
• use the data analysis tools throughout the process.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory flogrid/tutorials/cloudspin-by-
maps.
• This tutorial requires the gf_fg_populate license feature

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_geostats.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New Workspace…
(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing data from a file


1 Confirm the unit system for the model is field units, using Preferences | Set External
Units... and choose ECLIPSE-FIELD.
2 Use drop-down menu on the Surfaces data tree node and select Import Mesh Maps |
CPS3....
3 From the Horizons directory select the following maps:
• houston.svs and base.svs.
4 On the Mesh Map Import pop-up dialog select Create Surface.
5 On the next pop-up dialog set Number Of Surface(s) Required to 2 and select Number
surfaces from top to bottom.
6 On the next pop-up dialog, set the surface names to houston and base, for Surfaces 1 and
2 respectively.
7 Back on the Mesh Map Import dialog:
• associate surfaces, names and files using the drop-downs in the Surface cells and set
the Property type to Horizon
• select OK.

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Generating geostatistical properties
8 Display the surfaces in the 3D Viewer by checking the tree node.
9 Use the drop-down menu on the Faults data tree node and select Import Fault Traces |
CPS....
• From the Faults directory, select houston.flt.
• In the Fault Trace Import dialog, using the drop-down selection option on the
Surface column, set all to Splitter. OK.

Note The assignment of traces as splitter is very important at this stage since this aids in the
definition and construction of the Structural Framework.

10 Check the Faults node to display them on the 3D Viewer.


11 From the drop-down menu on the Wells node, select Import Well Deviation Surveys |
CPS...
• From the Deviation directory select wells.dat.
12 Check the Wells node to display them on the 3D Viewer.
13 Use the drop-down menu on the Well Markers node and select Import Well Markers |
Generic....
• From the Horizons directory select marker.dat.
14 Check to ensure that the column headings match the input file and press Review Marker
Assignments.
15 Confirm the surfaces and wells are properly referenced in the Markers assignments to
wells and surfaces dialog and click on OK.
Then OK on the Generic Well Marker Import panel. Check Well Markers node on the
tree to display markers.
16 Use the drop-down menu on the Well Logs node and select Import Well Logs | LAS....
• From the Logs directory select all the log files.
Accept all the defaults by clicking on OK.
Notice that not all the loaded wells have log data.
17 Expand the Well Logs node, use the drop-down menu on Porosity logs and Set Display
Type to Line-1. Similarly, set the Display Type of VCLAY to Line-2.
• Toggle the Surfaces tree nodes off and check the tree nodes to display all logs.
18 On the Wells node, using the drop-down menus select Add All Wells to Well Correlation
Canvas.

Note The Well Correlation Canvas functionality is supported in the Sun Solaris 8 and
Windows 2000 PC 32-bit platforms only.

19 Similarly, using the Well Markers node and the Well Logs nodes, add all markers and logs
to the Well Correlation Canvas.

20 Use the zone zoom option on the canvas and drag a rectangle over the valid log area
and zoom repeatedly.
21 Remove all items displayed in the 3D Viewer, and close the Well Correlation Canvas.

62 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Generating geostatistical properties
Building the structural framework
1 Launch Structural Framework Creation module from the toolbar.
2 Create a new Structural Framework using File | Create Structural Framework...
OK to accept the defaults.
3 On the Boundary folder: Use Map Extents to set the boundary extents to those defined
by the map extents.
4 On the Units folder, build the units using all the defaults, by clicking on Build Units.
5 On the Faults folder, create fault block units using all the defaults by clicking on Auto Split
Into Blocks & Block Units.
6 View the Fault Framework and the Wireframe by selecting them from the Structural
Frameworks node.

Building a structured grid


1 Launch the Create Model module from the toolbar.
2 Give the model a name and set the build type to Build New Grid.
3 Set the structural basis to Structural Framework and select one from the list.
4 Set the grid type to Structured and click on OK.
5 On the pop-up dialog, select Corner Point as the Grid Type and Fault Framework as the
Gridding Controls.
6 On the Boundary folder of the Structured Gridder panel, select Create from Structural
Framework Boundary.
7 On the Gridding Controls folder accept the default controls: Apply.
8 On the Areal Grid folder, enter the Average Dx and Average Dy (250, 250) and Build
an Areal Grid.
The given grid size should result in Total Nx = 54, Total Ny = 60.
9 On the Vertical Grid folder, set Layer Type to Bottom Conforming, and Max Unit
Thickness/Layers Per Unit to 5.
• Click on Set Layering.
• Click on Build.
This layering scheme will result in 33 layers per unit.
10 Continue in the FloGrid pop-up information dialog.
11 Close the Structured Gridder and display the grid.

Populating properties using geostatistics


1 Launch the Property Population module from the toolbar.
2 Create a Population Parameter Set by clicking on Create Parameter Set... in the top
row.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 63


Generating geostatistical properties
Give a name for the parameters and click on OK.
3 Create a Property Grid by clicking on the Create... button on the next row.
Give the new property a name and select Porosity as the property type. OK.
4 Unit... to select Unit 1.
5 On the Primary Input folder: in the Primary Data section, select Well Logs.
Compute Borehole/Surface Intersections....
6 Inspect the Intersection MD, Marker MD and Difference columns.
OK to accept the default settings.
7 Select property type Porosity.
8 Click on Load.
This loads the selected well log data, stretching and squeezing as defined in the
Borehole/Surface Intersection dialog.
9 Inspect the newly created primary logs and original logs in the Well Correlation Canvas
by using the drop-down menu options on the Wells, Well Markers and Well Logs. The
logs created here are available under the Property Population node on the data tree.

10 Click on the “Histogram” button next to Load to inspect the histogram of the primary
data.
11 On the Lumping folder, click on Lump. Add lumped logs to the Well Correlation Canvas
and inspect. Inspect the histogram of the lumped data.

Note The Primary and Lumped logs can be accessed as Well Logs on the data tree under the
Property Population node, while the Property Population window is open, with the
relevant parameter set loaded. After closing the window, or running a command file to
create these logs, you can restore the logs by re-opening the Property Population
dialog and using Load Parameter Set.

12 Go to Algorithm folder, select Sequential Gaussian Simulation from the drop-down


algorithm option and click on the variogram tool .

13 On the Variogram Specifications panel, click on Compute Experimental.

64 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Generating geostatistical properties
14 Adjust the variogram in the Variogram Specifications panel and/or by setting values in
the Data Analysis graphical window:
• Model Type: Spherical
• Nugget: 0.0005
• Toggle Areal Major or Minor ON
• Uncheck the option to Constrain to major sill. Note that if this is checked then all sill
values will be set equal.
• Set the Major Range value to 4200 and the Major Sill value to 0.0075.
• Set the Minor Range value to 2100 and the Minor Sill value to 0.0075.
• Set the Vertical Range value to 35 and the Vertical Sill value to 0.005.
• Set Azimuth to 0.
• Give the model a name in the field next to Output Variogram Model.
• Press Save.
• Close the Variogram Specifications panel.

Note Variogram Range, Sill and Nugget can be adjusted graphically in the Data Analysis
dialog by dragging (Range, Sill) point and Nugget points (click and drag on the
points).

15 On the Property Population panel, in the Algorithm folder, set Realization Number to
3 and click on Save Parameter Set & Populate.
16 Inspect the 3 Porosity properties in the 3D Viewer by viewing different K slices.
Notice that most of the upper layers have large amounts of null values. This is because the
layering scheme is Bottom Conforming and many of the cells in the upper layer have zero
cell volumes.
17 Expand the Wells node.
18 Use the drop-down menu on a selected set of wells and Create Synthetic Well Logs from
the populated Porosity grids, which you previously generated.
19 On the Create Synthetic Well Logs pop-up panel, choose the Property as Porosity.
Set the Grid to one of the realizations, or set the Grid to Unspecified, to generate
synthetic logs for all realizations.
20 Expand the Well Logs node on the data tree and find the synthetic logs under the node for
Porosity logs. Add the synthetic logs to the Well Correlation Canvas and compare the
synthetic logs with the original logs, for those cases that have original Porosity logs.

FloGrid User Guide Short Tutorials 65


Generating geostatistical properties
Running a Streamline Simulation with Multiple
Realizations

Introduction
The input data are a set of FloGrid models with corner point grids and multiple properties and
a set of well paths. The multiple models may be due to different layering schemes or fault
realizations and multiple properties may be due to multiple geostatistical realizations or history
matching scenarios. The output is a production profile report from a streamline simulation. The
workflow steps are; launch the Streamline Simulation tool ("Streamline Simulation" on
page 585) and define the initial conditions, well targets and data set file names in the
Simulation Setup panel ("Simulation Setup" on page 587). Launch the Multiple Realization
Manager ("Multiple Realizations" on page 623) from the Simulation Setup panel, run
realizations, view production profiles graphically and export report.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory tutorials/cloudspin-by-maps.
• This tutorial requires the gf_fg_analysis and gf_fg_populate license features.

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_mult_sim.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running use File | New Workspace…
(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Creating a model and properties


This part of the tutorial is already documented in a previous tutorial: "Generating geostatistical
properties" on page 61).
1 Please run that tutorial or its command file (_geostats.cmd) first.

Creating multiple properties


1 Generate VCLAY values on the new grid using the same procedure as for the Porosity
property in the previous tutorial:
• Choose 3 realizations of Sequential Gaussian Simulations, for simplicity use the
same variogram model.
• Display the properties.
• On the top of the model, you will see large areas of NULL values. They are pinched
out cells, which are not populated for efficiency.

66 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide


Running a Streamline Simulation with Multiple Realizations
Preparing properties for simulation
1 Expand the Porosity Property Node on the Geostats model and select all porosity
properties using Shift-click.
2 Using the drop-down menu on the selected node, replace NULL values by 0.0.
3 Do the same for the VCLAY property, this time replace the NULL values with 1.0.
4 Launch the Property Calculator from the same drop-down menu.
5 Press Create Property to create a property of name PermX_r1 and type PermX.
6 Using the Calculator buttons, create the equation:
PermX_r1=0.4 * EXP(22* porosity_r1)

Hint Select the correct name of the first porosity realization from the list at the lower right
of the calculator.

7 Press the Multi-Apply button and in the Multi-Apply Calculator panel press OK.
8 Using the Property Calculator, create PermY_r1 of type PermY that equates to PermX_r1.
Use Multi-Apply so that the other PermY_r2 and PermY_r3 are also generated.
9 Create PermZ_r1 of type Perm Z using:
PermZ_r1 = If (VCLAY_r1>0.75) THEN 1 ELSE (250 * EXP(-3*VCLAY_r1))
ENDIF
10 Use Multi-Apply to create 3 realizations of Perm Z.

Setting up simulation data and running multiple


realizations
Before running the simulation it is necessary to identify what kinds of wells are present so that
the simulator can assign group injection and production rates automatically.
1 Select all the wells in the data tree and with the right hand mouse button menu select Set
Type of Selected Wells to | Producer. This is because almost all the wells are producers
and only a few are injectors.
2 Then set the injectors using the right hand mouse button selection as Injector. The wells to
set to injector are: Citrine-1, Jasper-D1, Amethyst-3, Calcite-32, Diamond-14 and Copper-
6.
3 One well should not be simulated: Albite-F1. You can prevent it by using the right hand
mouse menu to set its type to Unknown.

Hint To see which wells are Producers and which are Injectors, right-mouse click on the
Wells node and select Color Wells | by Well Type

Now we can run the simulator.

1 Launch the Simulation Setup module from the toolbar, .

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Running a Streamline Simulation with Multiple Realizations
2 On the General folder, toggle on the option Graphics Files (Streamlines & RESTART)
required for 3D views, which is in the section Output Files to generate, and click on
Apply.
3 On the Setup | 2 Phase folder, set Pressure @ OWC to 6000 psia and click on Apply
to accept the other defaults.
4 On the Setup | Rates folder, set Maximum Injection BHP to 6000 psia and click on
Apply to accept the other defaults.
5 On the Run | Multiple folder click on Multiple Realizations to open the Simulation
Realizations panel.
6 Inspect the list of existing models and properties.
7 To decrease the number of realizations click on Guess Groups.
• Or alternatively type r1, r2, r3, in the Group Name column next to the
corresponding permeability realization in the Existing Models and Properties table.
8 Click on Apply to start the simulations.

Viewing results using the Graphical Simulation


Manager
1 Launch the graphical Simulation Manager by pressing the Display Graphics button on
the Multiple Realization Manager or the Simulation Manager button at the bottom of
the Simulation Setup panel.

Hint This can be done while simulations are in progress.

2 View the vector results from the simulation runs.


• The display consists of three linked plots:
• Data value versus time.
• Histogram of the data values at a particular time
• Graph of accumulated mean and standard deviation versus realizations.
• In the table to the top left of the panel, you can see the status of all the simulations. As each
simulation is completed, its results are added to the graphical displays.
• You can manage the simulations using the buttons above and below the table listing the
simulations. You may interrupt a simulation by pressing Stop Queue and delete runs by
selecting a row and using the Delete button.
• You can select the results vector to analyze using the lists at the bottom left corner. You can
select field, group or well data.
• You can move the horizontal and vertical analysis lines to analyze the data at a particular
time, percentile or realization. The selected values are also shown on the middle left slider
display.
• You can print a plot using the buttons at the top of the display area.

Hint Double-click OR drag and drop one of the smaller plots to make it the active large plot.

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Running a Streamline Simulation with Multiple Realizations
Note The vector mnemonics used for the simulation output are described in the simulator
reference manuals (see SUMMARY section).

3 View 3D simulation results and streamlines from a FrontSim run. Select the required
simulation in the table and click the Load3D button

Note The button activation depends on whether the current active table column is the first
or second column. The second column (cyan selections) is required for the Load3D
operation, because this column applies only to runs that have completed. The first
column (magenta selections) applies to all simulations.

4 The streamline display appears in the main window. The display can be changed by
clicking on the “Streamline” button, ,on the right of the 3D display, to open the
Streamline Display window. This allows selection of attributes, filtering and thresholding.
Available streamline properties include:
• SWAT - water saturation
• SOIL - oil saturation
• ID_BEG - streamline source (formerly STRTWELL)
• ID_END - streamline sump (formerly ENDWELL)
5 Display the 3D grid and select recurrent properties (for example, pressure, water saturation)
from the property nodes on the data tree. Use the buttons at the top right for viewing
different timesteps and different I, J, K planes.

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Running a Streamline Simulation with Multiple Realizations
Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping

Introduction
The input data are markers, contours, scatter sets and fault traces, imported using the File |
Import. The output is a map based FloGrid model with structure and properties, ready for 3D
gridding. The workflow steps are; launch the 2D Mapping Canvas ("2D Mapping Canvas" on
page 647), create structural and property mesh maps on the Create Mesh Map panel using the
raw data. Once the maps are of sufficient quality, use the Structural Framework tool to create
a structural framework and the Create Model tool to create a model using the Map-based
Property Model build type.
• The files for this tutorial are in the directory tutorials/cloudspin-by-maps.

Hint A pre-recording of the entire tutorial can be found in the command file
_mapping.cmd.

1 Start FloGrid in the above directory or if already running select File | New
Workspace…(this clears any existing data from FloGrid).

Importing data from a file


1 Set the unit system for the model to feet by selecting Preferences | Set External Units...
and ECLIPSE-FIELD.
2 Import horizons. Use the drop-down menu on the Surfaces Data tree node and item
Import Mesh Maps | CPS3.
3 From the Horizons directory select the following maps:
• houston.svs and base.svs.
4 On the pop-up dialog with the table of maps to import, press Create Surface.
5 On the next pop-up dialog set number of surfaces to 3 and number them top to bottom.
6 On the next pop-up dialog, set the Surface Names to houston, base, and salt for surfaces
1 to 3.
7 Back on the Mesh Map Import dialog:
• associate surfaces, names and files using the drop-down in the Surface cells
• accept the default Property Type of Horizon
• press OK to load the data.
8 Display the surfaces in the 3D Viewer by checking the tree node.
9 Use the drop-down menu on the Faults data tree node and select Import Fault Traces |
CPS....
• From the Faults directory, select houston.flt.
• In the Fault Trace Import dialog, using the drop-down selection option on the
Surface column, set all to Splitter. And press OK.

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Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping
10 Check the Faults node to display on the 3D Viewer.
11 Use menu File | Import | Scatter Sets| Generic to import the data.
• From the Horizons directory, select salt-contour.dat.
12 On the Generic Scatter Set Import panel, set column 3 to property type Unconformity,
click on Scatter Settings and set the Surface to salt on the pop-up Scatter Set Info
panel.
13 Press OK and ignore the message about the coordinate system.
14 Display the houston horizon and the salt scatter data in 3D.

Hint You can change the color settings for individual surfaces, by using the drop-down
menu from the main Surfaces node to edit the Surface Table. You can also change
the appearance of individual maps, by selecting Visualization Settings... from the
map node.

Generating horizon maps


1 Launch the 2D Mapping Canvas from the toolbar, .

2 Expand the Surfaces node and the salt and houston surface nodes on data tree for the 2D
Mapping Canvas.
3 Display the salt scatter data.
4 Open the Create Mesh Map panel using Create | Mesh Map.
• Set the Mesh map name to salt1, Property to Unconformity, Surface to salt.
5 Set the Map Geometry.
• Press Use Existing Map Geometry.
• On the 2D canvas data tree, click on the map name houston under the Surfaces node.
On the Create Mesh Map panel, this sets all the geometry parameters to those of
houston.
6 On the Scatters folder, select salt-contour-1.
7 On the Interpolate folder, view the default parameters.
• Press Apply on the panel, to generate the mesh map.
8 View the map in the 2D and 3D Viewer and close the Create Mesh Map panel.
9 Access the Display Controls for the salt map, using the right mouse button drop-down
menus on the 2D Mapping Canvas and on the 2D canvas data tree. Change the contour
intervals, render mode and labelling.
10 Inspect the options available from the drop-down menus and also inspect the menus on the
top menubar of the 2D Mapping Canvas module.
11 Close the 2D Mapping Canvas module.

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Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping
Note The mesh map interpolation controls can be modified after the map is created, by using
the drop-down menu and selecting Interpolation. By default, the Convergent gridder
algorithm is selected. Open the Interpolate folder on the panel to test alternative
methods and parameter settings.

Editing mesh maps


The Salt surface defines a non-reservoir area in the west of the field. However it is not necessary
to build a thick unit between the base and salt surfaces in the east part of the field.
1 Expand the Surfaces nodes on the data tree of the 3D window and right-mouse click on a
map node (or right-mouse click on a map displayed in the 3D window). Select Mesh Map
Calculator... from the drop-down menu.
2 Create a thickness map by selecting Create Mesh Map, filling in a name and setting Use
Parameters from salt1.
• Press OK.
3 In the Expression Calculator, use the list at the bottom right to create the following
equation for the new thickness map and apply:
base - salt1
4 Repeat the steps to create a mesh map called salt_final and fill in the equation using the
Expression calculator buttons and apply:
IF (thickness >=50) THEN ‘salt1’
ELSE (base + 50)
ENDIF
5 Assign the salt_final map to the salt surface by dragging and clicking.
6 View the various maps in 3D.

Building a structural framework


1 Open the Structural Framework Builder from the toolbar, .

2 In the Structural Framework Builder, select File | Create Structural Framework and
accept the defaults.
3 On the Boundary folder, set the boundary to Use Map Extents.
4 On the Units folder, ensure the map for the salt surface is salt_final.
5 Build units using all the remaining defaults by pressing Build Units.
6 On the Faults folder, create fault block units using all the defaults by pressing Auto Split
Into Block & Block Units.
7 View the fault framework and the wireframe.

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Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping
Creating property maps and FloGrid models
• Property maps can be created by following exactly the same procedure as for structure
maps described in the sections above.
• FloGrid Models can be created from mesh maps by following the procedure in "Building a
map based property model" on page 44 and "Building a structured grid" on page 44 in
"Building a simulation model from maps" on page 42.

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Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping
74 Short Tutorials FloGrid User Guide
Generating Structure and Properties from 2D Mapping
User Interface
Chapter 5

Introduction
FloGrid has an overall modular structure. The main FloGrid window consists of a data tree (see
"Data tree" on page 333), and the 3D Viewer (see "3D Viewer" on page 107).
The 3D Viewer allows comprehensive 3D visualization of all input and generated data, It also
allows you to access the individual modules such as the 2D Mapping Canvas or the Well
Correlation Canvas.
The size, orientation and position of the objects viewed can be manipulated directly with the
mouse as described under "Preferences Menu" on page 94 later in this chapter.
Many menu options in the 3D Viewer have associated dialog panels. Panels that have an OK
button must be filled in and confirmed before continuing. Panels with an Apply button allow to
repeated changes to update the view. These panels remain open until they are explicitly closed.
Where appropriate it is also possible to make these panels automatically apply changes as soon
as they are made. This is done using a pop-up menu that appears when the right mouse button
is held down over the panel.
This chapter contains information on the following:
• "Windows and Panels" on page 76.
• "Data Tables" on page 83.
• "Window Items" on page 84.
• "Common options" on page 87.
• "Preferences Menu" on page 94.

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Introduction
Windows and Panels

Window management
This section describes facilities to manage the principal windows making up the application.

Window menu
The window menu contains the following standard items:

Cascade
The windows are rearranged so that they are the same size and overlap but are offset downwards
and to the right so the title areas are still visible. The main window is repositioned first at the
top left. Data entry panels are brought to the front.

Message Area
This hides and shows the message area. Hiding the message area is useful if the application is
generating too many distracting messages. The message area is incorporated into the lower
section of the main window (see "Log window" on page 79).

Minimize Children
All top level windows apart from the main window are minimized. It is useful if the screen is
getting full and you temporarily want to use a different application.

Restore Children
Any minimized windows belonging to the application are restored to their previous positions.

Window List
The remaining options correspond to top level windows in the application. Selecting one of
these causes the window to be brought to the front (and restored if it was minimized). This is
useful if the desired window has been hidden behind other windows.

Instance numbers
If the application shows more than one window of a certain type then the different windows are
identified by numbers on their title bars. For example “Editor:1” and “Editor:2”.

Tile 3D Windows...
This menu item brings up a dialog panel where various parameters for tiling the 3D windows
are entered.

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Windows and Panels
Figure 5.1 Tile 3D Windows panel

The slider allows the width of the reserved area to be entered. The reserved area is defined to
the left of the screen, and are not used for tiling the 3D windows. If you do not require a reserved
area, then either set the width of the reserved area to 0, or the uncheck the Use Reserved Area
box.
The screen size shown in Current Situation is for information only, and cannot be altered.
Similarly Number of Viewers is for information only - this is a count of the Master Viewer
and all its slave viewers that are currently active.
Number of Rows can be used to select different tiling methods.
For example, suppose 1 row has been selected for the tiling, an area of 336 pixels reserved, and
a Master Viewer and a single Slave Viewer are present. After tiling the display looks
something like this:

FloGrid User Guide User Interface 77


Windows and Panels
Figure 5.2 Example of tiling 2 viewers in one row

As a second example, suppose 2 rows have been selected for the tiling and a second Slave
Viewer added. After tiling the display looks something like this:
Figure 5.3 Example of tiling 3 viewers in two rows

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Windows and Panels
Note that the tiling always places the Master Viewer in the top left corner of the non-reserved
area. If no reserved area is selected, the 3D windows fill the display area.

Note Tiling attempts to resize the windows to fit the space as appropriate. It cannot reduce
the windows below their minimum size, so some overlap of the windows will be seen.
You can reduce the minimum size by removing the toolbar icons with menu option
Preferences | Toolbars | Toggle On/Off.

Special windows
Log window
A special window called the “Log Window” to where the application sends informational
messages such as warnings and errors. The application may also echo the contents of the log
window to a file. The Log window can be deactivated using either the Window menu of the
main window or the pop up window of the Log window.

Text editor
The standard text editor window is used in a variety of contexts. It provides generic text editing
capabilities along with a status line and a tool bar. Here is an example the Text Editor display.
Figure 5.4 The Text Editor window

The tool bar buttons correspond to File | Open, File | Save, Edit | Copy, Edit | Cut and Edit
| Paste.
The Edit menu also contains items to find text, replace text and to go to a specific line.

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Windows and Panels
Text may be cut, copied and pasted to the clipboard using the menus, toolbar or keyboard in the
normal way.

Panels
Data entry panels are divided into two types, modal (Figure 5.5) and modeless (Figure 5.6).
Modal panels need to be completed and responded to before any other operation within the
application can resume. Only one copy of a particular Modal panel can be displayed at a time.
Modeless panels are generally used where you wish the panel to remain on the screen after
applying a change. More than one copy of a Modeless panel can be displayed at a time.

Modal Panels
These normally have the OK, Cancel and Help buttons. They are used in situations where you
must supply data before an action or calculation can be made. Once visible the panel can be
relocated on the screen, any other activity within the application is not possible.
You are able to work with other applications even when a modal panel is displayed. The bottom
of a panel often displays helpful information describing either the widget you are on, how data
should be entered, or a validation message.
Figure 5.5 Example of a modal panel

Table 5.1 The default push button action

Push button Action


OK Calls validation checks and if successful loads the data displayed into the
internal data structures, then removes the panel.

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Windows and Panels
Table 5.1 The default push button action

Push button Action


Apply Calls validation checks and if successful loads the data displayed into the
internal data structures
Cancel Removes the panel. Changes to data, since the last apply, within the panel
are lost.
Help Produces help information.

Modeless panel
These normally have the OK, Apply, Cancel and Help buttons as shown in Figure 5.6. They
are used in situations where you are able to interact with the data in a number of ways for
example, simultaneous graphical or tabular editing. When a modeless panel is displayed you are
allowed to perform other application specific tasks.
To remove a modeless panel select Cancel.
Figure 5.6 Example of a modeless panel

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Windows and Panels
Interaction with a panel
This is achieved using either the mouse or following key strokes.

Table 5.2 Panel interaction

Keystroke Effect
Tab Move focus to next window item. If focus is within a table tab will move
focus to the next cell. To move focus out of a table you must use the mouse.
Shift Tab Same as above but in opposite direction.
Down arrow If focus is within a table, moves focus to the cell below see Table 5.3. If in
radio button moves to next button (tab to next field). If in drop-down list box
see Table 5.5.
Up arrow If focus is within a table, moves focus to the cell above see Table 5.3.
If within a drop-down list, will move focus to the item above in the list see
Table 5.5.
Left arrow Move one character to the left within the same cell/edit field. See Table 5.3
Right arrow Move one character to the right within the same cell/edit field. Table 5.3
Enter Same as pressing OK on modal panels, or Apply on Modeless panels.
Otherwise simulates pressing an application specific “update/process data”
button (the exception is when focus is within a drop-down list box). Or
chooses button with focus.
Escape Same as pressing Cancel button. Otherwise simulates pressing an application
specific “Cancel/Remove” panel button.
Space Toggles checkbox, set radio button, or simulates a button press.
F11 Moves onto next table or field / off current table / field
F12 Moves onto previous table or field / off current table or field

Active and passive units


Panels support passive units that is changing the unit does not alter a displayed value. For
example: If we enter a value into the field seen in Figure 5.5, and change the unit via the
dropdown list box, the displayed value of the field is not converted.
Active units would imply a change to the unit field would convert the displayed value. For
example, if we had a field displaying 10 meters and changed the units to feet the displayed value
would update to show 32.8.

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Windows and Panels
Data Tables
Tables are supplied with their own vertical and horizontal scroll bars. The order of the table
columns can be temporarily changed by picking up the column header with the mouse and
dropping it at the new location in the table; the cursor changes to a hand during this operation.
Columns can be temporarily resized by dragging a column’s divider, situated within the table
heading.

Table 5.3 Table navigation

Keystroke Effect
tab Moves focus to next cell on same row. If in last cell move to first cell in next
row. If in last cell in table stay there.
shift tab As above but move backwards.
up/down arrows Move to cell above/below
left/right arrows Move character left/right, remain in same cell.
Shift & down arrows Displays drop-down list bow for text choice cells
Ctrl d Delete current row.
Ctrl n * Insert row below current. Move focus to new row.
Ctrl shift n Insert row above current row. Move focus to new row.
Ctrl u† Undo last edit. Message "Undone" or "Nothing to undo" displayed.

F9‡ Copy current cell contents into cell below, move to that cell

*. The “Plus button” in the top right corner of the table is an alternative to Ctrl N for inserting rows
†. Ctrl U will undo the table edits one at a time until the last time data was “consolidated”. Tables are
always consolidated by Apply.
‡. The F9 cell repeat facility is currently only used on the Record merger and the Record Associator panels.

While editing tabular data use the Undo key (see Table 5.3) to undo the changes in reverse
order. You can undo up to the last time the panel loaded the panel data into the internal data
structures (that is when OK or Apply were pressed).

Restrictions
Currently it is not possible to modify the column units specified in the column header. It is also
not possible to tab into or out of a data table.

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Data Tables
Window Items
Window items, widgets and fields are generally synonymous, although sometimes a field
implies a composite widget (group of widgets) that represents a more useful construct for
example a named floating point value with associated units (scalar).
This section describes the different window items, and how they are used. For examples of the
window items listed here see Figure 5.7

Table 5.4 Window items

Window item Behavior


Scalar - Floating point edit field Alphabetic characters will be rejected as input (unless part of
preceded by text scientific notation). Input will also be checked against the range
for the field. Extra validation may have enforced.
Scalar - Floating point edit field This field has a drop-down list box attached which shows
preceded by text, with a units drop- alternate units for this item. The user may choose to display/input
down list box. the value in different units.
Slider Scalar A slider representation of a standard scalar.
Integer edit field preceded by text Input is automatically checked for range.
Slider Integer A slider representation of a standard integer.
Checkbox When a checkbox is checked it is deemed to be true.
Radio Buttons A radio button can represent a number of states. A radio button
can only represent one particular state at an one time.
Static text A piece of text or description which can not be edited or gain
focus.
String edit field A string edit field allows data entry. An alphanumeric characters
can be entered.
drop-down list box Clicking on the dropdown button displays a list of options. To
make a selection click on one of the entries in the list. The list
may be editable (that is the values not in the list may be entered).
Table Generally a table will appear with scroll bars, and display several
columns of data. A table can be navigated as specified in Table
5.3. If a particular column or cell is disabled it will appear grayed
out and will not accept focus. A table cell may display a
dropdown button, in this case a selection from a choice can be
made. This is similar in operation to a “drop-down list box”
described above.

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Window Items
Figure 5.7 Example window items

Checkboxes Scalar fields with


unit drop-down

Integer field
Radio
buttons

Table

String
field

Push button

Interaction with drop-down list box


Drop-downs are associated with a number of different window items, for example scalar units
and table cells. As well as using the mouse, drop-downs can be navigated using the following
keystrokes once focus is within the drop-down edit field:

Table 5.5 Interaction with a dropdown list box

Keystroke Effect
Shift and down arrow Display list box
Down arrow Move down the list
Up arrow Move up the list

FloGrid User Guide User Interface 85


Window Items
Table 5.5 Interaction with a dropdown list box (Continued)

Keystroke Effect
Enter Make selection from list
Space Make selection from list
Letter Move to item in list starting with letter

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Window Items
Common options
The menus, dialogs and panels that make up FloGrid’s user interface contain many common
options. This section details these options and their standard actions.

Note Any options that do not obey this standard behavior are described in detail later in the
User Guide.

This section contains information on:


• "Data tree common options" on page 87.
• "Module common options" on page 88.

Data tree common options


The menus accessed from the data tree nodes contain several common options that produce
standard actions.

Add to view
Adds the selected data item (s) (for example a mesh map) to the 3D Viewer.

Apply/Autoapply
Applies and saves the current settings.

Create
Opens a panel and allows you to create new data (for example a well) or a new file.

Copy
Copies selected existing data.

Close
Closes a dialog or a panel. You may be asked if you wish to apply changes.

Delete
Deletes the selected data or value(s).

Edit
Edits the selected data or value(s).

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Common options
Export
Opens a file browser and allows you to export selected data to a specified file.

Hide
This option hides the selected nodes to avoid them cluttering up the view. This is useful if they
are not needed for the current workflow.

Import
Opens a file browser and allows you to import data from a file.

Remove from view


Removes the selected data item (s) (for example a mesh map) from the 3D Viewer.

Reset
Restores the initial default settings (that is not the settings before the last Apply).

Visualization settings
This option can be used to alter the way data is displayed in the 3D Viewer. Note that at least
one of the data type (for example a control line) must be displayed in the 3D Viewer before you
can use this option.

Module common options


The modules, panels and dialogs contain several common options that produce standard actions.

Add New Graph...


This option adds an empty graph placeholder to the main workspace.

Add to view/ +view


Adds the selected data item (s) (for example a mesh map) to the 3D Viewer.

Apply
Applies and saves the current settings.

Autoapply
If AutoApply is on, then changes to the panel take place immediately; if AutoApply is off, then
changes made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on, the
Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered from the drop-down menu accessible with the right
mouse button; releasing the button over the AutoApply option changes the state of AutoApply.

88 User Interface FloGrid User Guide


Common options
Cancel
Closes the panel or dialog without saving your changes.

Cancel Edit
Cancels the current edit operation, and disables the editor.

Clear
Removes the current changes.

Clear Edit
Removes the current edits.

Close
Closes a dialog or a panel. You may be asked if you wish to apply changes.

Commit Edit
The current edit operation is committed, and the editor is disabled.

Create
Opens a panel and allows you to create new data (for example a well) or a new file.

Copy
Copies selected existing data.

Copy to Clipboard
Main Graph
On a PC, this copies the main workspace image to the clipboard, and you can paste this into any
suitable application (for example Word, PowerPoint, etc.).

Active Graph
On a PC, this copies the active graph to the clipboard.
The active graph is the one usually highlighted by a yellow border, if there is more than one
graph in the main workspace.

Whole Picture
On a PC, this copies the whole of the graphics window to the clipboard. Navigation graphs,
small graphs, legend and caption windows are included in the saved picture

Delete / Delete
Deletes the selected data or value(s).

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Common options
Delete All
Deletes all applicable data.

Edit
Opens a data specific editing panel.

Exit
Closes all windows and exits the program.

Export
Opens a file browser and allows you to export selected data to a specified file.

Graph Legend Style...


Opens the Graph Legend Configuration panel, which you can use to control the appearance
of the legend at the top of the active graph, or even whether it is present.

Help
Opens the relevant on-line help page(s).

OK
Closes a dialog or a panel and saves your changes.

Import
Opens a file browser and allows you to import data from a file.

Invert
Inverts the color scheme of the graph window so that, for example, dark foreground graph colors
on a light background become light on a dark background.

Main Title Settings...


This displays the Main Graph Title Settings panel for the main graph or workspace.
Use this option to modify the attributes of the title bar font, size, background and foreground
color.

Modify graph title...


This opens a simple panel in which you can edit the title of the main graph active at the time.

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Common options
Plot style settings...
Opens the Data Style panel for the currently active plot. You can modify various style settings
for the appearance of the data (line, marker style and color) through this panel.

Print
Print Window
Print Window prints all the contents of the plot window, that is the main graph plus all
information windows and small graphs.

Print Graph
Print Graph prints just the contents of the main plot window.

Print Pictures
Print Pictures prints the contents of the main plot window and of each of the small graphs, on
separate sheets.

Print Preview...
This opens a preview window showing approximately the final appearance of the printer output
using the current settings. As the printing, it has two modes, one where just the main workspace
is printed, and one where all of the window is printed.

Print Setup...(PC only)


This is the standard Windows setup panel, allowing selection of the default printer and also
paper orientation.

Print Layout...
This opens the Print Layout panel, which is used to specify various aspects of the print output,
especially the date stamp appearance. There are also controls for aspect ratio and scaling of
fonts.

Print Type...
This opens the Printer Drivers panel, which allows selection of the type of printer or driver the
graphics image is sent to. The various output options are specified in the ECL.CFG file.

Read / Read...
Opens a file dialog and allows you to read a list of data.

Refresh
Forces a redraw of the window.

FloGrid User Guide User Interface 91


Common options
Remove from view / - view
Removes the selected data item (s) (for example a mesh map) from the 3D Viewer.

Remove Active Graph


This option deletes the selected graph in the main workspace.
This option is only available when there is more than one graph in the workspace.

Reset
Restores the initial default settings (that is not the settings before the last Apply).

Reset Edit
Resets the current feature to its state before editing began.

Rubberband Zoom In
Zoom into the current plot using a dragged box. To use this, select the menu option, place the
cursor (which changes into a magnifying glass symbol) over the grid, click on one corner of
your desired zoomed area, and drag the mouse with the button held down to the opposite corner
of the area.

Selected or Active Graph


Only one graph is active or selected in the main workspace. The selected graph is outlined in
yellow. To select a graph, click on one of the graph plot titles in the legend above the graph grid.
Menu selections are often based on the currently selected graph.

Small Title Settings...


This displays the Small Graph Title Settings panel for the rest of the frames on the window,
small graphs, captions, etc. Use this option to modify the title base attributes, as with the main
settings.

Swap with main


The main workspace is the active workspace, but you can swap a small workspace with the main
workspace by clicking on the right mouse button in the small workspace and selecting this
option.

Trash Bin
The trash bin is used for drag and drop deletions. A graph in the main workspace can be dragged
to the trash bin for deletion unless it is the last graph in the workspace. A small workspace can
be dragged to the trash bin for deletion. This deletes all of the graphs that are in the small
workspace.

Unzoom Completely
Completely unzoom the plot. This displays the complete data range on the main graph.

92 User Interface FloGrid User Guide


Common options
Write
Opens a file browser dialog and allows you to write a file containing the selected data.

Zoom in
Zooms in one step into the center of the plot area. The size of the zoom depends on the settings
in the Zoom Preferences panel. Plots may also be zoomed and panned using the zoom box on
the navigation graph.

Zoom Out
Unzoom the complete plot area into a rectangular portion of the plot. The zoom goes out one
step for each time the button is pressed, or the menu item selected, the size of the step being
adjustable through the Zoom Preferences panel.

Zoom Preferences...
Opens the Zoom Preferences panel, from where the default zoom in and out behavior can be
changed.

FloGrid User Guide User Interface 93


Common options
Preferences Menu
This menu contains the following options:
• "Set External Units" on page 94.
• "Toolbars" on page 94.
• "Graphics options" on page 94.
• "Rotation style" on page 94.
• "Rotation caching" on page 95.
• "Mouse buttons" on page 95.
• "Outline control..." on page 96.

Set External Units


This panel allows you to change the unit system with which data values are displayed. The unit
system can be switched between Field, Metric and Laboratory. Property units, axes and data
values on other panels are automatically updated to reflect the unit system change.

Toolbars
This option shows or hides the toolbars.

Graphics options
There is a choice between two renderers:
• The hardware renderer uses the workstation platform’s native graphics libraries and
hardware to draw objects on the screen.
• The software renderer implements its own graphics model, drawing objects into an X
Window System image.
In general, the hardware renderer is faster. However, the native graphics facilities on many
workstations do not support all rendering features. If the hardware renderer does not support a
rendering feature such as lights, switch to Software Renderer.
The software render may be slower to draw, but it implements more rendering features than all
but the most expensive color graphics workstations. On some platforms, such as a simple color
X terminal, the software renderer may be the only renderer available.

Rotation style
While you are translating, rotating and/or zooming objects in the 3D Viewer, you can use
different methods to display the object before the final display. The less processing done during
these operations, the faster they are executed.

Unchanged
All objects in the 3D Viewer are displayed and moved during translating, rotating and/or
zooming. No objects are hidden. Cell outlines are especially time-consuming to translate, rotate
and zoom in the Unchanged mode.

94 User Interface FloGrid User Guide


Preferences Menu
Wire frame
Rather than displaying and moving all objects in the 3D Viewer, wire frames for each grid are
displayed during translation, rotation and zooming. Wells are displayed as simple lines without
well labels. The Wire frame option is less demanding on the software than the Unchanged
mode.

Bounding box
All objects are hidden from view during translation except for a bounding box around each grid.
This is the least demanding style.

Rotation caching
When enabled, this option stores an image of the model in RAM during translation, rotation and
zooming. This provides much smoother movement of the model during manipulation in the 3D
Viewer.

Mouse buttons
The Mouse Buttons option allows you to select a mode of interaction with the 3D Viewer that
suits the way in which you work. Options are OpenInventor (default), OIFloViz,
GeoFrame and RTView. All are described in detail below. Primarily, these options just set
which mouse buttons control picking, rotation, translation and zooming. The one exception is
OpenInventor, which has two distinct modes for picking and viewing.
Slave viewers use the same mode as the master viewer.
For continuous rotation, keep the mouse moving when releasing the appropriate mouse button.

Note A 2-button mouse is no longer supported.

The following tables give details of which mouse buttons do what in each mode.

Table 5.6 Open Inventor settings

Interaction Mouse / key combination


Select (Picking) LEFT (only in pick mode)
Rotate LEFT (only in view mode)
Translate MIDDLE (only in view mode)
Zoom <CTRL>MIDDLE (only in view
mode)

When in pick mode, the model cannot be moved. Only picking is available. To toggle between
modes, either use the buttons at the top left corner of the viewer (hand and arrow), select with
the P and V keys, or toggle using the <Esc> key.

FloGrid User Guide User Interface 95


Preferences Menu
In viewing mode, the left mouse button rotates the model, the middle button translates, and
<Ctrl> key with the middle mouse button zooms.

Table 5.7 OIFloViz Settings

Interaction Mouse / key combination


Select (Picking) LEFT
Rotate LEFT and move mouse
Translate MIDDLE
Zoom <CTRL>MIDDLE

OIFloViz is similar to Open Inventor except that there is only one mode. A pick is registered by
a left mouse button click. If the mouse button is depressed and the mouse is moved, the pick
turns into a rotate. In this way, both modes are available at once using the mouse.

Table 5.8 GeoFrame settings

Mouse / key combination


Select (Picking) LEFT
Rotate MIDDLE
Translate RIGHT
Zoom LEFT and move mouse

A pick is registered by a left mouse button click. If the mouse button is depressed and the mouse
is moved, the pick turns into a zoom.

Table 5.9 RTView settings

Mouse / key combination


Select (Picking) LEFT
Rotate MIDDLE
Translate RIGHT
Zoom <SHIFT>MIDDLE

These settings are the same as the SIS program RTView.


To zoom into an object (make it appear bigger), keep the appropriate button depressed and move
the mouse upwards or to the right.

Outline control...
When cell outlines are displayed, the lines are lifted slightly above the surface towards the eye
point to make them visible. If, however, the model contains very thin cells, some lines may show
through from the bottom surface. This option allows you to control a scale factor for the lift.
Using a smaller value reduces the tendency for lines to show through, although the lines may
then appear dashed when viewed at an oblique angle.

96 User Interface FloGrid User Guide


Preferences Menu
Save and Restore
Chapter 6

Workspace save and restore


This chapter contains information on the Workspace save and restore options in FloGrid.
• "The workspace - technical background" on page 98.
• "File menu options" on page 99.

FloGrid User Guide Save and Restore 97


Workspace save and restore
The workspace - technical background

Introduction
The Workspace options on the File menu in the main FloGrid window provide a facility to save
and restore all model data and relationships associated with a session. Saved workspace files
work across all machines of the same type (for example SGI, Sun) and the same program
version.
To upgrade from one release to the next, FloGrid restores and plays a command file embedded
within the Workspace file. Workspace files, which are loaded on a different machine type
(for example saved on SGI, then opened on Sun) attempt to restore the saved workspace using
the original embedded command file.
If the workspace cannot be restored (for example, if the paths to data files in the command file
are not replicated on the new machine, the embedded command file is saved in the working
directory as a file called RECOVERY.CMDLOG.
The New Workspace option clears all existing data from the program.

Warning Please note that FloGrid workspaces are intended only for temporary
backups of your current work. For long term storage of your project, keep
copies of your input data and command files.

Replaying the embedded command file


If FloGrid cannot load a Workspace file it attempts to restore a session by replaying the
command file embedded in the workspace file. It is therefore imperative that the input data (map
data, well data, fault data) is kept available, against this eventuality.

Save and restore memory usage


FloGrid uses a special area of memory called the persistent heap in which to place objects that
are saved. This heap’s low fragmentation algorithm uses more memory than the normal
(transient) memory storage.
In cases where memory is limited you can choose to turn off the save and restore facility and
thus make more memory available. To turn off save and restore you must set an environment
variable (ECL_UTSR_HEAP) to a particular value (PROCESS).
The command to achieve this is located in the @eclrc file (on unix) or $eclrc.bat file (on
PC). Edit the file and locate the following line:
:SET ECL_UTSR_HEAP=PROCESS
When this line is commented out (starts with a colon) then Save & Restore is enabled. To turn
off Save & Restore, delete the leading colon. The change will apply next time you restart
FloGrid.

98 Save and Restore FloGrid User Guide


The workspace - technical background
File menu options

Workspace options
New Workspace
This option deletes all application data from the program and closes all the application windows
except the main window. You are prompted if you wish to save the current workspace before
proceeding.

Save Workspace
This option allows you to save the current state of the application data to a workspace file.
Depending on the amount of data to be saved this process can take anywhere from a few seconds
to a few minutes.

Note FloGrid does not prompt you if you select File | Save Workspace and you have
previously saved a workspace file. The program saves the current workspace state to a
file with the previously saved workspace filename and overwrites the original
workspace file. To save workspace files at key stages of grid model building, use the
menu option File | Save Workspace As.

If you have not previously performed a save during the current FloGrid session, you are
prompted, using the file browser, to select a filename for the workspace. If no file extension is
entered, FloGrid appends.WORKSPACE to the filename.
The workspace file has 3 parts: a version header, a section containing a full record of the
commands used, and a binary image representing the current state of the application data.
Whenever a new workspace is saved or an old workspace is restored, a new version of a
command file called FloGrid.WORKSPACESTART is created. The first line of this file
contains a command to restore the recently saved (or restored) workspace file. All commands
processed thereafter are recorded in this command file, as well as FloGrid.CMDLOG, until
either the program is exited or a new workspace is saved or restored at which point the process
is repeated. This mechanism ensures that the file FloGrid.WORKSPACESTART contains the
minimum necessary commands to restore the program back to its current state.

Note The FloGrid WORKSPACESTART file has the following known limitation. When the
WORKSPACESTART file is run, firstly all windows are closed. This is due to the
RestoreWorkspace command at the beginning of the file. If there are subsequent
3D Viewer commands that occur before the next 3D Viewer open command (that is
the Display3DGrid command or the OpenWindow command) these commands
fail and the run terminates.
A workaround is to add a 3D Viewer open command in the second line of the
WORKSPACESTART file (after the RestoreWorkspace command).

FloGrid User Guide Save and Restore 99


File menu options
Save Workspace As...
This option allows you to save a workspace into a new workspace file. You are prompted, using
the file browser, to select a filename for the workspace. If no file extension is entered, FloGrid
appends.WORKSPACE to the filename.

Restore Workspace
This option allows you to restore a previous FloGrid session by selecting a saved workspace file
using the file browser. Restoring a workspace deletes all existing application data from the
program, close all the application windows except the main window and restore the saved
application data from the workspace file.
If the workspace file was created by the same executable, for example the SGI 2000A version,
the workspace is recovered by using the binary image portion of the workspace file.
If the workspace was written by any other version of the program other than the one being run,
FloGrid attempts to recover the program state by playing the commands recorded in the
workspace file.
If, for any reason, this process fails, FloGrid writes out the commands stored within the
workspace file to the current working directory, as a command file called
RECOVERY.CMDLOG. This allows you to then make any edits necessary to the command file
(RECOVERY.CMDLOG) such as resetting the paths to the current file locations and recover the
session by using the Play Commands option. (See "Play/Save Commands Settings..." on
page 101.)

100 Save and Restore FloGrid User Guide


File menu options
Commands
Chapter 7

Commands
This chapter contains information on the commands system in FloGrid.

File menu command options


Play Commands...
A log of your operations is written to a command file with the suffix .CMDLOG. These files can
be replayed to restore the program to a previous state.
The file from the previous run is renamed to <application_name>_prev_run.CMD and
can be replayed using the Play Commands option. Alternatively, command log files can be
renamed as required with the suffix .CMD, and then replayed in future sessions. If a command
file is renamed <application_name>.startup, or appended to the command line with
the -play option, it is run automatically on startup.

Save Commands as...


This option allows you to save the generated commands into a user selected file.

Note Although renaming the <application name>.cmdlog is sufficient to produce


a command file that restores the application state, a Save Commands As... is
required to ensure that the generated command file benefits from the selections placed
in the Play/Save Commands Settings panel described in the next section.

Play/Save Commands Settings...


It is possible to optimize the way that commands are played, saved or executed by selecting the
appropriate options in the Play/Save Commands Settings panel. A detailed description of
the options available can be found in "Play/Save Commands Settings" on page 102.

FloGrid User Guide Commands 101


Commands
Record 3D Position
This option writes commands containing details of the current 3D position of the object in the
view. The 3D position may be recorded in this way at any time.

Add Pause Commands...


The Add Pause dialog allows you to write a Pause command into the current log file. You
may enter a text message of your choice that is associated with the Pause command.
When the command file is played back the Pause command interrupts execution of the
program and displays a panel containing the text message. Three possibilities are then available:

Continue
Process all commands until the next Pause when another panel appears.

Continue to End
Process all commands until the end of the command file. If any further Pause commands are
found, they do not generate a panel.

Cancel
Immediately stop all processing of the command file.

Play/Save Commands Settings


Commands management can be made more efficient at various stages of the workflow.

During playing of a command file


• deferring windows/graphics refresh until the command files to be played terminates
• avoiding execution of unnecessary commands

Note Unnecessary commands are those commands whose execution does not have any side
effect and therefore their omission does not impair the restoration of the application
state.

• replacing the execution of lengthy, time consuming operations with previously cached
results (when available).

Examples of unnecessary commands


• displaying objects and removing objects from displaying in the 3D Viewer
• Pause commands
• 3D Viewer settings (such as, exaggeration, rotation

During the saving the log of commands (using Save Commands As...)
• exporting only a subset of the available command history
• filtering out unnecessary commands (see "Examples of unnecessary commands" on
page 102) so that they do not appear in the saved file

102 Commands FloGrid User Guide


Commands
• saving (together with the command file) the auxiliary files containing cached results from
lengthy, time consuming operations. These files can be (optionally) used when commands
are replayed (this speeds up their execution)

During ordinary interactive workflow


• caching results to be reused as described above.

Hint Fly-by help is available on all options: hover for a few seconds with the mouse pointer
over the corresponding widget to bring up a brief description of the option.

Play/Save Commands Mode


You can toggle between the original and the new enhanced style of executing commands.

Enhanced
Enables selection of all available options.

Old Style
All options are disabled. All commands contained in a command file are executed and all
commands generated during interactive usage of the application are saved by doing a Save
Commands As....

Defer update
For efficiency reasons it is always better to defer any time consuming User Interface updates
until a whole batch of operations is performed.

Main data tree


When this box is checked the main data tree is updated only after the execution of a command
file terminates (or aborts).

3D Viewer
When this box is checked the 3D Viewer is refreshed only after the execution of a command
file terminates (or aborts).

Note Enabling the 3D Viewer option is particularly convenient when FloGrid is running on
a remote host with the display set on the local machine.

Note The undeferred update of the 3D Viewer may still be needed in order to visualize
partial results when executing a Pause command.

Suppress Commands when playing


There are categories of commands whose execution is not required to restore the model state of
the application. If these commands are present in a command file, they can be ignored. The
supported categories are:

FloGrid User Guide Commands 103


Commands
Open Windows
When enabled, no windows pop up during command file execution

Pause Commands
When enabled, all Pause commands are ignored and the execution continue until the successful
end of the run

Display Objects in 3D Viewer


When enabled certain objects (such as Wells and Grids) are not displayed in the 3D Viewer.

3D Viewer Settings
The 3D settings commands, such as change in perspective, rotation, translation, normalization
of the view, etc., are ignored.

Commands history to save


When saving a command file it is possible to export only a portion of the entire command
history (that is the complete log of generated commands since the application is started).

Until last restore


When enabled, the list of commands since start-up and until the last Restore Workspace...
operation is exported

After last restore


When enabled, commands generated from the last Restore Workspace... operation onwards
are exported

Note When both boxes are checked, the entire command history is exported.

Caution Be aware that if none of the boxes are checked, no command is exported.

Suppress Commands when saving


There are categories of commands that do not need to be replayed to restore the model state of
the application. These commands can be ignored when saving using Save Commands As....
These commands fall into any of the following supported categories:

Open windows
When enabled, no Open Window commands are saved in a command file

Pause Commands
When enabled, no Pause commands are saved in a command file

Display objects in 3D Viewer


When enabled, any commands responsible for displaying/not displaying objects in the 3D
Viewer are not saved in a command file.

104 Commands FloGrid User Guide


Commands
3D Viewer settings
When enabled, any commands that alter the 3D Viewer settings are not exported.

Upscaled property cache


Upscaling is notoriously a complex, time-consuming operation with direct impact on the state
of a model, consequently, its successful execution results in the generation of commands. When
these commands are saved and later replayed, the upscaling operations are re-executed. In order
to optimize this workflow, you can decide to cache the results from an upscaling operation and
use the cache in place of the upscaling calculation when the command is executed.
When this facility is enabled and an upscale operation is successfully performed, a cache file is
created. This cache file is stored in a user-defined temporary directory. This directory can be
changed at any time while the application is running.

Note When the temporary area is changed, the content of the previously designated area is
not copied into the new area. This optimizes the total available disk space because the
cache can be distributed across different partitions/machines.

Enable creation
When this box is checked, upscale cache files are created in the location specified in the field
below.

Note The directory path can be entered using slashes in any style (that is UNIX style forward
slashes/ or Windows style back slashes\) they are amended to the appropriate platform
during validation.

After you specify the location press the TAB key to validate the path.

Use cache when playing


Uses the referenced cache files.

Use cache when saving


Copies the cache files referenced in the saved command from the temporary location to the
cache subdirectory.

Notes
Performing a Save Commands As... with the Use Cache When Saving option enabled,
creates a new subdirectory is created in the location where the command file . All the upscale
cache files relevant to the saved commands are copied in this subdirectory.
If you select Play Commands... with the Use Cache When Playing option enabled, the
content of any file referenced by an upscale command is used instead of the re-executing the
upscale calculations. FloGrid expects the file to be in the cache subdirectory where the
command file was saved.
The naming convention currently adopted for the cache files and their subdirectory is:
• cache files containing the upscale results (initially located in the temporary area) are
named: UPSnnnnn.dat where nnnnn is a 5-digit integer

FloGrid User Guide Commands 105


Commands
• the saved cache subdirectory is named stem_cache where stem is the stem of the saved
command file. For example, if FloGrid_project.cmdlog is the saved command file,
the cache subdirectory is called FloGrid_project_cache.
Whenever a problem is encountered while accessing a cache file while playing commands, you
are given the following options:
• Retry - gives you the chance to relocate misplaced files,
• Upscale - performs a full upscale,
• Abort - terminates the command file execution.

Note When the application is shut down, all temporary locations specified since start up are
cleared.

The Reset To Default button resets all options as they were at application start-up.

Note Once options are set, this configuration persists both when the panel is closed and also
after a New Workspace... operation.

106 Commands FloGrid User Guide


Commands
3D Viewer
Chapter 8

Introduction
The main FloGrid window consists of a data tree, see "Data tree" on page 333, and the 3D
Viewer.
The 3D Viewer allows comprehensive 3D visualization of all input and generated data (maps,
well deviations, logs, markers, RESCUE geological models, simulation models, simulation
input data, simulation results). For further information on the general user interface of the
program see "User Interface" on page 75.

Note Please note that any menu options that require additional explanation beyond the
general summary in "User Interface" on page 75 are described in this chapter.

For information on the following:


• Workspace save and restore, printing, importing and command file options see "File Menu"
on page 109.
• Editing options see, "Edit Menu" on page 112.
• Timesteps, Object Appearance, Normalize, Center of Zoom, Perspective etc., see"View
menu" on page 130.
• Tools such as the Fault Property Calculator, Volumetrics, Property Population are available
through the "Tools menu" on page 140. You can also create of Structural Frameworks and
Models using options on this menu.
• Modifying the display of Structural Frameworks, Model Slice Controls, Upgridded
Models, Grids, Wells etc. see "Scene Menu" on page 144.
The 3D Viewer also contains the following menus:
• Preferences Menu, for further information see "Preferences Menu" on page 94.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 107


Introduction
• Window Menu, for further information see:
• the node tree, see "Docking/UnDocking Data Tree" on page 337
• and on windows and panels, see "Windows and Panels" on page 76.

108 3D Viewer FloGrid User Guide


Introduction
File Menu
This menu contains the following options:
• "Workspace save and restore" on page 97.
• "Commands" on page 101.
• "Saving Images as Print Files" on page 853.
• "Print Setup" on page 109.
• "Import" on page 110.

Print Setup
This menu item opens a dialog panel to enable the setting of options for printing. These options
are used whenever a Print button is pressed in a dialog.
Figure 8.1 Print Setup panel

Printer
Select the required printer from the drop down. Information about the selected printer is
displayed below the drop-down.

Properties
Brings up a printer-specific dialog for adjustment of printing setting. The exact dialog depends
on the hardware and drivers that are installed.

Paper
Select the size of paper that will be loaded into your printer as well as the paper tray from which
the printer will take the paper.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 109


File Menu
Orientation
Specify portrait or landscape orientation for printing

Network
This option opens up a network selection dialog enabling the selection of network printers that
do not appear in the Printer drop-down.

OK
Select this option to close the dialog and save your changes to the print settings.

Cancel
Select this option to close the dialog without saving any change you may have made.

Import
Property Model
This option allows you to import property model data. For further information see "Importing
data" on page 218.

Framework3D Model
This item is present if the config file option F3D_IMPORT has been set TRUE. The option
appears in the GEOMODELS subsection of the FLOGRID section of CONFIG.ECL. By default
it is not present. It allows you to import fault and horizon data exported from aFramework3D
model using Geoframe 4.04.

Mesh Maps
"Importing mesh maps" on page 343.

Contour Maps
"Contour map data options" on page 352.

Scatter Sets
"Scatter Sets" on page 353.

Fault Traces
"Fault trace import" on page 365.

Fault Surfaces
"Fault surfaces" on page 366.

110 3D Viewer FloGrid User Guide


File Menu
Well Deviation Surveys
"Import well deviation surveys" on page 376.

Well Logs
"Well Logs Data" on page 386.

Well Markers
"Well Markers Data" on page 383.

Well Events
"Import Well Events" on page 633.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 111


File Menu
Edit Menu
This menu contains the following options:
• Advanced Property Calculator, see "Fault Property Calculator" on page 551.
• "Text Editor" on page 113.
• "Boundaries..." on page 113.
• "Control lines" on page 115.
• "Fault trace" on page 115.
• "Mesh Map" on page 116.
• "Fault framework editor" on page 191.
• "Non-Neighbor Connection Editor" on page 119.
• "Grid" on page 122.
• "Digitize" on page 126.
• "Select/Move" on page 127.
• "Delete" on page 127.
• "Set Major/Minor" on page 128.
• "Select Pick Items" on page 128.
• "Pick Points" on page 128.
• "Close Line" on page 129.
• "Edit On" on page 129.
• "Export" on page 129.
• "Clear Edit" on page 129.
• "Reset Edit" on page 129.
The Edit menu contains options for editing objects such as boundaries (either generic or
attached to particular objects), fault traces, control lines and simulation grids.
The Edit menu is divided into four sections:
• The first section contains options for creating or editing these objects.
• The second section contains the editing modes such as digitizing new points or moving and
deleting existing ones. Once an object is selected for editing, the relevant edit modes are
enabled.
• The third section contains options which influence the action of the edit modes. For
example, when digitizing or moving points the editor can move the points to lie on other
objects included in the editor as Pick Items. These options only become active if the
feature being edited and the current edit mode both support the options.
• The fourth section of the Edit menu contains options that apply to all objects and edit
modes. These options mainly serve to control the edit process.

112 3D Viewer FloGrid User Guide


Edit Menu
Text Editor
Opens a simple text editor. You can open, edit and save ASCII files. There are facilities to cut,
copy and paste text to and from the clipboard, to go to a specified line and to find and replace
specific text strings.

Boundaries...
Boundaries are 2D polygons or rectangles that are used to define 3D volumes. This option
displays an editing panel, which lists the currently defined boundaries and allows boundaries to
be created, copied, edited or deleted.
Boundaries may be added to a variety of groups that are listed in the Boundary list. Different
groups are relevant to different Schlumberger applications and so the list varies from a single
item (all boundaries are added to this ’group’) to many groups representing structural models,
structured grids, and unstructured grids. A boundary used for a specific kind of group, like
structural models, must be in the structural model list. A boundary from one group may be
copied into any other group’s list.
Figure 8.2 Edit Boundaries panel

Boundary list
The list of Boundary groups given by this list varies between applications. Some have just one
entry and so all boundaries are added to this one list. Other applications may have various lists
such as Structural Model Boundaries, Structured Gridder Boundaries, or Unstructured
Grid Boundaries. Each list has its own set of boundaries.
If any boundaries have been created for the chosen list, they are listed in the table below.

Create
This opens the Create Boundary panel to allow you to create a new boundary.

Boundary name
This text box allows you to enter a name for the new boundary.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 113


Edit Menu
Boundary type
These radio buttons allow you to select the boundary type (polygon or rectangle).

Projection plane
These radio buttons allow you to set the orientation of the boundary.
Selecting OK puts the 3D Viewer into Edit mode allowing nodes to be digitized, moved and
deleted.

Copy
This opens the Copy Boundary panel to allow you to select an existing boundary as a template
for the new boundary.

Boundary name
This text box allows you to enter a name for the new boundary.

Boundary type
These radio buttons allow you to choose the boundary type (polygon or rectangle).

Projection plane
These radio buttons allow you to set the orientation of the boundary.

Copy From
This opens the Select Boundary to Copy panel and allows you to select both the boundary list
to copy from and the specific boundary to be copied.

Edit
This opens the Edit Boundary panel and allows you to edit a selected existing boundary. The
options on this panel are the same as for Create, and Copy above. The 3D Viewer changes to
Edit mode allowing nodes to be moved, deleted or added. See the section on Editor Toolbar
Buttons for more information.

Delete
This option allows you to delete an existing boundary by highlighting it then clicking on
Delete.

Import
This option opens a file browser to allow you to import a boundary from a file.

Export
This option opens a file browser to allow you to export a selected boundary to a specified file.

+ View
This option allows you to add a selected boundary to the 3D Viewer for viewing.

- View
This option allows you to remove a selected boundary from the 3D Viewer.

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Edit Menu
Copying and editing a boundary are similar to creating one, except that you must first highlight
the boundary to act on before choosing the Copy or Edit buttons. When the editor is enabled,
the existing polygon or rectangle appears, ready for editing.
It is not possible to change the plane in which the boundary is defined when copying or editing
a boundary. It is, however, possible to change the viewing direction and convert polygons into
rectangles and vice-versa.
When digitizing boundaries for structural models or grids, four corners, or major points, are
required. Major points are used to indicate corners and minor points are used for points on the
segments between them.
When it comes to gridding, the boundary is split into segments so that a boundary/boundary
intersection occurs a each corner. This ensures that the corner point is honored exactly. Minor
points along the boundary segments are not honored exactly.
Import and Export read and write boundary information from and to ASCII files.

Close
Select this option to close the dialog.

Control lines
Control lines are used to control the positions of areal grid lines and the slope of coordinate lines
if sloping coordinate line gridding is enabled.
The editor provides access to the following functionality:

Sample Z-Value
When this option is enabled, Z values for newly digitized points on control lines are sampled on
the underlying structural framework.

Swap Up/Down
Swap Up/Down allows to swap the nomination of upthrown and downthrown for the control
line being edited.

Fault trace
Edit traces
Opens the Edit Fault Traces panel.

Create
When a trace is created from this panel, a new fault is also created with which the trace is then
associated. Currently, the name of the fault is automatically generated. If this name is
unacceptable, an alternative fault can be generated and named using the pop-up menu available
from the Faults node of the Fault Tree. Traces can then be associated with this new fault.

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Edit Menu
Trace name
Enter a name for the trace in the text box.

Line/Polygon
Specify whether the trace is vertical with a single trace line or sloping with a polygon.

Set map
Opens a panel for the selection of a map to which the fault trace is attached. If a trace is attached
to a map, z values for the trace are calculated by sampling each X Y point vertically onto the
map.

Copy
The options on this panel are similar to those for "Create" on page 115.

Edit
The options on this panel are similar to those for "Create" on page 115.

Set Up/Down
Set the upthrown and downthrown sides of a fault polygon. The first line in the polygon is set
to be the upthrown side, the second line is set to be the downthrown side. Once the upthrown
status is set it can be swapped using the Swap Up/Down option. This option should be used
when a first analysis of the Z values of a fault polygon does not correctly determine which is the
upthrown side.

Reset Up/Down
Resets the upthrown / downthrown status of a fault polygon to unknown and allows FloGrid to
calculate which side of the fault is the upthrown one based on the average height of each side.

Swap Up/Down
Swap Up/Down allows you to swap the nomination of upthrown and downthrown for the fault
polygon being edited.

Reset Z-Values
Deletes existing Z values for the trace. If the trace is currently associated with a map, this option
is unavailable.

Mesh Map
The Mesh Map Editor offers the ability to modify imported mesh maps, useful for fixing
isolated erroneous “spike” values, or for nulling out regions of the map in which data values are
unreliable and need to be interpolated from surrounding values.
The Mesh Map Editor can be launched on any map by selecting the corresponding entry in the
data tree, right-clicking and selecting the Edit option. (If the map is not currently displayed, it
is first added to the 3D Viewer window). An edit session may also be launched on any map in
the display from the Mesh Map Editor Controls panel.

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Edit Menu
The Mesh Map Editor allows you to select a node or set of nodes on the edited map and then
to modify the value at these nodes, either to a preset value (which may be picked from elsewhere
on the map) or to a NULL value, indicating that no data is available for these nodes or that the
data there is regarded as unreliable.
The selection of map nodes can be made in one of three ways:
• by selecting individual nodes or combinations of nodes;
• by selecting one or more regions of nodes each bounded by a convex boundary;
• by selecting all nodes within a previously-defined boundary.

Controls...
Opens the Map Editor Controls panel.
Figure 8.3 Map Editor Controls panel

Displayed maps
Selects the map to be edited. Only maps that are currently on the display are listed.

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Edit Menu
Start edit
Starts an edit session on the currently selected map. The title of the panel changes to reflect the
name of the map being edited. If an edit session is currently underway, this button will be
unavailable.

Boundaries
Select from the various categories of boundary defined within the system. The list below it
displays currently defined boundaries belonging to the currently selected category, and allows
a particular boundary to be selected.

Select Boundary
Selects all the nodes of the mesh map currently being edited which fall within the currently
selected boundary. If no map is currently being edited, or no boundary is currently selected, this
button will be unavailable.

Invert Selection
Inverts the current selection, with all unselected nodes becoming selected and vice versa. This
function is duplicated by the Invert Selection menu option and by the button on the toolbar. If
no map is currently being edited, this button is unavailable.

Edit Method
Specifies whether you wish to set the value at the selected nodes to NULL, corresponding to an
undefined value, or to a particular value. In this case, the value is entered in the box either
directly, or by using the Pick Values edit mode to copy the value from another location on the
map (see below). Pressing Apply commits the change.

Select Nodes
Places the editor into the Select Nodes edit mode. This mode allows selection of individual
nodes. A single click selects the node and clears any previous selection. Holding down Ctrl
while clicking allows selection of multiple nodes, preventing the previous selection being
cleared. Holding down Shift and Ctrl while clicking toggles the state of the clicked node
from selected to unselected and vice versa.

Select Region
Places the editor into the Select Region edit mode. This mode allows selection of regions of
nodes. Drag the cursor in a loop around the region to be selected. When the mouse button is
released, all nodes within the loop will be selected. Holding down the Ctrl key prevents the
previous selection being cleared when definition of a new region is started, allowing you to
define multiple regions of selected nodes.

Clear Selection
Deselects all the selected nodes.

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Edit Menu
Invert Selection
Inverts the current selection, with all unselected nodes becoming selected and vice versa.

Pick Value
Places the editor into the Pick Value edit mode. This mode allows values to be picked from
existing nodes of the map. The picked value appears in the New Value box on the Mesh Map
Editor Control panel, and can subsequently be used to change the values of nodes in the
selection.

Non-Neighbor Connection Editor


The Non-Neighbor Connection Editor allows editing of the transmissibility values associated
with non-neighbor connections (NNCs) between pairs of cells. Such non-neighbor connections
can arise in several ways:
• across displacement faults
• due to pinchout of very small or very thin cells
• due to the presence of LGRs
You can launch the Non-Neighbor Connection Editor on a particular set of NNCs by right-
clicking on the corresponding node in the data tree and selecting the Edit... option. Within the
editor, selection of individual NNCs is made by left-clicking on them (selected NNCs are
displayed in white to distinguish them from unselected NNCs). Hold down Ctrl to add
individual NNCs to the selection. To select multiple NNCs at once, lasso them by dragging a
loop around them; all NNCs for which both ends lie within the loop are added to the selection.
The following menu options are available from within an edit session.

Edit NNC values...


This option opens a panel (Figure 8.4) that allows you to specify the new transmissibility values
for the selected NNCs, either as an absolute transmissibility value or by applying a multiplying
factor to the current value.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 119


Edit Menu
Figure 8.4 The Edit NNC Values panel

Create NNCs...
Opens the Create new NNC panel (Figure 8.5), which allows you to generate a new NNC
between a pair of cells, either in the same domain or different domains. Each cell of the pair can
be picked independently, controlled by the radio buttons at the top of the panel. You can enter
the data for each cell by hand, or by picking on the cell in the display. Once valid data for both
cells have been specified together with the transmissibility, the NNC can be created by pressing
the Create NNC button.

Note Note that it is not possible to create an NNC from a cell to itself, or to an adjoining cell
in the same structured domain; this would create a neighbor connection. Nor is it
possible to create a new NNC between a pair of cells if a NNC already exists between
them.

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Edit Menu
Figure 8.5 The Create New NNC panel

Display style...
Changes the display style of selected NNCs. NNCs may be displayed as lines or tubes with
capped ends. Lines are efficient to render but may be hard to see if the NNC is very short in
length. Tubes are slower to render, but since the width can be changed, they remain visible even
with zero length.

Lines
Displays selected NNCs as lines.

Tubes
Displays selected NNCs as tubes.

Display cell outlines


Toggles the display of the cell outlines for displayed NNCs. This option is useful as a means of
locating very short NNCs.

Hide unselected NNCs


Hides from the display all NNCs other than those currently selected. Once hidden in this way,
NNCs remain hidden until the effects are reversed using the Show all NNCs option.

Show all NNCs


Reverses the effects of the previous option.

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Edit Menu
Visualization settings...
Controls the display of the NNCs. Currently you can only change the width of NNCs displayed
as tubes using a slider control.

Grid
The Grid Editor offers lateral (horizontal) editing, vertical (along the coordinate line) editing,
fault creation and fault healing functionality for corner point structured grids.

Note Structured grid editing is only applicable to newly-created grids, or to grids imported
from .EGRID format files.

The editor has three modes: Select Nodes, Lateral Edit and Vertical Edit.
The editing workflow starts with the selection of the nodes, optional fault creation or fault
healing, followed by horizontal and/or vertical editing, and then saving the edits performed. You
can switch between these modes either by selecting these options from the pull down menu, or
by clicking on their buttons displayed in the horizontal tool bar or by using the navigational left
and right arrow keys or by pressing the hot keys for these modes.

Working with Named Faults


You can optionally associate names with created grid faults. These names are recorded if you
commit the edit. Named grid faults are accessible in the Fault Property Calculator. You can also
heal named faults that existed in the grid at the start of the edit session. The grid editor has only
one level of Undo, and so you are recommended to create or delete named faults in separate edit
sessions, otherwise you may find yourself unintentionally undoing edits that you wish to keep.

Edit Active Grid


Starts the Grid Editor session on the active grid and takes you to the Select Nodes mode. It
also inserts the editor buttons in the horizontal tool bar of the 3D Viewer window.

Select Nodes
This mode allows the selection of nodes, that is coordinate lines for editing. A pyramid shaped
object is placed at the top and the bottom of each coordinate line for selection. The number of
faces of each pyramid is determined by the number of cells joining that coordinate line. Each
face of the pyramid represents a possible I or J split that may exist along that coordinate line.
Every face of the pyramid is selectable. In the case of non-split coordinate lines, selecting any
face selects all the faces of the pyramid, thereby indicating selection of all the corners of the
coordinate line. For split coordinate lines, only the faces sharing the split with the selected face
is shown as selected. Non-selected faces are shown in green, or in yellow if the coordinate line
is split. Selected faces are shown in magenta. Shift can be used to select multiple nodes and
Ctrl can be used to toggle the selection state of any node.

Note If Shift is used and the node selected is a split node, then only that face is selected
for all the coordinate lines selected by this operation.

The hot key for this mode is “S” or “s”.

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Edit Menu
Select All Nodes
Selects all the nodes, that is coordinate lines, which are currently on display, for editing. It
appends the selection made by this operation to any existing selection. In case of split nodes,
only the pyramid faces representing the cells that are on display are selected.

Clear Node Selection


Deselects all the selected nodes, irrespective of whether they are on display or not.

Split Ordered Selection


Introduces a new fault directly into the grid. The path to be taken by the fault through the grid
must first be entered by selecting coordinate lines in order, using Ctrl to select the second and
subsequent points. For split coordinate lines only one of the pyramid faces needs to be selected
(and it does not matter which one). Activating the option introduces a split across the selected
path and automatically selects the pyramid faces on one side of the fault. Activating the option
a second time switches the selection to the other side of the fault. The two sides of the fault can
then be moved apart vertically by switching to the vertical edit mode. If this option is selected
for a single coordinate line it is split in both I and J directions.

Create a Named Fault


If you have picked Split Ordered Selection (above) and a split takes place (as opposed to a
toggle) then you are prompted to enter a fault name. If you enter a name and press OK, the split
that you subsequently create and commit appears in the Fault Property Calculator with that
name and you are able to export related keywords to the Simulator. You must have selected at
least 2 connected nodes using Ctrl as described above. Faults created by splitting an isolated
(single) node are ignored as far as naming and the FPC are concerned. Nodes are connected if
they are neighbors on the same I or J line. Two nodes that are diagonally opposed on the same
cell are NOT connected.
It is possible in one selection to select a set of I J nodes that are not connected. In this case each
connected component containing at least 2 nodes is recorded as a grid fault and given a name
based on the name you have entered but with an integer suffix to distinguish each connected
component.
If, at the name prompt, you press Cancel, then the split proceeds as usual but no information is
recorded for use by the Fault Property Calculator.
You do not necessarily have to perform a vertical edit in conjunction with a split. This case is
considered to be a fault with zero throw.

Heal Ordered Selection


This option is similar to the Split Ordered Selection option but removes any vertical split
across the path of the selected points.

Delete a named fault


Heals all the coordinate lines, which correspond to a named fault. You are presented with a
selection box containing the names of the faults, if any. When you select a name in the box, the
corresponding coordinate lines are selected and highlighted in the display. If you press Heal,
the fault is healed.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 123


Edit Menu
Note The Reset and Cancel buttons presented in the Delete Named Faults dialog resets
all edits for the current edit session, and not just for changes made after the dialog is
launched. To ensure that your deletions are committed to the grid, you must press OK
and commit the edits for the edit session.

Heal Selection
Removes any vertical splits between the selected pyramid faces. It does not require coordinate
lines to be selected in order and it only acts on the selected pyramid faces.

Lateral Edit
This mode allows lateral editing of all the selected nodes in a constant Z plane by pressing down
the left mouse button and dragging the mouse. Upon pressing the left mouse button, rubber band
lines are drawn to display the coordinate lines, with an x (cross) symbol marking the top of the
coordinate line and a + (plus) symbol marking the bottom. The coordinate lines can also be
swivelled around their tops or bottoms by pressing Shift or Ctrl, respectively, during this
edit operation. Esc can be used while dragging to undo the drag. The hot key for this mode is
“H” or “h”.

Lateral Edit Controls...


Opens the Horizontal Edit Control panel. This panel allows typing in explicitly, either in
absolute or relative, top and bottom X and Y distances by which all the selected coordinate lines
are moved. The absolute option is represented by the radio button X and Y and the relative
option is represented by the DX and DY radio button.

Vertical Edit
This mode allows editing of nodes along the coordinate line by pressing down the left mouse
button and dragging it. Upon pressing the left mouse button, rubber band lines are drawn to
display the coordinate lines, with an x (cross) symbol marking the top of the coordinate line and
tick marks showing each node along that coordinate line. Control over the range of the nodes to
move along the coordinate line is provided using the Vertical Edit Control panel. In case of split
nodes, only the split sides selected are edited. Dragging the mouse results in all the K points
within the specified K range moving by an equal DZ along the coordinate line. Proportional
editing can be performed by anchoring either the top or the bottom of the specified K range by
using Ctrl or Shift respectively during the drag operation. This results in all the K points
within the specified K range moving in proportion, maintaining their cell thickness ratio. Esc
can be used while dragging to undo the drag. The hot key for this mode is “V” or “v”.

Vertical Edit Controls...


Sets of the K range that is the range of nodes along the coordinate line that are edited. The
minimum and the maximum range is displayed on the left of the text entry fields. In addition, it
allows explicit entry, in either absolute or relative form, the Z distances by which the selected
nodes are edited, and selection of how the vertical editing is applied. These features are
represented by the Edit Mode radio buttons:

124 3D Viewer FloGrid User Guide


Edit Menu
Set Z and K Range
Specifies the absolute Z distance and the K range of the nodes along the coordinate line, which
are edited. A K range greater than 1 results in collapsing of the cells; therefore, a confirmation
message is displayed in such a case when OK or Apply is pressed.

Set DZ and K Range


Specifies the relative Z distance and the K range of the nodes along the coordinate line, which
are edited.

Set K Range:
Specifies the top and the bottom K values of the nodes along the coordinate line, which are
edited. By default, the K Range is the K extent of the grid being edited.
Edit Type controls how the vertical editing is performed. The options are:

Constant
All the K points on the coordinate line, within the specified K range, are moved by Z or DZ.

Proportional, Top Anchored


The Bottom K Range point is moved by Z or DZ and all the K points on the coordinate line,
within the specified K range, move proportionately, maintaining the cell thickness ratio.

Proportional, Bottom Anchored


The Top K Range point is moved by Z or DZ and all the K points on the coordinate line, within
the specified K range, move proportionately, maintaining the cell thickness ratio.

Note IJK slicing performed on the 3D Viewer does not automatically modify the K range
on this panel.

Save Edit Session


Saves the edits that have been performed to the simulation grid, leaving the node selection as is.
It marks an important milestone during the edit session, as any undo operation during an edit
session reverts the grid back to its last saved state. The simulation grid is updated whenever a
save is performed. The option is duplicated with the button on the horizontal toolbar.

Toggle Pyramids Display


This option is available only from the horizontal tool bar button. It toggles the display state of
the pyramid shaped selectable objects, which allow the selection of the coordinate lines. In case
the pyramids are hidden and the Select Nodes option is chosen, the pyramids are displayed
automatically.

Reset Edit
Reverts the grid to its last saved state. However, it leaves the node selection unchanged to help
in continuing further edits.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 125


Edit Menu
Clear Edit
Same as Reset Edit.

Digitize
When an object is created, Digitize is the default mode. Points forming the object (or nodes) are
created by clicking on the left mouse button.

Digitizing major and minor points


Digitized points can be major or minor. Major points are points with special significance. For
example, when digitizing a structured grid boundary, major points are used to identify the four
corners of the boundary. Similarly, when digitizing a fault polygon, major points identify the
ends of upthrown and downthrown sections.
(Minor points, marked by smaller squares, are digitized by simply clicking the left mouse
button. Major points, marked by bigger squares, are digitized by holding down Shift while
clicking on the left mouse button. It is not possible to commit an edit unless at least two major
points exist in a polygon.

Note When creating a polygon the first point digitized defaults to major, irrespective of the
Shift key position.

Note When the creation of an object does not require any distinction between major and
minor points (that is vertical fault traces, rectangular boundaries and so on) all
digitized points are visualized as major, displayed as bigger squares.

Digitizing new points on an existing line or polygon


In order to digitize one or more new points on an existing line or polygon, you must first select
a line segment to which the new points are to be added. This is done by clicking with the middle
mouse button over the desired line segment. The selected segment is highlighted. Once a
segment is highlighted, further picks with the left mouse button digitize new points. Each time
a point is digitized, the display is updated to indicate the new active segment to which the next
digitized point is added.

Digitizing new points at the end of an existing line or open polygon


To extend an already digitized open line (that is to add a point past either end of an open line)
you must first select the end point to which new points are to be connected. This is done by
clicking with the middle button beyond the end of the line. The selected point is highlighted.
Once a point is highlighted, further picks with the left mouse button digitize new points. Each
time a point is digitized, the display is updated to mark the new point as the active point to which
the next digitized point is connected.

Z values of digitized points


If digitized points are added to an existing line or polygon, Z values for new points are
determined as follows:

126 3D Viewer FloGrid User Guide


Edit Menu
• If the line or polygon was imported with Z values set, Z values for new intermediate points
are interpolated from the Z values of the selected line segment end points. Interpolation is
not done between different sides of a fault polygon. Similarly, Z values for new end points
are set to the Z value of the previous end point.
• If the line or polygon is a fault and has been associated with a map, Z values of new points
are also computed from the map.

Z values of moved points


Z values of any moved points are left unchanged unless the line or polygon is a fault and has
been associated with a map. In this case Z values of moved points are recomputed from the map
when the edit is committed.

Deleting points while digitizing


The Backspace (or Delete key) deletes the currently selected point. This can be done in and
out of Digitize mode.

Note As the most recently digitized point is typically highlighted, successive digitized
points can be deleted (undone) using Backspace or the Delete key.

Select/Move
When an edit session of a pre-existing object starts, this is the default mode.
Nodes and segments of an object can be repositioned by selecting and dragging the nodes or
segments with the mouse holding the left button down.

Note By dragging with the middle mouse button held down and the Ctrl key pressed, the
whole object being edited moves in a rigid translation.

When editing a rectangle, for example, the left mouse button selects either a corner of the
rectangle or a side. By dragging the mouse with the left button held down, the corner or side can
be moved. By dragging with the middle mouse button held down, the whole rectangle can be
moved and repositioned.

Delete
When the editor is in this mode, you can delete points by clicking on them with the left mouse
button. By holding down the Shift key as the mouse is clicked, all points between the last
deleted point and the current point are deleted.
When deleting points from a closed polygon, the choice of which points to delete when Shift
is used is ambiguous. This is because points could be deleted in the clockwise or anti-clockwise
directions. In this case, the section with the fewest points is deleted.

Hint The Delete key (or Backspace) can be used to delete the currently selected point.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 127


Edit Menu
Set Major/Minor
When this mode is active, points can be toggled between major and minor by clicking on them
with the left mouse button. Minor points are marked by smaller squares. Major points are
marked by bigger squares. Major points are points with special significance. It is not possible
to commit an edit unless at least two major points exist in a polygon.

Boundary major and minor points


When digitizing a structured grid or structural framework boundary, major points are used to
identify the four corners of the boundary.

Fault polygon major and minor points


When digitizing a fault polygon, major points identify the ends of upthrown and downthrown
sections. A fault polygon may have as many as four major points. A fault polygon requires two
major points at an end if the end of the fault has been truncated by the model / map boundary or
by another fault (that is it has a non zero throw at the end) or if the fault is a splitting trace made
up from sections of fault polygons from different maps. Minor points cannot be set or digitized
between consecutive major points marking the end of a fault polygon.
Details on how fault traces are colored can be found in "Fault trace coloring and interaction with
3D Viewer" on page 372.

Select Pick Items


When creating or editing objects in Digitize mode, it may be useful to include points from other
objects in the new object. This can be done by selecting objects, known as pick items, which
are added to the display as pick guides when digitizing. Pick guides appear as small dots (pick
points), joined by white lines.
Boundaries, Fault Traces, Control Lines and Contour Lines (that is elements of Contour
Maps) can all be selected as pick items to create pick guides. The selection of objects to use as
pick items is made from the cascade menu Select Pick Items. Several objects (and of different
types) can be selected for an edit session.

Note A pick guide is not fully updated in the current 3D Viewer session. If the object which
formed the pick guide is edited, the pick guide still represents the original points of the
pick item. Deselecting and reselecting the object as pick items updates the XY values
of the pick guide. However, to correctly update the Z values of pick guides that
represent items with edited Z values, you must shut down and restart the 3D Viewer.

Pick Points
This is an option that can be used when in digitize mode. When active (checked entry) any point
digitized in the proximity of a point from a pickable object is snapped to that point.

Digitizing using multiple pick points


To insert consecutive points from a single pickable object, select the first pick point to be added
with the left mouse button and then the last point with Shift held down. This adds all the
selected pick points as minor points to the object being digitized.

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Edit Menu
Shift selection of pick points cannot be done across different pickable objects. To add pick
points from multiple pickable objects in a single operation, select or Shift select the desired
pick points from one pickable object, then select the first desired pick point on the next pickable
object, then Shift select the remaining desired pick points on the second pickable object (and
so on).

Setting major points when using pick points


If Ctrl is held down, the selected pick point is added as a major point. If the Ctrl and Shift
keys are held down, the last selected pick point is added as a major point.

Close Line
The option closes an open polygon. Alternatively, a polygon can be closed by double-clicking
when adding a point.

Edit On
Once you have enabled the editor, this option allows you to toggle between editing mode and
normal 3D viewing.

Export
This allows the polygon or rectangle currently being edited to be exported to an ASCII file.
The Export Feature panel allows you to export the file in one of two formats:

Export XY
Opens a file browser that allows the file to be exported with only XY coordinates.

Export XYZ
Opens a file browser that allows the file to be exported with XYZ coordinates.

Clear Edit
This option removes all points from the current feature, including previously digitized and
saved points.

Reset Edit
This option resets the current feature to the state it was in before editing began. The default edit
mode, Digitize, is reselected.

FloGrid User Guide 3D Viewer 129


Edit Menu
View menu
This menu contains the following options:
• "Timesteps" on page 130.
• "Object Appearance..." on page 132.
• "Normalize" on page 133.
• "Perspective" on page 134.
• "Set View" on page 134.
• "Rubber Band Zoom" on page 135.
• "Object Rotation..." on page 136.
• "Lights..." on page 136.
• "XYZ Exaggerate..." on page 137.
• "Stereo..." on page 137.
• "Refresh View" on page 138.
• "Hardcopy Colors" on page 139.

Timesteps

Note All timesteps for all time varying objects in the view are listed. It is possible therefore
for you to select a timestep for which there is no data for one of these objects. If this
happens, you are warned and the object’s closest previous timestep used.

Individual timesteps can be chosen to display from a list showing sequence number, timestep
and date. Animation of the timesteps is controlled with buttons similar to those on a video
recorder.

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View menu
Figure 8.6 The Animate Time panel

The timesteps can also be chosen from the timestep buttons on the 3D Viewer’s toolbar.
The animation buttons let you single step forwards, single step backwards, stop the animation
and play the animation from current step to the end. Additional buttons on the 3D Viewer’s
toolbar let you snap directly to the first (rewind) or last (fast forward) timestep.
On the Animate Time panel it is possible to select timesteps directly from the list, so the panel
does not have the icons for first/last timesteps.
The Circular Animation button sets the Play Mode to loop continuously. When Play is pressed
and the last step is reached we return to the first step where the animation starts again. By default
the loop is played 99 times before stopping automatically. This may be configured through the
use of the MAX_CONTINUOUS entry in the config file.
Figure 8.7 The timestep control buttons

First Timestep Last Timestep

Previous Timestep Next Timestep

Stop Play
Select Options... to define the minimum and maximum timesteps, the timestep interval, and the
delay between timesteps.

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View menu
Figure 8.8 The Animate Time Options panel

Object Appearance...
This opens the Object Appearance panel, which contains a list of all objects that have been
requested for display in the 3D Viewer. On this panel you can select which objects to view at
any one time.
Figure 8.9 Object Appearance panel

Objects
This column displays the names of the objects that have been sent to the viewer.

Visibility
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to either Hide or Show the object.

Render mode
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to select how the objects are visualized in the
viewer. The choices are dependent on the type of objects. Most objects have the following
options:
• Lines - This shows the objects as a framework of lines.
• Surfaces - This shows the objects as solid surfaces.
• Cell outlines - This shows the objects with the cell outlines superimposed on the surfaces.
Other objects have more specific options; for example, wells have the following:
• Wells - This shows the wells without well labels.

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View menu
• Wells and labels - This shows both the wells and the well labels.

Level of detail
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to specify the level of detail required in the
viewer. If Level of Detail is not applicable for a given object, the entry only shows All.

View/Picking mode
These radio buttons reflect the current 3D Viewer mode of operation. With the Open Inventor
mouse buttons you can be in one of two modes - viewing or picking.
• Selecting the arrow changes the view into pick mode.
• Selecting the hand changes to viewing mode.

Hint The mode can be toggled by pressing the <Esc> key, or by pressing the V key for view
mode or the P key for pick mode.

If you use any other mouse button settings (OIFloViz, RTView or GeoFrame, see the
Preferences | Mouse Buttons menu option), the View/Picking buttons simply reflect the
current viewer mode since view/pick mode is determined by which mouse button is depressed.

Normalize
The View | Normalize... menu item opens a dialog allowing various parameters for
normalization to be entered.
Figure 8.10 Normalization panel

The first button Normalize View is a push-button and performs normalization (using the values
of the other parameters) once only.
AutoNormalize turns normalization on continuously. It can be useful when selecting individual
slices of a model to ensure each slice fills the 3D Viewer. With this option turned on, the
contents of the view are automatically scaled to fill the window. This happens every time the
contents of the view changes. With this option off, no rescaling takes place when the view
contents change.
Note that rotation is always about the center of the screen.

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View menu
Seek to point
This option interactively zooms and centers the model on a point you pick. Click on the Seek
to point button (the cursor changes to a Target) and then click on a point of interest on the
model. The view interactively zooms by a factor of 2 so that the picked point is in the center of
the screen. You can repeatedly pick on the model during the zoom operation. Each time you pick
the zoom continues from the new pick point.

Note The S key provides a short cut to the Seek to point button

Note You must pick a point on the model for the seek mechanism to work. Streamlines can
be picked more easily by displaying them as Tubes (Scene | Streamlines |
Streamline Display..., then refer to the Line Display section of the Attributes folder).
Picking on the viewer background will simply turn off the Seek to point behavior.

Perspective
This option toggles the perspective projection on and off.

Set View
This option allows a choice from a list of six predefined viewpoints of the model.

Hint The button colors correspond to the display colors of the axes.

User
This view is defined as the last view of the model defined by the mouse. The default is 30
degrees above the horizontal, 60 degrees to the left and with the model rotated 8 degrees around
the Z axis.

Top
A view from above the model in the negative Z direction.

Bottom
A view from below the model in the positive Z direction.

Front
A view of the model from the front or positive Y direction.

Back
A view of the model from the back or negative Y direction.

Left
A view of the model in the left or positive X direction.

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View menu
Right
A view of the model in the right or negative X direction.

Freeze
This option, available only from the toolbar button, allows several changes to be made before
re-rendering (such as a change of IJK slice as well as a change of timestep). Only one button is
visible, and when you click on it, it changes to the other type.
When Freeze is ON the button changes to the red traffic light symbol and the mouse cursor
changes to the "busy" cursor (an hourglass). The mouse cursor change only happens when the
mouse is positioned over the 3D Viewer window. A message VIEW FROZEN appears in the
middle of the 3D Viewer, and most objects are removed from the view. Rotation, scaling and
translation have no effect when the view is frozen. However, it is still possible to bring up new
dialogs, change settings on the dialogs, run commands, add new objects to the view, etc.
Although most objects are removed, the axes and the axis bounding box (if present) are retained.
This is considered much better than having a completely empty view. Furthermore since they
are only lines, they are quick to re-render if an expose event occurs (an expose event can be
caused by another window appearing on top of the 3D window and then being closed or moved).
Note that if the Axes Extents are set to Displayed, the axes continue to resize if IJK slicing
and/or thresholding is changed.
The 3D Viewer remains empty until the toolbar button is pressed again. The message
disappears from the 3D Viewer, and all objects are added back to the view (but only rendered
once). The toolbar button changes to the green traffic light symbol, and the mouse cursor
changes to the idle symbol, a pointer. Rotation, scaling and translation are then possible again.

Rubber Band Zoom


This option allows an area of the 3D Viewer to be "lassoed" with the mouse in order to zoom
in on a particular area.
When Rubber Band Zoom is invoked, the mouse cursor changes to a magnifying glass; you
define the first corner of the zoom box by clicking and holding the mouse down, and then
dragging the mouse to define the other corner. You can perform further rubber band zooms if
you wish. To exit rubber band zoom mode, click on the toolbar button again or re-select the
menu item Rubber Band Zoom.
Each zoom is stored in a list, and you can undo the zooms one at a time – click on the second
toolbar button, or select the Undo Rubber Band Zoom menu item – or completely – click on
the third toolbar button, or select the Reset Rubber Band Zoom menu item. Undo and Reset
are available during a zoom, as well as when zoom mode has finished.
In Rubber Band Zoom mode some functions are disabled, such as Cell picking, Set View,
Normalization, etc. However, rotation and translation are still possible.

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View menu
Object Rotation...
This panel allows the object to be rotated about the center of rotation in the 3D Viewer. Use the
buttons in the single step box to rotate the object horizontally or vertically by the rotation angle
you specify. Use the buttons in the animation box to rotate the object through 360 degrees, using
the number of iterations you specify.

Note When one or more slave viewer is active, only the models in one viewer can be set in
continuous rotation (using the mouse) at any one time.

Object rotation is not the same as camera rotation performed with the camera rotation panel.
Firstly, object rotation is always about the center of rotation/zoom and not the center of the
object. Secondly, when an object is rotated it continues to be lit from the front.
Figure 8.11 Object Rotation panel

Lights...
Turns directional lights on or off. Lighting the model with several lights "shining" from different
directions produces highlights and shadows, creating a more realistic view and emphasizing
topological features such as faults. Ambient lighting is always on.

Caution The use of lighting can increase the time taken to display the model. This decrease
in performance can be very significant when working with large models.

The Lighting panel controls the directional lights. The directional lights are arranged relative to
the viewing position at Top Left, Top Right, Bottom Left and Bottom Right. Turning on for
example the Bottom Right light illuminates the bottom and right hand sides of the model, which
may help in viewing points of interest in that area.
The display becomes brighter as more lights are turned on.

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View menu
Figure 8.12 Lighting panel

XYZ Exaggerate...
This option allows you to apply a scale factor to the X, Y, and Z (height) directions. Vertical
exaggeration can be quickly applied to the model by clicking on the “Vertical Stretch” and

“Vertical Shrink” buttons in the toolbar.

Stereo...
This option opens a dialog panel to give you extra control over the stereoscopic viewing
parameters.
Figure 8.13 Stereo Panel

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View menu
Check the Stereo On box to turn stereo mode on.
Various different stereo modes exist to suit the available hardware. To define the stereo mode,
set the OIV_STEREO_TYPE environment variable to the appropriate mode.
• For Red/Green glasses:
ANAGLYPH_RED_CYAN (default)
ANAGLYPH_GREEN_MAGENTA
ANAGLYPH_BLUE_YELLOW
Each view is rendered using the given colors.
• For systems employing mirror glasses (that show one half of the screen to one eye and the
other half to the other eye):
HALF_SCREEN_OVERUNDER_FILL
HALF_SCREEN_OVERUNDER
HALF_SCREEN_SIDEBYSIDE_FILL
HALF_SCREEN_SIDEBYSIDE
• For systems using light polarizing glasses. RAW uses OpenGL stereo and requires a
graphics card that supports quad buffered stereo.
INTERLACED_HORIZONTAL_BEST
INTERLACED_VERTICAL_BEST
INTERLACED_HORIZONTAL_FAST
INTERLACED_VERTICAL_FAST
RAW
The Balance control determines how much an object appears to protrude in front of the screen,
versus how much it appears behind the screen ("negative parallax"). At 1, the object should be
behind the screen, and at 0 (the default) it should be in front of the screen. The slider provides
a range from 0 to 2.
The Separation Offset controls how strong the stereo effect is. As the value gets higher, the
images appear farther apart. The default value is 1, and a value of 0 produces no stereo effect.
The slider allows a range from 0 to 4.
The stereo effect alternatively displays the left and right images. To view these it is necessary
to use a system such as StereoGraphics’ CrystalEyes. This consists of glasses containing LCD
shutters and an infra-red transmitter to synchronize the opening and closing of the individual
lenses with the image.

Refresh View
If the image does not rotate when it should or the screen goes black, select
View | Refresh View to update the image. This is to overcome problems with some Graphics
cards and their drivers. If problems continue please ensure the latest graphics drivers are
installed on your machine.

Note Note that this command has no effect if VIEW FROZEN has been selected.

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View menu
Hardcopy Colors
There is no dialog panel associated with this option.
This menu item switches colors between black and white for various objects, and is primarily
intended for switching between screen colors and hard copy.
If the menu option is selected (that is, hardcopy colors are requested), then the background color
is set to white and the foreground color is set to black. If the option is not selected (or screen
colors are selected) then the background color is set to black and the foreground color is set to
white.
The various objects changed are as follows:-
• The background of the 3D window changes to the background color.
• Cell outlines change to the foreground color.
• Text used for Wells, Axes, Titles, Color Legend and 3D Text changes to the foreground
color.

Flip X axis
This option reverses the X axis. It should only be used for non-ECLIPSE grids with a different
origin.

Flip Y axis
This option reverses the Y axis. It should only be used for non-ECLIPSE grids with a different
origin.

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View menu
Tools menu
This menu allows you to access the following options:
• "Structural Framework" on page 175.
• "Create a Model" on page 26.
• "Property population" on page 231.
• "Volumetrics" on page 569.
• Upscaling, see "Structured gridder properties" on page 427.
• "Fault Property Calculator" on page 551.
• "Streamline Simulation" on page 585.
• "Well Planning" on page 631.
• "Property type management" on page 140.
• "Core Analysis" on page 645.
• "Old Workflows" on page 142.
• "Programming Calculator" on page 142
• "Geological Property model" on page 215.
• "LGRs, Resizing, Aquifers and NNCs" on page 407.
• "Generating an unstructured grid" on page 499.
• "Programming Calculator" on page 142.
• "Aliases" on page 143.

• "2D Mapping Canvas" on page 647.

• "2D Well Log Correlation Canvas" on page 679.

• "Aliases" on page 143.

Property type management


This group of menu items provides options for creating new types of properties. Once created,
these property types can be deleted (removed) or assigned to a family. A family is a group of
associated property types. FloGrid has three default families; Maps, Initial and Recurrent. A
property type should be added to the Maps family if it is to be used in any of the geological
modules. If a property type is to be used only on a simulation model it should be added to either
the Initial or Recurrent families.

Create...
Opens the Create Property Type panel.

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Tools menu
Create Property type panel

Property Type Name


Specifies the name of the new property type.

Select quantity
Selects what type of quantity a property type is (for example, area, length etc.). The choice of
quantity dictates which units are used with a property type.

Information
Provide additional information about the property type.

Select families
Defines which property families the created property type belongs to. This list contains the
default list of FloGrid families and any families created by you.

Remove...
Opens the Remove property panel.

Remove property panel


A multiple selection list for deleting property types that are not required.

Associate with family...


Opens the Set Property Type Families panel.

Set property type families panel

Family names
Select which property types to add or remove from an active family.

Prop types to add


A multiple selection list of property types. Double-click on the menu entry, or select it then click
on the >> button, to add the selected property type to the family and display it in the list on the
right. Multiple selections may be made.

Prop types in family


A multiple selection list displaying the current set of property types in the family. Select
property types in the list and click on the << button to remove them from the family and re-
display them in the list on the left.

Create family...
Opens the Create Property Type Family panel.

Create property type family panel

Family name
Specifies the name of the new family.

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Tools menu
Info
Describe the family.

Select property types


A multiple selection list for selecting the property types to include in the newly created family.
After selection click on Apply to create the new family.

Remove family...
Opens the Remove Property Type Families panel.

Remove property type families panel

Select families
A multiple selection list for selecting which families to remove. Only select families that you
have created yourself.

Old Workflows
This option gives you access to workflow tools that were available in previous versions of
FloGrid.
• Property Calculator
This opens the Simulation Property Editor panel. For further information see
"Simulation Property Editor panel" on page 436.
• "Geological Property model" on page 215.
• "LGRs, Resizing, Aquifers and NNCs" on page 407.
• "Generating an unstructured grid" on page 499.

Programming Calculator
Calculator log
Prints the current contents of the calculator log file (OUTPUT.PRT) to the message area. If any
problems occur when running the calculator, examine this output for help in diagnosing the
problem.

Calculator show
View different Calculator variables within a text window, including a listing of all the
commands within the program.

Calculator reset
Clears all variables from the Calculator. It is recommended when running one Calculator
program after another, to avoid clashes of persistent variables.
For further information see "Calculator Language" on page 701.

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Tools menu
Aliases
Certain simulators, including ECLIPSE and FrontSim, restrict all names to less than or equal to
eight characters, and require names to be unique and valid. This menu item allows you to open
panels that control the global aliasing of names to be used when passing data directly to the
simulator.

Wells
Opens the Well Aliases panel.

Enable
Enforces well aliasing. All well names greater than eight characters are truncated to eight
characters. Once any truncation has been done, names are checked to see if they are valid and
unique. If any names are not valid or not unique, simple but unique and valid names are
generated in any exports to the simulator along with comments giving the original non-aliased
names.
To override or set the aliased names, import a file with the desired aliases.

Read...
Aliases specified in this file are merged with the current list.

Faults
Opens the Fault Aliases panel.

Enable
Enforces fault aliasing. All fault names greater than eight characters are truncated to eight
characters. Once any truncation has been done, names are checked to see if they are valid and
unique. If any names are not valid or are not unique, simple but unique and valid names are
generated in any exports to the simulator along with comments giving the original non-aliased
names.
To override or set the aliased names, import a file with the desired aliases.

Read...
Aliases specified in this file are merged with the current list.

Write...
Sets fault aliases. For further information see "Alias" on page 553.

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Tools menu
Scene Menu
This menu contains the following options:
• "Structural Frameworks..." on page 144.
• Model Slice Controls, see "Display" on page 224.
• "Upgridded models" on page 145.
• "Grid" on page 146.
• "Streamlines" on page 161.
• "Color Legend" on page 167.
• Wells..., see "Well Display Options dialog" on page 379.
• "Show Titles" on page 172.
• "Axes..." on page 172.

Structural Frameworks...
Opens the Structural Frameworks dialog and allows you to modify the appearance of the
displayed structural framework.

Select framework
Selects the structural framework to view. Only structural frameworks that have been added to
the 3D Viewer from the Structural Framework window are available.

Select units / Select blocks


Control the selection of which units and blocks (block units) are affected using the viewing
controls in this dialog. If all units or all blocks are selected from the lists, display choices
supersede previous selections made for individual blocks and units.

Show block unit edges


Displays the wireframe of the selected block unit(s).

Show block unit faces as surfaces


Displays the top and bottom surfaces of the selected block unit(s) as colored surfaces. Surfaces
are colored based on the currently selected block unit color, which can be set from the Select
block unit Color... option on this panel.

Show block unit faces as lines


Displays the top and bottom surfaces of the selected block unit(s) as a gridded set of lines.

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Scene Menu
Select block unit color...
Sets the color to be used when the currently selected block unit surfaces are displayed. The
button displays a Color Selector dialog containing a table of colors. To set a new color, select
a color from the table, pick it and press the Apply button. This then updates the legend in the
display dialog.

Upgridded models
The upgridded model is initially displayed by clicking on the View button in the Upgridding
folder of the Structured Gridder window. The panel shows the following options:

IJK slice...
Opens the Upgridding: IJK Slicing panel in the 3D Viewer and offers a selection of different
kinds of views in the I, J, and K directions.

Select slice object


Selects the object to view in the 3D Viewer for slicing. There are three folders that control the
slicing.

IJ slicing

I-Direction/Every Nth/ Apply


Shows the number of layers in the I direction and allows selection of the slices to be displayed.
The arrow buttons move the selections up or down. The Reset button resets the choice to every
layer. Slices can also be selected by entering the name directly in the type-in box; use a comma
to separate multiple entries and a dash to represent a range of selections.

J-Direction/Every Nth/ Apply


Shows the number of layers in the J direction and allows selection of the slices to be displayed.
The arrow buttons move the selections up or down. The Reset button resets the choice to every
layer. Slices can also be selected by entering its name directly in the type-in box; use a comma
to separate multiple entries and a dash to represent a range of selections.

K-Slicing

K-Direction/Every Nth/ Apply


Shows the number of layers in the K direction and allows selection of the slices to be displayed.
The arrow buttons move the selections up or down. The Reset button resets the choice to every
layer. Slices can also be selected by entering its name directly in the type-in box; use a comma
to separate multiple entries and a dash to represent a range of selections.

Honor IJ slicing
Honors any IJ slicing selected.
Multiple IJK numbers can be chosen by pressing the Ctrl key while selecting the appropriate
numbers. Several numbers in a row can be chosen by highlighting the first value then holding
the Shift key and highlighting the last value. All numbers in between are highlighted. Use
Every Nth to choose regularly spaced row or layer numbers.

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Scene Menu
IJK extents
Sets the extent of the IJK layers to be shown in the 3D Viewer, by adjusting the bar sliders.
Selections in Upgridding: IJK Slice panel are not normally not applied until you click on
Apply.

Display property...
Opens the Upgridding: Display Property panel.

Select view object


Selects the object to view in the 3D Viewer.

Select property
Selects the property to view in the 3D Viewer. Any properties generated by upgridding in the
Structured Gridder window can be chosen and viewed here.

Grid
These options apply only to the grid selected in Set Active Grid.

Property
Opens the Property Display panel, which is used to select the simulation property to color the
cells of the active grid. Initial and Recurrent properties are grouped into two families. Only one
of these is shown in the list at a time. If both are available, selection may be toggled from one
to the other by use of the radio buttons.
Figure 8.14 Property Display panel

If water, oil and gas saturations are available, a Ternary property is created. This property exists
at all timesteps where the three saturations are available. The Ternary property is found in the
list of Recurrent properties and is available for display just like any other property.

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Scene Menu
Cell probe
The Cell Probe allows you to investigate a cell’s properties. The cell is selected by clicking on
it in the 3D Viewer with the left mouse button. If the Paint Cell option is on, the cell is painted
white. By default the I, J, K location of the cell, and the grid it belongs to, are reported.
To examine the cell’s property values select a property from the All Properties list and transfer
it to the Probe Properties by either double-clicking on the property or by selecting the property
and clicking on the button. The property name and the corresponding cell value are then
shown in the Cell Properties box. More properties may be selected in the same way.
To remove a property from the Probe Properties either double-click on the property name in
the list or select it and click on the button.
Figure 8.15 Cell Probe panel

The cell values update as you animate the simulation through time. Also note that the probe can
be used in sweep mode by holding the left mouse button down and moving the pointer over the
grid. The effect is to get a continuous trail of property values for the cells that have been swept
by the mouse cursor.
The Cell Geometry option displays the coordinates of the corners and the center of the
currently selected cell. The nodes are listed in an anti-clockwise direction, top face first
followed by the bottom face. For Cartesian cells we list from the top back left node, for radials
from the min. r - min. theta node.
The Always On Top option can be used to prevent the cell probe panel from being hidden by
the 3D Viewer if the two windows are overlapping.
The Print button prints the contents of the text window to your default printer.

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Scene Menu
Threshold
The Threshold panel allows you to limit the cells displayed to those that have a property value
inside a given range. You can threshold on multiple properties, so that the cells displayed are
those whose property values are within the intersection of the supplied ranges. As you animate
through time different cells fall into and outside of this property range so giving a visual
indication of fluid flow.
Figure 8.16 Threshold Properties

The list of properties featured in the All Properties list can be toggled between the Initial
and Recurrent property list by the buttons at the top of the panel.
Select properties for thresholding from the All Properties list either by double-clicking on
them, or by single-clicking them and then clicking on the button. Selected properties are
then listed in the Active Properties list. The details of the currently selected property are listed
on the folder below. The layout of the folder differs for integer and real properties - the integer
thresholding folder allows multiple discrete ranges to be selected whereas the real threshold
folder allows just one floating point range to be set per property. Selecting a property from the
Active Properties list displays the details of that property on the folder below. A properties
may be removed from the Active Properties list (and have its threshold range reset) either by
double-clicking on it or by single-clicking on it and clicking on the button.
The following two sections describe the different interfaces presented for integer and real
properties.

Integer properties
The Integer properties interface is as follows:

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Scene Menu
Figure 8.17 Integer Threshold panel

Select values
The Select Values list allows multiple selection of integer values to be included in the
threshold range. The selected ranges are listed in the Edit Selection field below. This text list
may be edited directly. To select more than one individual integer from the list, press the Ctrl
key while selecting values with the mouse button; to select a continuous range select the first in
range with the mouse, scroll to the last in range and press the Shift button while selecting it
with the mouse.

Move selection
This increments or decrements all selected values by the given amount. Selected values wrap
from the end of the list to the beginning and vice-versa.

Edit Selection
The complete selection is shown in this field. You can also edit it here.

Disable
When selected, this temporarily disables the selected property’s threshold range.

Reset
Resets the selected properties threshold ranges.

Real properties
Figure 8.18 Real Threshold panel

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Scene Menu
Threshold range
Allows selection of a min. and max value that delimit the property values. Only cells with
property values within these limits are displayed.

Move range
Allows the min. and max. range values to be incremented or decremented by the given amount.
The icons are only available when there is sufficient range to move the range values without
ending up outside the property min. and max. values.

Disable
When selected, temporarily disables the selected property’s threshold range.

Reset
Resets the selected properties threshold ranges.

Color from Range


The Color from Range button applies the range min. and max. to the property’s colour legend,
so the entire legend spectrum is applied to the selected cells.

IJK Slice

Note This option applies only to the grid selected in Set Active Grid.

The IJK Slicer panel allows you to view restricted slices or blocks of the grid based on the grid’s
IJK structure. Structured grids have a single global domain and domains for each LGR created.
LGRs can be sliced independently of the global cells.
Unstructured grids are made up from several domains around features like wells, faults and
boundaries. Each of these domains has its own IJK structure and can be sliced independently.
There is also a top level, or global domain that does not have an explicit IJK structure. It is an
internally constructed, virtual IJK grid that can be used to view the unstructured grid in a more
conventional manner.
The Global domain is sliced by default. To slice a particular domain, either select it from the
Select Domain drop-down list box or simply pick on the domain in the 3D Viewer with the
left mouse button. This automatically selects the chosen grid for slicing. Existing slicings of
other domains are remembered.

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Scene Menu
Figure 8.19 IJK Slicer panel

Note When slicing sub-domains, it may be useful to display only the cells in that particular
sub-domain. Use Grid | Volume of Interest | Domains to limit the domains viewed.

The effects of slicing are cumulative in that the global domain and any or all sub-domains can
be sliced at the same time. The union of the slices is displayed. The buttons Reset Domain and
Reset All Domains can be used to cancel slicing if it is not desired.
The rest of the IJK Slice panel provides three folders for controlling the slicing. The IJ Slicing
folder allows a selection of rows and columns to be displayed. These rows can be combined with
a selection of K layers set in the K Slicing folder. The Honor IJ Slicing check-box on the K
Slice folder toggles the combination between union and intersection with the IJ slices. The IJK
Extents folder allows the range of I,J and K cells displayed to be restricted to a smaller block.
Several numbers in a row can be chosen by highlighting the first value then holding the Shift
key and highlighting the last value. All numbers in between are highlighted. Multiple IJK
numbers can be chosen by pressing the Ctrl key while selecting the appropriate numbers -
using the Ctrl key on an already selected row deselects it. The full combination of selected
rows is shown in the horizontal box in a short-hand form such as “1-7,13,15-20”. This box can
be edited.
Use Every Nth to choose regularly spaced row or layer numbers.

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Scene Menu
If AutoApply is on, then changes take place immediately; if AutoApply is off then changes
made in the panel do not happen until you click on Apply. When AutoApply is on, the Apply
button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered from the drop-down menu accessible with the right
mouse button - releasing the button over the AutoApply option changes the state of AutoApply.
The drop-down menu only changes the status of AutoApply on the currently selected folder, so
each folder can be set as required.

Volume of Interest

Note This option applies only to the grid selected in Set Active Grid.

Grid Cells...
This option restricts the volume of the displayed model. Only cells in the new restricted range
will be available to the IJK Slicer. Volume of Interest may only be set on the global grid.
Changes made to the Volume of Interest panel are applied automatically. The AutoApply
option can be toggled off by pressing the right mouse button anywhere in the window and
clicking on AutoApply is On.
Figure 8.20 VOI Grid Cells panel

Domain Selection...
A domain is a named group of cells within the grid. Structured grids have a global domain and
a sub-domain for any available LGRs.

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In unstructured grids, reservoir features such as wells, faults and regions are grouped into
individual domains. Each domain has an independent IJK numbering system. (This collection
of IJK numbers is mapped to a single, regular IJK grid for ECLIPSE internally by the
unstructured gridder.) There is also an unstructured global domain that does not have an explicit
IJK structure. It is a virtual IJK grid created by the unstructured gridder that allows the model
to be displayed and sliced in a more conventional manner.
From the Domain Selection window one or more domains can be chosen for display.
Choices made in Domain Selection are not applied until Apply is chosen. The AutoApply
option can be toggled on by pressing the right mouse button anywhere in the window and
clicking on AutoApply is Off.
Figure 8.21 VOI Domain Selection panel

Boundaries...
Boundaries are used to define areal limits for structural models and grids. They can also be used
to assign properties and aquifers to particular sections of the grid. Boundaries can be created in
Edit | Boundaries. Boundary boxes may be displayed or removed from the viewer in Edit |
Boundaries.
The window Create VOI From Boundary allows you to select cells inside or outside of a
boundary for display.

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Scene Menu
Figure 8.22 Create VOI From Boundary panel

The Union and Intersection buttons display the union or intersection respectively of the cells
defined by the boundary with the cells currently selected in the 3D Viewer.
When assigning properties or creating aquifers in the 3D Viewer, this option offers a method to
define which cells are used for assigning the new property or aquifer.

Iso Cell Selection


An Iso Cell Selection is a collection of cells through which a surface of constant value (isovalue)
passes. This may be useful for investigating property distribution and the movement of fronts
through time. Being a collection of cells, they can be used to create new properties through use
of the 3D viewer selected cells option on the Simulation Property Editor panel.
This feature differs from Property Thresholding by the way in which cells are selected.
Property Thresholding selects all cells whose property value is between two values. With Iso
Cell selection, the cell based property values are interpolated on to shared cell faces and nodes.
In this way, a property range is computed for each cell. Cells whose range encompasses the
given isovalue are selected.

Create Iso Cell Selection Panel


This panel is launched from the Iso Cell Selection panel using the Create Iso-Cell Selection
button.

Select Values from Cell Pick


When selected, the panel is updated with the property and value of the next picked cell. Click
Apply to generate the iso cell selection.

IsoCells Selection
The text in the box represents the name that will be given to the next created iso cell selection.
You can change this if you wish.

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Initial or Recurrent
These buttons toggle the property list between the Initial and Recurrent list.

IsoValue
This slider represents the range of values for the selected property. The selected value will be
used as the IsoValue in the generation of the iso cell selected cells.

Apply
Applies all changes made to the panel. Not available if AutoApply is on (see below).

Close
Closes this panel. You are asked whether you wish to Apply any un-applied changes.

Help
Opens the on-line help pages.

Autoapply
If AutoApply is on, then changes to the panel take place immediately; if AutoApply is off, then
changes made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on, the
Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered using the right mouse button drop-down menu: release
the button over the AutoApply option to change the state of AutoApply.
Other functions on the main IsoCell Selection panel are:

Edit IsoCell Selection


Allows the isovalue of the selected isocell to be edited. The property name and its units (if any)
are also displayed.

Existing IsoCell Selections


Lists any existing isocell selections. If highlighted the selection may be edited, deleted, or
included or removed from the view.

Union / Intersection
These buttons toggle the way in which the isocells interact with other cell selections in the
display. Individual isocell selections always union with each other.

Delete All
Deletes all isocell selections.

Delete
Deletes the selected isocell selection.

Enable
The default. The selected isocell selection is included in the 3D Viewer. The display status of
each selection is appended to its description in the list above.

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Disable
The selected isocell selection is removed from the 3D Viewer. If it is the only cell selection, the
display reverts to displaying all cells. The display status of each selection is appended to its
description in the list above.

Apply
Applies all changes made to the panel. Not available if AutoApply is on.

Close
Closes this panel. You are asked whether you wish to Apply changes not yet applied.

Help
Opens the on-line help pages.

Autoapply
If AutoApply is on, then changes to the panel take place immediately; if AutoApply is off, then
changes made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on, the
Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply using the right mouse button drop-down menu: releasing the button
over the AutoApply option changes the state of AutoApply.

Plane Slicer...
The Plane Slicer allows you to digitize a line or select a predefined line (such as a well
trajectory) to define a cutting poly-plane for cell selection. The plane may be oriented in both
the horizontal and vertical axes for greater flexibility. The plane is extended in each direction to
cover the whole model extents. The plane may be used to select all cells whose center is ’above’
(to one side of) the plane or all cells that ’straddle’ the plane.

Note When the Straddle option is selected, the Show Slice option colors the slice plane by
the cells it cuts. To see this slice, turn off the display of the grid cells with the and

buttons.

Plane Lists
Collections of lines. The Digitized collection is always available and is the collection to which
all digitized lines are added. Other collections may contain lines defined by existing grid objects
such as wells and faults.

Digitize Plane
This button sets the 3D Viewer into digitizing mode. If the edit was successful, the 3D Viewer
returns to normal view and the line’s name appears in the list of planes. The plane is displayed
as a translucent grey poly-plane following your digitized line. An additional plane segment is
appended to each end to ensure that the whole model extents are covered.

Plane Name
The ’type in’ next to the Digitize Plane box defines the default name that is given to the
digitized plane. You may give a plane any name providing it is unique.

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Edit Plane
Puts the 3D Viewer into digitizing mode and allows the currently selected plane’s line to be
edited. See the Editor Toolbar Buttons section for more information on toolbar buttons and
digitizing options.

Delete Plane
Deletes currently selected plane.

Delete All
Deletes all planes in the collection.

Plane List
Lists all planes in the selected collection. Select a plane from the list to make it the ’active’
plane.

Above
All cells whose center lies to one side of the plane are selected. Rotates plane through 180
degrees to select cells on the opposite side.

Straddle
Selects all cells that have at least one node on either side of the plane.

Show Slice
Only available with the Straddle option, the Show Slice option displays the cut cells on the
plane. Turn off cell display and the digitized plane to see the slice plane clearly. Note that the
slice plane is unavailable within unstructured domains.

Angle of Plane Extensions


This rotates the plane extensions about their join with the digitized plane. This allows you to
customize the bisection of the grid as required.

Angle from Vertical


Change the angle used to define the plane in the vertical (in degrees). This angle is measured to
the two plane extensions as they are the only two segments that are guaranteed to be parallel and
can be freely adjusted. See Angle of Plane Extensions above.

Show Plane
Toggles the display of the plane.

Reset Selection
Undo the affects of applying the plane.

Apply
Applies all changes made to the panel. Not available if AutoApply is on (see below).

Close
Closes this panel. You are asked whether you wish to Apply any changes not applied.

Help
Opens the on-line help pages.

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AutoApply
If AutoApply is on, then changes to the panel take place immediately; if AutoApply is off, then
any changes made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on, the
Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered using the right mouse button drop-down menu: release
the button over the AutoApply option to change the state of AutoApply.

Distortion
This panel allows the reservoir cells to be artificially ‘thickened’ or the whole reservoir to be
‘flattened’. Cells of very thin reservoirs may be artificially ‘thickened’ to make the cells more
visible, and steeply dipping reservoirs may be flattened to facilitate property distribution
visualization. The Thickening Factor varies the amount of cell thickening applied.

Note Note that artificially ‘thickening’ or ‘flattening’ the reservoir changes the perceived
orientation of features such as Oil-Water and Gas-Oil cuts as well as distorting
perceived gravity effects.

Note Boundaries created in the XZ or YZ plane do not behave as expected with thickening
or flattening as the boundaries themselves are not affected by the distortion.

This distortion also renders the axes values useless and so the axes ticks and bounding box are
disabled when Grid Thickening is in use.
The process of thickening relies on sampling points from a top surface. This sampling can give
incorrect results on and around discontinuities (faults) and may show up as spikes or troughs
around the faults. The sampling can also be quite slow, particularly with unstructured (PEBI)
grids.
The thickening process works by stretching the reservoir in dz using the function

z = zSurf + γ ( z – z Surf )

where γ is the thickening factor. Flattening normalizes the top layer of the reservoir to an xy
datum plane defined at top reservoir depth.
If AutoApply is on, then changes take place immediately; if AutoApply is off then changes
made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on, the Apply
button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered using the right mouse button drop-down menu: release
the button over the AutoApply option to change the state of AutoApply.

Show

Cells
This option allows the display of the cells to be toggled.

Outlines
This option allows the display of the cell outlines to be toggled. Along with the Cells option
this enables four different display modes, from cells with outlines (good for checking
geometry), to no cells or outlines for viewing the wells.

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Note These buttons affect all grids in the display, not just the currently active one. Use the
Object Appearance panel to set the visual characteristics of individual grids.

Faces...
This option opens the Cell Face Selection panel, which gives you control over which faces of
the cells are displayed and which are not displayed. This is useful for visualizing the grid, with
the wells in situ at the same time, gaining insight into the fluid flow through the interior, and
viewing the exterior of the model.
Figure 8.23 The Cell Face Selection panel

• You can turn the I, J and K + and - faces on or off using the check boxes.
• The Clear button removes all selections and the Reset button selects all faces.

Note Note that with all six faces selected, the model behaves as it does by default, by only
displaying the external faces of the model (since the interior faces are no longer
visible).

Caution Note that displaying many faces at once dramatically increases the number of
polygons to be displayed, and will therefore have a marked effect on the speed of
your display. It is unwise to display back-to-back faces at the same time.

Cell face selection can of course be used in conjunction with any other display option, but is
particularly effective when used with IJK slicing.

Inactive cells
By default, inactive cells are only shown if the displayed property has data for active cells. This
option allows you to show the inactive cells even if the displayed property has no data for them.
The inactive cells are colored according to the color set using the Scene | Grid | Inactive Cell
Color... menu option.
Displaying inactive cells can be useful for highlighting shale breaks, pinch-outs or just generally
checking the grid quality.

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Display Shale Breaks
This option turns off the display of cell faces adjacent to inactive layers. Take for example a
shale break that is represented by a layer of impermeable cells. Assuming these cells are
inactive, they are not displayed with the majority of simulation properties. This means that your
model may be full of thin layers that are not displayed; each layer will have cell faces above and
below it, the faces of the active cells above and below. If these layers are very thin, these faces
are unnecessary to the point of being invisible when internal to the model. By turning off Shale
Breaks, you turn off the display of these potentially invisible faces. This reduces the amount of
geometry to be displayed and so can dramatically speed up interaction with the model.

Note Where these inactive layers meet the exterior of the model, you may see ’holes’
through which you can see inside the reservoir.

Inactive cell color...


This option displays a color selector dialog for selecting the color to use when coloring the
inactive cells.

Transparency...
The Grid Transparency panel allows you to change the opacity of the displayed grid so that
you can see the wells in position. A value of 1.0 makes the grid fully transparent, a value of 0.0
fully opaque.

Set Active Grid...


This option allows the selection of an active grid from all of the grids currently on display in the
3D Viewer. This includes grids that are hidden by the Appearance panel. All Grid menu
panels only affect the currently active grid. The option is grayed out until two or more grids are
available for viewing.

Edit aquifers...

Note This option applies only to the grid selected in Set Active Grid and only to
unstructured grids.

Opens the Edit Aquifer panel. Aquifers are defined visually in the 3D Viewer. A single cell is
created in the unstructured grid with connections to all the reservoir cell faces that have been
selected for connection. The aquifer is connected to all cells that are currently displayed in the
3D Viewer and that have cell faces pointing directly out of the screen or within 30 degrees of
a perpendicular out of the screen. A selection of cells for display can be made using the display
direction buttons, the domain selector, the IJK Slicer, the property thresholder, or a user-defined
boundary.

Create
Opens the Create Aquifer panel.

Aquifer name
Give the aquifer an unique name.

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Connection direction
Specifies the direction in which the aquifer connects to the cells. The Get View Direction
button will display the direction of the current view in the 3D Viewer.

Aquifer properties
The Edit Properties button opens the Aquifer Properties panel. This panel is used to define
the new aquifer by supplying data for:
• Cross sectional area
• Length
• Depth
• Porosity
• Permeability
• Transmissibility.

Connected cells
When the Connect Cells button is selected the aquifer is connected to the grid cells depending
on the data supplied.
Aquifers can be attached in only one direction. Multiple aquifers can be created if necessary but
only one aquifer may be attached to any particular cell face.

Copy
A panel appears, similar to the one described for "Create" on page 160.

Edit
A panel appears, similar to the one described for "Create" on page 160.

Streamlines
Show Streamlines
The Show Streamlines option simply toggles on or off the display of streamlines in the 3D
Viewer.

Streamline Display
The Streamline Display dialog allows you to affect the way streamlines are displayed and
filtered. Filtering can apply both to whole streamlines and to individual streamline segments.
For example, filtering by wells filters out whole streamlines that do not originate or terminate
at the selected wells, whereas property thresholding selects just streamline segments whose
property value falls between the selected values.
The dialog is organized into three panels or folders, namely Attributes (line coloring and
display style), Filtering (by wells, by selected cells) and Thresholding (by property range).
The panels are described as follows:

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Scene Menu
Attributes

Select color...
Allows selection of a color with which to color the streamlines. Choose the Edit Color... to
bring up the Color Selector dialog. Select the required color from this dialog and then click on
Apply or OK to confirm.

Color by property
This option toggles the coloring of the streamlines between using the fixed color defined by the
Select Color... option and coloring by the property selected in the list below. To ensure the
legend relates to the streamline property, click with the left mouse button over the color legend
and select the streamlines legend from the pop-up menu.

Line Display
The Line Display group allows you to tailor how the streamlines are displayed. By default the
streamlines are displayed As Lines - these are fast to render and give a good overall picture but
are not affected by directional lighting. Switching to display As Tubes enables the rest of the
buttons in the group and displays the streamlines as thin tubes. These take longer to render but
are affected by directional lighting so improve the visual feedback. The Low, Med and High
radio buttons allow setting of tube resolution (4-, 8- or 16-sided tubes) while the Tube Radius
can be altered with the slider bar. Line Display can also be set using the Display | Object
Appearance menu option and is configurable by using the config file.

Filtering

Every Nth
Use this option to reduce the number of displayed streamlines. The default is to display every
streamline; a factor of 2 would display 1 in 2, and so on.

By Selected Wells
Select one or more wells. Streamlines that originate or terminate at least one of the selected
wells will be displayed.

Select All Wells


A quick way to select all wells from the above list.

By Selected Cells
With this option selected, only segments of streamlines that pass through the currently selected
grid cells are displayed. This option is not available when Select Penetrated Cells is selected.

Select Penetrated Cells


This option adds to the display all cells that are penetrated by the currently selected streamline
segments. This option is not available when By Selected Cells is selected.

Thresholding
The Property Thresholding folder allows you to limit the streamline segments displayed to
those that have a property value inside the given range. You can threshold on multiple
properties, so that the displayed segments are those whose property values are within the
intersection of the supplied ranges. As you animate through time different streamline segments
fall into and outside of this property range so giving a visual indication of fluid flow.

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Select properties for thresholding from the Streamline Properties list either by double-
clicking on them or by single-clicking and then clicking on the [>] button. Selected properties
are then listed in the Selected Properties list. The details of the currently selected property are
listed on the folder below. The layout of the folder differs for integer and real properties - the
integer thresholding folder allows multiple discrete ranges to be selected, whereas the real
threshold folder allows just one floating point range to be set per property. Selecting a property
from the Selected Properties list displays its details on the folder below. Properties may be
removed from the Selected Properties list (and have their threshold range reset) either by
double clicking on them or by selecting them and then clicking on the [<] button.
The following two sections describe the different interfaces presented for integer and real
properties.

Integer properties
Figure 8.24 Integer Threshold panel

Select values
The Select Values list allows multiple selection of integer values to be included in the
threshold range. The selected ranges are listed in the Edit Selection field below. This text list
may be edited directly. To select more than one individual integer from the list press the Ctrl
key whilst selecting values with the mouse button; to select a continuous range select the first
in range with the mouse, scroll to the last in range and press the Shift button whilst selecting
it with the mouse.

Move selection
Increments or decrements all selected values by the given amount. Selected values wrap from
the end of the list to the beginning and vice-versa.

Disable
When selected, temporarily disables the selected property’s threshold range.

Reset
Resets the selected properties threshold ranges.

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Real properties
Figure 8.25 Real Threshold panel

Threshold range
Allows selection of a min. and max. value that delimit the property values. Only streamline
segments with property values within these limits are displayed.

Move range
Allows the min. and max. range values to be incremented or decremented by the given amount.
The and buttons are only available when there is sufficient range to move the range
values without ending up outside the property min. and max. values.

Disable
When selected, temporarily disables the threshold range of the selected property.

Reset
Resets the threshold ranges of the selected properties.

Disable all
Disables all active threshold ranges.

Enable all
Enables all active threshold ranges.

Reset all
Resets all active threshold ranges.

Apply
Applies all changes made to the panel. Not available if AutoApply is on (see below).

Close
Closes this panel. You are asked whether you wish to Apply any changes not applied.

Help
Opens the on-line help pages.

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AutoApply
If AutoApply is on, then changes to the panel take place immediately; if AutoApply is off, then
any changes made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on, the
Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered using the right mouse button drop-down menu: release
the button over the AutoApply option to change the state of AutoApply.

Wells...
The Wells panel allows you to modify the appearance of the wells. The height of the well stem
and the well width may be changed using the Height and Width sliders. The Display radio
buttons toggle what is displayed between no wells, just the wells, and the wells and their labels.
Figure 8.26 Wells panel

The Connections check-box toggles the display of the simulation to well connections. These
are represented by spheres at the center of cells that the well is connected to and may be green
(open) or red (closed) depending on their current status.
The Status check-box toggles the display of the well’s status. This is represented by an icon that
appears at the top of the well stem. The icon is either:
1 An upwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently producing. The cone is colored
purple.
2 A downwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently being used as an injector. The
cone is colored according to the colors associated with the saturations by the
TERNARY_LEGEND ORDER config file entry (by default red for gas, green for oil, blue
for water).
3 Two opposing cones indicate that the well is closed.
4 A flat gray disk indicates the well is shut in.
The Show All Wells check-box toggles between displaying all wells and just those connected
to the currently displayed cells.

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The Level Of Detail radio buttons allow selection of low, medium or high resolution. The
higher the level of detail the better the wells look, but they take longer to draw.

Note Changes in the Display state of the wells is reflected on the Object Appearance
panel.

The Connections check-box toggles the display of the simulation to well connections. These
are represented by spheres at the centers of cells that the well is connected to and may be green
(open) or red (closed) depending on their current status.

Note Unless the ECLIPSE keyword COMPORD was set to INPUT, ECLIPSE computes the
order in which the connections occur along the well bore. This can generate strange
results culminating in the ’zigzagging’ of the wells in the 3D Viewer. If this occurs,
either rerun the simulation with COMPORD set to INPUT or set the CONFIG option
USE_ECLIPSE_CONNECTION_ORDERING (SECTION 3D, SUBSECT WELLS)
to FALSE.

The Status check-box toggles the display of the well’s status. This is represented by an icon that
appears at the top of the well stem. The icon is either:
1 An upwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently producing. The cone is colored
purple.
2 A downwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently being used as an injector. The
cone is colored according to the colors associated with the saturations by the
TERNARY_LEGEND ORDER config file entry (by default red for gas, green for oil, blue
for water).
3 Two opposing cones indicate that the well is closed.
4 A flat gray disk indicates the well is shut in.

Font Options
The Font Options panel is a generic panel used to tailor font representations for a variety of
text styles within the 3D Viewer.

Font family
Provides a list of fonts to choose from. The fonts available depend on the host computer’s
operating system.

Height
Allows the font height to be set in pixels. The sizes available depend on the host computer’s
operating system.

Statistics...
This panel displays information about objects currently in the 3D Viewer in three folders:

Property
This panel displays statistical information about the currently displayed property. Information
from the sum of the selected cells to the mean, median and standard deviation are given. All data
is for the current report step only.

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Note Use the Scene | Grid | Property... menu option to change the displayed property.

Note Information can be shown for the whole model or just for the currently selected cells
by selecting either the Whole Model or the Current Selection buttons.

Grid
This panel displays information about the numbers of selected grid cells.

Note With Whole Model selected the information displayed includes the global, LGR and
LGR host cells.

Note With Current Selection selected you can identify inactive cells by turning on the
Scene | Grid | Show | Inactive Cells option. The information then lists the number
of cells displayed (inactive + active) and the number of these that are active.

Wells
This panel displays information about the grid wells at the current date. Information includes
how many wells are connected to the selected cells and of those open, which are producers and
which are injectors. The number of connections attached to the selected cells is also given.

Note Information can be shown for the whole model or just for the currently selected cells
by selecting either the Whole Model or the Current Selection buttons.

Color Legend
These options control the appearance of the color legend. Switching between the normal
horizontal legend and the ternary legend is automatic as you choose the property to display.
Figure 8.27 Ternary legend

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Scene Menu
Figure 8.28 Color legend

Figure 8.29 Color legend

Show Color Legend


This option toggles the color legend on or off.

Color legend editor


The Color Legend Editor allows you to edit the position and size of the legend and also allows
access to the individual property Color Map Editors. These allow editing of the colors, markers
and method used to generate the colormap and are discussed in detail later.

Horizontal position
Slider moves the color legend horizontally across the screen.

Vertical position
Slider moves the color legend vertically across the screen.

Ternary legend size


Sets the size of the Ternary property legend.

Length of legend
Sets the length of the color legend on the screen.
The Color Map to Edit list allows selection of the property type color map to be edited. Simply
select the property type and then click on Edit...

Hint Click on the Color Legend in the 3D Viewer to display a pop up menu. Select Edit
to open the color map editor for the current Property Type.

You are presented with one of the following editors depending on the property data type:

Integer color map editor


The Integer Color Map Editor provides controls for editing the color map used for a particular
integer property type. The color map may be continuous or discrete.

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Min./Max. override
Normally the minimum and maximum values for a property type are calculated over all objects
in the view and all timesteps containing the property. The Min./Max. Override allows these
values to be changed. If the minimum and/or maximum values are set inside the calculated
values, then a light gray color is used for the underflows (values less than the min. value set)
and a dark gray color is used for the overflows (values greater than the max. value set).
Overriding the Min./Max. can be useful for:
1 Highlighting small property variations by reducing the coloration range to values close to
the variations.
2 Pinpointing data anomalies by reducing coloration range to show cells that are outside the
normal range for that property.
3 Identifying groups of cells that fall inside or outside a particular range of interest, especially
whilst animating that property through time.

Continuous color map


A continuous color map is shown as a smooth gradation of colors from the start to the end. The
Edit Color... button may be used to change the color for the start and/or end and the
interpolation method used to change the way the gradation occurs.
RGB interpolation works by providing a smooth gradation between the red, green and blue
components of the Start and End colors. RGB interpolation is useful for providing color maps
from light to dark blue, etc.
HSV interpolation works by providing a smooth gradation between the hue, saturation and
value components of the Start and End colors. HSV interpolation is useful for providing
rainbow color maps.

Discrete color maps


Discrete color maps may have from 2 to 16 steps. If the integer property has 16 or fewer values,
the default color map is discrete.
The number of steps may be altered. If there are fewer steps than values, then several values are
shown together. For example, if JINDEX ranges from 1 to 20 and four steps are chosen, then
the steps contain values of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20 respectively.
The color and bounds of each step may be altered. Clicking on the Edit Color... button displays
a new panel with 48 predefined colors that may be used to change the color of the selected step.
The bounds may be altered using the Lower Bound and Upper Bound sliders, and these
automatically change the adjacent step.

Real color map editor


The Color Map Editor provides controls for editing the color map used for a particular floating
point property type. The color map may be continuous, discrete, logarithmic or reverse
logarithmic.

Min./Max. override
Normally the minimum and maximum values for a property type are calculated over all objects
in the view and all timesteps containing the property. The Min./Max. Override allows these
values to be changed. If the minimum and/or maximum values are set inside the calculated
values, then a light gray color are used for the underflows (values less than the minimum value
set) and a dark gray color are used for the overflows (values greater than the maximum value
set). Overriding the Min./Max. can be useful for:

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Scene Menu
1 Highlighting small property variations by reducing the coloration range to values close to
the variations.
2 Pinpointing data anomalies by reducing coloration range to show cells that are outside the
normal range for that property.
3 Identifying groups of cells that fall inside or outside a particular range of interest, especially
whilst animating that property through time.

Continuous color map


A continuous color map is shown as a smooth graduation of colors from the start to the end. The
Edit Color... button may be used to change the color for the Start and/or End, and the
interpolation method used to change the way the gradation occurs.
RGB interpolation works by providing a smooth graduation between the red, green and blue
components of the start and end colors. RGB interpolation is useful for providing color maps
from light to dark blue, etc.
HSV interpolation works by providing a smooth graduation between the hue, saturation and
value components of the start and end colors. HSV interpolation is useful for providing rainbow
color maps.

Discrete color maps


Discrete color maps may have from 2 to 16 steps. The number of steps, the color and the bounds
of each step may be altered.
Clicking on the Edit Color... button opens a new panel with 48 predefined colors that may be
used to change the color of the selected step. The bounds may be altered using the Lower
Bound and Upper Bound sliders, and these automatically change the adjacent step.

Logarithmic and reverse log. color maps


Selecting either of these options creates discrete color maps, but instead of the steps being
evenly spaced, they default to a logarithmic spacing. Logarithmic color maps have smaller steps
at the start of the range, and reverse log. color maps have smaller steps at the end of the range.
The number of steps, the color and bounds of each step may be altered as for discrete color
maps.

Ternary Color Map Editor


The Ternary Color Map Editor presents you with the three components and their Min./Max.
values that will be used to generate the Ternary diagram. Ternary cell colors are derived by
applying amounts of red, green and blue coloration according to the percentage of each
component within the cell. The first component (usually GasSat) is red, the second (usually
OilSat) is green and the third (usually WaterSat) is blue.
By default we override the components’ real Min./Max. and assume that each component
occupies 0 - 100% of a cell somewhere in the model, in other words that their Min./Max.
saturations are 0 to 1. This gives a balanced view of the percentage of each component within
each cell, but can make it hard to see small amounts of gas in the reservoir, for example. The
Override switch can therefore be used to toggle between this and using the Min./Max. of the
individual components.

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Scene Menu
Object Appearance...
This opens the Object Appearance panel, which contains a list of all objects that have been
requested for display in the 3D Viewer. On this panel you can select which objects to view at
any one time.
Figure 8.30 Object Appearance panel

Objects
This column displays the names of the objects that have been sent to the viewer.

Visibility
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to either Hide or Show the object.

Render mode
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to select how the objects are visualized in the
viewer. The choices are dependent on the type of objects. Most objects have the following
options:
• Lines - This shows the objects as a framework of lines.
• Surfaces - This shows the objects as solid surfaces.
• Cell outlines - This shows the objects with the cell outlines superimposed on the surfaces.
Other objects have more specific options; for example, wells have the following:
• Wells - This shows the wells without well labels.
• Wells and labels - This shows both the wells and the well labels.

Level of detail
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to specify the level of detail required in the
viewer. If Level of Detail is not applicable for a given object, the entry only shows All.

Titles
Edit Titles...
This option allows you to add titles and annotation to your 3D view. You may add as many titles
as you like by using the Add Title button. The currently selected title may also be removed by
pressing the Delete Title button.
The position, size and alignment to start position for the currently selected title may be changed
using the Position, Font and Align Text to Position sections respectively. The position sliders
have extents of -1.0 to 1.0. Fonts and text heights may be machine-dependent.
The Contents section displays the selected title text. The contents of the title may be edited by
simply typing into the text box. The drop-down list holds keywords that are translated on screen
to the value they represent. Select an entry point in the title text with the cursor and select a
keyword to add it to the title.

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Scene Menu
Titles may be defined in advance within the config file. See the section on configuring the
application for more details.
Figure 8.31 Edit Titles panel

If AutoApply is on, then changes take place immediately; if AutoApply is off then changes
made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on, the Apply
button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered from the drop-down menu accessible with the right
mouse button: release the button over the AutoApply option to change the state of AutoApply.

Show Titles
This option toggles the titles on or off.

Axes...
The Axes panel allows you to configure the display of model axes in the 3D Viewer.
The axes displayed around the model have their origin at (0,0,0) in the grid model coordinate
system. You can set the axes to be colored and labeled using the Axes check boxes. The axes
colors directly correspond to the colors on the View buttons found on the left side of the 3D
Viewer, namely red for the X axis, green for the Y axis and blue for the Z axis. A full model
Bounding Box can be turned on, which fully contains the grid and axes.

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Scene Menu
Figure 8.32 Axes panel

The axes locations can be set to the Bounding Box limits with the Position radio buttons.
The Axes Extents option allows you to toggle the axes extents between that of the current
selection and the whole model. The axes update as the selected extent changes, for example by
changing threshold or slicer values.
Tick Marks and Tick Labels can be placed on the axes using the check boxes and tick mark
folders. Primary and Secondary Tick Marks can be set at defined intervals on each axis from
drop-down menus. Tick Labels can be displayed at regular intervals along the Primary Tick
Marks, set with the Label Every: drop-down menu. Control of the number of decimal places,
and whether to use scientific notation, is also possible.
The Primary Tick Marks can be extended to cover the full extent of the model by selecting the
Grid Lines box. Grid line color can be changed with the Grid Color... option. The Grid and
Primary Tick Marks positions are affected by the Position radio buttons.
The Axes settings can be applied to the model view automatically. This can be set by clicking
anywhere within the Axes panel area with the right mouse button, then releasing the mouse
button on the AutoApply is Off button. The Apply button is then grayed out and any edits in the
Axes panel are immediately reflected in the model view. To turn the automatic axes settings off,
click in the Axes panel area with the right mouse button then release the mouse button on the
AutoApply is On button.
Axes AutoApply options can be preset on or off at program startup by editing the 3D section
of the CONFIG.ECL configuration file, or its local copies ECL.CFG or ECL.CFA.

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Scene Menu
174 3D Viewer FloGrid User Guide
Scene Menu
Structural Framework
Chapter 9

Introduction
The Structural Framework module is where selected data from the Reservoir Data Tree is
used to construct consistent 3D Structural Frameworks from which simulation models can be
built.
The construction of a suitable Structural Framework is typically a computationally-intensive
task, often requiring large areas of surfaces to be computed or re-computed. Surfaces may need
to be computed for a variety of reasons. These include interpolating or extrapolating across
areas of nulls, computing new surfaces from thickness data, re-computing surfaces in the
vicinity of faults to correct bad surfaces, and providing extrapolated surfaces for sampling on
the wrong side of the fault.
The construction of a Structural Framework involves three main steps: boundary definition,
unit creation and fault block splitting.
This chapter contains information on the following options:
• "Creating and deleting models" on page 177.
• "Displaying model status" on page 178.
• "Creating and displaying boundaries" on page 179.
• "Specifying units" on page 182.
• "Fault block splitting" on page 186.
• "Creating FloGrid data models" on page 190.

Boundary definition
Excludes irrelevant portions of the maps, such as non hydrocarbon bearing zones or any large
areas of nulls around the perimeter, from the subsequent model clean-up and construction steps.

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Introduction
Unit creation
Builds reservoir units from selected surfaces and surface representations stored in the main
window tree. Automated mesh map operations compute units based on the given order of
surfaces, and erode any overlapping surfaces according to their respective surface types.

Fault block splitting (FBS)


This step completes the model construction process and provides a robust solution to the
difficult problem of how to sample surfaces (and subsequent properties) in the vicinity of faults
and layer boundaries. Fault block splitting first divides the model into a set of fault blocks,
extrapolating faults where necessary. Next, each block is further subdivided into block units,
using the units created earlier. Finally, block unit surfaces are repaired and extrapolated to
produce a model that supports rigorous sampling, including sampling values from the wrong
side of the fault.

Note The Structural Framework Module is also used to store and visualize structural fault
surface and block unit data from imported property models. Imported property models
can be accessed from the structural framework drop-down list box. Once the model is
selected, property model fault surfaces and block units may be added and removed
from the 3D Viewer by selecting and deselecting nodes in the appropriate tree and
selecting and deselecting the 3D Viewer button. See "Fault block splitting" on
page 186 for more details on visualizing faults and block units.

The Structural Framework module can be opened using Tools | Structural Framework
Creation...
This window has a menu bar from which various menu options can be selected and allows you
to create and edit structural frameworks. There is also a model and mode selection area, and
a display area that contains three folders. See "Creating and displaying boundaries" on
page 179, "Specifying units" on page 182 and "Fault block splitting" on page 186.

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Introduction
Creating and deleting models

File
This section contains information on the following options:
• "Create model" on page 177.
• "Delete model" on page 177.

Create model
Opens the Create Structural Framework panel, which allows you to enter a name for the new
Structural Framework. Alternatively you can accept the default name.
Three check boxes offer you the chance to:
• Auto build boundary using map extents.
• Auto build units using available maps.
• Auto build block units using available faults.
If these are not selected, the boundary, units and blocks must be manually defined.

Note When a structural framework is created it effectively takes a copy of the data in the
main window tree. If changes are subsequently made to faults or surfaces in the main
window tree these changes are not reflected in structural models already created.

Delete model
Opens the Delete Structural Framework panel, which contains a list of structural models. To
delete a model, select one of the models in the list and confirm with OK. Cancel aborts the
operation and no models are deleted.

Note A model can only be deleted if no property models exist in the system.

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Creating and deleting models
Displaying model status
This section contains information on the following:
• "Current model" on page 178.
• "Model status" on page 178.
• "Display model" on page 178.

Current model
The Current Model drop-down list shows the currently selected structural framework. Details
displayed in the "Creating and displaying boundaries" on page 179, "Specifying units" on
page 182 and "Fault block splitting" on page 186 apply only to the current model. When a
different Structural Framework is chosen, the details shown in the folders change to reflect the
new choice of current model.

Note This drop-down is also used to select structural models back-populated from imported
property models.

Model status
The Model Status buttons show how far you have progressed in building the current model.

• When boundary has been selected or created for this model, the first button lights up.

• When the units have been created the second button lights up.

• When the block units have been created the third button lights up.
• When the model is complete and ready for a property model to be built, the “GO” button
is highlighted.

Display model
Visualizes the completed structural framework in the 3D Viewer. (See "3D Viewer" on
page 107 for details on how to manipulate the 3D view of the structural framework.)

Note The Display Model button is grayed out until the Structural Framework is complete.

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Displaying model status
Creating and displaying boundaries

Introduction
The Boundary folder allows you to create or select a 2D areal boundary representing the area
of interest of the model. This area of interest applies throughout the vertical extent of the model
to create a volume of interest.
See "Fault block splitting" on page 209 for a fuller discussion of this subject.
This section contains information on the following options:
• "Select boundary" on page 179
• "Use map extents" on page 179
• "Create, copy..." on page 179
• 3D edit... puts you into editing mode in the 3D Viewer allowing the existing boundary to
be modified if necessary. See "Boundaries..." on page 113 for more detail on the Boundary
Editor.
• "Table edit..." on page 180.

Select boundary
Shows the currently selected boundary for the current model. You can choose from a list of all
the structural framework boundaries that exist in the model.

Use map extents


Instructs the Structural Framework to take the extents of all system maps as its boundary. If
the maps all have the same extents, a boundary is created using this common extent. If any of
the maps have differing extents, the right side of the window opens showing a table detailing all
the different maps and their extents. You can select one or more of the maps in the table (the
second column of the table) and may then choose to:
• Use the selected map to build the boundary
• Use a combination of the selected maps to build the boundary
• Use the union of all maps to build the boundary
• Cancel (and decide, for example, to edit the boundary manually).

Create, copy...
Opens the Create or edit model boundary panel to allow you to start up a boundary
creation/editing session in the 3D Viewer.

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Creating and displaying boundaries
Boundary list
Lists all the existing boundaries.

Create
Opens the Create Boundary panel.

Boundary name
Enter a name for the new boundary.

Boundary type
Selects the boundary type (polygon or rectangle).

Projection Plane
Sets the orientation of the boundary.

Copy
Opens the Copy Boundary panel.

Boundary name
Enter a name for the new boundary.

Boundary type
Selects the boundary type (polygon or rectangle).

Projection plane
Sets the orientation of the boundary.

Copy from...
Opens the Select Boundary to Copy panel to allow you to select another (Global, structural
framework or Structured Gridder) category of boundary from a drop-down list.

Hint See "Boundaries..." on page 113 for more detail on the Boundary Editor.

Table edit...
Once created, you may decide to edit the boundary by modifying the X-Y coordinates of its
points. The Table Edit button displays the Boundary Edit table on the right side of the
Boundary folder; this allows the edit.

Boundary edit
Displays the name of the boundary being edited.

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Creating and displaying boundaries
Reference coordinate system
Selects the reference coordinate system used to view and edit the X-Y coordinates of points in
a boundary.

Point
Number indicating the position of the point in the boundary.

X and Y coordinates
The second and third columns of the table show the X and Y coordinates of the boundary points.
Values can be edited.

Corner
The last column shows whether the point is a Corner node of the boundary. This is a major point
in the terminology of the Boundary Editor. A single click of the mouse on any cell in this last
column switches the point between major (Y) and minor (N) (corner or non-corner).
The Apply button makes the required changes to the boundary. The Close button reverts to the
normal folder view.

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Creating and displaying boundaries
Specifying units

Introduction
The Units folder allows you to specify and construct structural framework units.
Units are constructed from a sequence of selected maps as described in "Construction of Units
and Horizons from Mesh Maps" on page 757. Operations are based on whether maps are
classified as horizons, unconformities or thickness maps.
The initial sequence and classification of surfaces is taken from the current state of the surfaces
in the main window tree. The Options table provides the opportunity to inspect and modify this
sequence and classification of surfaces and then inspect the resulting units.
This section contains information on the following:
• "Unit/horizon table" on page 182.
• "OPTIONS table" on page 183.

Unit/horizon table
The Unit table on the left side of the Units folder describes the results of the unit building
process, that is the units and the maps that define them.

Unit
This column gives the name of the unit and may be edited.

Top/3D
The Top column gives the name of the resulting tops horizon for each unit. The accompanying
3D column determines whether this tops map is to be visualized or not (a click on this column
places the surface in the 3D Viewer or removes it from the 3D Viewer).

Bottom/3D
The Bottom column gives the name of the resulting base horizon for each unit (that is the tops
map of the unit below). The accompanying 3D column determines whether that base map is to
be visualized or not (a click on this column places the surface in the 3D Viewer or removes it
from the 3D Viewer).

Visualizing units
The “Visualization” button, , to be found at the top right corner of the units table, controls
the visualization of the tops and base surfaces. When it is depressed, the selected surfaces are
shown in the 3D Viewer. You select the surfaces using the 3D column in the Unit/Horizon
table.

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Specifying units
Build units
Builds the units for the Structural Framework. It uses the current definition of the sequence of
surfaces (to be found on the right table of the Units folder) and applies the mesh map operations
based on the appropriate rules for this sequence of surfaces. See "Construction of Units and
Horizons from Mesh Maps" on page 757.
You can click on this button repeatedly in order to experiment with modifications to the
sequence or definitions of surfaces from the table. This process of unit creation can be repeated
until the definition of the units is committed by the creation of the block units inside the fault
blocks. See the description in "Fault block splitting" on page 186.

Note The block units themselves can be deleted by use of the Undo Block Units button (see
the description in "Undo block units" on page 188).

OPTIONS table
The OPTIONS table on the right side of the units folder shows the current sequence of surfaces
and types that go to make up the units when the Build Units button is applied.

3D
Determines whether the surface is to be shown in the 3D Viewer. A mouse click in this column
toggles the surface on and off in the 3D Viewer.

Surface
Shows the name of the surface (as defined in the main window tree). A mouse click over this
column highlights this surface for the purpose of reordering it relative to the others in the table
(see the "Move up/down" on page 184).

Select
Shows whether the surface is to be included in the unit construction (when the "Build units" on
page 183 button is selected). By default all surfaces in the main window surface tree are
assumed by FloGrid to be used in the unit building - you may elect to ignore certain surfaces
(and thereby create fewer units).

Map
Displays which of the maps belong to a surface (in the main window surface tree) and which
one is to be used in the mesh map operations. The default map is the first one in the list, but you
may use the drop-down menu to select a different map.

Th. Reference
If thickness maps are used to define surfaces, FloGrid (by default) calculates the Z-position of
the layer with reference to the layer immediately above it. This assumes that the Z-values
represent only the thickness of a particular layer. If instead, the Z-values represent the
cumulative total thickness from a layer somewhere above and including the current layer, then
you must identify an appropriate thickness reference.

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Specifying units
The Th. Reference column allows you to specify the reference surface that is used to calculate
the position of a thickness map.

Type
The Type of surface refers to the Horizon-Unconformity rule that is applied when surfaces are
combined to form layers. A Type is either a Horizon or an Unconformity and is defined when
you specify the property type in the main window surface tree. Property types horizon and
thickness are assigned the horizon rule, and the property type unconformity is assigned the
unconformity rule.
The rules are as follows:
• The Horizon rule stipulates that map values from a lower surface are honored in preference
to map values from an upper surface. If the lower surface value is higher in elevation than
the upper surface value, the upper surface value is moved up to drape over the lower surface
value.
• The Unconformity rule honors the upper surface in preference to the lower surface. In this
case if the upper map intersects the lower map, the lower map values are truncated by the
upper map values.
If a surface has a null value and is added to a surface with a non-null value, the non-null value
always dominates the null value. The non-null value is not moved up in space or truncated by
the interpolation of a null value, no matter which rule is applied.
You can reassign rules in the Units table to change the preference for honoring map data.
Specifying a rule in the Structural Framework’s Units table does not change the property
definition in the Surface table of the Maps tab of the main window surface table. Changes
made to a property type in the main window surface tree after Units have been generated are
only reflected in the Units table when the Reset button in the structural framework is chosen.
You can thus have different versions of a structural framework, which compare the Horizon rule
to the Unconformity rule for a given horizon.

Visualizing surfaces
The “Visualization” button, , at the top right corner of the OPTIONS table controls the
visualization of the surfaces. When it is depressed the selected surfaces are shown in the 3D
Viewer. You select the surfaces in the 3D column in the table.
The relative order of the surfaces defines in which order the surfaces make up the tops and bases
of the units, and these can be set in the following ways:

Move up/down
When a particular surface is highlighted on the panel (by clicking on the Surface column) the
Move Up button moves the surface up one place (to a younger position in the list). The Move
Down button moves it down one place (to an older position in the list).

Reset
Returns the list to the default ordering (as defined by the surface order in the main window
surface tree).

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Specifying units
Note If one surface completely obliterates another during the mesh-map operations a
warning appears in the Log window. This is so that you know when a unit has been
constructed with zero thickness. This may happen, for example, when an
nonconformity or horizon is physically lower at every point than an older surface (that
is a surface below it in the surface sequence).

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Specifying units
Fault block splitting

Introduction
The Faults folder allows you to perform fault block splitting, thus enabling the simulation grid
cells to be positioned correctly with respect to faults. See "Fault block splitting" on page 209 for
a fuller discussion of this subject.
The Faults folder provides three tree views.
• The two Fault trees on the left show the faults in the system and enable you to visualize
and select the faults for inclusion or exclusion from the model. See "Select faults for
splitting" on page 186.
• The Options tree on the right shows in detail how far the splitting has progressed. It
provides facilities for editing the splitting and for visualization of intermediate stages in the
splitting. See "OPTIONS" on page 187.

Note This folder is also used to visualize fault surfaces and block units back-populated from
imported property models.

Select faults for splitting


The left side of the Faults folder shows two trees: the available faults and the unavailable faults.
These trees list all the faults in the system that can be used in fault block splitting. For example,
a fault that is created in the main window fault tree containing one or more fault traces can be
used in the splitting. However a fault in the fault tree that has no fault trace associated with it
cannot be used and does not appear in the fault trees.
You can select any of the faults that are available to be included in the splitting. By default all
faults are available for inclusion, but you can select and drag faults from the Available Faults
tree to the Unavailable Faults tree and back again as desired.

Note When a structural framework has been completed the two trees have slightly modified
headings. They become the Used Faults tree and the Unused Faults tree, to show
which faults were actually used in the splitting.

Auto split into blocks and block units


Once you have completed the selection of faults available for splitting the next stage is to create
the splitting and its associated block units. In general you can rely on FloGrid to calculate the
near-optimal (least number of blocks) splitting.
The Auto Split Into Blocks & Block Units button activates the three stages of fault block
splitting. For a full description of the three stages (analysis of faults, splitting into volumes and
the creation of block units) see "Fault block splitting" on page 209.

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Fault block splitting
Visualizing faults
The “Visualizing” button, , which is in the top right corner of the Fault Trees panel,
controls whether the faults are placed into the 3D Viewer (see "3D Viewer" on page 107) or not.
When this button is pressed all selected faults (available and unavailable) are placed into the 3D
Viewer. Available faults are colored yellow and unavailable faults are colored blue. A selected
fault is colored red.

Note 3D picking of faults is supported. If you wish to identify a fault from its visualization
in the viewer, click on the visualized fault (with the mouse). It turns red and is similarly
highlighted in the Fault trees. A fault cannot be deselected from the 3D Viewer - it can
only be deselected from the fault tree (by using Ctrl-click in the normal way).

OPTIONS
The OPTIONS tree shows the progress and structure of the splitting. It enables you to build and
inspect the splitting in detail.
The tree is rooted at the volume of interest (shown as Volume of Interest). The volume of
interest is the area defined by the model boundary and dropped vertically through the vertical
extent of the model.
The volume of interest is split into two sub-volumes by the first fault in the chosen ordering (the
name of the fault is indicated on the tree). The sub-volumes are shown as branches (or children)
of the volume of interest. A sub-volume may itself be further split into two sub-sub-volumes
that are shown as its children.
When the splitting is complete and there are no more faults available to split any more volumes,
the volumes of the tree with no children (leaf volumes) can be designated as Blocks. These
blocks can themselves then be split into block units by the horizons bounding the units. The
name of designated blocks and number of block units they contain are shown on Volume tree.
Sometimes you may wish to experiment and see how a fault splits a volume into two. In this
case you can drag an available fault and drop it on the volume concerned. If the volume has
children the algorithm searches the children (and the children’s children and so on) to find a
suitable leaf volume to split with this fault.
The fault then splits the leaf volume into two. This process can be visualized using the
“Visualize blocks” button ("Visualizing blocks and block units" on page 187).

Visualizing blocks and block units


The “Visualize selected blocks” button, , is on the top right corner of the OPTIONS panel.
When this button is depressed any volume, block or block unit that is selected in the tree is
placed into the 3D Viewer (see "3D Viewer" on page 107). Block unit nodes are displayed in
the tree by double-clicking on the parent block. Double-clicking on a parent node when block
units are displayed below it collapses the tree back to the parent node level.
To select a volume, block or block unit, click on it with the mouse. It will turn dark blue.

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Fault block splitting
Re-order available faults
The first stage in the automatic splitting algorithm is to order the major faults before the minor
faults to minimize the number of blocks that are created. See "Fault block splitting (FBS)" on
page 176 for a fuller discussion of this subject.
Even if you have elected to split the model manually it may still be useful to have the auto-
splitting algorithm begin by re-ordering the faults in the proposed major - minor ordering. You
can then inspect and possibly modify that ordering if it is unsatisfactory.
The Re-Order Available Faults button gives you the ability to do this. When this button is
pressed the auto-splitting algorithm orders the faults but then stops and does not proceed to split
the Volume of Interest into sub-volumes.

Build block units


The creation of blocks and block units is the last stage of the auto-splitting algorithm, and is
normally performed automatically. However, if you have decided to perform the splitting
manually, this last step must not be activated until after you have finished splitting the volumes
and sub-volumes.
When you are satisfied that all necessary faults are represented in the splitting, you can create
the blocks and block units by clicking on Build Block Units.

Sequential split into volumes


If you have decided on ordering of faults (for example, some variation of the major-minor
ordering provided by Re-Order Available Faults) the volumes may be created by dragging
and dropping each fault, in order, on the volume of interest or on a leaf volume.
However, Sequentially Split Into Volumes provides you with the facility to do this
automatically: it drops each fault sequentially on the volume of interest and then tries to work
out into which volume that fault falls.

Note Sequentially Split Into Volumes deals with each fault individually and in a fixed
(user-defined) ordering. As a result it does not have the flexibility of the auto splitting
algorithm to find the best way of inserting the faults into the volumes. A consequence
of this is that it may suffer some failures when you attempt to insert faults.

Undo block units


You may find a particular splitting unsatisfactory. For example, a small fault may be deemed
unworthy of inclusion in the splitting or a fault may have been left out (made unavailable) as an
experiment. When this happens you have the option of re-doing the entire splitting process.
You achieve this by undoing each stage of the splitting process in turn. The last stage (creation
of block units) must be undone first. This facility is supplied by Undo Block Units which.
When you click on this the model is returned to the stage just before the block and block unit
creation. This means that, although blocks and block units cease to exist in this model, the
volume splitting is still present.
Volume splitting can then be modified as required by inserting new faults or removing faults
that were included in the splitting. Volume splitting can be removed in part or entirely, if
required, by dragging the appropriate volume back to the fault tree.

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Fault block splitting
Note The blocks and block units may be deleted until a property model (see "Geological
Property model" on page 215) has been created based on the completed structural
framework. Once a property model exists the underlying structural framework cannot
be edited further.

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Fault block splitting
Creating FloGrid data models

Introduction
FloGrid uses POSC terminology to describe its data model.
The three key areas in the data model are:
• "Structural data model" on page 190
• "Property data model" on page 229
• "Property scenarios" on page 229.

Structural data model


The structural framework is made up of units, blocks and block units.

Units
Units are geological layers defined by two structural framework horizons, one above and one
below.

Horizons
Horizons in the structural framework are defined from the Reservoir Data Store by horizons,
nonconformities and thickness maps. They are made up from collections of block unit horizons.

Blocks
Blocks are created by fault splitting through the volume of interest (VOI).

Block units
Block Units are the intersection of a block and a unit. A block unit is bounded above and below
by a block unit horizon.

Block unit horizon


A Block Unit Horizon is the part of a horizon corresponding to a particular block.

190 Structural Framework FloGrid User Guide


Creating FloGrid data models
Fault framework editor
Chapter 10

Introduction
The Fault Framework module forms a part of the structural framework. It contains the
definitions of the fault intersection geometry used as a basis for constructing the Gridding
Control Framework, which can then be used by the Structured Gridder and Unstructured
Gridder to generate simulation grids that conform to the geometry of the faults in the model.

Note The Fault Framework and Gridding Control Framework modules are very similar
from an editing point of view. The principal distinction is that gridding controls can be
created, modified and deleted, while faults may only be modified, not created or
deleted.

This chapter contains the following:


• "Selecting faults/gridding controls for display" on page 192.
• "Editors" on page 193.
• "Editing lines and vertices" on page 195.
• "Editing faults/gridding controls" on page 199.
• "Fault block splitting" on page 209.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 191


Introduction
Selecting faults/gridding controls for display
The Fault Framework node for a structural framework appears in the data tree under the

corresponding Structural Framework node . Below this are individual subnodes

corresponding to each of the faults. The Gridding Control Framework node for a
gridding model appears in the data tree under the node for the corresponding model.
Faults and gridding controls can be added to or removed from the display by checking or
unchecking the corresponding node in the data tree. Faults and gridding controls are normally
displayed as a translucent ribbon surface, bounded by upper and lower lines color-coded in
magenta and cyan to represent the top and bottom edges respectively; optionally the average
line may also be displayed in red (Figure 10.1).
Figure 10.1 Two intersecting faults

Changing the way that fault/gridding control


nodes are shown in the Data Tree
Beneath the parent node representing the fault/gridding control framework, the nodes
representing individual faults or gridding controls are organized by default as a flat list, allowing
you to show and hide faults or gridding controls individually. You can change this organization
if desired, to reflect the presence of intersections. Right-click on the parent node for the fault
framework/gridding control framework in the data tree, and select the Show intersection
subnodes... option. This opens a dialog that allows you to specify whether you wish to display
subnodes for:
• minor intersecting faults only
• major intersecting faults only
• all intersecting faults.
Select the desired mode and click on OK.

192 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Selecting faults/gridding controls for display
Editors
This section contains information on:
• "Starting the editors" on page 193.
• "Using the editors" on page 193.

Starting the editors


To start an edit session, select the node in the data tree corresponding to the fault
framework/gridding control framework to be edited, right-click and select Edit from the popup
menu. (You may also start the edit by right-clicking on an individual node corresponding to a
specific fault or gridding control that you wish to edit; the editor opens with the selected fault
or gridding control already present in the display).

Using the editors


In order to manipulate a fault/gridding control in the editor, you must first add it to the display
in an editable form. Within the editor, you can make faults/controls editable by picking on the
ribbon surface. Editable faults and controls are displayed with the top and bottom lines of the
fault (together with any intervening lines) shown as tubes (Figure 10.2). The lines are defined
by a sequence of vertices, which are displayed as cubes along the line.

Note For optimum display of the control vertices and the editor cursor, ensure that lighting
is turned on while editing. Use the button for this.

Figure 10.2 A fault in the process of being edited by moving the vertices

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 193


Editors
The functionality of the editors can be divided for the purposes of description into two parts.
• The first part comprises those functions concerned with detailed editing of the lines
that comprise a fault or gridding control, by means of adding, moving and deleting
individual vertices.
• The second part comprises those functions concerned with manipulating the
faults/gridding controls as a whole, for example, by allowing selection of sections of a
fault/control for subsequent copying or deletion, extension of existing faults/controls,
splitting of faults/controls in two, merging together of pairs of faults/controls to form
a single entity, and so on.
The editors support multi-level undo, so that the results of an individual edit operation can be
reversed within an edit session without invalidating previous edit operations. To undo an
operation, select the button from the toolbar.

Note The editors rely on the use of 3D picking to function correctly. In practice this means
that in order to manipulate any entity within the editor, you must be able to pick on it.
Picking does not work if the object that you wish to pick (line, vertex or cursor) is
obscured by another object in front of it at the pick position. If this is the case, consider
either rotating the viewpoint to a position from which you obtain an unobstructed view
of the object you wish to pick, or removing the obscuring object from the display.

194 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editors
Editing lines and vertices
This section includes information on the following options:
• "Cursor Move" on page 195.
• "Snap Move" on page 196.
• "Change Cursor Type" on page 196.
• "Magnification Controls..." on page 197.

Cursor Move
Places the editor into Cursor Move mode. (In 2002A this was referred to as Select Vertices
mode.) In this mode, you can first select a single vertex or set of vertices, and then use the cursor
to move them. The editor maintains the concept of a current selected set of vertices, which are
displayed in a different color used for highlighting (yellow).

Selecting single vertices


Picking on a vertex selects it. This is signaled by a change in color to the highlight color, and
the cursor moves to the selected vertex. Usually any previously existing selection is cleared
first.

Selecting multiple vertices


Multiple vertices may be selected by holding down the Ctrl key while picking subsequent
vertices, to prevent the current selection from being cleared.

Selecting groups of vertices


To select groups of vertices along a line, pick the vertex at one end of the group and hold down
the Shift key while picking the vertex at the other end of the group. As before, holding down
the Ctrl key prevents the current selection from being cleared.

Selecting all vertices along a line


To select all vertices along a line, pick the line itself. The cursor moves to the position of the
pick along the line, and all vertices along the line are selected.

Deleting selected vertices


Pressing the Delete key while in Cursor Move mode deletes the currently selected vertex or
vertices.

Moving the selected vertices with the cursor


Click on part of the cursor to start the move, and you can then drag the selected vertices to a new
position. All the selected vertices move in parallel. The nature of the movement depends on the
cursor type and the part of the cursor that was picked (see below).

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 195


Editing lines and vertices
Snap Move
Places the editor in Snap Move mode. In this mode, the selected vertex or vertices can be
moved or “snapped” to the position of an existing 3D object on the display.

Selecting and moving a single vertex


Click on the vertex to be moved, and drag to the new location. The vertex is selected and you
will see a red line connecting the mouse pointer to the dragged vertex. When the mouse pointer
is over another pickable object in the display (indicated by the red line turning white), releasing
the mouse causes the selected vertex to snap to the picked location. If the mouse button is
released while the pointer is not over a pickable object, no movement takes place.

Selecting and moving multiple vertices


Selection of the vertices to be moved is identical to the mode "Cursor Move" on page 195. Once
the desired selection has been made, hold the Ctrl key down (to prevent the selection being
cleared), click on one of the selected vertices, and drag to the new location as described above.
When the mouse button is released over a pickable object, all the selected vertices move in
parallel.

Deleting selected vertices


Pressing Delete while in Snap Move mode deletes the currently selected vertex or vertices.
As with all editor actions, you can reverse the effect of the snap movement by clicking on Undo
.

Insert Vertices
Places the editor in Insert Vertices Mode. In this mode, you can insert new vertices in an
existing line. Pick on the line at the position where each new vertex is to be inserted.

Delete Vertices
Deletes the currently selected vertex or vertices. Selecting this option has the same effect as
pressing the Delete key while in Cursor Move or Snap Move modes.

Note You are not allowed to delete the end vertices of a line; you may only delete the interior
vertices.

Change Cursor Type


Selects the cursor type, which in turn determines the constraints on the movements that may be
made. Each cursor type consists of a number of bars and/or a flattened cuboid. By picking and
dragging on one of the bars, you can move the current selection constrained along the direction
of the bar; by picking and dragging on the flattened cuboid, you can move the current selection
freely in a plane.

196 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editing lines and vertices
Constrain X, Y, Z
Constrains movement of the current selection along each of the X, Y and Z axes.

Constrain Z, Free X, Y
Constrains movement of the current selection up and down the Z axis, or freely in the X-Y
plane.

Constrain by Line
Constrains movement of the current selection in a direction determined by the last selected
vertex. There are two possible orientations. You can toggle between them by clicking on the
Constrain By Line button.

Movement constrained by the line


The cursor is oriented tangentially to the line at the position of the last selected vertex.

Movement constrained by the fault/gridding control


The cursor orientation depends on the position of the last picked vertex relative to the fault or
gridding control. Picking one of the end vertices orients the cursor along the corresponding end
coordinate line of the fault/gridding control. Picking one of the other vertices orients the cursor
normal to the line tangent at the picked vertex, along the local direction of slope of the
fault/gridding control surface.

Note With all cursor types, movement is not allowed if the current viewpoint does not afford
a good perspective on the selected axis (that is, the drag axis makes an angle of less
than 30 degrees with the view normal). If this is the case you are alerted with a message
in the status bar prompting you to rotate the view to a better viewpoint for the drag.

Magnification Controls...
Opens the Magnification Controls dialog (Figure 10.3). This allows you to control the sizes of
the different visual elements of the 3D Editor on the display. The Lines slider controls the width
of lines displayed as tubes, the Markers slider controls the size of the vertex markers, and the
Cursor slider controls the size of the cursor. These may be controlled individually if desired.
You can control the size of all three elements simultaneously by checking the Link Together
checkbox.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 197


Editing lines and vertices
Figure 10.3 Magnification Controls dialog

198 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editing lines and vertices
Editing faults/gridding controls
This section contains information on the following:
• "Select Fault/Control Section" on page 199
• "Build Intersection" on page 201
• "Copy Section" on page 201
• "Delete Section" on page 201
• "Split Control" on page 202
• "Merge Controls" on page 202
• "Toggle Spline" on page 202
• "Digitize New/Extended Control..." on page 202
• "Edit Loop" on page 206.

Select Fault/Control Section


Places the editor in Select Fault/Control Section mode. In this mode
• you can select positions along a fault or gridding control (for example to define the
position at which a gridding control is to be split in two)
• you can define sections of a gridding control (for example, for subsequent deletion or
copying), or
• you can select the entire length of the fault or gridding control (for example, to change
the interpolation type).

Selecting a position along a fault or gridding control


With the editor in Select Fault/Control Section mode, pick on the gridding control you wish
to select. A yellow line appears showing the position of the pick; this line lies on the surface of
the gridding control and passes through the position of the pick (Figure 10.4). You can also pick
on the top or bottom lines of the gridding control, or on one of the control vertices of the top or
bottom lines.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 199


Editing faults/gridding controls
Figure 10.4 Intersecting faults following selection of a position along the major fault (shown in yellow)

Selecting a section of a fault/gridding control


With the editor in Select Fault/Control Section mode, select the position on the fault/gridding
control corresponding to one end of the section, as above. A yellow line appears showing the
position of the pick. Holding down the Shift key, select the position corresponding to the
other end of the section. The selected section of the fault or gridding control is highlighted
(Figure 10.5).
Figure 10.5 The same faults, after selecting a section of the major fault (shown in yellow)

Selecting the entire fault/gridding control


With the editor in Select Fault/Control Section mode, double-click on the fault/gridding
control. The entire fault/gridding control becomes selected and is displayed in the highlight
color.

200 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editing faults/gridding controls
Build Intersection
This allows you to build an intersection between two selected faults/gridding controls.
Normally, this option is dimmed. Select the two faults/gridding controls which are to be
intersected (for example by double-clicking on them as described above). The Build
Intersection option is enabled. Pressing this button builds an intersection between the two
selected faults/gridding controls.
Where two intersections are possible between the selected faults/gridding controls, ambiguity
exists as to which intersection should be built (for example, in the cases shown in Figure 10.6).
You can indicate which of the intersections should be built by making the selection on the minor
fault/gridding control close to the desired intersection; this intersection is then built in
preference to the other one.
Figure 10.6 Potentially ambiguous multiple intersections between pairs of faults/gridding controls (areal view)

Copy Section
Creates a new gridding control by copying a section of an existing one. Normally, this option is
dimmed. Select the section of an existing gridding control that you wish to copy, as described
above. The Copy Section option becomes enabled. Click on this button, and a dialog opens
asking you to enter a name for the new gridding control. Enter a unique name and click on OK,
and the new gridding control is created and added to the display.

Delete Section
Deletes all or a section of an existing gridding control. Normally, this option is dimmed. Select
the section of an existing gridding control that you wish to delete, as described above. The
Delete Section option becomes enabled. Click on it to delete the selected section of the
gridding control. If the entire gridding control was selected, rather than just a section of it, this
action removes the control entirely.
If the section of the gridding control selected for deletion does not include one of the ends,
deleting it splits the original gridding control into two parts. The two parts have the same name
as the original gridding control, but with the suffices “:1” and “:2” appended.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 201


Editing faults/gridding controls
Split Control
Splits an existing gridding control in two. Normally, this option is dimmed. Select the position
at which you wish to split the gridding control, as described above. The Split Control option
becomes enabled. Click on it to split the gridding control into two parts at the selected position.
The two parts have the same name as the original gridding control, but with the suffices “:1”
and “:2” appended.

Merge Controls
Merges together two existing gridding controls. Normally, this option is dimmed. Select the pair
of gridding controls that you wish to merge. The Merge Controls option becomes enabled.
Click on it to delete the two selected gridding controls and replace them by one gridding control
formed by merging them (joining together the two closest ends).
You are asked to specify the name to be used for the new control: a default name is suggested
based on concatenating the names of the constituent controls.

Toggle Spline
Changes the interpolation type of a fault or gridding control. Normally this option is dimmed.
Select the gridding control or controls for which you want to change the interpolation style (for
example by double-clicking on them with the editor in Select Fault/Control Section mode).
The Toggle Spline option becomes enabled. Click on it to specify whether you wish to use
spline interpolation for the selected fault/control.

Digitize New/Extended Control...


Sets the editor into Digitize Mode and brings up the Digitize New/Extended Control dialog
(Figure 10.7). In this mode, you can digitize a set of control lines for a new gridding control, or
alternatively digitize an extension to an existing fault or control. Note that if you are editing a
fault framework, as opposed to a gridding control framework, the Create Control option is
unavailable.

202 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editing faults/gridding controls
Figure 10.7 Digitize New Control dialog

Digitizing lines
A single click starts digitizing a new line. The new line is displayed in red. Successive clicks
add new vertices to the line, while pressing Delete removes the last vertex to have been added.
Double-click or press Return to finish digitizing the line. You can then digitize further lines
in the same way.

Removing digitized lines


You can remove the last line to have been digitized if desired by clicking on the Clear last line
button on the Digitize New/Extended Control dialog. Clicking on the Clear all lines button
allows you to start digitizing lines again from scratch.

Changing the line interpolation strategy


The checkbox Use spline interpolation controls whether or not the digitized points should be
connected by spline-interpolated lines. If this box is unchecked, the digitized points are
connected by straight-line segments.

Picking from existing lines


Existing lines may be used to define the vertices of the new line being digitized. Picking on a
vertex of an existing line adds it to the new line. You can select a contiguous group of vertices
from an existing line by picking on the first vertex of the group, then holding Shift down
while selecting the last vertex of the group; all intervening vertices are added as well. Picking
on the line itself adds a vertex that lies on the line.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 203


Editing faults/gridding controls
Picking from pick guides
Pick guides may be used in the same way as existing lines to define vertices to be added. Display
the pick guides to be used from the Edit | Select Pick Items menu.

Picking from other objects in the display


Other displayed objects, for instance maps and surfaces, may also be used for defining the
positions of new vertices. Picking on these objects defines a new vertex at the location of the
pick.

Note Where the digitized position does not result from a pick of another object, the 3D
position of the newly created vertex lies on the “edit plane”, an XY plane passing
through the framework. The Z location of this edit plane initially lies at the top of the
fault/gridding control framework, but is changed following a 3D pick on an existing
object in the display.

Generating a new gridding control


You must specify the name of the new control to be created in the type-in box on the dialog. At
least one complete line is required in order to generate the new gridding control. Once the
required number of lines have been digitized, press Create Control on the dialog to generate
the new control. (If the dialog has become hidden, click on the Digitize New/Extended
Control... toolbar button to bring it to the front of the display again.)

Note If only one line has been digitized, this is projected in Z on to the top and bottom planes
of the gridding control framework in order to generate the top and bottom lines of the
gridding control. If two or more lines have been digitized, these are used directly to
generate the new control without the need for any projection.

Extending an existing fault or gridding control


To extend an existing fault or gridding control, ensure that the first vertex of the digitized line
or lines is coincident with the end of the fault or gridding control to be extended. This is best
achieved by making sure that the vertices on the control to be extended are visible, and picking
on the end vertex to define the position of the first vertex for the extension (Figure 10.8).

Note The drop-down list giving the choice of which fault/control to extend is not enabled
until the first extension line is completed (by double clicking). This is so that only
relevant faults/controls are offered for extension.

204 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editing faults/gridding controls
Figure 10.8 Digitizing an extension to the top line of an existing gridding control

When you have finished digitizing the extension line, the Digitize New/Extended Control
dialog shows the name of all faults or gridding controls that you can choose to extend. Select
the fault/gridding control that you wish to extend, and click on Extend to extend the selected
fault/gridding control.
If only one extension line has been digitized, this is copied as many times as necessary to define
the extensions for each of the lines of the fault/gridding control. You may if you wish define
separate extension lines for each of the lines of the fault/gridding control (Figure 10.9).
Figure 10.9 The same control after digitizing the extension to the bottom line

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 205


Editing faults/gridding controls
Figure 10.10 The same control after extension

Edit Loop
Sets the editor into the Edit Loop edit mode. The purpose of this mode is to allow correction of
faults imported from Rescue models for which the top and bottom edges are incorrectly
specified (for example Figure 10.11). You can indicate which portions of the loop should be the
top and bottom edges respectively and rebuild the fault.
The top and bottom edges are indicated by placing “beads” around the loop. There are two
magenta beads that define either end of the top edge, and two cyan beads that define either end
of the bottom edge. Once all four beads have been placed, the fault can be rebuilt.
Figure 10.11 Rescue model fault with incorrectly specified top (magenta) and bottom (cyan) edges

Defining the top edge


With the Edit Loop edit mode selected, pick the fault to be corrected at one end of the top edge.
The fault is added to the view in editable form if it is not present, and a magenta bead should
appear on the loop at this point. (If necessary use the Magnification Controls dialog to make it
large enough to see easily).

206 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editing faults/gridding controls
Next, pick on the fault at the other end of the top edge. A second magenta bead should appear
on the loop. The two magenta spheres define the ends of the top edge.

Defining the bottom edge


The bottom edge is defined similarly by picking on the fault at the position where the ends of
the bottom edge are to be placed. Each pick places a cyan bead on the loop near the pick
position. The two cyan beads define the ends of the bottom edge (Figure 10.12).
Figure 10.12 The same fault after placing the four beads to define the correct top and bottom edges

Correcting the position of the beads


You can slide beads around the loop by picking on them and dragging them to the new position.
Pressing Delete deletes the last bead to have been added, allowing it to be replaced in a
different position. If all four beads are deleted, they can be replaced around a different fault.

Rebuilding the fault


Once all four beads are correctly in place, you can rebuild the fault by double-clicking or
pressing Return (Figure 10.13). Note that it is possible to form invalid arrangements of the
four beads, in which magenta and cyan beads alternate around the loop; if this is the case you
are warned, and the fault is not rebuilt. Edit the beads as necessary to form a valid arrangement
and try again.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 207


Editing faults/gridding controls
Figure 10.13 The corrected fault

208 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Editing faults/gridding controls
Fault block splitting

Introduction
The structural framework analyzes and stores information about faults so that a suitable throw
(consisting of split nodes) can be put between two simulation grid cells that straddle a fault. This
is achieved through fault block splitting.
Fault block splitting entails dividing the volume of interest (VOI) into blocks each of which
contains no faults. This means that the faults all occur at the boundaries of the blocks.
Once these blocks have been created it is a simple matter to construct block unit horizons which
represent a particular horizon within one block. Because a block contains no faults a block unit
horizon may be represented by a single mesh map containing no holes or regions defined in
multiple ways.
This means that when a simulation grid is being built, all that remains to do is to decide into
which block a coordinate tube (column of simulation grid cells) falls. After this decision is
made, the heights of the nodes for any cell can be calculated by sampling from the block unit
horizons for that block.
Fault block splitting is considered under the following headings:
• "Splitting the model into fault blocks" on page 209
• "Fault analysis and ordering" on page 210
• "Recursive volume splitting (with a final forced splitting)" on page 210
• "Creating block units and sampling fault traces" on page 211
• "Manual fault block splitting" on page 212
• "Limitations of the fault block splitting algorithm" on page 213.

Splitting the model into fault blocks


The prerequisites for fault block splitting are:
• an area of interest has been created (the structural framework boundary)
• faults have been selected as candidates for the splitting
The “splitting” fault trace belonging to a fault (in the main window tree) is the one that
governs the splitting.
• horizons have been created (see "Construction of Units and Horizons from Mesh Maps" on
page 757 for more details).
The three steps involved in splitting the model into fault blocks are:
1 Fault analysis and ordering
2 Recursive volume splitting (with a final forced splitting)
3 Block unit creation and sampling of fault traces.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 209


Fault block splitting
Fault analysis and ordering
Each fault is processed by the splitting algorithm, either as a single fault trace or as a fault trace
polygon (the first or primary trace in the main window fault tree list of fault traces belonging to
that fault).
The first step in splitting up the volume of interest is to split up the area of interest. To do this
the algorithm requires a single 2D (poly) line representing each fault. For this reason fault
polygons are averaged (from up- and down-thrown traces) to establish a single splitting line.
Once the algorithm has created a single 2D line for each fault, extensions are then added so that
each fault either intersects another fault or extends beyond the area of interest. Any fault that
lies completely outside the area of interest is rejected, as is any fault that intersects the area of
interest boundary more than twice.
The algorithm now minimizes the number of blocks that it needs to create, by selecting major
faults before minor faults when used for splitting. See Figure 10.14.
Figure 10.14 How FloGrid analyzes and orders faults
Extension to Fault C
Fault C (minor to Fault B)

Fault B
Fault A (minor to Fault A)
(major fault)
(major to Fault C)

Recursive volume splitting (with a final forced splitting)


The faults are now taken in order, major before minor, and sequentially placed into the Area of
Interest (the AOI is taken from the structural framework boundary). The first fault splits the AOI
into two sub-areas. The next fault splits one of the two sub-areas into two further sub-areas. As
each fault is placed into an area it splits the area into two sub-areas. Because of the major-minor
ordering of the faults, each fault normally splits just one sub-area into two.
Sometimes it is not possible to order a set of faults because they have a cyclic major minor
relationship. This is shown in Figure 10.15.

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Fault block splitting
Figure 10.15 Faults with a cyclic set of major-minor relationships

In this case the faults are ordered arbitrarily and at least one fault ends up splitting more than
one volume. See Figure 10.16.
Figure 10.16 How FloGrid splits fault blocks with a cyclic set of major-minor fault relationships

First fault Second fault


(splits AOI into two) (divides one block)

Third fault
Area of Interest
(divides two blocks)

Once all faults have been placed into the area of interest, the blocks are created.
The volume of interest (which is made up of the area of interest extended vertically through all
the maps in the system) is now split vertically in the same order as the area of interest. The
volumes created have vertical sides and have area profiles the same as the sub areas created by
the 2D fault lines.
Volumes that are not themselves split are known as blocks.

Creating block units and sampling fault traces


Now that the blocks have been created, the next stage is to build up stacks of block unit horizons
for each block.
This is done by creating new mesh maps for each block and for each horizon. The maps are then
nulled out in parts and re-interpolated in order to establish correctly the throw across the fault.
Finally all the maps are made to conform with all other maps for that block. For details about
how the map is re-interpolated and made to conform, see "Construction of Units and Horizons
from Mesh Maps" on page 757.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 211


Fault block splitting
All these maps are then allowed to intersect with the blocks to create a set of block units for each
block.
The last stage is to apply resampling of the 2D fault traces to the new block unit horizons so that
the simulation grid coordinate lines can be deviated to lie on the fault (for unstructured grids).
See Figure 10.17 and Figure 10.18
Figure 10.17 How FloGrid creates new mesh maps for each block and horizon

Cross-section Upthrown Downthrown


Fault Trace Fault Trace

Horizon

Splitting Line
(Block Boundary) Block Unit Horizon
Re-interpolated Extension

Figure 10.18 How FloGrid applies re-samples of the 2D fault traces to the new block unit horizons

Cross-section Resampled Resampled


Upthrown Downthrown
Fault Trace Fault Trace

Splitting Line
(Block Boundary) Block Unit Horizon
Re-interpolated Extension

Manual fault block splitting


In some cases you may decide that the split obtained by the automatic splitting algorithm is not
optimal. The structural framework window lets you manually split the VOI.
In the structural framework window you can drag and drop faults on to blocks. When a fault is
dropped on to a block the structural framework determines which of the sub-blocks of that block
is the best candidate for a split by that fault. Once that block has been determined (it may be the
original block if that had no sub-blocks) it is split into two sub-blocks.
The process can be viewed graphically on the 3D Viewer by enabling the 3D view of each tree
(by clicking on the 3D view icons at the top right corner of each tree in the structural framework
window).

212 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide


Fault block splitting
If you elect to split the model manually you must complete the process (of building the block
units and sampling the fault traces) by clicking on Build Block Units (below the block tree).

Note You can run the ordering for only part of the automatic splitting by pressing the Re-
Order Available Faults button below the block tree. This orders the faults into a
major/minor hierarchy. The Sequentially Split Into Volumes button allows you to try
and use the existing fault ordering or your own defined ordering, to split the entire
model into volumes.

Limitations of the fault block splitting algorithm


The splitting algorithm splits areas (and projected volumes) into sub-areas (and projected sub-
volumes) with a minimum of three sides. This means that a fault is not allowed to split the side
of a block more than once.
Occasionally this occurs in the automatic algorithm. The algorithm then proceeds by splitting
the fault itself in two, and inserting the two pieces of the fault into the block one after the other
as if there were two faults.
In the event that a fault splits one side of the structural boundary more than once, the remedy is
to change the major/minor status of the boundary’s digitized points (using the boundary editor),
thus moving one corner of the boundary so that the fault now straddles two sides of the
boundary.

FloGrid User Guide Fault framework editor 213


Fault block splitting
214 Fault framework editor FloGrid User Guide
Fault block splitting
Geological Property model
Chapter 11

Introduction
This chapter contains information on the following:
• "Creating and deleting models" on page 217.
• "Importing data" on page 218.
• "External model" on page 220.
• "External properties" on page 221.
• "Scenarios" on page 222,
• "Creating and editing model properties" on page 223.
• "Creating property maps" on page 228.
• "Property data model" on page 229
The Property Model module combines map-based and 3D geological modeling approaches.
This provides a consistent 3D structural and property representation from which to build
simulation grids. The module has the following major functions:
• Importing 3D geological models. FloGrid supports a number of proprietary formats
including the RESCUE standard.
• Assigning maps to units created in the structural framework (see "Structural Framework"
on page 175). If you have not assigned property maps to apply above or below a given
surface in the Surface node this allows you to directly assign the maps to units.
• Creating additional properties for a property model. Properties can be defined in three
ways: with simple arithmetic expressions as simple functions of two or fewer existing
properties, with complex conditional expressions using any existing properties, or with user
defined functions using the Calculator. (See"Calculator Language" on page 701 for
details.)
• Exporting static or dynamic properties from FloGrid back to the geological model.
• Managing Property Scenarios. (See "Property scenarios" on page 229 for details.)

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 215


Introduction
The Property Model window can be opened using Tools | Property Model...
This window has a menu bar from which various menu options can be selected that allow you
to create and edit property models. There is also a model and mode selection area, and a display
area that contains a folder called "Creating property maps" on page 228.

216 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


Introduction
Creating and deleting models

File menu
Create model...
Opens the Create Property Model panel, which allows you to select a structural framework
(see "Structural Framework" on page 175) from a list of the existing models, to use as a basis
of your property model. It also allows you to enter a name for the new property model.

Note When a property model is created any property maps belonging to surfaces are
automatically assigned to the units built from those surfaces.

Delete model
Opens the Delete Property Model panel, which contains a list of property models. A model
can only be deleted if no simulation models derive from that property model.

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 217


Creating and deleting models
Importing data

Property model
Imports data directly into the property model. There are three geological model formats that
may be imported to create a property model:
• Geolith
• RESCUE (Versions 9 - 35)
• Stratamodel (SGM 5).
For a complete description of these input formats please refer to "Property model input formats"
on page 798.

Geolith...
Select the required Geolith file. This format is a useful way of importing structurally simple,
3D models that can be defined using a regular dx, dy grid with varying z values. Input is in
ASCII format.

RESCUE
Select the required RESCUE file. The RESCUE format is the preferred way of importing
geological models from most geological modeling applications.

Note FloGrid supports RESCUE models exported using Versions 9 to 35.1 of the RESCUE
class library. The RESCUE participants have agreed that all commercial releases of
geological modeling applications supporting RESCUE will ensure that they export
models in this range.

RESCUE models exported with Version 12 and above are now a set of files rather than a single
file. This is to support several new features, notably load on call, which allows applications
accessing the RESCUE model to only load parts of the model as they require it. This makes
FloGrid much more memory efficient.

Note To reduce storage in the workspace file (which is still significant), FloGrid does not
duplicate the RESCUE file contents in the Workspace file if a session is saved. This
means you must retain the RESCUE file when using Save and Restore.

Note FloGrid allows you to edit the faults imported from RESCUE.

Stratamodel...
Select the required Stratamodel model. Models are read using OpenSGM libraries to allow the
native Stratamodel project files to be accessed.

218 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


Importing data
Hint This means that it should not matter which of the Stratamodel files is picked to import;
OpenSGM ascertains the associated project. If in doubt, we recommend you select the
file with type .amd.

Note This option can only be used for reading unfaulted Stratamodel models built using
SGM 5.0. If a faulted Stratamodel model is to be read into FloGrid it should be
exported from Stratamodel using RESCUE.

When you import a property model from an external geological model, a suitable structural
framework (see "Structural Framework" on page 175) is first constructed and then block unit
grids are built to cover the block units. Finally, property arrays are loaded for these grids.
When such a property array is loaded it may be that FloGrid does not recognize the external
name of the property as relating to one of its internal property types. If this happens, the property
is assigned the unknown property type and the Set External Property Types panel appears to
prompt you to match this and any other unknown imported properties with FloGrid internal
property types. See the description of the Set External Property Types panel in "External
properties" on page 221.

Property type mapping files


If models with similar or identical property type mappings are to be used regularly it is
recommended that they are entered into a property type mappings file, the location of which can
be set in the config file. Separate property mapping files can be set up for Geolith, RESCUE
and Stratamodel.
Each file consists of a series of rows, each with two character strings. The first column gives the
third-party property type name, the second gives the equivalent FloGrid property type.

Note Multiple third-party property types can map onto the same FloGrid property type.

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 219


Importing data
External model

Note This functionality is only available for RESCUE models. It is intended primarily for
use in releases where geological modeling applications are capable of one or more of
the following: reading properties created on a RESCUE files, supporting property
scenarios, supporting partial / real-time RESCUE model updates. (See "Property
scenarios" on page 229 for details.)

Export new properties to external model...


Exports to the external representation of the current property model any new Property Model
properties that have been created in FloGrid in the current modeling scenario.
For RESCUE models, the properties are written to the existing RESCUE file in a new scenario.

Caution This option uses a lot of memory, as all properties to be exported are loaded into
memory at once. It is therefore strongly recommended that only a few properties
are exported. This can be achieved by deleting properties from the current
scenario using the Property Model Property Editor.

Resynchronize with modified external model...


Forces FloGrid to re-read the current RESCUE model files to take account of any changes to
properties in the RESCUE model since it was originally read.

Caution This option cannot be used if the RESCUE model structure has changed.

220 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


External model
External properties

Set external property types...


Opens the Set External Property Types panel. This allows you to assign properties on the
imported property model to FloGrid property types. This panel can be used when importing a
property model or subsequently to set or reset assignments.
The Set External Property Types panel contains a table with two columns. The External
Property column shows the external description of the property as it was imported from the
external geological model. The FloGrid Property column contains a drop-down menu for each
row, allowing you to select the appropriate internal FloGrid property type for this property array.

Note FloGrid supports only one property of each type per model, unless the model has
Property Scenarios defined in the RESCUE model by the geological modeling package
that created it. If you attempt to assign two imported properties to the same FloGrid
internal property type, only the first property of that type is available in the property
model when upscaling or visualizing the model. (See "Property scenarios" on page 229
for details.)

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 221


External properties
Scenarios

Note This functionality is only available for RESCUE models. It is intended primarily for
use in releases where geological modeling applications are capable of one or more of
the following: reading properties created on a RESCUE files, supporting property
scenarios, supporting partial / real-time RESCUE model updates. (See "Property
scenarios" on page 229 for details.)

Set modeling property scenario...


Select the currently active scenario from the list of available scenarios. This scenario is used in
places where there is no user interface to select a scenario.

222 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


Scenarios
Creating and editing model properties
This section contains information on the following:
• "Current model" on page 223.
• "Create properties" on page 223.
• "Property model property editor" on page 223.
• "Display" on page 224.

Current model
Displays the currently selected property model. This currently selected model is the one whose
details are shown in the Property Map folder below.
The drop-down list at the side of the text box shows all the models available. If you select a
different property model from this drop-down list, the details shown in the folder below change
to reflect the new choice of current model.

Create properties
Opens the Property Model Property Editor panel.

Property model property editor


Current model
Sets the current model in which the properties can be created or edited.

Property scenario
Set the property scenario on the current model in which the properties can be created or edited.

Property
Selects the property to be created or edited. A * next to a property shows that it is an existing
property to be edited.
As FloGrid only supports one version of a property type in a property scenario, properties are
selected using their property type names. If you wish to create new property types, use the
Property Types menu item in the main window Tools menu.

Defining properties
You can define the properties in three different ways:
• Use simple expressions involving constants and/or one or two other properties.
• Use complex conditional expressions using any existing properties.

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 223


Creating and editing model properties
• Use the Expression Calculator (see "Expression Calculator" on page 687).
The Property Editor exports variables for use in a Calculator script (see "Property model
property editor commands" on page 719) and runs the script once for each block unit.

Generate by
The three methods of defining properties in the Property Model Property Editor panel are
selected by the two Generate by radio buttons:

Expression
When you choose this option you enter an expression in the next 2 lines of the window. This
involves
• typing in a constant or selecting a property/property scenario on which to base the new or
edited property (from the first pair of drop-down lists);
• (optional) selecting an arithmetic function from the second drop-down list;
• (optional) selecting a second property/property scenario or constant from the third pair of
drop-down lists.
When you select a property, you must also select the property scenario containing the property
from the drop-down list. Note that all properties selected must be from compatible scenarios;
this means from scenarios that exist on the same set of Block Unit Grids.

Advanced Expression
When this option is chosen a separate panel is created, the Expression Builder. This is the
panel where the advanced expression is typed in, or edited, and validated. When a valid
expression is applied, the advanced expression window on the Property Model Property
Editor panel is updated with that expression. Note that all properties used in the advanced
expression must be from the same scenario.

Calculator
When this option is chosen you can enter the location of a calculator script file in the Calculator
file text entry field.

OK
OK applies the edit and closes the Property Model Property Editor panel (or simply closes
the window if the edit has already been applied).

Note This means that the current edit is applied before closing the pane, even if that edit has
already been applied.

Display
Opens the 3D Viewer and allows you to visualize the currently selected property model in the
3D Viewer. The panel provides a selection of different kinds of displays, properties, and views
in I, J, and K directions. The default view contains only the hull edges and looks exactly like the
default view of the structural model (see "Structural Framework" on page 175). The panel
provides the following options:

224 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


Creating and editing model properties
Select model
Selects the model to view. Only models that have been added to the 3D Viewer from the
Property Model window are available.

Select scenario
Selects the property scenario from which the property to be viewed is to be selected.

Select property
Selects which property to display from those available for the currently selected model and
model property scenario. Properties are displayed if the Show Property option is selected and
I, J or K slices are selected.

Select units and blocks


Controls the selection of which units and blocks (block units) are affected using the viewing
controls in this dialog. If all units or all blocks are selected from the lists, display choices
supersede previous selections made for individual blocks and units.

Show block unit edges


When this box is checked the wireframe of the selected block unit(s) is displayed.

Show block unit faces


When this box is checked the top and bottom surfaces of the selected block unit(s) are displayed
as colored surfaces. Surface color can be selected from the Select block unit Color... option
on this panel.

Show property
When this box is checked the selected property is displayed in the 3D Viewer according to the
slicing options below.

Select block unit color...


Sets the color to be used when the currently selected block unit surfaces are displayed. The
button displays a Color Selector dialog containing a table of colors. To set a new color pick it
in the table and click on Apply. This will update the legend in the Display dialog.

I, J and K Slicing
Displays multiple I, J and K slices from the selected block unit grids. The property to display is
selected from the Select Property list. Enable Show property to display the selected slices.

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 225


Creating and editing model properties
Exactly how I, J or K slices are labeled (numbered) in the lists can depend on the type of
property model being displayed. By default, I, J labeling corresponds to the I, J numbering of
the property model grid, and K labels are constructed from the unit name and the layer number
within that unit. This labeling can be overwritten if the property model is a RESCUE model and
I, J or K labeling information (sometimes referred to as layer or IJK equivalency) has been
supplied by the geological modeling application that generated the model. In this situation,
FloGrid labels the slices using the supplied labeling scheme.

Note Once slices are in the display, they can be probed by picking on individual cells.
Information about the picked cell such as the block, unit and IJK numbers is displayed
in the message area at the bottom of the 3D Viewer.

I-Direction/Every Nth/ Apply


Displays how many layers there are in the I direction and allows the selection of which slices
are displayed. The arrow buttons move the selections up or down. The Reset button resets the
choice to every layer. You can also select slices by entering the name directly in the type-in box;
use a comma to separate multiple entries and a dash to represent a range of selections.

J-Direction/Every Nth/ Apply


Displays the number of layers in the J direction and allows the selection of the slices to be
displayed. The arrow buttons move the selections up or down. The Reset button resets the
choice to every layer. You can also select slices by entering the name directly in the type-in box;
use a comma to separate multiple entries and a dash to represent a range of selections.

K-Direction/Every Nth/ Apply


Displays the number of layers in the K direction and allows the selection of the slices to be
displayed. The arrow buttons move the selections up or down. The Reset button resets the
choice to every layer. You can also select slices by entering the name directly in the type-in box;
use a comma to separate multiple entries and a dash to represent a range of selections.

Increment
Use Increment to move the property down through the block using K Slicing or across the
block using I, J Slicing.
Several I, J slices can be selected for display from the Property Models panel by using Ctrl.
To select several slice numbers in a row, highlight the first slice number, hold down the Shift
key, and choose the last number in the row required. All slice numbers in between are
highlighted. You can deselect a highlighted selection by pressing the Ctrl key while clicking
the mouse over the layer.

Hint I, J Slicing can be used to display fence diagrams.

Commit the new parameters by clicking on Apply after every change in the window.

226 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


Creating and editing model properties
Property model decimation
When working with large models, it can sometimes take a long time to display multiple IJK
slices through a property model. To speed up the display it is useful to define a coarser view of
the property model in the configuration file. You can do this as shown below, by specifying
alternative levels of detail to be made available to you in the Object Appearance panel. The
example below defines two display levels when viewing IJ slices and three additional levels
when viewing K layers. When rows, columns and layers are grouped, the geometry of the
coarsened cell is taken from the corners of the grouped cells. The property displayed is the
property of the first cell, not an average. You can define as many display levels as you wish.

SUBSECT PROPERTY_MODEL_VISUALISATION_COARSENING
-- Coarsening for property model visualisation.
-- Set up level of detail options for coarsening
-- property model visualisation (options appear
-- in object appearance panel).

-- Default IJ row coarsening:


DEFAULT_NUMBER_OF_IJ_ROWS_TO_VIEW_AS_SINGLE_ROW 1

-- Possible IJ row coarsening options:


NUMBER_OF_IJ_ROWS_TO_VIEW_AS_SINGLE_ROW_OPTION1 5
NUMBER_OF_IJ_ROWS_TO_VIEW_AS_SINGLE_ROW_OPTION2 10

-- Default K layer coarsening:


DEFAULT_NUMBER_OF_K_LAYERS_TO_VIEW_AS_SINGLE_LAYER 1

-- Possible K layer coarsening options:


NUMBER_OF_K_LAYERS_TO_VIEW_AS_SINGLE_LAYER_OPTION1 2
NUMBER_OF_K_LAYERS_TO_VIEW_AS_SINGLE_LAYER_OPTION2 3
NUMBER_OF_K_LAYERS_TO_VIEW_AS_SINGLE_LAYER_OPTION3 4

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 227


Creating and editing model properties
Creating property maps

Introduction
The Property Maps folder allows you to build up a property model from 2D property maps by
assigning maps to each unit constructed in the structural modeling process. A property is fully
defined on the property model when a map of a given type has been assigned to each unit in the
model.
This folder is intended for use only with map based models, not imported 3D geological files.
The Property Maps folder is divided into two sections.

Unit tree
The Unit Tree shows the units and properties for the model selected in the Current Model box
above. Units are listed in depositional order (as constructed in the structural framework, see
"Structural Framework" on page 175). Each unit may have one or more property maps
associated with it. The property maps are generally imported into the main window surfaces
tree, although they can be created using the Property Editor.

Property map tree


The Property Map Tree shows all property maps in the system that have not been assigned to
a unit.

Dragging and dropping property maps


Any unassigned property map can be assigned by dragging it on to the Unit Tree and dropping
it on any unit. Similarly, a property map can be dragged from one unit to another or can be
unassigned by dragging it from the Unit Tree to the Property Map Tree.

Note In map based models, properties are only available to be visualized, edited or upscaled
when they are defined in all units of the model. FloGrid supports only one property of
each type per unit. If you attempt to assign two property maps of the same type to the
same unit, only the first one is available.

228 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


Creating property maps
Property data model

Introduction
The property data model inherits its structural properties from the structural framework to which
it then adds properties. These properties are in the form of (geological scale) grids known as
block unit grids that have the following constraints:
• Each block unit may have one or more block unit grids
• Each block unit grid may have one or more attached property arrays
• A property array may be attached to more than one block unit grid.
(For example, in the case of a map-based property the property is attached to all the
map block unit grids in a single unit.)
When a particular property type is represented in the block unit grid of every block unit the
whole model is said to bear this property. In this situation the property can be:
• viewed using the Property Model Viewer
• upscaled using the Upscaler
• edited using the Property Model Editor.
When two or more properties of the same type exist with the same block unit the first assigned
is taken as the representative property.

Property scenarios
A property scenario is a grouping of block unit properties with the following characteristics.
A scenario does not have to cover the whole property model. This means, for example, that a
scenario may contain properties for a subset of all the units in the model. However, all properties
in a scenario must cover the same set of block units.
A scenario contains at most one property of any given type. This means, for example, that a
scenario named version 1 properties might contain porosity and permeability and
another scenario named version 2 properties might contain only porosity. However,
the version 1 properties scenario cannot contain two versions of porosity.

Note In 2001A the following additional restriction applies: any two properties in the same
scenario must use the same block unit grid structures.

How property scenarios are created


There are three ways that scenarios are created.
1 Some RESCUE model writers (notably Property3D) can create scenarios. If they conform
to the restrictions above they will be imported into FloGrid.
2 If a property model has properties which do not belong to any imported scenario then
FloGrid places them in a default scenario called the FloGrid Default Scenario.

FloGrid User Guide Geological Property model 229


Property data model
Note This scenario obeys the additional rule that all its properties must cover the whole
model. This is compatible with earlier FloGrid releases.

3 FloGrid creates a scenario when it makes simulation model properties available on the
geological model. This is called "back posting" or "downscaling" and is accessible from the
Structured Gridder panel, using the File | Create Fine Model View menu option. The
scenario is given the same name as the simulation model. Note that, if two versions of the
same property type exist on a simulation model, only the first is placed in the scenario.

The current modeling scenario


Many FloGrid operations now depend on your choice of scenario. The most important example
is the choice of which scenarios' properties to upscale into the simulation grid. In many places,
on the user interface, FloGrid presents you with a drop-down menu to choose the scenario for
each operation.
However, there are cases of scenario-dependent operations where you are not given the choice
of scenario. The most significant example is when you are running command files generated
from earlier versions of FloGrid. Other examples include upgridding and the choice of target
scenario to determine the backposting block unit grids. In these cases FloGrid uses the current
modeling scenario as the users choice.
You can set the current modeling scenario from the Scenarios menu in the Property Model
panel. The current modeling scenario defaults to the FloGrid default scenario, if it exists.

230 Geological Property model FloGrid User Guide


Property data model
Property population
Chapter 12

Introduction
Property Population provides the ability to populate 3D structural models, using varying kind
of data that has been loaded in FloGrid. It provides integrated data analysis functions to
investigate input data and output property grids.
You can open the Property Population dialog using Tools | Property Population Models...
or from the workflow window Property Modeling | Property Population.

Property Population dialog


The Property Population dialog allows you to select the population focus, specify the input
data for the property grids, select the algorithms with which they are processed and specify the
output masks to control the population output. It allows saving of all the population parameters
in a population parameter set either for immediate population or population in batch.
This chapter contains information on:
• Creating, loading and deleting parameter sets: see "File menu" on page 233.
• Collecting parameters for generating a property grid: see "Population Parameter Set" on
page 234.
• Selecting primary data for property generation: see "Primary Input" on page 236.
• Lumping data to match the layers specified in your correlation scheme: see "Lumping" on
page 240.
• Selecting secondary data for property generation: see "Secondary Input" on page 242.
• Selecting the algorithm with which you wish to process your data: see "Algorithm" on
page 243.
• Specifying the number of realizations to generate: see "Realizations" on page 262.
• Specifying the distributions to honor when populating a grid: see "Proportions (Global,
Vertical and Secondary Data Weights)" on page 264.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 231


Introduction
• Adjusting the range and quantity of data to select for property population: see "Search" on
page 266.
• Specifying the parameters for the populated output grids: see "Output Mask" on page 268.
• Overwriting specified values for the current population grid: see "Current Property Grid"
on page 270.
• Creating and specifying parameters: see "Creating and specifying data" on page 272.
• Creating and using indicator classes: see "Indicator Classification" on page 284.
• Analyzing property population data: see "Property Population Data Analysis" on page 288.

Hint For explanations of the terms used, see "Property Population Glossary" on page 813.

232 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Introduction
File menu

Introduction
This first group of menu items is for Population Parameter Sets. The Population
Parameter Set is a collection of all the parameters chosen for property grid generation. See
"Population Parameter Set" on page 234 for more details.
This section contains the following options:
• "Create Parameter Set..." on page 280.
• "Load Parameter Set..." on page 280.
• "Save Parameter Set" on page 233.
• "Save Parameter Set As..." on page 233.
• Delete Parameter Set...: see "Delete parameter set..." on page 280
• Create Property Grid: see "Create..." on page 278.
• "Setting the property population focus" on page 233

Save Parameter Set


Saves the property population parameter set. In case the name of the set has not been specified,
a dialog opens to query for the name.

Note Only parameter sets that have not been used for populating a grid and, therefore, are
allowed to be edited, can be saved.

Save Parameter Set As...


Saves the property population parameter set using a different name than the one currently being
used.

Setting the property population focus


There are two ways to set the property population focus. You can either start by selecting the
model, the property grid, the property type and the units for population or by loading an existing
population parameter set.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 233


File menu
Population Parameter Set

Introduction
The Population Parameter Set is a collection of all the parameters chosen for property grid
generation. It includes the population focus, that is, the property model, the units, the property
grid name and the property type, the input data, the algorithm to apply to the input data, the
search options for the algorithm, and the output masks to control the output of the properties
into the property grid.
To preserve the property grid’s population history, the Population Parameter Set is locked,
that is, made read-only once the parameter set has been used for the grid property population.
No further edits are allowed to this parameter set. To make edits or a variation of this parameter
set, a new parameter set can be created as its clone and edited. See "Create Parameter Set..." on
page 280.
The text field displays the name of the current Property Population Parameter Set. This text
is read only.
This section contains information on the following:
• "Create Parameter Set..." on page 280.
• "Load Parameter Set..." on page 280.
• "Coordinate Correlation" on page 234.
• "Model" on page 235.
• "Property Grid" on page 235.
• "Type" on page 235.
• "Create..." on page 278.
• "Unit..." on page 279.
• "Histogram button" on page 235.
• "Delete parameter set..." on page 280.

Coordinate Correlation
Specifies the type of spatial correlation to use in property population. Computed distances
between data supports and output locations vary depending on this selection, leading to different
data weights and thus different property distributions. The coordinate correlation types and
appropriate uses are described below.

By IJK
Data weights are computed based on a function of the structured grids IJK geometry. This
correlation option is the default, and is appropriate for use with rectangular structured grids.
This correlation is also appropriate for non-rectangular grids, when it is desired to have the
property distribution follow a specified non-linear direction (such as properties distributed in a
channel complex).

234 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Population Parameter Set
By XYK
Data weights are computed based on a function of the horizontal X and Y coordinates, along
with the vertical K layering scheme of the structured grid. This correlation is appropriate for use
when a rectangular or corner-point structured grid is created, and the vertical K layering scheme
used in the structured grid corresponds to a depositional environment.

By XYZ
Data weights are computed based on a function of the model’s geographic coordinates, X, Y and
Z. This option is useful only in certain special cases, when a layer-cake or flat property
distribution is desired and nothing is known about the depositional environment. In general, one
should use the XYK or IJK correlation option.

Model
Sets the model in which the property grids are generated. By default, the current model is shown
as the selected model.

Property Grid
Select an existing property grid to be populated. You can create a new property grid by clicking
on the Create... button after the Property Type display field.

Type
Displays the property type of the selected property grid. This text is read only.

Histogram button
Opens the Property Population Data Analysis tool and displays the histogram for the output
property grid. In case the output grid has multiple realizations, the histogram is displayed for
the first realization.
See "Property Population Data Analysis" on page 288.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 235


Population Parameter Set
Primary Input
You can select the primary data and threshold it for property generation in this tab.
This section contains information on:
• "Primary Data" on page 236.
• "Borehole/Surface Intersection button" on page 236.
• "Resampling" on page 237.
• "Property Type..." on page 280.
• "Select..." on page 237.
• "Load..." on page 238

• Histogram button .

This button opens the Property Population Data Analysis tool.


See "Property Population Data Analysis" on page 288.
• "Threshold" on page 238.

Primary Data
Four types of primary data are supported for property generation. These can be selected from
the drop-down menu. The types of data are:
• Well Logs
• Property Maps
• 3D Property Grids
• Scatter Set.

Borehole/Surface Intersection button


If Well Logs are selected as primary data, the first operation to be performed is borehole surface
intersection calculation. When you click on this button, it automatically computes the
intersections between each of the wells, or well section (in case of multi-section well) you have
loaded, and the start and end depths of all surfaces encountered by the well/well section. It then
opens the Borehole/Surface Intersections panel. This presents the computed results about the
intersections of the wells/well sections with the surfaces and also allows you to redo the
borehole surface intersection calculation.
See "Borehole/Surface Intersections" on page 277.

236 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Primary Input
Resampling
The Resampling option menus in the primary, discriminator thresholding and secondary data
frames specify the interpolation algorithm you can use on the data. For well log data, this
resampling occurs when loading the data; log data gets implicitly loaded at a sampling rate of
0.5 feet. For other data types, resampling occurs when using constant assignment for primary
data or when co-locating the secondary or discriminator data to either the primary data or the
output data locations.
The resampling operations supported for the various data types are:

Well Logs
• Continuous
• Discrete
• Upper Gate
• Lower Gate.
For well log data, you can load explicitly sampled logs that represent interpreted facies types.
You select the Upper Gate option when you want the data sample to apply to all points beneath
the data sample, until the next data sample point. You select the Lower Gate option when you
want a data sample to apply to all data locations above the data location.

All other types


Continuous
You choose the Continuous resampling option when the property type represents a continuous
quantity. Linear, bilinear or trilinear resampling is performed.

Discrete
You choose the Discrete resampling option when the property type represents a discrete (or
integer) property. Closest-point resampling is performed.

Select...
Opens the data selector for the data type selected. Once the selection is made, it is displayed in
the text area opposite this button. The different kind of data selectors for the data types are:

Well Logs
See "Well Logs Data Selector" on page 281.

Property Maps
"2D Property Maps Data Selector" on page 281.

3D Property Grids
"3D Property Grid Selector" on page 282.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 237


Primary Input
Scatter Set
"Scatter Sets Data Selector" on page 282.

Load...
Loads the data for the selected data type.
If the data type selected is Well Logs, synthetic well logs are created with the loaded data. These
well log names are appended with the string [Pop_Primary].

Threshold
The Threshold portion of the Input tab allows you to limit the data you use in modeling. You
can:
• Set upper and lower thresholds outside of which values are discarded.
• Set upper and lower thresholds inside of which values are discarded (inverse thresholding).
There are a variety of situations in which you may find thresholding your data useful. Perhaps
the input data exceeds the physical bounds of the property type, as when you discover (probably
from the histogram) that you have water saturation values that are <0. Or you may find
thresholding useful in identifying and eliminating out-lying or otherwise errant values. You may
combine the two thresholding methods to grid “mixed” lithologies.
There are two methods of thresholding:

Basic
You simply set a maximum and a minimum for values to include or (if you are doing inverse
thresholding) to exclude.

Setting a basic threshold


• From the Type radio box, select Basic (default).
• Toggle Inverse Thresholding ON or OFF (default).
• ON: Values between the Minimum and Maximum are excluded from the data.
• OFF: Values less than the Minimum and greater than the Maximum are excluded from the
data.
• Set a Minimum value using the parameter tool.
• Set a Maximum value using the parameter tool.
• To initiate thresholding, click on Threshold.

The “Histogram” button, , becomes active.

• To view a histogram of the thresholded data, click on .

Hint If your input data is well logs, go on to the discussion of the Lump tab. Otherwise, go
to Algorithm .

238 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Primary Input
Advanced
You can use an indicator classification to limit the data values used. This classification can be
applied either to the original data selected or to a second set of user-selected data that is used to
“mask” the original data selected.

Setting an advanced threshold


• From the Type radio box, select Advanced.
The Basic thresholding parameters are replaced by two parameter input areas:
Discriminator (OFF by default)
[Indicator classification] (ON by default).
• Toggle Inverse Thresholding ON or OFF (default).
ON: Values represented by the advanced data are excluded from the data.
OFF: Values corresponding to those of the advanced data become the data limits.
• Click on Classification.
The Indicator Classification Selector opens.
• When you have selected or created and selected an indicator classification, click on
Previous Topic to return to this discussion. Classes is now active.
• Click on Classes.
The Indicator Classes Selector opens.
• Select one or more classes (that represent user-defined data ranges) to use to limit the values
used.
If you are not going to establish a Discriminator set of data, these classes function as
masks to include data or (if Inverse Threshold is toggled ON) to exclude data.
If you are going to establish a Discriminator set of data, these classes function as
selectors for data in the Discriminator set to be used to mask the input data.
• Click on Threshold to threshold the original input data directly with the Indicator classes
selected.
Or
• Go to Discriminator.

Selecting a data set for masking

Note In establishing a Discriminator data set, you must select the same Source and
Property as you selected for the original data.

• Toggle Discriminator ON.


• Select Source.
• Set Resampling.
• Select Property Type.
• Select specific data.
• Load the selected data.
• Click on Threshold.

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Primary Input
Lumping

Introduction
Lumps your data to match the layers you specified in the Correlation Scheme. That is, you are
able to manipulate data value ranges to come up with a single value for each of the physical
divisions of the unit for which you are generating a model. You are given a choice of algorithms
by which this set of values is calculated.
The values are those of cells through which a borehole passes as we are using data from well
logs.
For example, assume that a borehole that passes through a cell contains a well log with property
values of 1, 2 and 3 respectively. If you chose the Arithmetic Averaging algorithm, the node in
the cell is assigned the value ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) ⁄ 3 , or 2 .
The result is a series of depth-ordered samples or composites, positioned along the borehole
path, each of which commonly spans a single chronostratigraphic layer. The resampling is
controlled by the resolution (number of layers) defined in the correlation scheme.
This section contains information on:
• "Input Data" on page 240.
• "Method" on page 240.
• "Lump" on page 241.

• Histogram button .

Opens the Property Population Data Analysis tool.


See "Property Population Data Analysis" on page 288.

Input Data
At Data Used, select either Original or (if active) Thresholded.

Original
The lumping algorithm is applied to your original data as loaded at the Input tab. This option is
always active.

Thresholded
The lumping algorithm is applied to your data as it exists after thresholding. This option is active
only if you have thresholded your original data.

Method
Select the algorithm you wish to use.

240 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Lumping
Only the following methods are normally used for lumping. The others are useful for quality
control.

Mode
Suitable for discrete properties such as facies code, rock type, and lithology type.

Median
Better than Arithmetic Average if the distribution is skewed. Also used for discrete properties
when there is an odd number of data points.

Arithmetic Average
Suitable for properties that are additive variables, such as porosity, net-to-gross, and water
saturation.

Harmonic Average
Produces the effective vertical permeability if the reservoir is layered with a constant
permeability in each layer. Accepts only values > 0 . Threshold data to remove values ≤ 0 .

Geometric Average
Typically used for properties that are log-normally distributed, such as permeability. Accepts
only values > 0 . Threshold data to remove values ≤ 0 .

Power Average
Normally used for permeability. Requires you to supply a value for ω power. Power average
results are the same as Arithmetic Average when power=1 and the same as Harmonic
Average when power=−1.

Random
Produces a randomly selected data value from the data samples in the property grid cell.

Minimum
Produces the minimum data value located in the property grid cell.

Maximum
Produces the maximum data value located in the property grid cell.

Lump
Initiates lumping.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 241


Lumping
Secondary Input
You can select the secondary data for property generation in this tab.
This section contains information on:
• "Secondary Data" on page 242.
• "Resampling" on page 237.
• "Property Type..." on page 280.
• "Select..." on page 237.
• Load and Collocate... button
Loads the data for the selected data type by collocating against the input data source
selected in the Algorithm folder. See "Algorithm" on page 243.

• Histogram button

Opens the Property Population Data Analysis tool. See "Property Population Data
Analysis" on page 288.
• "Cross Plot button" on page 242.

Secondary Data
The following data type are supported for property generation. These can be selected from the
drop-down menu. The types of data are:
• Property Maps
• 3D Property Grids

Cross Plot button


Opens the Property Population Data Analysis tool. The data source (either Original,
Thresholded or Lumped) selected in the Algorithm tab is the primary data for the cross plot.
See "Property Population Data Analysis" on page 288.

242 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Secondary Input
Algorithm

Introduction
Algorithms available for selection in the Algorithm tab are based on the property type (discrete
or continuous) of the output property grid and on the coordinate correlation system selected, as
shown in this table:

Table 12.1 Algorithms available for selection in the algorithm tab

Coordinate
Algorithm Correlation Continuous Discrete
System
Distance to Nearest Neighbor IJK, XYK, XYZ YES YES
Constant Assignment IJK, XYK, XYZ YES YES
Nearest Neighbor IJK, XYK, XYZ YES YES
Inverse Distance IJK, XYK, XYZ YES NO
Ordinary Kriging IJK, XYK, XYZ YES NO
Simple Kriging IJK, XYK, XYZ YES NO
Collocated Cokriging IJK, XYK, XYZ YES NO
Sequential Indicator Simulation IJK NO YES
Sequential Gaussian Simulation IJK YES NO
Sequential Gaussian Cosimulation IJK YES NO
Truncated Gaussian Simulation IJK NO YES
Fluvial Object Simulation IJK NO YES

Either the Original, Thresholded or Lumped data can be selected as the input data for
population.
This section contains information on the following:
• "Segregate Data By" on page 244.
• "Distance to nearest neighbor parameters" on page 244.
• "Constant assignment parameters" on page 245.
• "Nearest neighbor" on page 245.
• "Inverse distance parameters" on page 246.
• "Ordinary Kriging parameters" on page 247.
• "Simple Kriging Parameters" on page 249.
• "Collocated Cokriging Parameters" on page 250.
• "Sequential Indicator Simulation Parameters" on page 251.
• "Sequential Gaussian Simulation Parameters" on page 252.
• "Sequential Gaussian Co-simulation Parameters" on page 253.
• "Truncated Gaussian Simulation parameters" on page 255

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Algorithm
• "Fluvial Object Simulation parameters" on page 256.
• "Algorithm decision tree" on page 259.

Segregate Data By
Specifies how the input data is to be shared in the population run. Data can be used across all
units, blocks and block units in the structured grid, or can be used only in the particular
structural volume it is located in. Data segregation is an option for all the non-simulation
algorithms. For the simulation algorithms, this option is not available; the default is to share data
across structural boundaries for the simulation algorithms. The following options exist for data
segregation.

None
No data segregation is done. This is the default. The effect is that the data will be shared across
all structural boundaries and used everywhere population is desired.

Block Unit
Data is segregated by block unit when populating. This means that data will only be used to
populate grid cells located in the same block unit as the data sample.

Unit
Data is segregated by unit when populating. This means that data is only used to populate grid
cells located in the same unit as the data sample.

Block
Data is segregated by block when populating. This means that data is only used to populate grid
cells located in the same block as the data sample.

Distance to nearest neighbor parameters


Criteria
• You need to quantify the distance from each grid cell to a single data source or a set of
nearest data locations.
• The actual data values associated with the input data are not important.

Notes
• The distance between the nearest input data sample and the grid node to be populated is
calculated.

Parameters
• No parameters are required for this algorithm.

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Algorithm
Limitations
This algorithm:
• is rarely appropriate in generating final rock or fluid property grids.
• may be useful when a discriminator grid is required to restrict processing. For example, you
might limit the computation of reserves to a user-specified drainage radius around a
borehole.
• may be useful in generating an intermediate grid used in obtaining a final grid.

Constant assignment parameters


Criteria
• A single constant value is sufficient to describe the desired property values for all property
grid cells involved.
• Data from well logs, scatter sets or 2D property maps needs to be assigned to a 3D property
grid.

Notes
• The Constant Assignment algorithm creates a grid containing a single value for each cell,
if a constant value is specified. Selective population criteria may be set to control which
property grid cells get the
• When Constant Assignment is used to assign values to a 3D grid containing two or more
layers using 2D data, the same value is assigned to each cell at any given areal position (for
example, [I, J]-location). This value, which is evaluated from the input 2D grid, is used for
all cell layers at any (X, Y)-location. The direct assignment method is useful in loading 2D
grid of property distributions so that these values may be visualized in 3D canvas in the
context of the Structural Framework.
• For 3D data, the data is assigned to the appropriate property grid cell.

Parameters
Value to be assigned to the grid.

Nearest neighbor
Criteria
• You are using input data that represents a discrete property.
• A simple polygonal region of influence surrounding each data point is sufficient for your
purposes.
• You are using this algorithm as a preliminary screen of data values.

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Algorithm
Notes
• The Nearest Neighbor algorithm creates a grid containing a single value for each cell.
This value is obtained from the single data point nearest to the cell to be populated.
Nearest Neighbor is useful as a quality control tool in reviewing data values. It is rarely
used to produce final distributions of rock or fluid properties.
• This algorithm is traditionally used with discrete data, but may be useful in representing
data density when clustered data are present.

Parameters
• No parameters are required for this algorithm.

Limitations
This algorithm:
• produces simplistic results based only on the input data values
• exhibits polygonal regions surrounding each input data point. Within each polygonal
region, a constant value is present that is equal to the input data point’s value.
• performs no interpolation. As a result, the output grid contains only values present in the
input data.

Inverse distance parameters


Criteria
• Data density is sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. That is, you are
willing to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• A relatively simple distribution of interpolated property values is adequate.
• The input data exhibit little or no clustering with respect to the block unit volumes being
populated.
• The correlation of data values as a function of distance is fairly simplistic. That is, no short-
range phenomenon is present that would impact the correlation of data values at distances
less than the minimum data spacing.

Notes
• The Inverse Distance algorithm creates a grid containing a single value for each cell. Each
value represents a weighted average of the neighboring data samples. The weight for each
neighboring data sample is derived from a simple inverse distance formula.
• The closer a sample to the node to be populated, the more weight its value is given. The
further a sample from the node to be populated, the less weight its value is given. The
weight is calculated as the inverse of the distance from the node raised to a user-specified
power.

246 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
Parameters
Power
The power parameter is used in the computation of data sample weights. At a power near a value
of 0, all weights are nearly equal, and the result is a simple arithmetic average of all values
within the search neighborhood of a given grid cell.
The greater the power, the greater the variation in weighting among samples.

Examples:
• 1 = inverse distance
• 2 = the inverse square of the distance
• 3 = the inverse cube of the distance, etc...

Tolerance
The tolerance parameter lets you ensure that when a data point lies within a close proximity to
the cell to be estimated, the cell is assigned the value from the nearest data point. In effect, this
parameter indicates the minimum distance from grid cell to neighboring data within which a
simple nearest- neighbor approach is used instead of a weighted average.

Limitations
This algorithm:
• interpolates between neighboring data samples
• is rarely appropriate for use with discrete properties
• tends to a produce values that are global means of neighboring data at grid locations beyond
the extent of available data.

Ordinary Kriging parameters


Criteria
• Data density is sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. That is, you are
unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• The input data may exhibit clustering with respect to the block unit volumes being
populated.
• A trend is present in the input data and must be modeled independently from the data
values, or a trend model is available and you wish to incorporate this trend into a property
grid representation.
• A correlation of data values as a function of distance is present. In other words, a short
range phenomenon is present that impacts the correlation of data values at distances less
than the minimum data spacing.

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Algorithm
Notes
• The Ordinary Kriging algorithm creates a grid containing a single value for each cell. This
algorithm assumes that the local mean is constant but unknown in the search window. It
allows the local mean to vary in each search window. Ordinary Kriging uses a local mean,
while simple kriging uses a universal mean. Thus Ordinary Kriging has lower estimated
values in low-value areas and higher estimated values in high-value areas.
• A single primary source of data serves as input to this algorithm. As with any kriging-based
algorithm, a corresponding variogram is also required. This variogram quantifies the spatial
correlation associated with the primary input data.
• Ordinary Kriging also supports the quantitative estimation of trend, a geostatistical
technique often referred to as trend kriging. You may either perform the kriging to take a
trend into account or compute the trend alone for subsequent use.
• If a trend has been identified and computed, you also can use this secondary data during the
kriging computation. This is commonly known as kriging with external drift.

Parameters
If you select this algorithm, the following additional parameters appear on the Algorithm tab,
requiring you to provide additional input:

Ordinary toggle
If you select this toggle, Ordinary Kriging is done, with no trend or external drift.

Trend toggle
If you select this toggle, Ordinary Kriging with Trend is done.
The Trend parameters enable you to specify up to 9 trend terms. If the Krige with Trend toggle
is ON, the resulting property grid contains the computed trend; if this toggle is OFF, the
estimation results are written out to the property grid.

With Secondary Drift toggle


If you select this toggle, Ordinary Kriging with External Drift is done. Secondary data is
required for this option.

Variograms
See "Select Variogram Model" on page 262.

Save Kriging Variance Grid


Writes the kriging variance to a Variance property grid, with a name <name>_Variance, where
<name> is the output property grid name.

Limitations
• As a kriging process, this algorithm sometimes assigns negative weights to the input data
within the search window screen effect. The resulting estimated value may be slightly
outside the range expected in light of the input values (for example, negative porosity). The
populations algorithms do not attempt to correct for unrealistic estimated values. You are
expected to review the grid and use the appropriate grid operations to influence the output
grid.

248 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
Simple Kriging Parameters
Criteria
• Data density is sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. In other words, you
are unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• The input data may exhibit clustering with respect to the block unit volumes being
populated.
• A global mean value is either known or should be honored.
• A correlation of data values as a function of distance is present. In other words, a short
range phenomenon is present that impacts the correlation of data values at distances less
than the minimum data spacing.

Notes
• The Simple Kriging algorithm creates a grid containing a single value for each cell. The
kriging system of equations relates the covariance among all the samples (obtained from
the variogram), the covariance between each sample to the location to be estimated, and the
unknown weights.
• A single primary source of data along with a global mean serves as input to this algorithm.
As with any kriging-based algorithm, a corresponding variogram is also required. This
variogram quantifies the spatial correlation associated with the primary input data.
• As the location to be estimated becomes farther away, the surrounding data points carry less
information; hence the weights decrease. Consequently, the weight on the mean increases
and the estimate becomes closer to the mean.

Parameters
If you select this algorithm, the following additional parameters appear on the Algorithm tab,
requiring you to provide additional input:

Mean
This is by default the data’s arithmetic average. You may modify this to specify a different
global mean to use.

Variograms
See "Select Variogram Model" on page 262.

Save Kriging Variance Grid


Writes the kriging variance to a Variance property grid, with a name <name>_Variance, where
<name> is the output property grid name.

Limitations
This algorithm:

FloGrid User Guide Property population 249


Algorithm
• does not adapt to local trends in the data since it relies on the mean value, assumed known
and constant throughout the area. Consequently, Simple Kriging is rarely used for direct
estimation.
• as a kriging process, sometimes assigns negative weights to the input data within the
Search Window (screen effect). The resulting estimated value may be slightly outside the
range expected in light of the input values (for example, negative porosity). The
populations algorithms do not attempt to correct for unrealistic estimated values. You are
expected to review the grid and use the appropriate grid operations to influence the output
grid.

Collocated Cokriging Parameters


Criteria
• Data density is not sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. In other words,
you are unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• The input data may exhibit clustering with respect to the block unit volumes being
populated.
• A correlated secondary attribute representation is available. This representation is more
densely sampled than the primary input data and reflects the variation present in the
distribution of data values between the primary data locations.

Notes
• The Collocated Cokriging algorithm creates a grid containing a single value for each cell.
This algorithm requires both a primary and secondary source of input data. As with all other
kriging-based algorithms, a variogram model is also required. However, a variogram model
is only required for the primary input data. No variogram model associated with the
secondary data is used.

Parameters
If you select this algorithm, the following additional parameters appear on the Algorithm tab,
requiring you to provide additional input:

Correlation Coefficient
This is by default the correlation coefficient between primary and secondary data. A -1 signifies
an inverse relationship. A +1 represents a direct relationship. A 0 indicates no relationship
between primary and secondary data.

Variograms
See "Select Variogram Model" on page 262.

Save Kriging Variance Grid


Writes the kriging variance to a Variance property grid, with a name <name>_Variance, where
<name> is the output property grid name.

250 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
Limitations
• As a kriging process, this algorithm sometimes assigns negative weights to the input data
within the search window (screen effect). The resulting estimated value may be slightly
outside the range expected in light of the input values (for example, negative porosity). The
populations algorithms do not attempt to correct for unrealistic estimated values. You are
expected to review the grid and use the appropriate grid operations to influence the output
grid.

Sequential Indicator Simulation Parameters


Criteria
• Data density is not sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. In other words,
you are unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• No interpolation is desired or required (that is, you are using a discrete property)
• In order to quantify uncertainty, multiple realizations are required that reflect the range of
equi-probable property value distributions.

Notes
• The Sequential Indicator Simulation algorithm may be used to create grids from discrete
sets of data values (frequently referred to as “indicators”). This mapping of input values to
indicators allows you to perform spatial data analysis (variogram computation and
modeling) on such data values.
• All variogram analysis must be conducted using the indicator semi-variogram calculation.
This requires selection of a single category or indicator class for analysis. All values
corresponding to the selected class are treated as “true” and temporarily assigned a value
of 1. All other values are treated as “false” and temporarily assigned a value of 0. The actual
variogram computation is performed on the 1/0 values rather than the original data values.
(See "Guidelines for creating indicator classes" on page 287.)

Note Gaussian variogram models are not available for use in Indicator Simulation.

You have a choice of two versions of Indicator Simulation:


• In the Full IK Function, each indicator class has its own variogram that is used in
computation. This approach addresses the situation in which differences exist in spatial
correlation (trend) among the indicator classes.
• In the Median IK Function, a single class is selected for variogram modeling. This median
indicator controls which data values are assigned a true-state value of 1 and which are
considered false and assigned a value of 0. This approach can be useful when no clear
trending emerges from the data; that is, all data values being simulated share the same
spatial correlation model (variogram). If this is not the case, then you must exclude the data
that exhibit uncommon behavior through the use of some form of thresholding or use Full
IK Function.

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Algorithm
Parameters
If you select the Sequential Indicator Simulation algorithm, the following additional
parameters appear on the Algorithm tab, requiring you to provide additional input:

Indicator Classification
"Guidelines for creating indicator classes" on page 287.

Realizations
"Realizations" on page 262.

Indicator Kriging Type


This is either Full IK or Median IK.

Indicator Variograms
"Indicator Variogram Selection" on page 262.

Proportions
"Proportions (Global, Vertical and Secondary Data Weights)" on page 264.

Simulated Nodes to Use


"Simulated Nodes to Use" on page 262.

Limitations
This algorithm:
• is capable of reproducing proportions based on either global estimates, vertical proportions,
or secondary data proportions. This facilitates the generation of discrete grid
representations in which the relative percentage of each class of values can be user-
controlled.
• can be controlled by selecting secondary input data, such as hand-drawn interpretation
incorporated into a grid.
• computes more slowly when you use Full IK Function.

Sequential Gaussian Simulation Parameters


Criteria
• Data density is not sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. In other words,
you are unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• The input data may exhibit clustering with respect to the block unit volumes being
populated.
• A correlation of data values as a function of distance is present. In other words, a short
range phenomenon is present that impacts the correlation of data values at distances less
than the minimum data spacing.

252 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
• In order to quantify uncertainty, multiple realizations are required that reflect the range of
equi-probable property value distributions.

Notes
• The Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) algorithm may be used to create a grid
containing multiple values at each cell. It supports a single source of input data. A
variogram model quantifying the spatial correlation associated with the input data must
also be supplied.
• The Sequential Gaussian Simulation algorithm assumes that the input data are normally
distributed. To ensure this, a transformation is automatically applied to the input data that
is used for simulation. A histogram allows you to verify that the transformed data meet this
requirement.
• All variogram analysis and computations are performed on the transformed data. Only after
grid values have been simulated are the values back-transformed to reflect the original
distribution. Many implementations of Sequential Gaussian Simulation require you to
manually conduct such transformations. This is built in to the Sequential Gaussian
Simulation algorithm in Property Population.

Unconditional Simulation
If Unconditional Simulation is toggled ON in the input folder, the transformed data is only
used for the back transform as the desired transformation table and not for the actual
calculations. If you do not select input data and transform the data to create a transformation
table, the normal space is scaled using the back transformation minimum and maximum values
to give a distribution within those ranges while maintaining the normal distribution.

Parameters
If you select this algorithm, the following additional parameters appear on the Algorithm tab,
requiring you to provide additional input:

Realizations
"Realizations" on page 262.

Variograms
"Select Variogram Model" on page 262.

Simulated Nodes to Use


"Simulated Nodes to Use" on page 262.

Sequential Gaussian Co-simulation Parameters


Criteria
• Property distribution is not characterized by a constant value, nor can an existing 2D grid
be resampled to provide an adequate representation.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 253


Algorithm
• Data density is not sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. In other words,
you are unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• A correlation of data values as a function of distance is present. In other words, a short-
range phenomenon is present that impacts the correlation of data values at distances less
than the minimum data spacing.
• In order to quantify uncertainty, multiple realizations are required that reflect the range of
equi-probable property value distributions.
• A correlated secondary attribute representation is available. This representation is more
densely sampled than the primary input data and reflects the variation present in the
distribution of data values between the primary data locations.

Notes
• The Sequential Gaussian Co-simulation (SGCS) algorithm may be used to create a grid
containing multiple values at each cell. It supports a single source of input data. A
variogram model quantifying the spatial correlation associated with the input data must
also be supplied.
• The Sequential Gaussian Simulation algorithm assumes that the input data are normally
distributed. To ensure this, a transformation is automatically applied to the input data that
is used for simulation. A histogram allows you to verify that the transformed data meet this
requirement. All variogram analysis and computations are performed on the transformed
data. Only after grid values have been simulated are the values back-transformed to reflect
the original distribution. Many implementations of Sequential Gaussian Simulation
require you to manually conduct such transformations. This is built into the Sequential
Gaussian Simulation algorithm in Property Population.

Unconditional Simulation
If Unconditional Simulation is toggled ON in the input folder, the transformed data is only
used for the back transform as the desired transformation table and not for the actual
calculations. If you do not select input data and transform the data to create a transformation
table, the normal space is scaled using the back transformation minimum and maximum values
to give a distribution within those ranges while maintaining the normal distribution.

Parameters
If you select this algorithm, the following additional parameters appear on the Algorithm tab,
requiring you to provide additional input:

Realizations
"Realizations" on page 262.

Variograms
"Select Variogram Model" on page 262.

Simulated Nodes to Use.


"Simulated Nodes to Use" on page 262.

254 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
Limitations
This algorithm uses Ordinary Kriging in its calculations.

Truncated Gaussian Simulation parameters


Criteria
• Data density is not sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. In other words,
you are unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.
• Property to be modeled is discrete, such as lithology.
• In order to quantify uncertainty, multiple realizations are required that will reflect the range
of equi-probable property value distributions.

Notes
• The Truncated Gaussian Simulation algorithm may be used to create grids from discrete
sets of data values (frequently referred to as “indicators”). This mapping of input values to
indicators allows you to perform spatial data analysis (variogram computation and
modeling) on such data values.
• All variogram analysis and computation are performed on the transformed data. This is
built in to the Truncated Gaussian Simulation algorithm in Property Population.

Parameters
If you select this algorithm, the following additional parameters appear on the Algorithm tab,
requiring you to provide additional input:

Indicator Classification
"Guidelines for creating indicator classes" on page 287.

Realizations
"Realizations" on page 262.

Variograms
"Select Variogram Model" on page 262.

Simulated Nodes to Use


"Simulated Nodes to Use" on page 262.

Note The indicator classification ranges

Limitations
• The defined facies must be contiguous.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 255


Algorithm
Fluvial Object Simulation parameters
Criteria
• You wish to model fluvial objects (channels, levees, point bars, splays).
• Property to be modeled is discrete, such as lithology.
• Data input comes from well log data.
• Data density is not sufficient to allow interpolation between data locations. In other words,
you are unwilling to correlate the property values between neighboring data locations.

Notes
• The Fluvial Object Simulation algorithm may be used to model fluvial objects from input
data, embedding them into a background as part of reservoir simulation.
You may model the following objects:
• Background (typically shale)
• Channels or a channel complex
• Levees
• Splays
• Point bars.
• You can control the generation and display of each type of object by setting specific
parameters.
• You may further affect the population output by setting parameters for vertical weights and
for global proportions.
• The Fluvial Object Simulation algorithm also allows the generation of multiple
realizations.

Note You can save a grid containing the IDs of any created objects at the Output tab.

Parameters
If you select the Fluvial Object Simulation algorithm, the following additional frames appear
on the Algorithm tab, requiring you to provide additional input:

Indicator Classification
"Guidelines for creating indicator classes" on page 287.

Objects to model
"Objects to model" on page 257.

Realizations
"Realizations" on page 262.

256 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
Proportions
"Proportions (Global, Vertical and Secondary Data Weights)" on page 264.

Objects to model
You are allowed to select any or all of the objects available for modeling and to assign an
indicator class to each. Once you have chosen the features you wish to use, you may modify
various physical parameters for any feature (except Background) from the Fluvial Object
Simulation parameters dialog.

Note If you are re-gridding a previously-populated grid and toggle Background OFF, newly-
created fluvial objects replace the values of original grid.

You can model either channels or a channel complex--you cannot model both. To select an
object for modeling:
• Toggle the selected feature ON.

Note In the Channels/Complex radio box, toggle ON which of the two you wish to select.

• The Set button next to the feature label becomes active.


• Click on Set.
• The Categories selector dialog opens, listing the available indicator classes in the
selected classification set.
• Click on the category you wish to assign to the selected feature. OK.
• The selected category is displayed in the text box next to the feature label. When the output
grid is populated, the color and values associated with this category are applied to the
feature.
• You may review the categories for the classification set in use by going up to the Indicator
Classification area of the Property Population Manager and clicking on Select. From
the resulting dialog, click on the classification set you are currently using, then on the i
button. The Indicator Classification Editor opens, with the individual classes presented in
spreadsheet form.

Note You cannot make a selection from the Categories Selector dialog box until both the
Indicator Classification Editor and the Indicator Classification Selector are closed.

• Continue with each desired feature, assigning a classification to each.


Each time you open the Categories Selector, any classification previously used in the
current action has been removed from the list. A classification can be assigned to only one
feature in a simulation.
• To clear all current indicator class assignments, click on Clear.

To modify the parameters for modeled features:


• You may modify specific parameters for each feature (except Background) you have
selected by clicking on Parameters and opening the Fluvial Simulation Parameters
dialog box.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 257


Algorithm
This dialog consists of two tabs:
• Channel/Complex
• Others
A tab is active only if you have selected that feature (toggled it ON) in the Algorithm tab of the
Property Population Manager.
Each tab lists a variety of parameters for its feature. These can be modified by using the
Parameter tools associated with them. The parameters and the objects to which they are
applicable are as follows:

Channels/Channel Complex
Note that channels are generated to go only through their assigned facies and to avoid all other
facies. A channel complex, although guided by the assigned facies, does not avoid other facies.
You are therefore required to select the wells through which you wish a channel complex to
pass. To do this, select the well logs for the specific wells of interest in the Input tab. The top
of the channel complex is set to correspond to the top of the highest sand interval (or
corresponding category assigned to the channel complex feature) among the wells you specify.
Other dimensions are manually set.

Note The intersection of a channel complex and the wells depends on well distribution and
on the parameter settings for the channel complex. Therefore a case may arise that does
not permit the intersection of the channel complex with all the selected wells.

Channels
If you are modeling channels, multiple channels are possible. Channels are generated until the
proportion of channel reaches the value set for the channel facies at Global Proportion.

Channel or channel complex


The following list of parameters applies to channels; many of them also apply to a channel
complex. However, if you are modeling a channel complex, you are creating a single (usually
large) object. As a result, proportional settings are irrelevant and appear grayed-out.

Orientation - Average:
Average angle of channel orientation in degrees clockwise from North. Angle drawn from
triangular distribution.

Orientation - Deviation:
Tolerance in degrees from average within which channel orientation can move. The deviation
range defines the range of triangular distribution.

Thickness - Average:
Average thickness of created channel. Value drawn from triangular distribution. Unit depends
on the unit set in your project. Typically meters or feet.

Thickness - Deviation:
Tolerance from average within which channel thickness can vary. The deviation range defines
the range of triangular distribution. Unit same as Thickness - Average.

258 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
Width/Thickness - Average:
The average ratio of a channel’s width to its thickness. Value drawn from triangular distribution.

Width/Thickness - Deviation:
Tolerance from average within which Width/Thickness can vary. The deviation range defines
the range of triangular distribution

Amplitude - Average:
Average distance within which a channel can vary from its axis. Unit depends on the unit set in
your project. Typically meters or feet

Wavelength - Average:
Average wavelength if channels were assumed to be perfectly sinusoidal. Unit depends on the
unit set in your project. Typically meters or feet.

Relative width variation:


Tolerance from average within which channel width can vary. Expressed as a ratio to the
average width. For example, a value of 0.3 would allow the width to vary to as much as 30%
wider or 30% narrower than the average channel width.

Levee

Width/Thickness:
The relative height of the levee in relation to channel thickness. A value of 0.3, for example, sets
levee height at 30% that of channel thickness.

Splay

Width/Thickness:
The ratio of a splay’s width to its thickness. Value drawn from triangular distribution.

Point bar

Relative width:
The size of the point bar as a multiple of channel width. If the channel is 50 feet wide at the point
where a point bar is created, for example, and Width is set to 3, the point bar is 150 feet wide.

Algorithm decision tree


The following decision tree can aid in selecting an appropriate algorithm for your data and
purpose.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 259


Algorithm
Figure 12.1 Algorithm Decision Tree

YES
Constant or
Constant Assignment Assignment?
NO

YES
Distance to Nearest Distance?
Neighbor

NO

Discrete
YES property?
NO

Facies Petrophysical
Algorithm Algorithm

Figure 12.2 Facies Property Population

YES
Nearest Neighbor Data Density?
NO

YES
Fluvial Object FluvialObjects?
Simulation

NO

NO
Differing degrees
YES of Anisotropy?
OR

Sequential Indicator Sequential Indicator Truncated Gaussian


Simulation (Full IK) Simulation (Median IK) Simulation

260 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Algorithm
Figure 12.3 Petrophysical Property Population

YES NO
Deterministic?

Estimation Simulation
NO
YES Clustering?
Secondary
Attribute?
Inverse Distance YES NO
Global Mean?
YES NO

Trend/ Sequential Gaussian


Secondary YES CoSimulation
Simple Kriging
attribute?

NO
Ordinary Kriging Sequential Gaussian
(Trend or Drift) Simulation

OR
Ordinary Collocated
Kriging CoKriging

FloGrid User Guide Property population 261


Algorithm
Realizations

Introduction
The Realizations panel specifies how many realizations to simulate.

Note If the number of realizations is greater than 1, property grids are generated with names
of the format <name>_r<num>, where <name> is the output property grid name
specified and <num> is the current realization number.

This section contains information on:


• "Simulated Nodes to Use" on page 262.
• "Select Variogram Model" on page 262.
• "Indicator Variogram Selection" on page 262.

Simulated Nodes to Use


The Simulated Nodes to Use panel specifies how many previously simulated nodes to use in
the estimation of the current node. The higher this number, the smoother the results.

Select Variogram Model


The Select Variogram Model dialog selects a variogram model to use in property population.
One variogram model can be selected at a time from the list box.

Indicator Variogram Selection


Sequential Indicator Simulation supports both Median IK and Full IK. With Median IK, only
one variogram model is required. With Full IK, one variogram model per indicator class is
required. The Indicator Variogram dialog displays a table of one row for Median IK, where the
indicator class name is the name of the Median IK class selected. The dialog box displays a table
with one row per used indicator class if Full IK is selected.

Select...
Opens the Select Variogram Model selection dialog. The selection applies to the indicator class
currently in focus in the table. See "Select Variogram Model" on page 262.

Variogram
Opens the Variogram Data Analysis tool with the appropriate class and data focus.

Table (Class Name and Variogram Model)


Table displaying Class Name and Variogram Model Name.
• To select a variogram model, click the left mouse button in the Variogram Model cell for
the appropriate class, then click on Select....

262 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Realizations
• To create or view a variogram model, click the left mouse button in the Variogram Model
cell for the appropriate class, then click on .

FloGrid User Guide Property population 263


Realizations
Proportions (Global, Vertical and Secondary Data
Weights)

Introduction
This area provides facilities for you to specify distributions to honor when populating using
Sequential Indicator Simulation or Fluvial Object Simulation. By default, global proportions are
honored. You may choose to honor vertical and/or secondary data weights (for Sequential
Indicator Simulation) proportions as well. If the vertical proportions or secondary data weights
toggle is toggled on, the program attempts to honor the global, using the vertical proportions
and/or secondary data weights to specify trends in the results.
This section contains information on:
• "Global Proportions" on page 264.
• "Vertical Proportions" on page 264.
• "Secondary Data Weights" on page 265.

Global Proportions
The Global Proportions dialog provides facilities to modify the global proportions for each
selected indicator class to honor. By default, the proportions computed from the primary input
data are displayed. To change the global proportions, type in the value desired into the
appropriate grid cell next to the indicator class name.

Note When property population is done in Sequential Indicator Simulation, normalization


occurs to ensure the global proportions sum to 1.0. In Fluvial Object Simulation, no
normalization occurs; the result honors the total for the proportions of the fluvial
objects, with the remaining proportion set as background. If the sum of proportions in
Fluvial Object Simulation is greater than 0.9, the resulting proportions are reduced
by an appropriate amount.

Set Default
Sets the global proportions to the calculated defaults, based on the primary input data.

Vertical Proportions
When this toggle is on, the program attempts to honor vertical proportions distribution from the
primary data, while maintaining the global proportions specified in the Global Proportions
dialog.

264 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Proportions (Global, Vertical and Secondary Data Weights)
Secondary Data Weights
The Secondary Data Weights dialog is used in Sequential Indicator Simulation by using the
secondary input data to guide the results. If the toggle is on, the program uses the resulting
transformed secondary data to guide the trends in X and Y direction, while maintaining the
global proportions specified in the Global Proportions dialog. This functionality takes the
secondary input data and transforms the data into zones; one can think of them as pay or non-
pay zones.

Use Secondary Data Weights


Toggle whether to use secondary data weights (on) or not (off).

Note To use this option in Sequential Indicator Simulation, secondary input data must first
be loaded.

Classes...
Indicator class selector. The selected class(es) represent similar classes. The data weights get
divided into two zones, then subdivided into individual classes, based on the secondary input
data. This is a multi-select dialog. See "Selecting classes" on page 287.

Crossplot
Displays a crossplot of the secondary input data versus the data weights proportions in the
selected class(es).

FloGrid User Guide Property population 265


Proportions (Global, Vertical and Secondary Data Weights)
Search

Introduction
The Search folder contains parameter settings to adjust the range and quantity of data to select
for property population. Under normal circumstances, you should not need to adjust these
parameters; reasonable defaults exist to provide decent results. You can modify these
parameters given special cases, however.
This section contains information on:
• "Algorithm" on page 266.
• "Search Parameters" on page 267.
• "Sector Search" on page 267.

Algorithm
Property Population allows you to choose from among three search algorithms. They differ in
how the search window is explored during the search.

Superblock
This approach speeds up the search and selection process. In it, as a part of pre-processing the
application superimposes a grid of blocks over the grid nodes that approximate the search
window as you define it. Each “superblock” is assigned an ID and each value within the
superblock is associated with that ID. The data is in effect “batched” before the search and
populating begin.
During the population process the data is accessed in batches and the search conditions and
population algorithm applied to each batch, rather than to every node.
This algorithm is especially useful when your input data is dense but not uniformly distributed,
as, for example, when it consists of numerous well logs.

Spiral
In this approach, the search spirals out around the node to be estimated accumulating values
from data points it encounters until it reaches the maximum specified in the search parameters.
If the search reaches the boundaries of the current Search window without encountering the
minimum number of samples specified in the search parameters, it assigns a null value to the
node.
This algorithm is especially useful when your input data tends to be uniformly distributed in a
grid pattern.

Sector
In this approach, you are able to take into account redundancy of nearby samples. The Search
window is divided into a user-specified number of sectors. The search in each sector is halted
when it has encountered the maximum number of data points specified in the search parameters.

266 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Search
Search Parameters
Min. Samples
Min. Samples represents the minimum number of data samples to use in property estimation.
If the search algorithm finds fewer data samples, no estimation is done in this cell.

Max. Samples
Max. Samples represents the maximum number of data samples to search for using the
Superblock or Spiral search algorithms. If more data samples exist in the search range than
specified, only the closest data samples are used for property estimation, up to the maximum
specified value.

Thickness
Thickness represents the maximum vertical search thickness to search for data samples.

Radius
Radius represents the maximum horizontal radius to search for data samples.

Azimuth (deg.)
Angle represents the major search direction, measured in degrees clockwise relative to North.
The range of acceptable values goes from -180 degrees to +180 degrees.

Anisotropy
Anisotropy represents the horizontal ratio for the minor versus major search directions. This
defines the ellipse shape. Acceptable values go from 0.0 to 1.0. The minor direction is
perpendicular to the major direction.

Sector Search
The Sector search algorithm does not use the Max. Samples parameter. The following three
parameters are used:

Points/Sector
Points/Sector represents the maximum number of data samples per sector to use in property
estimation.

Number Sectors
Number of Sectors represents the number of sectors to break the search region into. This is
analogous to deciding how many slices of pizza to cut.

Allowable Empty Sectors


Allowable Empty Sectors represents the number of sectors that can have no data samples in
it. If more empty sectors exist than specified, no property estimation is done. By default, this
number is one less than the number of sectors, since at least one sector requires data for property
estimation.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 267


Search
Output Mask
At the Output tab of the Property Population Dialog you are able to specify the parameters
for the populated output grid. These parameters include a number of (optional) ways to
selectively populate the output grid.
This section contains information on:
• "Populating an output grid" on page 268.
• "Filtering options" on page 268.

Populating an output grid


• Click on Output Mask.
• Select the populate output grid using check boxes as required, and describe the
parameters.
• Click on Populate.
The output grid is populated with the values you have established in the Property
Population Dialog.

Filtering options
Property Population allows you to modify output by any or all of six filtering options:

Current Property Grid


Allows you to overwrite specified values in the current property grid.

Template Property Grid


Allows you to overlay on the output property grid the values you have arrived at in another grid,
that acts as a template, and (optionally) to specify additional constraints on the population.

K Layers
Allows you to specify two layers; you can populate either between the two layers or outside the
two layers.

Surfaces
Allows you to use surface(s) as population guides; you can populate above or below a specified
surface, between two surfaces, or outside two surfaces.

Displayed Cells
Allows you to populate according to selected cells of the output grid in the 3D Viewer.
You can use these modifiers after you first create a grid, or you can use them in re-gridding.
They offer great flexibility in managing and controlling the population distribution in your
property grids.
They work in a logical AND relationship. For example, if you decide to populate only between
two surfaces AND only between 3D displayed cells, the population occurs only in those cells
that fall between the two surfaces AND are included in the display.

268 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Output Mask
Restrictions
Note the following restrictions:
• You cannot populate (the Populate button is inactive) if you have toggled ON a population
option that contains no data or for which you have selected no data.
• You can set an option or combination of options so that NO cells can be populated.
• You can set an option or combination of options so that ALL cells are populated.
• If you are repopulating an output grid using the selective population options, only the cells
included by your selections in these options are overwritten; earlier values are unchanged.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 269


Output Mask
Current Property Grid
In the current property grid for population, you can choose to overwrite specified values in any
of five ways.

Hint Because one of your options is to use classes as inclusive or exclusive features, you
may want to review "Indicator Classes" on page 287.

This section includes information on the following:


• "Overwrite" on page 270.
• "Notes" on page 270.

Overwrite
At Overwrite, make a selection from the five options on the drop-down menu:

NULLS:
Overwrites any nulls in the existing output grid with the corresponding values from the current
grid.

Range:
Overwrites any values in the existing output range that fall between user-specified minimum
and maximum with the corresponding values from the current grid. That is, only cells whose
existing output grid values lie within the minimum and maximum values are included during
the population process. See note 1.

Exclude Range:
Overwrites any values in the existing output range that are smaller than the user-specified
minimum or larger than the user-specified maximum with the corresponding values from the
current grid. That is, only cells whose existing output grid values are greater than the maximum
and less than the minimum values are included during the population process. See note 1.

Classes:
Overwrites any value in the user-specified classes with the corresponding value from the current
grid. That is, only cells whose existing output grid values correspond to the class values are
included in the population process. See note 2.

Exclude Classes:
Overwrites any value not in the user-specified classes with the corresponding value from the
current grid. That is, only cells whose existing output grid values do not correspond to the class
values are included in the population process. See note 2.

Notes
1 If you selected Range or Exclude Range, use the Min and Max text fields to set Min and
Max values.
2 If you selected Classes or Exclude classes, click on Indicator.

270 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Current Property Grid
An Object Selector opens, listing available indicator classifications.
3 Select the desired Indicator Classification.
4 Click on Classes.
An Object Selector opens listing the available classes associated with the indicator.
5 Select the class(es) you wish to limit population to or to exclude from population.
6 Select another option at Selective Population.
Or
• Click on Populate.

Note If you are using the Indicator Simulation algorithm and have set global proportions
to equal more or less than 1.0, a warning panel opens. You may either return to the
Proportions portion of the Algorithm tab and readjust the values, or you may choose
(by selecting Yes) to have the program recompute the proportions to equal 1.0.

FloGrid User Guide Property population 271


Current Property Grid
Creating and specifying data
This section contains information on:
• Creating template property grids, see "Template Property Grid" on page 272
• Creating K- Layers, see "K Layers" on page 274
• Specifying surfaces, see "Surfaces" on page 275
• Calculating borehole/surface intersections, see "Borehole/Surface Intersections" on
page 277
• Creating property grids, see "Create..." on page 278
• Selecting units, see "Unit..." on page 279
• "Create Parameter Set..." on page 280
• "Load Parameter Set..." on page 280
• Deleting parameters sets, see "Delete parameter set..." on page 280
• Selecting property type data, see "Property Type..." on page 280
• "Well Logs Data Selector" on page 281
• "2D Property Maps Data Selector" on page 281
• "3D Property Grid Selector" on page 282
• "Scatter Sets Data Selector" on page 282
• "Property Population Parameters Selection" on page 283

Template Property Grid


Once you have created a grid, you probably do additional manipulations with the data and
eventually want to repopulate that grid. There are a number of features in this process to make
it simpler and more productive. The Selective Population toggle gives you access to a
Template option, which allows you to overlay on an existing output grid the values you have
arrived at and (optionally) to specify additional constraints on the population. The assumption
is that the template grid you select has at least some points in common with the current grid.

Hint Because one of your options is to use classes as inclusive or exclusive features, you
may want to review "Indicator Classes" on page 287.

Notes
• If you have no grids to use as templates or you do not select a template, you must be sure
that Template is toggled OFF. Otherwise you cannot populate (the Populate button is not
active).
• If you have created a channel complex using the Fluvial Simulation algorithm, you can use
that structure as a template.

Creating a template property grid


1 Toggle Template Property Grid ON.

272 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Creating and specifying data
The Template tab becomes active and available for input. This tab not only allows you to
select a grid to overlay on the output grid, but also allows you to specify where the output
grid nodes are computed.
2 Click on Property Type.
An Input Data Property Selector opens, listing all available property types. You cannot
create or delete from this interface, only select.
• Select a property type.
See "Property Type..." on page 280.
3 Select a single or multiple realization to use.
4 Click on Template.
The 3D Property Grid Selector opens, listing all available 3D grids. You cannot create or
delete from this interface, only select.
See "3D Property Grid Selector" on page 282.

Note As you are using a selected grid as a template, when you specify one of them as the
Template Grid, its locations and values are used to create the final output grid, but the
Template Grid itself is not (indeed cannot be) overwritten.

5 Go to the 3D Property Grid Selector.


• When you are finished, click on Previous Topic to return.
The Load Template button on the Template tab becomes active.
6 Click on Load Template.

The selected grid is loaded, and the “Histogram” button and following options become
active. Note that if multiple realization is selected, data for only the first realization of the
selected template property grid is loaded.

7 (Optional) To see a histogram of the data in the template grid, click on “Histogram” .

Note that if multiple realization is selected, the histogram for data of only the first
realization of the selected template property grid is displayed.
8 In Overwrite, make a selection from the five options on the drop-down menu:
• NULLS:
Overwrite any nulls in the template grid with the corresponding values from the current
grid. Go to step 12.
• Range:
Overwrite any values in the template range that fall between user-specified minimum
and maximum with the corresponding values from the current grid. That is, only cells
whose template grid values lie within the minimum and maximum values are included
during the population process. Go to step 9.
• Exclude Range:

FloGrid User Guide Property population 273


Creating and specifying data
Overwrite any values in the template range that are smaller than the user-specified
minimum or larger than the user-specified maximum with the corresponding values
from the current grid. That is, only cells whose template grid values are greater than
the maximum and less than the minimum values are included during the population
process. Go to step 9.
• Classes:
Overwrite any value in the user-specified classes with the corresponding value from
the current grid. That is, only cells whose template grid values correspond to the class
values are included in the population process. Go to step 10.
• Exclude Classes:
Overwrite any value not in the user-specified classes with the corresponding value
from the current grid. That is, only cells whose template grid values do not correspond
to the class values are included in the population process. Go to step 10.
9 If you selected Range or Exclude Range, use the Min and Max text fields to set Min and
Max values.
10 If you selected Classes or Exclude classes, click on Indicator.
An Object Selector opens, listing available indicator classifications.
11 Select the desired indicator classification.
12 Click on Classes.
An Object Selector opens listing the available classes associated with the indicator.
13 Select the class(es) you wish to limit population to or to exclude from population.
14 Select another option at Selective Population.
Or
• Click on Populate.

Note If you are using the Indicator Simulation algorithm and have set global proportions
to equal more or less than 1.0, a warning panel opens. You may either return to the
Proportions portion of the Algorithm tab and readjust the values, or you may choose
(by selecting Yes) to have the program recompute the proportions to equal 1.0.

K Layers
When you created the property grid you are using in populating, you also created K layers. This
option allows you to specify one or more K layers between which to populate or outside which
to populate.

Note If you do not select Two Layer, you must be sure that Layers is toggled OFF.
Otherwise you cannot populate (the Populate button is not active).

Specifying K Layers
1 Check K Layers ON.

274 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Creating and specifying data
The K Layers tab becomes active and available for input. This tab allows you to select two
K layers to be used in populating the output grid.
2 From the drop-down menu at Populate, select how you want the input to be used:
• Between and Including:
Population occurs inside the specified layers and in all layers between them.
• Outside and Excluding:
Population occurs only outside the layers.
3 Use the K Layer text fields to select the two layers you wish to use.

Hint You can limit population to a single layer by selecting the same layer in both places.

4 Select another option at Selective Population.


Or
• Click on Populate.

Surfaces
Specifies a surface above or below which population is to occur. Or you can specify select two
grids or constants (or a mix) and restrict population to between or outside them.

Note If you do not select a surface, you must be sure that Surface is toggled OFF.

This section includes information on:


• "Specifying Surfaces" on page 275.
• "Displayed Cells" on page 276.

Specifying Surfaces
1 Check Surfaces ON.
The Surfaces tab becomes active and available for input. This tab allows you to select
grids or to specify constants to be used in populating the output grid.
2 From the drop-down menu, select how you want the input to be used:
• Above:
Population occurs only above the specified grid or constant. Upper Surface... is
inactive.
• Below:
Population occurs only below the specified grid or constant. Lower Surface... is
inactive.
• Between:
Population occurs only between the specified grids or constants. Both selection areas
are active.
• Outside:

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Creating and specifying data
Population occurs only outside the specified grids or constants. Both selection areas
are active.

Note If you selected Between or Outside, you may use two surfaces.

3 Click on Upper Surface or Lower Surface as applicable.


If you selected surface, a 2D Property Maps Data Selector opens, listing all available
Horizons. See "2D Property Maps Data Selector" on page 281.
Select the surface you wish to use and click on OK.
The Data Selector closes, and the name of the surface you selected is displayed in the text
box on the surface.
4 Select another option, or click on Populate.

Displayed Cells
You can limit population by displayed cells in 3D display in which to populate.

Note If you do not wish to populate, you must be sure that Displayed Cells is toggled OFF.

1 Toggle Displayed Cells ON.


2 On the 3D Display, select Grid Cells.
3 Select another option at Selective Population.
Or
• Click on Populate.

Save Parameter Set


Saves the property population parameter set. In case the name of the set has not been specified,
a dialog is displayed to query for the name. Only parameter sets that have not been used for
population and, therefore, are allowed to be edited, can be saved.

Save Parameter Set As...


Saves the property population parameter set using a different name than the one currently being
used.

Save Parameter Set and Populate


Save the property population parameter set and runs the population operation using this
parameter set. A warning is displayed if the property population parameter set specification is
incomplete. After the population operation has been completed, the parameter set is locked for
editing, to preserve the grid population history.

Populate Multiple...
Runs the population operation on multiple parameter sets in the specified sequence. See
“"Property Population Parameters Selection" on page 283. After the population operation has
been completed, all the parameter sets used in the population operation are locked for editing,
to preserve the grid population history.

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Creating and specifying data
Borehole/Surface Intersections
When you click on the Borehole Surface Intersection button on the Primary Input tab, if
Well Logs has been selected, it computes the intersections between each well/well section and
the start and end depths of all surfaces encountered by that well/well section, and the
intersection information is presented in this Borehole/surface Intersection panel.
The computation results are in a list of intervals along the path of the well trajectory (defined
by the corresponding deviation survey). An intersection is paired with any marker that
corresponds to that intersection if there is mark data available for the intersection.

Note The computed intersection may not always correspond with the interpreted position.
Such a divergence is an indication that you may want to do some stretching or
squeezing of the data before proceeding with property population.

The intersection information is presented in spreadsheet form on the Borehole/surface


Intersection panel. This panel is divided into three areas:
• "Table Setup" on page 277.
• "Borehole/Surface Intersection Information" on page 277.
• "Control buttons" on page 278.

Table Setup
Customizes the contents and sorting of your spreadsheet display. The spreadsheet table can be
sorted by Borehole Name, Surface Name, Intersection Measured Depth, Marker
Measured Depth, the Difference of the Depth Values, Selected Intersection, Depth
Value to Use, Marker Name, Intersection Tvd or Marker TVD value in either the ascending
or descending order.
It can also sort the table with a secondary attribute if you toggle Secondary Sort ON and select
the attribute and either ascending or descending order.

Borehole/Surface Intersection Information


The spreadsheet area, presenting information about the intersections of wells/well sections with
surfaces. The information is presented in following columns:
• Borehole Name
• Surface Name
• Computed Intersection Measured Depth Value
• Marker Measured Depth Value
• Difference Of The Two Depth Values
• Selected Intersection Type
• Depth Value To Use
• Marker Name
• Computed Intersection TVD Value
• Maker TVD Value.

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Creating and specifying data
Here you can select to use computed intersection measured depth value or marker depth value
by selecting from the drop-down list in the Selected Intersection column, or type in a depth
value of your own. For the following property population, by default, when marker depth value
is available for an intersection, the marker depth value is selected.
• You can set to use Intersection Depth values or Marker Depth values for all intersections
by clicking on the Set to Marker or Set to Intersection buttons under the spreadsheet.

Control buttons
Recalculate...
Selects some or all of the wells/well sections to recompute the intersection values. It opens a
pop-up panel listing all the wells/well sections loaded, from which you can select the wells/well
sections that you want to be computed.
After you click on OK to close the popup panel, the intersections for the selected wells/well
sections are recomputed and the spreadsheet table is refreshed to reflect the new results.

Recalculate All
Redo the borehole surface intersection computation on all of the wells/well sections loaded and
refresh the spreadsheet with the new results.

Set to Marker
Sets the Selected Intersection column to Marker and the Depth Value to Use column to the
corresponding Marker Depth Values for all the intersections.

Set to Intersection
Sets the Selected Intersection column to Intersection and the Depth Value to Use column
to the corresponding Computed Intersection Depth value for all the intersections.

Reset
Resets the spreadsheet table to its initial state. That is, sorted by borehole names in ascending
order, Selected Intersection column and Depth Value to Use column to marker and marker
depth value respectively if the marker for the intersection is available, otherwise to Intersection
and Computed Intersection depth values respectively.

Note Your settings for the Borehole Surface Intersection panel are not restored in a
workspace restore. The borehole surface intersection values are recalculated the first
time you open the Borehole Surface Intersection panel from the Property
Population dialog after you have restored the workspace.

Create...
Name
Provides the new name for the property grid.

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Creating and specifying data
Type
Select the property type for this grid from the drop-down menu. Only the property types that can
be populated are available for selection.

Create Property Type...


See "Property Type..." on page 280.

Unit...
Selects the units for the selected model. Only the units that have been selected are populated.
The units in this property model are displayed in a multi-selection list. Any number of
contiguous items can be chosen from this list.

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Creating and specifying data
Property Population menu

Create Parameter Set...


Name
Provide the new name for the Population Parameter Set. This name should be unique.

Clone Of
Select this option to clone an existing population parameter set. The existing population
parameter sets are displayed in a single select list. When you select a parameter from this list,
textual information about the parameter is shown in the read-only text window on the right side
of the dialog. Whenever a new item is selected, the old information is replaced with information
on the new parameter.

Load Parameter Set...


Selects a Property Population Parameter Set to display it in the Property Population panel.
A single select list of all the population parameter sets is displayed for selection on the left side
of the dialog. When you select a parameter from this list, textual information about the
parameter is displayed in the read-only text window on the right. Whenever a new item is
selected, the old information is replaced with the information from the new parameter.

Save parameter set


Saves the currently active set.

Save parameter set as...


Opens a dialog for you to enter the new name.

Delete parameter set...


Deletes Property Population Parameter Sets. A multiple select list of all the population
parameter sets is displayed for selection.

Property Type...
Selects the Property Type for the data.

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Property Population menu
All the available property types for the selected data type is displayed in a single select list.
Selected property type is used as a filter for the selection of the data which is made from the
Select... panel.

Well Logs Data Selector


Selects well log data for input into property population.

Property
Displays the Property Type of the data in a read only text field.

Available: Well Logs (Well Section)


Displays all the well logs of the selected property type.

Note Well logs of only those wells that have had their borehole surface intersection
calculated are available for selection.

Well log names are displayed by appending the name of their well section to their names. You
can select one or more well logs either by double clicking on the name or by use of the move
arrow buttons.

Selected Well Logs


Displays all the well logs that have been selected as input data. You can deselect data either by
double clicking on the name or by the use of selection and move arrow buttons.

OK
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel and removes the panel.

Apply
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel.

2D Property Maps Data Selector


Selects 2D property map data for input into property population. It displays the names of all the
property maps in FloGrid that matches the selected property type in a single select list, with the
current selection highlighted.

Property
Displays the Property Type of the data in a read only text field.

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Property Population menu
OK
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel and removes the panel.

Apply
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel.

3D Property Grid Selector


Selects 3D property grids data for input into property population. The panel is divided into 3
single select lists.
The left most list displays all the models. Selection of any model results in the display of all the
property grids in that model which are of the selected property type in the middle list. Selecting
any property grid results in the display of all the realizations of that property grid.

Property
Displays the Property Type of the data in a read only text field.

OK
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel and removes the panel.

Apply
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel.

Scatter Sets Data Selector


Selects scatter sets data for input into property population. It displays the names of all the scatter
sets in FloGrid that matches the selected property type in a single select list, with the current
selection highlighted.

Note Voxel picks, in depth domain, can be exported from GeoViz as 3D scatter data (x, y, z,
property) and imported into FloGrid using File | Import | Scatter Sets. You can use
the Property Population tool, to populate the grid with the scatter set data by selecting
it as primary input data for either direct assignment or inverse distance algorithm, with
a small search radius. You can then use the populated 3D grid to aid further population,
say as a template grid. To generate channel bodies you can use the FluvSim algorithm.

Property
Displays the Property Type of the data in a read only text field.

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Property Population menu
OK
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel and removes the panel.

Apply
Sets the data selected as the current data selection. It also displays the selected data in the
Property Population panel.

Property Population Parameters Selection


Selects multiple property population parameter sets and modify their selection order.

Parameter to select
Displays all the property population parameter sets that are available for population operation.

Parameter selected
Displays all the property population parameter sets selected for the population operation. Up
and down arrow buttons allow you to change the order of the selected parameter sets.

OK
Starts population operation on the Property Population Parameter Sets in the order selected
and removes the panel.

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Property Population menu
Indicator Classification
This section describes how to use indicator classification in FloGrid property population and the
guidelines to create indicator classes.
To select an Indicator Classification:
• Select Classification button from Advanced Thresholding in the Primary Input tab.
or
• Click on Indicator for Current Property Grid and Template Property Grid in Output
Mask tab.
The Object Selector panel opens.
This section contains information on the following:
• "Indicator Classifications" on page 284.
• "Creating and editing an indicator classification" on page 284.
• "Defining classes" on page 285.
• "Guidelines for creating indicator classes" on page 287.

Indicator Classifications
A list box to show all the existing classifications for the property type.

New
Creates a new indicator classification by bring up the Indicator Classification Editor panel.

Selection
Displays the currently selected indicator classification (read-only field).

Creating and editing an indicator classification


To create/edit an indicator classification:
• Select New from the Object Selector,
• or the Edit button in the Sequential Indicator Simulation
• or Fluvial Object Simulation in the Algorithm tab,
the Indicator Classification Editor panel opens.
• Alternatively you can select Edit from the Object Selector to bring up the Indicator
Classification Editor in editing mode.
• Use the interface to specify the parameters for the new indicator classification.

Hint You may want to review the guidelines (see "Guidelines for creating indicator classes"
on page 287) for creating classes before beginning.

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Indicator Classification
The indicator classification editor consists of three areas:

Indication Classification:
Set the basic parameters for the new object (name, description and type).

Classes:
Set the classes and their parameters.

Command bar:
Consists of OK, Cancel, Help buttons.
To create the indicator classification:
• Enter the Name under which you wish to save the indicator classification.

Note Note, if you are editing an existing classification by clicking on Edit button from the
Object Selector, the name is read-only.

• Enter an optional Description of the indicator classification.


• Property Type shows the property type of the current property and is a read-only field.

Defining classes
Individual classes are defined using a spreadsheet structure. The fields include:

Index
Automatically generated index numbers, starting from 0, which are used to represent the
indicator class in the populated grid. These numbers cannot be modified.

Name
Name for the class.

Minimum
Minimum property value for the current class.

Maximum
Maximum property value for the current class.

Note Minimum and Maximum values are used for continuous properties. For categorical
properties, they are replaced by Category.

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Indicator Classification
Color
Sets the color in which class is to be displayed in the 3D Viewer when the simulation is
completed and viewed.

Delete Row

Note You cannot delete the existing classes in the classifications from the Algorithm tab
since they are read-only, but the min/max values (category values for categorical
properties) can be changed, if the min/max values are set to -1/-1 (category values set
to -1), then the corresponding classes are set to unused. Review the guidelines for
creating classes, see "Guidelines for creating indicator classes" on page 287.

Toggle Usage
Toggles on/off the current row. After the row is toggled off, it is not used in the following
calculation.
When an indicator classification is first created, the Indicator Classification Editor checks for
the classes which are already defined for the property type in 3D Viewer’s Color Map Editor,
if there are any classes, the Editor displays these classes with the minimum and maximum
values set to -1. If there is no any classes existing for the property type, the Editor does not
display an entry. When an indicator classification exists, the Editor displays the existing classes
in the classification.

Note If you open the Indicator Classification Editor from Algorithm tab, the existing
classes are in read-only mode. You can only adjust the Minimum and Maximum
values (Category values for categorical properties) or create more classes in the
classification.

To define a class
• Use the Add Row to add one or more rows in the spreadsheet.
• Enter a name in the Name field of each class you are creating. The name can be typed into
the cell or selected from pre-defined common class names from the drop-down list.
• Enter a Minimum and a Maximum value (or Category values in case of categorical
properties) for each class you are creating. For Category values, the user can enter multiple
integral values for a class by connecting the integral values by comma (,) or dash (-). For
example, ‘1-3’, ‘4-6, 8’. For Minimum values, if the user enter the Minimum value for the
current class, and the Maximum value for the previous class is -1.0, then the -1.0 will be
automatically replaced by the Minimum value of the current class.

Note Please refer to "Guidelines for creating indicator classes" on page 287 regarding how
to set the minimum and maximum values.

• Select a color from each class you are creating from the dropdown Colour field.

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Indicator Classification
Selecting classes
When you select:
• the Classes button for Advanced Thresholding in the Primary Input tab
• the Set button for Fluvial Object Simulation in the Algorithm tab
• or the Indicator button for Current Property Grid and Template Property Grid in the
Output Mask tab
the Indicator Class Selector panel opens. It consists of the following areas:

Query From
Name of the classification to select from.

Indicator Classes
Displays all the existing classes for the classification.

Selection
Displays the currently selected indicator classes. This field is read-only.

Guidelines for creating indicator classes


In defining an indicator set, the following rules apply:
1 The data falls in a specified class if min < value <= max, where min and max are the
Minimum and Maximum, respectively, for the indicator, and value is the data value for
continuous properties.
2 One class must have a Minimum and Maximum value (or Category value).
3 If the Minimum and the Maximum value equal -1 (the Category value equals -1 for
categorical properties), the class is set to unused.

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Indicator Classification
Property Population Data Analysis
Property Population offers graphical plotting tools to assist you in your data analysis. Each
graph plot type can be displayed by selecting data and clicking on a button on the Property
Population Manager. This opens the Data Analysis tool with the plotted data and plot type.
This section contains information on the following:
• saving graphs as bitmaps: see "File" on page 288.
• editing data: see "Edit" on page 289.
• Standard View menu options: see "Module common options" on page 88.
• Analysis options: see "Analysis" on page 290.
• Analyzing data: see "Data Analysis" on page 292.
• Modifying histograms: see "Histogram Settings" on page 297.
• Displaying univariate statistics: see "Univariate Statistics" on page 298.
• Displaying univariate and bivariate statistics: see "Bivariate Statistics" on page 300.
• "Variogram Specification" on page 302.

Plot Types
Histogram
Bar graph of data frequency distribution.

Variogram
Plot of data spatial correlation.

Crossplot
Bivariate plot in which the components of a data pair are plotted against each other.

Vertical Proportion Curve Data


Bar graph of indicator class distribution by layer. Note this is available only for algorithms
supporting indicator classification.

Bar Chart
Bar graph where the data is binned into independent bars.

File
All the file options are contained in this menu. The standard options are detailed in "Module
common options" on page 88.

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Property Population Data Analysis
Note Note that some do not exist for the Data Analysis tool and are switched off as shown
by the menu items.

Save to Bitmap
Graph...
Saves the main graph to a bitmap file.

Active Graph...
Saves the active graph to a bitmap file.

Whole Picture...
Saves all pictures including small graphs to a bitmap file.

Edit
This menu contains all the options for editing data.

Note Note if the edit options exist in the application, but the current plot consists of data that
is non-editable, then the options are switched off. This is shown by the menu items,
and toolbar buttons being grayed out.

Remove Active Graph


Deletes the selected graph in the main workspace. This option is only available when there is
more than one graph in the workspace.

Add New Graph...


Adds an empty graph placeholder to the main workspace.

Remove Stale Data


Removes any graphs that are labeled as Stale Data. A graph is labeled as Stale Data when the
same plot selection type is graphed in the Data Analysis window and the data is different.

Remove All Data


Removes all of the graphs from all of the workspaces.

Do Not Add Stale Data


Indicates that stale data is not kept in a workspace when the same plot selection type is graphed
with different data. Any graphs that are currently labeled as stale data are not removed. Only
from the time that the selection is made is stale data not kept. To remove any current stale data
graphs, select the Remove Stale Data selection under the Edit menu.

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Property Population Data Analysis
Analysis
Apply Original Data

Note The Data Analysis tool does not use these options and so they are switched off as
shown by the grayed out menu items.

Options
The standard menu options are detailed in "Module common options" on page 88.

Add/Remove Components...
Displays the Graph Configuration panel for the Data Analysis window. You can modify the
visible and hidden layout and window components from here.

Graph Legend Style...


Opens the Graph Legend Configuration panel, which you can use to control the appearance
of the legend at the top of the active graph, or even whether it is present.

Plot style settings...


Opens the Data Style panel for the currently active plot. You can modify various style settings
for the appearance of the data (line, marker style and color) through this panel.

X/Y Axis Settings...


Opens the Axis Property Editing panel for the axis displaying the current active data, either X
or Y, depending on menu option chosen. You can modify the many axis style attributes from this
panel.

Grid Settings...
Opens the Grid Property Editing panel. The grid has a small number of settings, mostly related
to the visibility of the grid itself, and the current point, if defined.

Histogram Settings...
Opens the Histogram Editing panel. You can use the panel settings to modify the selected
histogram in the main workspace. See "Histogram Settings" on page 297.

Bar Chart Settings...


Opens the Bar Chart Editing panel. You can use the panel settings to modify the selected bar
chart in the main workspace. The available settings allow you to display the bar chart showing
the frequency or percentage along the y-axis.

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Property Population Data Analysis
Vertical Proportion Settings...
Opens the Vertical Proportion Editing panel. You can use the panel settings to modify the
selected vertical proportion in the main workspace. The available settings allow you to display
the vertical proportion showing the frequency or proportion along the x-axis.

Original Data Table...


Opens the Original Vector Data panel. This table shows the data in the main workspace before
it is analyzed. You cannot edit the data at present. Each column in the table represents a vector
of data that is used in the data analysis.

Table...
Opens the Active plot vector data panel. This table shows the selected histogram, cross-plot,
or variogram data that is plotted after the data is analyzed. The first column shows the data along
the x-axis, and the second column shows the data along the y-axis. You cannot edit the data.
If there is more than one data plot on a graph, the data in the table is shown for the currently
selected plot. The currently selected plot is highlighted in yellow in the legend above the graph
grid.

Bar Chart Table...


Opens the Bar Chart Data panel. This table shows the selected bar chart data that is plotted
after the data is analyzed. It shows the frequency or percentage for each property type. The color
that represents the property type is shown next to the property type name.

Vertical Proportion Table...


Opens the Vertical Proportion Data panel. This table shows the selected vertical proportion
data that is plotted after the data is analyzed. For each K Layer, it shows the frequency or
proportion value of each property type. The color that represents the property type is shown
below the property name on the table.

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Property Population Data Analysis
Data Analysis
The Data Analysis window is divided into a main workspace and small workspaces. Each
workspace can display graphs of a particular set of data. You select the data and graphs that are
displayed in the Property Population panel, see "Geological Property model" on page 215.
The Data Analysis window is limited to ten small workspaces and one main workspace.
When you display data using the Property Population panel, the current graphs in the main
workspace move to a small workspace. If all workspaces have data, then the next time data is
displayed by the Property Population panel, the data in one of the workspaces labeled Stale
Data is automatically removed.

Note A graph is labeled as Stale Data when the same plot selection type is graphed in the
Data Analysis window and the data is different.

Hint You can set a flag set in the CONFIG.ECL file so that you are prompted with a
confirmation popup before the Stale Data workspace is removed. The default is not
to prompt with a confirmation popup.

This section contains information on:


• Main Data Analysis "Options" on page 292.
• "Histogram Plots" on page 292.
• "Cross Plots" on page 293.
• "Variograms" on page 294.
• "Vertical Proportions" on page 295.
• "Bar Charts" on page 296.

Options
The standard menu options are detailed in "Module common options" on page 88.

Histogram Plots
A histogram is a graphical representation of frequency of data occurrence; that is, how often a
value occurs in the data set. You can generate a histogram of your data set by selecting data and
clicking on the histogram button on the property population manager.

Hint Histograms are not useful for Constant data, all of which has exactly the same value.
There is no distribution and therefore no way to provide a meaningful graph of
distribution.

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Data Analysis
Viewing a histogram can tell you many things about your data, including whether it might be
useful to threshold your data and/or to lump it. For example, if the property you are modeling
is porosity and the histogram shows a number of 0 values, you probably want to threshold the
data to exclude 0 (non-porous) values. In addition, several lumping algorithms do not accept 0
values.
You can use the Histogram Editing panel to modify the selected histogram in the main
workspace. See "Histogram Settings" on page 297.
If the data to be plotted is discrete data, then a bar chart is plotted when the histogram button is
clicked. This occurs if there are 100 or less discrete bins; otherwise, a histogram is plotted. See
"Bar Charts" on page 296

Popup Menu
You have a choice of three styles of histograms, which you can select on the popup menu. You
access the menu by clicking with the right mouse button in a histogram graph in the main
workspace.
You also can select the Univariate Statistics panel box from the popup menu.

Display histogram plot


Displays a graph of the data as a histogram.

Display cumulative plot


Displays a graph of the data as a cumulative histogram.

Display inverse cumulative plot


Displays a graph of the data as an inverse cumulative histogram.

Show Univariate Statistics


Opens the Univariate Statistics panel. This panel displays univariate statistics on the data that
is graphed in the main workspace. Once the panel is displayed, it stays displayed until it is
closed so that multiple univariate statistics can be displayed at the same time. See "Univariate
Statistics" on page 298.

Cross Plots
A crossplot allows you to examine the cross-dependency between measurements of different
attributes. You need this functionality when you are dealing with algorithms that require
primary and secondary input. These are typically kriging-type algorithms.

Popup Menu
You have a choice of three styles of crossplot that you can select on the popup menu. You access
the menu by clicking with the right mouse button in a cross plot graph in the main workspace.

Display Scatter Cross Plot


Displays a bivariate plot where the components of data pairs are plotted against each other. It
allows you to observe three basic patterns of correlation:

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Data Analysis
Positive:
Large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other variable.

Negative:
Large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other variable.

Non-correlated:
No association of value size of one variable with value size of the other variable.

Display QQ Cross Plot


Displays a plot of matching quantities. A straight line suggests that the distributions of the two
variables are similar. If the straight line is other than x=y (regression), the distributions of the
two variables are similar in shape but have different locations and spreads.
When you are using as your variables the input data and the output grid produced by an
algorithm, a Q-Q plot tends to illustrate any problems in the centers of the distributions

Display PP Cross Plot


Displays a plot of matching cumulative probabilities (scaled from 0 to 1). A straight line
suggests that the distributions of the two variables are similar.
When you are using as your variables the input data and the output grid produced by an
algorithm, a P-P plot tends to illustrate any problems in the tails of the distributions

Display Primary Collocated Histogram Plot, Display Secondary


Collocated Histogram Plot
Displays the histograms that are available for Primary Collocated Data and for Secondary
Collocated Data.

Note Be aware that the histograms produced from these selections are not the same as a
histogram on the Property Population. The Secondary Collocated Data histogram,
for example, displays secondary collocated with primary data in the crossplot, rather
than all secondary values. This limited set corresponds to values resampled from the
Secondary Collocated Data set at the primary data location. Also, note that if any
primary or secondary collocated data values are null, that data pair is removed from
the data.

Show Bivariate Statistics


Displays a mostly read-only listing of the univariate and bivariate values comprising the data.
The only values you can change are for Linear Regression. See"Bivariate Statistics" on
page 300.

Variograms
A variogram is a graphical tool for examining spatial correlations among data. This is important
because data values tend to become more dissimilar as the distance between them increases.
Thus before populating your model you may want to perform a variogram analysis of the data.
Several of the property population algorithms require the use of one or more variogram models
during the population process.

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Data Analysis
Features of a variogram
Figure 12.4 Features of a variogram

= Semivariogram
Value
Gamma Range

Sill
Nugget
Lag Distances

The range is the distance at which the variogram reaches a plateau--the distance at which
increased separation between data pairs causes no further dissimilarity.
The sill is the plateau formed when the distance between data pairs causes no further
dissimilarity.
The nugget effect occurs when the semi variogram value does not tend to 0 when the separation
vector value does.

Popup Menu
You access the popup menu by right-clicking in a variogram graph in the main workspace.

Show Variogram Specification


Opens the Variogram Specification, which can be used for creating, selecting, or editing
variogram models or computing experimental variograms. See "Variogram Specification" on
page 302.

Vertical Proportions
The Vertical Proportion plot is a special type of horizontal bar chart where the x-axis contains
the frequency or proportion (0.0 to 1.0) for a particular bin and y-axis shows the depth of K
layer. This plot is useful for viewing the data trends vertically. It is available only for algorithms
utilizing indicator classification; it keys its display to the parameters of the indicator
classification you have selected for use.
This tool allows you to review the proportion of facies type per layer quickly, typically to see if
a trend exists that makes the imposition of vertical proportions useful.
If data is missing for a layer, the display shows a white gap.
You can use the Vertical Proportion Editing panel to modify the selected vertical proportion
in the main workspace by selecting Vertical Proportion Settings... under Options. The
available setting allows the vertical proportion to be displayed showing the frequency or
proportion along the x-axis.

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Popup Menu
You can access the popup menu by right-clicking in a vertical proportion graph in the main
workspace.

Toggle Frequency/Percentage
Toggles the vertical proportion display to show frequency or proportion along the x-axis.

Bar Charts
The Bar Chart plot displays a series of bars (bins) with independent labels along the x-axis and
with a common unit of measurement along the y-axis. Bar charts are similar to histogram plots,
but the data is not in a continuous range; the data are binned into independent bars.
You can use the Bar Chart Editing panel to modify the selected bar chart in the main workspace
by selecting Bar Chart Settings... under Options. The available setting allows the bar chart to
be displayed showing the frequency or percentage along the y-axis.
Bar charts are also used to display discrete histogram data if there are 100 or less discrete bins.

Popup Menu
You can access the popup menu by right-clicking in a bar chart graph in the main workspace.

Toggle Frequency/Percentage
This selection toggles the bar chart display to show frequency or percentage along the y-axis.

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Data Analysis
Histogram Settings
This panel contains options that you can use to modify the histogram that is selected in the main
workspace.

Bin Setting
Sets the histogram to be displayed using the number of bins or a bin width when the data is
analyzed.

Number of Bins
If the bin setting is Number of Bins, then the binning analysis is based on this number.

Bin Width
If the bin setting is Bin Width, then the binning analysis is based on this width.

Display Style
Displays the histogram showing the frequency or percentage along the y-axis.

Data Range Min, Data Range Max


Sets the data range that is to be used in the binning analysis.

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Histogram Settings
Univariate Statistics
This folder displays univariate statistics on the data that is graphed in the main workspace.

Options
Measure of Location
Sample Size
Number of valid data samples in the data set

Null Size
Number of invalid data samples in the data set

Minimum
Minimum value in the data set

Maximum
Maximum value in the data set

Mean
Arithmetic mean of the data set

Median
Median value in the data set

Percentile
Given a percentile value (for example, P90), the data value that exists in the cumulative
distribution

Measure of Spread
IQR
The inter-quartile range (IQR) describes the range of data values between the 75th and the 25th
percentiles.

Variance
The variance describes the variation of the data as a squared function of the differences between
the data samples and the arithmetic mean.

Ave. Dev.
The average deviation is a function of the differences between the data samples and the
arithmetic mean.

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Univariate Statistics
Std. Dev.
The standard deviation is the square root of the variance.

Measure of Shape
Skew
The skew describes how the data distribution behaves. If there is no skew, the data distribution
is symmetric about the mean. If a positive skew exists, the tail is longer to the right. If a negative
skew exists, the tail is longer to the left.

Kurtosis
The kurtosis describes the size of the tails. A normal distribution yields a kurtosis of 0, and is
termed mesokurtic. A positive kurtosis signifies larger tails, and is termed a leptokurtic
distribution. A negative kurtosis signifies smaller tails, and is termed platykurtic.

COV
The coefficient of variation is a ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, and is a measurement
of reliability. The smaller the coefficient of variation, the more reproducible the results will be.

Chi-square
The Chi-square distribution measures the goodness to fit of the data distribution to a normal (or
other) distribution. This value, along with the degrees of freedom, can be used to test whether
the data fits the normal distribution or not.

Degrees of Freedom
The degrees of freedom is part of the Chi-square test, and is related to the number of bins used
to test the goodness to fit.

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Univariate Statistics
Bivariate Statistics
This folder displays univariate and bivariate statistics on the data that is graphed in the main
workspace.

Options
Univariate Measure
Minimum
Minimum value in the data set

Maximum
Maximum value in the data set

Arithmetic Mean
Arithmetic mean of the data set

Standard Deviation
The standard deviation is the square root of the variance

Bivariate Measure
Number
The number of valid data sample pairs collocated with each other

Covariance
The covariance describes the relationship between the two variables. A covariance of 0 signifies
no dependence between the primary and secondary data. A positive covariance signifies a direct
relationship; as the primary values increase, the secondary values also increase. A negative
covariance signifies an inverse relationship; as the primary values increase, the secondary
values decrease.

Correlation Coefficient
The correlation coefficient is similar to the covariance measure, only goes from -1 (inversely
related) to +1. The closer the correlation coefficient is to 0, the less correlated the primary and
secondary data are.

Rank Correlation Coefficient


Similar to the correlation coefficient, only the rank correlation coefficient is computed on the
data ranks, not the actual data values. This is considered a more robust measure than the
correlation coefficient itself.

300 Property population FloGrid User Guide


Bivariate Statistics
Linear Regression
These are used to plot the linear regression line on the graph in the workspace.
• Slope
• Intercept
• Secondary Primary

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Bivariate Statistics
Variogram Specification
This folder contains options for the experimental variogram and the variogram model. The
loaded data that is used in the analysis is listed on the title bar of the panel and in each directional
graph that is displayed. The major, minor, and vertical direction graphs are displayed in the
Data Analysis window.
This section contains information on:
• "Experimental Parameters" on page 302.
• "Model Parameters" on page 304.
• "Interactive Graphs" on page 306.
• "Azimuth" on page 306.
• "Output Variogram Model" on page 307.

Experimental Parameters
This area contains options to calculate the experimental variogram measure. Experimental
variograms are based on data as originally loaded (well logs or grids) or on data derived from
the originally-loaded data: data that has been thresholded or lumped, for example, or grids
output from other Property Population actions.

Spatial Equations
Select from the drop-down Spatial Equations menu the type of correlation you wish to use.

Note Only those algorithms appropriate for the population algorithm selected and the data
type are listed. For example, if the algorithm selected is Sequential Indicator
Simulation, only Indicator Semivariogram is an option.

The available Spatial Equations are:


• Semivariogram
• Covariance
• Correlogram
• General Relative Semivariogram
• Pairwise Relative Semivariogram
• Semivariogram of Logarithms
• Semirodogram
• Semimadogram
• Indicator Semivariogram

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Variogram Specification
Search Distances
Lag, Maximum Lag
These two parameters together determine the number of lags, which is equal to the maximum
lag divided by the lag length. There is a built-in overlap for a lag distance equal to one-half the
value set for the lag. This distance is added to either side of the lag to ensure coverage of all
points. The maximum lag value must be greater than the lag value.

Decimation
Decimation controls are used to decimate the data. Decimating the data reduces the data size
and declusters the data based to the bin size specified.

Half Angle
This is the angle from the direction vector that is used for the data pair search.

Bandwidth
This is the max distance perpendicular to the direction vector that is used for the data pair search.

Angle Increments, Start Direction


The start direction is the initial azimuthal angle for calculating the directional experimental semi
variogram. The angle increments specifies the increment to use in calculating further directional
experimental Semivariogram.

Experimental and Cloud Buttons


Compute experimental
Computes the experimental variogram measure and plots the experimental variogram results in
each of the directional graphs. If this is clicked and no values have changed since the last
computation, a warning message will pop up.

Clear experimental
Removes the experimental variogram from each of the directional graphs.

Display cloud
Displays the cloud plot in each of the graphs. The cloud is made by plotting each data pair’s
separation distance versus the semi variogram measure. This button is desensitized until the
experimental has been computed at least once.

Note The first time this button is selected for a new variogram display, a popup message
suggests you clear the cloud data when it is not in use to prevent refresh delays.

Hint If the cloud data gets covered by another window and does not refresh, use View |
Refresh.

Clear cloud
Removes the cloud plots from each of the directional graphs.

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Variogram Specification
Model Parameters
This area contains options for creating, selecting, or editing variogram models. Variogram
models are used for geostatistical and simulation algorithms to determine the spatial variation
for the data set.
Changing the values on the panel automatically updates the directional graphs in the Data
Analysis window.
You can also update the values on the panel interactively on each of the directional graphs.

Input Variogram Model


You can select a saved variogram model by clicking on the drop-down menu. When a model is
selected, the panel updates the model values. The major, minor, and vertical graphs in the Data
Analysis window also update with the values. A model selection of None shows default values
for the selected data.

Model Type
You have three model choices:

Spherical
Has a linear behavior near the origin but flattens at longer distances.

Exponential
Has a linear behavior near the origin and reaches its sill asymptotically

Gaussian
Has a parabolic behavior at the origin and reaches its sill asymptotically

Nugget
The nugget effect occurs when the semi variogram value does not tend to 0 when the separation
vector value does.
• To update the Nugget Value, move the Nugget Slider, which also updates the nugget
value on all directional graphs.
• To update the Nugget Value interactively from the graph, press the left mouse button down
just right of the y-axis of the graph near the origin and move the cursor up or down the y-
axis. The cursor should change to an up and down arrow. The Nugget Value is the same
for all the variogram directions, so all graphs update as well. To refine the value, the slider
should be used.

Note When selecting the origin to update the Nugget Value, press the left mouse button
down on the right side of the y-axis close to the origin. (Pressing on the left side will
show a red line which will move the entire y-axis.)

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Variogram Specification
Note The Nugget Value must not be greater than the minimum sill value, and the slider and
graphs do not update past this value. They also do not update when the value is out of
the minimum or maximum value range. A message in the one-line help area will warn
you when the limits have been reached.

Variogram Direction
In variogram modeling, selecting a direction allows you to specify the anisotropy for the model
variogram. Anisotropy occurs when the spatial variability of a phenomenon changes with
direction.
You have four options that apply to the model:

Omnidirectional
Analyzes both the horizontal major and the horizontal minor at the same time.

Horizontal Major
Analyzes anisotropy in the principal (or major) axis direction. The major axis is the plane of
greatest continuity and is defined using the azimuth angle.

Horizontal Minor
Analyzes anisotropy at 90 degrees to the major axis as viewed in the x, y plane. The minor axis
occurs at the intersection of the major plane and the horizontal plane.

Vertical
Analyzes anisotropy at an angle that is perpendicular to the directions of both the minor axis and
the major axis. The vertical axis occurs at 90 degrees from both axes.

Areal Omnidirectional and Areal Major or Minor


When the Areal Omnidirectional button is selected, the major and minor values are the same
and any changes to the range or sill change both the horizontal major and the horizontal minor
values.
When the Areal Major or Minor button is selected, the major and minor values are independent
of each other and the range and sill values can be changed separately.
The exception to this is if the Constrain to major sill is checked on.

Constrain to major sill


When the Constrain to major sill is checked on, all sill values are set to the major sill value
and all values change the same whenever any of the sill values is changed. The default is for this
to be checked on.

Range
The range is the distance at which the variogram reaches a plateau--the distance at which
increased separation between data pairs causes no further dissimilarity.

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Variogram Specification
• To update the range value for a direction, move the Range Slider next to that direction.
This also updates the range value on the selected directional graph.
• To update the range value interactively from the graph, press the left mouse button down
on the marker intersection of the range-sill lines and move the cursor to the right or left.
Only the range value for the direction type of the graph updates except in the following
case:
• If the omnidirectional option is selected, the range for both the major and minor
directions update.

Note The major range must not be less than the minor range value, and the major or minor
slider and graphs do not update past this value. They also do not update when the value
is out of the minimum or maximum value range. A message in the on-line help area
warns you when the limits have been reached.

Sill
The sill is the plateau formed when the distance between data pairs causes no further
dissimilarity.
• To update the sill value for a direction, move the Sill Slider next to that direction. This also
updates the sill value on the selected directional graph.
• To update the sill value interactively from the graph, press the left mouse button down on
the marker intersection of the range-sill lines and move the cursor up or down. Only the sill
value for the direction type of the graph is updated except in the following cases:
• If the omnidirectional option is selected, the sill for both the major and minor
directions updates.
• If the Constrain to major sill is checked on, all sill values update the same.

Note The sill value must not be less than the nugget value, and the slider and graphs do not
update past this value. They also do not update when the value is out of the minimum
or maximum value range. A message in the on-line help area warns you when the
limits have been reached.

Interactive Graphs
Each of the graphs is interactive and can be used to set range or sill values on the Variogram
Specification panel. The graph must first be selected to move the limit lines or nugget in it.
Select the graph by clicking on one of its graph plot titles in the legend above the graph grid.

Azimuth
The azimuth angle is used in defining the major axis direction.

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Variogram Specification
Output Variogram Model
Save
Saves the model parameters. If the model is representing stale data (which is shown in the dialog
title), this button is desensitized.
If the model has already been used for population, it cannot be edited and saved. In this case, a
message opens to say that it cannot be edited.

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Variogram Specification
308 Property population FloGrid User Guide
Variogram Specification
Creating a structured grid
Chapter 13

Structured Gridder Module


This chapter details how to create a structured grid from a structured framework. You create a
structured grid using corner point gridding.
• "Corner point gridding" on page 311
• "Defining and editing boundaries" on page 311
• "Gridding Controls" on page 313
• "Areal gridding" on page 318
• "Vertical gridding" on page 321
• "Rectangular gridding" on page 330
For further information on how to create a structured framework see "Structural Framework" on
page 18 and "Model Creation" on page 19. Once you have created a structured grid you can
refine and resize it; see "LGRs, Resizing, Aquifers and NNCs" on page 407.
When a grid has been created, and if necessary refined and resized, properties may be assigned
to it by:
• creating them interactively using the Simulation Property Editor
• using Calculator scripts
• importing properties
• upscaling from a property model.
Property functionality is normally accessed using the Structured Gridder Properties option
or the 3D Viewer. You can also use the Upgridder to group layers in a geological model into
coarser simulation layers; see "Upgridder" on page 487.
Generated grids and properties can be exported from either of the gridding modules or the
Structured Gridder Properties window For further information see "Structured gridder
properties" on page 427.

FloGrid User Guide Creating a structured grid 309


Structured Gridder Module
The Structured Gridder module is used primarily to build structured corner point and
rectangular fluid-flow grids, and properties that honor selected features of a given property
model.
You can open the Structured Gridder window either by right-clicking on a structured grid
FloGrid model node in the tree and selecting Edit from the pop-up menu, or by selecting Tools
| Old Workflows | Structured Gridder... in the main window.
This window has a menu bar from which options can be selected that allow you to copy and edit
structured grid models. There is also a model and mode selection area, and a display area that
contains folders. The folders displayed depend upon what type of structured grid you are
building.
To create a new structured grid model from which to build a structured grid you first need to use
Create Flogrid Model panel accessed either using the FloGrid Models node’s pop-up menu,
the Tools menu or the main window buttons.

310 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Structured Gridder Module
Corner point gridding
You create a structured grid using corner point gridding. To build a structured grid you should
first specify a grid boundary and then define an areal (coordinate) corner point grid. The final
stage is define the vertical grid. "Corner point gridding" on page 761 contains technical
information on corner point gridding.
An important feature of the Structured Gridder is the option to align I- and J-grid lines with
gridding controls. Faults or parts of faults that do not correspond to gridding controls are
zigzagged. Gridding parameters include global Nx, Ny and Nz, orthogonality, smoothness and
sub-grid Nx and Ny distribution to control the distribution of I- and J-rows and columns in
different areas of the grid. Cartesian and radial local grid refinement is supported. Coordinate
lines may be sloping or vertical. Vertical layering is based on the reservoir units with options for
subdividing units.
• The first stage of building a corner point grid is defining the grid boundaries; see "Defining
and editing boundaries" on page 311.
• After you have defined the grid boundaries you should select the gridding controls you wish
to be gridded; see "Gridding Controls" on page 313.
• Once you have set up the boundaries and gridding controls you can define the areal corner
point grid; see "Areal gridding controls" on page 314.
• The final stage is defining the vertical grid; see "Vertical gridding" on page 321.

Defining and editing boundaries


The Boundary folder allows you to define and edit corner point grid boundaries.

Select boundary
Shows the currently selected boundary for the current model. You can choose from a list of all
the structured grid model boundaries that exist in the model.

Create from Structural Framework boundary


Forces the simulation grid boundary to match the structural framework boundary. When this
option is used, a copy of the original structural framework boundary is taken. This allows edits
to be made to the grid boundary without invalidating the original structural framework.
If boundary has already been created using this for a given simulation grid, the option is grayed
out.

Create, copy, edit...


Opens the Create or Edit Model Boundary panel to allow you to start up a boundary
creation/editing session in the 3D Viewer (see "3D Viewer" on page 107).

Boundary list
Lists all existing structural grid models. The drop-down lists the boundaries that exist in that
model.

FloGrid User Guide Creating a structured grid 311


Corner point gridding
Create...
Opens the Create Boundary panel.

Boundary name
Enter a name for the new boundary.

Boundary type
Selects the boundary type (polygon or rectangle).

Projection plane
Sets the orientation of the boundary.

Copy...
Opens the Copy Boundary panel to allow you to select an existing boundary as a template for
the new boundary.

Copy from...
Opens the Select Boundary to Copy panel to allow you to select another (Global, structural
framework or Structured Gridder) category of boundary from a drop-down list.

Edit...
Opens the Edit Boundary panel to allow you to edit an existing boundary.

Delete
Deletes the selected boundary from the list, but not from the file it was imported from.

Import...
Opens a browser for you to select an existing boundary to import.

Export...
Opens a browser for you to select an existing boundary to export.

+ View/- View
Adds or removes a selected boundary from the 3D Viewer.
See "Boundaries..." on page 113 for more detail of the boundary editor.

3D edit
Activates the digitizing mode in the 3D Viewer. This enables a new boundary to be digitized or
an existing one to be edited. This option requires that at least one item is present in the viewer.
See "Digitize" on page 126 for more details.

Table edit
Once a boundary has been created you may decide to edit it by modifying the X-Y coordinates
of the points in the boundary. The Table Edit button displays the Boundary Edit table on the
right side of the Boundary folder. This allows you to edit the current boundary.

312 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Corner point gridding
Reference coordinate system
Displays a drop-down list containing the structural framework and a list of the structural maps
in the system. By default, the reference coordinate system is set to be the one used by the
structural framework. In the event that different maps have different coordinate systems,
selecting one of these maps causes the points in the table below to be displayed in the new
coordinate system.

X and Y coordinates
The second and third columns of the table show the X and Y coordinates of the boundary points
which you may edit.

Corner
The last column shows the corner of the boundary. This is a major point in the terminology of
the Boundary Editor. A single click of the mouse on any cell in this last column switches the
point between major (Y) and minor (N) (corner or non-corner).

Gridding Controls
After you have defined the grid boundaries you should select the gridding controls you wish to
be gridded.
The Gridding Controls folder contains options for creating, editing and deleting gridding
controls for corner point grids.
• "Areal gridding controls" on page 314
• "Sloping grids" on page 314
• "Boundary deviation" on page 315
• "Gridding control table" on page 315
• "Show gridding controls" on page 316
• "Editing gridding controls" on page 317.
Gridding controls are used to control the positions of areal grid lines and the slope of coordinate
lines if sloping coordinate line gridding is enabled.
Two types of gridding controls are supported: control surfaces and control lines. Control
surfaces were introduced in 2002A and are based on the Fault Framework. You can select
which type of gridding control is to be used when the gridding model is created. Control lines
are always used when running command files created by previous versions of FloGrid prior to
2002A.
It is expected that you will need to edit the default set of gridding controls in nearly all cases.
Typical edits involve:
• Creating a new control that corresponds to part of an original fault, for the purpose of
aligning that part of the fault with an I- or J- line.
• Creating a zigzag control that corresponds to part of an original fault, to ensure that the
slope of the grid corresponds to the slope of the fault in that region.
• Creating a new control to merge two faults (or parts of faults) that you want to place on the
same I- or J- line.
• Creating a new control, for the purpose of controlling the grid construction in that region.

FloGrid User Guide Creating a structured grid 313


Corner point gridding
This might be because there are wells in the region, or because the slope of the grid needs
to be controlled near the boundary, or because you need to create additional grid sub regions
within which local Nx and Ny values can be set.
Typical edits applicable only to control lines are:
• Deleting the original control line corresponding to a fault when new Control Lines have
been created to model portions of the fault. This ensures that the Structured Gridder is not
supplied with multiple slope control information in the same area of the grid. With Control
Surfaces it is possible to split an existing control into two or more portions in a single
operation.
• Deleting the original control line corresponding to a fault when the slope of the fault proves
impossible to honor when a grid is constructed. This might be because the fault has a very
complex shape or because other faults nearby make it impossible to create a sloping
coordinate line grid with straight coordinate lines that honor all slopes without the
coordinate lines crossing. With Control Surfaces you can select the controls used to slope
the grid individually, so you can easily turn off any problem controls without deleting them.
Control Lines can be created as either vertical lines or as polygons. Vertical lines are used in
areal gridding only. Polygons are used in areal gridding and when sloping the grid. When
sloping grids are generated all polygons are used, even if they are of type zigzag.

Areal gridding controls


Gridding controls of type I- or J- are used to control areal gridding. You can use these controls
to honor faults exactly. You can also influence the density of the areal grid in different regions
by introducing controls that split the grid into separate sub-grid regions where Nx and Ny values
can be set
When the areal grid is generated from Control Surfaces the gridding lines are taken from the
average lines. Average lines are shown in red in the 3D Viewer. When the areal grid is generated
from control line polygons the gridding line is taken midway between the upthrown and
downthrown lines. The Structured Gridder ensures that a line in the areal grid with a constant
I value is aligned with the gridding line for controls of type I-. The same applies for J- lines.
If you wish to ignore a particular control in the areal grid then set the type to zigzag. These
controls can then be used to slope the grid or they can be ignored completely.

Sloping grids
With control surfaces you can easily switch on and off the controls that are used to slope the
grid. If a control is enabled the grid is sloped so that coordinate lines lie on the surface. If a
control is ignored then the slope of the grid near the control is based on the slopes of the
surrounding controls.
With control lines you must create polygons if you wish to slope the grid. If you do not want a
control to influence the slope you must create it as a vertical line.
If a control line polygon has been auto-generated from a fault, Z values for the control polygon
are taken directly from the fault if these have been explicitly provided (X Y Z values read in or
using Rescue). If the Z values do not already exist, they are calculated by projecting the control
lines onto the surface of the structural framework. Any control polygon that is edited has its Z
values recomputed by projecting the new polygon onto the Structural Framework.

314 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Corner point gridding
Note Care must be taken when creating or editing control line polygons to ensure that the
end points of the upthrown line and the end points of the downthrown line are
positioned consistently with any other slope information nearby. If this is not done, it
is possible to create grids where conflicting slope controls cause co-ordinate lines to
cross.

Boundary deviation
As an aid to classification, the areal alignment of each gridding control is compared to the
alignment of the I and J axes and reported in a table. Deviation angles are calculated by
comparing the best straight-line fit through each gridding control to the best straight-line fit
through each boundary.
The Boundary Deviation option allows you to classify gridding controls based on user-defined
maximum acceptable deviation angles. Gridding controls with I or J deviation angles that fall
below these maximum angles are made into either an I- or J- control as appropriate.

Note It is strongly recommended that automatically classifying gridding controls using


deviation angles is not done, as in general it leads to poor quality grids. Instead, it is
recommended that gridding controls are visually inspected and interactively classified
as I-, J- or zigzag controls using either the Type table drop-down or the pop-up menus
accessible from the Fault Gridding Controls nodes on the tree, linked with the 3D
Viewer (see "3D Viewer" on page 107).

I line angle
Defines the maximum acceptable deviation angle for I-lines. Gridding controls with I deviations
below this angle are only set to be I controls when you click on Apply.

J line angle
Defines the maximum acceptable deviation angle for J-lines. Gridding controls with J
deviations below this angle are only set to be J controls when you click on Apply.

Apply
Reclassifies control lines. This resets any previous control line classifications.

Gridding control table


3D
Indicates with a ## symbol which gridding control has been selected in the 3D Viewer.

Name
Lists the names of the gridding controls.

Type
Selects the gridding control type from Zigzag, I Line and J Line options. However, if a
gridding control crosses a boundary, the I or J Line options may not be available.

FloGrid User Guide Creating a structured grid 315


Corner point gridding
I angle
Displays the angle between the best fit lines going through the gridding control and the J
boundary. A small angle indicates a gridding control is well aligned with the J boundary and
hence is suitable for gridding to a grid line of constant I.

J angle
Displays the angle between the best fit lines going through the gridding control and the I
boundary. A small angle indicates a gridding control is well aligned with the I boundary and
hence is suitable for gridding to a grid line of constant J.

Slope
Displays how the gridding control is used if sloping coordinate line gridding is enabled in the
Vertical gridding folder. For control surfaces it is possible to choose between Ignore and
Slope. If the type is Zigzag it is also possible to select Slope+Snap, in which the corners of
the cells nearest the control surface are moved onto the surface. For control lines this column is
used to indicate whether vertical lines or polygons were set.

Show gridding controls


The Display button adds gridding controls to the 3D Viewer (see "3D Viewer" on page 107)
according to the selection criteria set in the Select By Type check-boxes.

Note Each time the status of a check box is changed the list of viewable gridding controls is
rebuilt, overriding any selections previously made.

Control surface coloration


Control Surfaces are displayed in the 3D Viewer using the color of the fault upon which they
are based. New controls not based on any fault are drawn in cyan. Lines along the top and
bottom of the surface are drawn in magenta and cyan, respectively, and the average line is drawn
in red.

Control line coloration


Control Lines are displayed in the 3D Viewer using a color convention that identifies the
control line type.

Note Although a control line always consists of a top line and a bottom line (for example,
corresponding respectively to the upper upthrown and the lower downthrown side of a
fault), if the control line is vertical only the top line is displayed.

The top line color of a control line is


• Yellow: if the control line belongs to the Default Set
• White: if the control line lies outside the grid boundaries
• Plum: if the control line is of type I
• Green: if the control line is of type J
• Brown: if the control line is of type zigzag.
The bottom line (when drawn) is always colored in Cyan.

316 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Corner point gridding
When a control line is selected it appears in the 3D Viewer with its colors dashed with a red line.

Editing gridding controls


Once in the 3D Viewer, gridding controls can be interactively classified as I, J or zigzag control
lines from the 3D Viewer by enabling the Set Type Via 3D Selection check-box and then
picking on the desired control line type. For control surfaces it is also possible to set the slope
option by enabling the Set Slope Via 3D Selection check-box.
Gridding controls can then be classified simply by picking on them in the 3D Viewer. In
addition to highlighting the selected control, a ## in the 3D column of the gridding control table
denotes the picked control.
The Set All button sets the type or slope of all gridding controls.
To finish classifying gridding controls, disable the Set Type Via 3D Selection and Set Slope
Via 3D Selection check-boxes.
An alternative way of setting the type and slope of control surfaces is to use the node tree.
The Edit button either enables the control surfaces editor (see "Fault framework editor" on
page 191) or displays the Edit control lines panel.

Edit control lines


Displays a list of the available control lines and offers the following options:

Control line list


Selects the set of control lines to be edited. One set exists for each gridding model. There is an
additional default set that can be used to store control lines not associated with any particular
gridding model.

Create
Opens the Create Control Line panel. This allows you to define a new control line for the
active (selected) control line set.
• Line/polygon
Select whether the control line to be created is vertical or sloping. If the control line is
vertical it is normally defined by a single line. If it is to be sloping, it is defined by a
polygon. Note that a polygon can be used to define a vertical control line. This can occur
when a polygon is used in conjunction with the Vertical Gridding option. In this scenario,
a center line is constructed from the average of the two sides of the polygon.
When you click on OK, an Edit session is started in the 3D Viewer to allow you to
interactively define the new control line.

Copy
You must select a control line before choosing this option, which then opens the Copy Control
Line panel. The options on this panel are identical to those for Create above.
When you click on OK, an Edit session is started in the 3D Viewer to allow you to interactively
define the new control line.

Copy from
Copies a control line from a different set of control lines, typically corresponding to another
gridding model. This option displays the Select Control Line to Copy panel. Select the
required control line set from the list and then select the required control line from that set.

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Corner point gridding
Once a control line to be copied has been selected, the options and steps are identical to those
for Copy above.

Edit
You must select a control line before choosing the option which then opens the Edit Control
Line panel.
• Line/polygon
These buttons control whether the control line is to be edited as a line or as a polygon. The
buttons default to the existing status of the control line and should normally be left
unchanged.
If you change the line type from a polygon to a line, the Edit session uses the first line of
the polygon and deletes remaining points. If you change the line type from a line to a
polygon, the existing line is defaulted to be the first line of the new polygon.
When you click on OK, an Edit session is started in the 3D Viewer to allow you to
interactively define the new control line.

Copy full set


Copies a full set of control lines from a different set of control lines, typically corresponding to
another gridding model. This option opens the Select Source Control Line List panel. Select
the required control line set from the list.

Import
The file format required is based on the CPS3 fault file format.

Export
The file format used for exported control lines is based on the CPS3 fault file format.

Areal gridding
The Areal Grid folder allows you to define an areal (coordinate line) corner point grid with
options to control grid quality and density.
Before constructing an areal grid you should define a grid boundary and select which gridding
controls are to be gridded.

Set global Nx/Ny


This option is enabled when a grid is constructed for the first time. The values set for Total Nx
and Total Ny are used with other grid parameters to construct an Nx * Ny grid that fits the
boundary defined in the Select boundary folder, and that honors the I and J gridding controls
selected in the Gridding Controls folder.
When a grid is built with this option, grids are effectively subdivided into a set of sub-grid
regions by the extended lines that honor each I and J gridding control.
In a grid where all gridding controls are zigzagged there is only one sub-grid.

Set sub-grid Nx/Ny


Varies the number of grid lines between gridded gridding controls. It is only available after an
initial areal grid has been constructed.

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Corner point gridding
The number and shape of sub-grid regions are determined by which gridding controls are
selected as I and J gridding controls in the Gridding Controls folder. When this option is active,
you can specify the number of cells in each sub-grid in the associated table. This table is linked
to the displayed 2D grid.

Row
This is an information field numbering the sub-grids in the I and the J directions.

Subgrid
A ## symbol in this field indicates that this sub-grid has been picked in the 2D grid displayed
in the 3D Viewer.

Nx’s
Sets or indicates the number of x (I) rows in the sub-grid.

Ny’s
Sets or indicates the number of y (J) rows in the sub-grid.

Total Nx
Defines the total number of grid cells in the x (I) direction. If this number is set less than the
number of I gridding controls plus 1, the Structured Gridder automatically increases this value.

Total Ny
Defines the total number of grid cells in the y (J) direction. If this number is set less than the
number of J gridding controls plus 1, the Structured Gridder automatically increases this
value.

Average Dx
Provides an indication of the average grid cell size in the x (I) direction at the model boundaries.
The Average Dx field is updated when you set the Total Nx value. You can also type a value
into this field to define the grid cell size required. The Total Nx value is then updated to give a
grid cell size as close as possible to the value set.

Average Dy
Provides an indication of the average grid cell size in the y (J) direction at the model boundaries.
The Average Dx field is updated when you set the Total Ny value. You can type a value into
this field to define the grid cell size required. The Total Ny value is then updated to give a grid
cell size as close as possible to the value set.

Gridding parameters
Smoothness
Determines how much the distribution of grid lines in one sub-grid is affected by grid line
spacings in neighboring sub-grids. A value of zero results in sub-grids being treated
independently. A high value (towards 1) results in grid line spacings that change more smoothly
across each adjacent sub-grid. For more details see "Smoothness" on page 769.

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Orthogonality
Controls the orthogonality of the grid by changing the shape of the control line extensions that
grid to selected gridding controls. A high value (towards 1) produces a more orthogonal set of
grid lines. Any non-zero value causes the gridder to take much longer. For more details see
"Orthogonality" on page 769.

Gridding method
Selects Isotropic or Anisotropic gridding.
The primary difference between the two methods is in how the grid lines that lie on gridding
controls are extended (control line extensions). In many situations the difference between grids
computed with the two methods is very small. As isotropic gridding is faster, it is chosen as the
default. For more details on these gridding methods see "Isotropic and anisotropic gridding" on
page 769.

Fault ends
Automatically creates additional control lines at each end of the user-defined control lines. This
might be used to try and ensure that all the ends of faults modeled by control lines are honored
by grid cell corners. For example, if this option is used, each gridded I control line ultimately
produces 3 control lines, one along the control line and one at each end of the control line.

Note It is strongly recommended that this option is not used. If it is tried, extreme caution
should be exercised when evaluating the resulting grid as it can result in excessive
numbers of control lines being generated that are too close together. The tolerance field
merges control lines generated by this option if they are within the specified tolerance
distance.

Areal grid
Build
Initiates the Structured Gridder using the currently selected gridding parameters. In certain
cases grid regeneration can be very fast. This depends on which parameters are changed.

Edit
Opens the Areal Grid Editor. Make sure a reference object such as a map is in the view before
editing.
The Areal Grid Editor contains options for moving areal grid nodes and for probing the grid to
get X Y values. There is also an undo facility, which can be used to progressively undo grid node
edits made up until the last time the edit session was committed.
All editor modes and actions are selected by using the editor buttons. By default the editor
comes up in Grid Probe mode.

Display
Displays the current areal grid in the 3D Viewer (see "3D Viewer" on page 107). In
circumstances where the Structured Gridder has failed, the displayed grid may be distorted or
incomplete.

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Corner point gridding
Vertical gridding
Defining a vertical grid is the final stage of creating a corner point grid.
The Vertical Grid folder allows you to define the vertical grid of a model whose areal grid has
been defined in the Areal Grid folder (see "Areal gridding" on page 318) or the Rectangular
Grid folder. By default, one simulation layer is created for each unit in the property model. If
additional simulation layers are required within a given unit they can be specified in the table
or by using the Advanced Layering option.
You can:
• create sloping or vertical coordinate line grids
• decide how faults are modeled and represented in the simulation grid
• determine how simulation layers are constructed within geological units.

Unit layering table


Creates additional simulation layers within a unit. Layers can be created directly in the table
when the required layering is simple to define or by using the Advanced Layering options that
allow you to specify more complex layering, including using the property model layers as
simulation layers.

Note By default, layer thicknesses are calculated and displayed the first time that the Set
Layering button is pressed. This speeds up areal gridding iterations when working
with large models. You may opt to pre-calculate unit thicknesses in the future
whenever the areal grid is regenerated (the 2001A behavior) by clicking the checkbox
Unit Thicknesses Pre-calculation, which is found below the Unit layering table.

Note The average layer thickness values displayed in this table are also useful when using
the Advanced Layering options, Top Conforming and Bottom Conforming to set
varying fixed thickness layers within a unit (using Refine Selected BlockUnit).
These values help you determine precisely how many layers are required.

Number of layers
Indicates the total number of simulation layers defined in the model.

Note If any changes are made to layering parameters in the unit layering table, the Set
Layering button must be hit for changes to take effect when building LGRs and 3D
grids. If there are LGRs already defined in the grid, then their vertical extent and
refinements are set to the default values of one refined layer in each layer of the parent
grid.

Unit
Displays the name of the geological unit. This field is read only.

Layer type
Select the desired vertical gridding scheme for each unit.

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Corner point gridding
By default each unit in the structural / property model is represented in the simulation grid by a
single simulation layer. This can be changed on a unit-by-unit basis by selecting the desired type
of simulation layering and specifying the appropriate parameters for that layering scheme.

Proportional
This is the default layering option. When this option is chosen the unit is subdivided into the
number of layers specified in the Layers Per Unit field.

Bottom conforming (offlap)


When this option is chosen, fixed thickness simulation layers are constructed upwards from the
lower surface of the unit. The desired thickness of each simulation layer should be specified in
the Layer Thickness field.
The following approach is used:
1 Calculate the maximum vertical thickness in the unit.
2 Calculate the maximum number of layers required from step 1.
3 For each coordinate line, place the number of nodes just calculated along the coordinate
line at fixed intervals. Move any nodes that are placed above the top of the unit to the top
of the unit.
This approach means that there are often large areas of the grid where the uppermost grid cells
are pinched out with zero or small thickness.

Top conforming (onlap)


When this option is chosen, fixed thickness simulation layers are constructed downwards from
the upper surface of the unit. The desired thickness of each simulation layer should be specified
in the Layer Thickness field.
The following approach is used:
1 Calculate the maximum vertical thickness in the unit.
2 Calculate the maximum number of layers required from step 1.
3 For each coordinate line, place the number of nodes just calculated along the coordinate
line at fixed intervals. Move any nodes that are placed below the bottom of the unit to the
bottom of the unit.
This approach means that there are often large areas of the grid where the lowest grid cells are
pinched out with zero or small thickness.

Use property model


Indicates when you have specified that a unit has additional simulation layering based on the
property model layering within that unit.

Hint It also provides an alternative method of opening the Edit Layer Controls panel,
which provides advanced layering options.

Layers per unit


Defines the number of simulation layers within the geological unit when constructing
simulation layers using proportional spacing.

322 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Corner point gridding
If fixed thickness onlap or offlap gridding is selected this field is read-only, and reports back the
estimated maximum number of layers required to grid the unit given the requested layer
thickness.

Max unit thickness / Layers per unit


Defines the desired thickness of simulation layers when using onlap or offlap gridding.
If proportional gridding is used this field is read-only, and reports back the maximum thickness
of the simulation layer within the unit.

Note If any changes are made to layering parameters in the unit layering table, the set
layering button must be pressed for changes to take effect when building LGRs and 3D
grids.

Note The associated Build option must still be selected to compute associated grid
geometry.

Advanced layering
Opens the Edit Layer Controls panel for defining more complex layering schemes, such as
• layering that varies between blocks within a unit
• weighted proportional layering
• conforming layers of varying thicknesses
• layering that conforms to a selected surface or pair of surfaces, rather than the top and
bottom of the unit.

Edit layer controls...


Opens the Edit Layer Controls panel. The layer controls determine the vertical gridding within
units. The number of units was determined in the structural model, and the vertical gridding
always honors the horizons between each unit. You can control the number and gridding style
of layers (refinements):
• within each unit
• within each individual block-unit.
Three of the five gridding styles (Proportional, Top conforming and Bottom conforming)
make use of a pair of reference surfaces to control the layering, referred to hereafter as the upper
and lower surfaces. By default, the upper surface is taken to correspond to the upper surface of
the selected unit, and similarly the lower surface is taken to be the lower surface of the selected
unit. If you wish, you may alter these and select a surface from the Reservoir Data Store instead.

Layering basis
You toggle this radio button between Unit-wide controls and Block-unit controls. If you choose
Unit-wide controls, then you can specify the layering for each unit as a whole. If you choose
Block-unit controls, then you can specify the layering individually for each block-unit.
When you change between the two options you are warned that the existing settings of layering
methods, and the refinement parameters, are reset. You given the option to say No to changing
the option.

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Corner point gridding
If you say Yes, and change from Unit-wide to Block-Unit, the current settings for each unit are
copied for each block in that unit.
If you say Yes, and change from Block-unit to Unit-wide, the settings for the first block in each
unit are applied to the whole unit.

Number of layers per unit


The number of layers within a given unit are the same for all its block-units. You can set the
number of layers in the selected unit in the drop-down menu item Unit (top down numbering)
using this field. You can also change the number of layers in the unit when entering the
refinement parameters from one of the panels opened from the menu item Refine Selected
Block Unit(s).

Unit (top down numbering)


You select the unit for which to define the vertical gridding from this drop-down. The units are
listed in top down order by name.

Block(s)
If you are doing Block-unit based layering you select, from this drop-down, the block within the
unit for which to define the vertical gridding. The blocks are listed by name. If Unit-based
layering has been chosen, this drop-down is disabled.

Layering method
You have five different vertical gridding styles to choose from in this drop-down.

Proportional
The thickness of each layer within the (block) unit is a proportion of the total thickness at each
location (that is the distance between the upper and lower surfaces at that location). The relative
thickness of each layer is determined by weights.
By default, the upper surface corresponds to the upper horizon of the unit, and the lower surface
corresponds to the lower horizon of the unit. You may change both these if desired.

Top conforming (offlap)


The absolute thickness of each layer is specified, and each layer is defined relative to the base
of the layer above. The base of the topmost layer is formed by applying the specified thickness
of the topmost layer as an offset from the selected reference surface. The default for the
reference surface is the upper horizon of the unit; you may change this if desired. The lower
surface is not used.

Bottom conforming (onlap)


The absolute thickness of each layer is specified, and each layer is defined relative to the top of
the layer below. The top of the bottommost layer is formed by applying the specified thickness
of the bottommost layer as an offset from the selected reference surface. The default for the
reference surface is the lower horizon of the unit; you may change this if desired. The upper
surface is not used.

Use property model


This option allows you to specify the vertical gridding in terms of the property model layers (if
any) within the (block) unit ("Geological Property model" on page 215). The base of each layer
is defined as the base of a property model layer.

324 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Corner point gridding
The upper and lower reference surfaces are not used by this gridding style.

Use property model parameters


This option is the same as Use Property Model, see above. If the FloGrid model is an
unstructured grid then Use Property Model Parameters is significant and different to Use
Property Model ("Generating a grid" on page 525)

Upper reference surface


If the proportional or top-conforming gridding styles have been selected, this dropdown allows
you to select the upper reference surface. For the default behavior (using the upper horizon of
the unit), leave this set to Default (top of unit).

Lower reference surface


If the proportional or bottom-conforming gridding styles have been selected, this dropdown
allows you to select the lower reference surface. For the default behavior (using the lower
horizon of the unit), leave this set to Default (bottom of unit).

Property model / scenario


If there are multiple property models or multiple scenarios, and if Use property model layering
is selected, this lets you select a property model and scenario.

Refine selected block unit(s)


Opens the panel UnitName AllBlocks (Unit-wide layering) or UnitName BlockName
(Block-unit layering) in which you define the vertical gridding parameters. The panel contains
information on the layering method and a table in which you enter the parameters. The contents
of the table corresponds to your selection of layering method.

All methods
To add a layer to the table, highlight the layer below which you want the new layer and type
Ctrl n.
To delete a layer, highlight the layer and type Ctrl d.
Refinements may also be added by clicking on the + symbol in the right corner of the panel.

Proportional
The table contains the weights for the relative thickness of each simulation layer within the
(block-)unit. The layers are listed in top down order. The thickness of an individual layer is
given by:

thickness = unit thickness * (weight / sum of weights)

Top conforming (offlap)


In general, each layer in a top-conforming layered unit has a constant thickness. The table
contains the absolute thicknesses of each layer, again listed top down within the (block-)unit.
Since absolute thicknesses are specified, it is possible that parts of a unit are thinner than the
total thickness of all layers, or alternatively are thicker than the total thickness of all layers. If
the unit is thinner, then the simulation layers are truncated at the base of the unit. If the unit is
thicker, the program ensures that the specified number of layers fills the unit by extending the
lowest layer to the base of the unit. The latter case means that the thickness of the lowest layer
is not used within the program, and is read-only in the panel. However the full number of layers
must be present in the table for consistency.

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Corner point gridding
Note A complication arises if a different upper surface has been selected in preference to the
default surface (the upper horizon of the unit). The upper surface of the topmost layer
of the generated sub layering conforms to the actual upper horizon of the unit, while
the lower surface of the topmost layer lies on the selected upper surface (if a thickness
of zero has been entered for the topmost layer) or the specified distance below it (if a
positive layer thickness has been entered for this layer) (Figure 13.1). If the selected
upper surface lies above the actual upper surface of the unit, the topmost layer is
truncated against the top of the unit.

Bottom conforming (onlap)


This table is similar to the top conforming case. Simulation layers are still listed in top-down
order. However, since this option represents bottom-conforming stratigraphy, the layers are
truncated or extended if required at the top of the unit, and the first layer in the table is read-only.

Note Similar remarks apply in the case of a different lower surface having been selected in
preference to the default surface (lower surface of the unit): the upper surface of the
bottommost layer will conform to the selected lower surface (if a thickness of zero has
been entered for this layer) or lie the specified distance above it (if a positive thickness
has been entered for this layer) (Figure 13.2). If the selected lower surface lies below
the actual lower surface of the unit, the bottommost layer will be truncated against the
bottom of the unit.

Figure 13.1 Top conforming (offlap) sub-unit layering to a user-specified surface

Figure 13.2 Bottom conforming (onlap) sub-unit layering to a user-specified surface

Use property model


You enter the layer IDs of the property model layers that you want to use to define for each
simulation layer in the table. The simulation layers are listed in top down order. The base of the
selected property model forms the base of the simulation layer. The layer IDs are the unit-wide
equivalent layer IDs for the unit.

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Corner point gridding
Note They are in the same order as the 3D Viewer (see "Property Model" on page 110).
Individual block-units within a unit may not contain all of the unit-wide equivalent
layer IDs. If such a layer ID is selected, then the simulation layer is pinched out in that
block-unit.

Above the table, you find some information on the layering within this (block-)unit in the
property model. For a single block property model the layering method is reported. For all
property models, the number of layers within the (block-)unit, and the ranges of valid layer IDs
for the (block-)unit are reported. You can also examine the property model in the 3D Viewer
while this panel is open, and identify which layer IDs you want to use by picking them within
the 3D Viewer.

Use property model parameters


Like the Use Property Model option, you enter the layer IDs of the property model layers that
you want to use to define for each simulation layer in the table.

Unit Thicknesses Pre-calculation


This checkbox is off by default. If you turn it on, then FloGrid reverts to the 2001A behavior,
where the unit thickness calculation is run as soon as the areal grid is regenerated.

Faults
Select how faults are to be modeled in the simulation grid:

I and J faces
Models faults as only existing between adjacent I and J grid cell faces.
If this option is selected, all grid cells within any given column (tube) are modeled as lying in
the same fault block (that is they all lie on the same side of a fault). In areas of the grid close to
faults it is not always obvious which side of the fault the column should lie. This decision is
determined by evaluating the intersections of each nearby block unit with the column to decide
which block is dominant.
This method is the default option and must always be used when building simulation grids from
maps.
It is probably not an appropriate method to use when gridding geological models with complex
structures such as those with Y faults or channel sands represented as block units.

I, J and K faces
Models faults as existing between adjacent I, J and K grid cell faces.
If this option is selected, cells within any given column are no longer constrained to all lie in the
same fault block.
This option allows you to model:
• a sloping fault on a vertical coordinate line grid by vertically zigzagging the fault
• a Y fault.
In this case you may chose to slope the coordinate lines to agree with part of the Y fault, or
zigzag the entire fault.

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Corner point gridding
It is recommended that this method is used when building simulation grids from geological
models with complex structures such as those with Y faults or channel sands represented as
block units.
The ECLIPSE MULTREGT keyword must be used to export the fault location and to set
transmissibility multipliers. To do this, a MULTNUM property that defines the fault location is
required together with a table defining the valid pairs of MULTNUM regions that define each fault
(see "Autogenerate IJK fault location table" on page 418 for how to generate the table).

Coordinate lines
Controls how the slopes of the coordinate lines are constructed. The following options are
provided:

All vertical
If this option is selected, all the coordinate lines in the grid are constrained to be vertical.

Vertical boundary

Note This option is not available for fault framework-based gridding.

For control-line based gridding, all coordinate lines that do not lie on the grid boundary are
allowed to slope, based on the control line slopes defined in the Control Lines section.
Coordinate lines on the boundary are constrained to be vertical unless nearby control lines make
this impossible.

All sloping
All coordinate lines slope based on the slopes defined in the Gridding Controls section.

Note In FloGrid, rectangular grids are constrained to have vertical coordinate lines.

3D Grid
Set layering
Applies the layering defined in the layering table and creates a list of global simulation layers,
and default LGRs that apply to the entire model.

Build
Creates the geometry for the 3D global and local grids. It can be a time-consuming process.
Once a grid has been built, LGRs can be changed and the grid updated quickly from the LGR
panel (see "LGRs" on page 408). That is, the LGR grids can be added, altered and removed
without rebuilding the global grid geometry. The boundary, the control lines or the areal grid
can be changed once a grid has been built, but the grid would then have to be rebuilt to bring
everything back into a consistent state.

328 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Corner point gridding
Note If the BLOCK property has been edited, then subsequent grid building operations
attempt to respect your choice of block for the columnar block assignment. This can
be useful if you need to move the logical location of a fault in the grid. Note that your
choice of blocks persists until the next time the areal grid is built; it is then reset. You
can force a reset by deleting the BLOCK property.

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Corner point gridding
Rectangular gridding
Rectangular gridding is an alternative method of creating an areal grid. Once you have created
an areal grid using this method you can use it as a basis for defining a vertical grid. See "Vertical
gridding" on page 321.
The Rectangular Gridding folder allows you to specify and edit areal rectangular grids with
constant or variable dx and dy spacing. Cartesian local grid refinement is supported. Vertical
layering is based on the reservoir units with options for subdividing units.
Grids can be defined using the fields within the folder or by using a linked editor in the 3D
Viewer.

Note Rectangular grids are constrained to have vertical coordinate lines.

Grid location
X origin, Y origin
X Y positions of the grid origin specified in the coordinate system of the property model.

Rotation angle
Angle through which the grid is rotated.

Grid boundary
I length, J length
Length of the grid along the I and J axes.

Grid dimensions
Nx, Ny
The number of grid cells along the I and J axes.

Grid spacing
Dx, Dy
Grid spacing along the I and J axes. If Variable Dx & Dy Gridding is selected, these fields show
the average Dx and Dy grid spacing.

Gridding method
For building an areal rectangular grid, three methods can be used. These are described below.

I & J length
Specifies the boundary using the grid location and grid boundary parameters, and places cells
at regular intervals using the Nx and Ny grid dimensions.

330 Creating a structured grid FloGrid User Guide


Rectangular gridding
Constant Dx & Dy
Specifies the grid origin and axes rotation using the grid location parameters. Construct the grid
with Nx rows in the I axis direction each with Dx width and Ny rows in the J axis direction each
with Dy width.

Dx & Dy array
Specifies the grid origin and axes rotation using the grid location parameters. Construct the grid
with Nx rows in the I axis direction and Ny rows in the J axis direction each with Dy width. Use
the values in the Dx & Dy table to define the size of each row.

Note When an areal grid has been built using one method, it is normally possible to switch
to another gridding method. For example, a grid may be defined using variable Dx &
Dy Array spacing and subsequently switched to Constant Dx & Dy. In this case,
average values for Dx and Dy are computed, honoring the original boundary.

Areal grid
Build
Builds (or updates) the areal grid based on the parameters set in this folder. When gridding
parameters are changed, you must press this button, or the commit button in the 3D Editor, to
ensure that the changes are taken into account when the software builds the 3D grid.

Reset
Resets the areal (rectangular) grid and associated parameters, to the state they were in the last
time the edit was committed using the Build Areal Grid option.

Edit
Opens the Areal Grid Editor in the 3D Viewer.
If no areal grid has been defined when this option is selected, the Editor starts up in digitize
mode. Use the left mouse button to pick points. The first pick defines one corner of the grid, the
second pick defines a second corner along one of the axes, and the third pick defines the extent
of the model and completes the definition of a rectangular grid. The decisions on where the
origin of the grid is, and which boundaries correspond to the I and J axes, are based on the
rotation angle of the defined rectangle and the preferred position for the simulator origin (top
left or bottom left).
The Editor is controlled by a set of buttons that provide the following functionality.

Rotate Grid
Use the left mouse button to rotate the grid around the origin that is marked by a small black
square.

Translate Grid
Use the left mouse button to translate the grid.

Insert I Line
Use the left mouse button to pick an area of the grid between two existing I lines where a new
I line is required. The inserted I line is placed midway between the existing I lines.

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Rectangular gridding
Insert J Line
Use the left mouse button to pick an area of the grid between two existing J lines where a new
J line is required. The inserted J line is placed midway between the existing J lines.

Move Line
Use the left mouse button to select the I or a J line to be moved. Hold the mouse button down
and drag the line to the new position. A line cannot be dragged across another line in the same
direction.

Delete Line
Use the left mouse button to select the I or a J line to be deleted. If the last I line or the last J line
is deleted, the boundary shrinks accordingly.

Digitize Grid
If no areal grid has been defined when this option is selected, the editor starts up in digitize
mode. If this option is selected when an areal grid already exists, the previous areal grid will be
deleted, a new boundary is created, and gridding parameters are re-initialized.
Use the left mouse button to pick points. The first pick defines one corner of the grid, the second
pick defines a second corner along one of the axes, and the third pick defines the extent of the
model and completes the definition of a rectangular grid. The decisions on where the origin of
the grid is, and which boundaries correspond to the I and J axes, are based on the rotation angle
of the defined rectangle and the preferred position for the simulator origin (top left or bottom
left).

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Rectangular gridding
Data tree
Chapter 14

Introduction
You import reservoir data information into FloGrid in the form of data files. The imported data
can be grouped together and examined using the Data Tree interface. Editing of the input data
is currently not fully supported.
For further information on using the data tree see "Using the data tree" on page 334.
The data tree is displayed on the left of the main window. It displays data items and allows you
view and manipulate them. The data tree consists of a series of nodes, which represent the types
of data you can load in to FloGrid.
The data types are:
• Surfaces, see "Surfaces Data" on page 341
• and maps, see "Maps" on page 342.
• Faults, see "Faults Data" on page 360
• Wells, see "Wells Data" on page 374.
• Markers, see "Well Markers Data" on page 383.
• Logs, see "Well Logs Data" on page 386.
• Boundaries, see "Boundaries Data" on page 390.
• "Structural Frameworks Data" on page 393.
The data tree also allows you to view FloGrid Model data:
• "FloGrid Models Data" on page 396

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Introduction
Using the data tree
• You can access display options and data specific functions if you click, with the right mouse
button, on any of the nodes within the data tree.
• You can open the node search tool if you right mouse click in the white space, see "Finding
Nodes" on page 338.
• You can use the +/- buttons to expand and contract the nodes.

Controlling the views


Split view
You can split the tree into two halves, each half showing its own view of the same data. This is
very useful if you want to view two parts of the tree without constantly having to scroll up and
down. You can also drag objects from one half of the tree to the other.
• To split the tree into two, click with the mouse on the little box immediately above the
tree’s vertical scrollbar. The cursor changes shape when you move the mouse over the box.
When you click on the box a horizontal line appears spanning the width of the tree, move
the mouse to the desired split point and release the mouse. The tree redraws in two halves.
• To adjust the split position click anywhere on the resize bar if on a PC or on the little box
if on Motif. Drag the mouse to the new location and release the mouse.
• To combine two split halves back into a single tree drag the resize bar to either the top or
bottom of the tree.

Hiding tree nodes


Sometimes you may wish to hide certain nodes in the tree. This allows you to remove the clutter
from the tree so that you can concentrate on only those nodes that are important for the current
task.
• To hide a node open the nodes popup menu, and choose the Hide menu option.
A new special node is created at the same level called Hidden Items as below:

Note One of these special nodes is created at each level in the tree where at least one node
has been hidden.

• To hide other nodes either select the Hide menu option as above or drag the node onto any
existing Hidden Items nodes.
If several nodes have been selected then they all get hidden.

Note It is not possible to drag a Hidden Items node onto another Hidden Items node!

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Using the data tree
• To restore those nodes either double click on the Hidden Items node or open the pop-up
menu and select the Show all hidden menu option.

Navigation, selection and configuration of the tree


Keyboard navigation of tree
In general use the <UP ARROW> and <DOWN ARROW> keys to move up and down through the
tree.

Note You can only navigate through those nodes that are visible.

To expand a node with children:


• press the <RETURN> key whilst over the node or
• press the <+> key whilst over the node or
• press the <RIGHT ARROW> key whilst over the node.
To collapse a node with children:
• press the <RETURN> key whilst over the node or
• press the <-> key whilst over the node or
• press the <LEFT ARROW> key whilst over the node.
To move down a level in the tree off an expanded parent node onto the first child node:
• press the <DOWN ARROW> key or
• press the <RIGHT ARROW> key.
To move up a level in the tree off a child node up to its parent:
• press the <UP ARROW> key off the first child node or
• press the <RIGHT ARROW> key off any of the children.
To expand all of a nodes children:
• press the <*> key whilst over a node with children.
To collapse all of a nodes children:
• press the </> key whilst over a node with children.
To tick/untick a node:
• press the <SPACE> key whilst over the node.

Multiple selection of nodes


To select a single node click with the left mouse button over the node (but not over the tickbox
or expand/collapse box). All other selections are lost.
To add to, or remove from, a selection hold down the <Ctrl> key whilst clicking with the left
mouse button. This toggles the selected state of the node under the mouse.

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Using the data tree
To select a group of nodes hold down the <Shift> key whilst clicking with the left mouse
button. This selects all nodes between the previously selected node and the node under the
mouse.

Note The <Shift> modifier only works on nodes at the same depth in the tree. If you want
to select multiple nodes at different depths in the tree then the only way to do this is by
using the <Ctrl> modifier as described above.

Note Selecting multiple nodes can only be performed with the mouse and not the keyboard.

Adding/Removing Objects to/from the View


Those objects that can be displayed in the view have a tickbox displayed next to the node.
There are three ways of adding objects to the view:
• Click with the mouse over the tickbox. A tick should appear to show that the object is in
the view .
• To remove the object from the view click again over the tickbox.
• Select the nodes you want to add into the view and then open one of these node’s pop-up
menu. There should be two menu items, Add to view and Remove from view. Select the
appropriate menu option.
• Select the nodes you want to add into the view and then click on one of these nodes and
drag it into the 3D Viewer.
Note the following:
• At all times the ticked state of each nodes tickbox should reflect whether the object
associated with the node is displayed in the view.
Ticking on a parent node adds/removes all its children to/from the view.
If the children of a parent node are not all in the same state (ticked or unticked) then the
parent nodes tickbox is drawn with a highlighted background. If the child nodes are
collapsed, this allows you to see, by looking at the parent node, whether all the children are
all added to the view , all removed from the view or only some in the view .
• Some nodes’ tickboxes are displayed with rounded edges . This indicates that this node
and its siblings are acting like a radio button group. Only one of the nodes may be selected
and thus added into the view at any one time. The currently selected node is show by having
a circle in the middle of it .
• Some tickboxes are shown with a border drawn in the disabled color. This means that,
although you can switch off the node thus removing its items from the view, you cannot
switch the node on. These types of tickboxes are usually used where it does not make sense
to be able to add all the children of a node to the view in one go. The Add to view menu
item of the nodes popup menu are also disabled and it is not possible to drag the node into
the 3D Viewer.

• To remove all the objects from the view in one go click on the button in the top right
toolbar.

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Using the data tree
Configuring the visual appearance of objects in
the view
Each object in the view represented by a node in the tree has a Visualization Settings option
on its pop up menu. Provided the object has been added to the view this option opens a modeless
panel containing two lists and a checkbox.
• Use the Render Mode and Level of detail lists to change the way the object is displayed.
You can only select one entry in each list.
The checkbox determines whether the object is hidden or visible. The panel automatically
closes if the object it refers to is removed from the view.

Selecting nodes in the tree using the 3D Viewer


If you click using the left mouse button in the 3D Viewer whilst over any object the associated
node in the tree should be selected. Multiple selections can be made by holding down the
<Ctrl> key whilst clicking with the left mouse button in the 3D Viewer. This toggles the
selection of the associated tree node.
Holding down the <Ctrl> key whilst clicking with the right mouse button in the 3D Viewer
not only selects the associated node in the tree but displays its popup menu at the current mouse
position. This is an extremely useful way of performing operations on objects in the 3D Viewer.
However it is not very intuitive to hold down the <Ctrl> key whilst clicking with the right
mouse button since the normal way to invoke pop up menus is to simply right click. This
possesses problems in the 3D Viewer though as right clicks have already been reserved for
translate operations. The code has thus been written such that it intelligently determines whether
you want to translate the object or invoke its pop up menu. If this intelligent behavior causes
problems then it can be switched off using the following configuration file setting:

SECTION FLOGRID
SUBSECT TREE
ENHANCED3DPICK FALSE

Note The associated node is selected but the tree does not automatically scroll the selected
node into view.

Docking/UnDocking Data Tree


The data tree can be docked/undocked from the main FloGrid window by one of:
• Selecting the Node Tree Docked option from the Window menu of the main window.

• Clicking on the button in the top right toolbar.


The advantages of undocking the data tree are that it can now be sized independently of the main
window. It can also be minimized if not needed. However this operation really comes into it’s
own on a dual head machine. The data tree can be placed onto one of the screens and the main
window containing the 3D Viewer can be placed in the other.

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Using the data tree
When the tree is undocked for the first time it attempts to position itself to the left of the main
window. If the main window is maximized then the tree is positioned on the left hand side of
the screen. Its height remains same as the main window and its width is preserved. When it is
subsequently re-docked its width inside the main window is preserved. When the tree is docked
its undocked position and size is remembered for the next time it is undocked.

Note The data tree automatically re-docks if a new workspace is requested.

Finding Nodes
The data tree can contain a large amount of data and it is sometimes difficult to locate the node
that you want. A node search facility has been written to allow you to select or move to nodes
matching a pattern based on the nodes labels. Use one of the two following to invoke the node
search facility:
• Select Find Node from the Data Tree’s pop up menu.

Hint If the mouse is over a node then use Ctrl-right-click, otherwise you open the node’s
pop up menu instead.

• Click on the button in the top right toolbar.


The Node Finder consists of the following options:
• an edit field for typing the search pattern matching the node labels to be located;
• a set of check boxes to determine the search behavior.
• two radio buttons to determine the selection behavior.
• a status counter indicating the number of nodes found (the nodes whose label matches the
search pattern);
• a table listing the labels of the located nodes (one entry per node);
• a set of control buttons.

Search Pattern
The search pattern consists of a string containing plain text and any number of instances of the
following special characters:
• ‘*’ to indicate zero or more instances of any ASCII character
• ‘?’ to indicate exactly one instance of any ASCII character.

Search Pattern Edit field


The Search Pattern Edit field maintains a history of all patterns searched for. You can display
this list using the drop-down button on the right side of the edit field. This enables you to repeat
old searches, possibly modifying them first.

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Using the data tree
Check Boxes
There are two check boxes on the dialog. The first one, if ticked, sets the search to be case
sensitive. The second one, if ticked, sets whether the search results are alphabetically sorted.

Radio Buttons
There are two radio buttons on the dialog. They determine what happens when you select
something from the list underneath.

Move to node
• If the radio button is set to Move to node then the selected node is brought into view.
Parent nodes are expanded if necessary. The current selection is unaffected.

Select node(s)
• If the radio button is set to Select node(s) then the node is only selected. The current
expanded/collapsed state of the node tree is unaffected. It therefore may be the case that
you do not actually see the selection even though it has taken place.

Status counter
The Status Counter shows, at all times, the number of nodes found. It also indicates the
number of entries in the table underneath.

Control buttons
• To search the node tree for nodes matching the pattern press the Search button. The search
can be carried out in two modes: AutoSearch On and AutoSearch Off.

Hint It is possible to toggle between the two modes from the pop-up menu displayed from
the right mouse button.

AutoSearch On
When AutoSearch is On the Search button is disabled and a new search automatically takes
place whenever the content of the edit field is modified.

Autosearch Off
If AutoSearch is Off the Search button is active and a search is started only after the button is
pressed with the left mouse button.

Clearing searches
• To clear the search pattern in the edit field and clear all the search results press the Reset
button.

Retrieving a node
• To retrieve a node, click on the table entry containing its label. The tree’s behavior is
determined by the state of the radio buttons.

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Using the data tree
When two or more nodes (in the same search context) carry the same label, the table
contains one entry for each node: all duplicate labels have the tag (press n) (with n = 2, 3,
4...) appended to their corresponding entry.
Clicking on a different tagged entry causes the retrieval of a different node.

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Using the data tree
Surfaces Data

Introduction
Two distinct categories of maps can be imported into the surfaces tree: mesh maps and contour
maps.
Data editing facilities are also provided. These options are currently restricted to creating and
editing: mesh maps, fault traces and polygons in the 3D Viewer.
The Surfaces node contains several menu options to import various formats of scatter sets,
mesh maps and contour maps.
• "Surface Data" on page 341.
• "Maps" on page 342.
• "Mesh Map Data" on page 347.
• "Contour maps" on page 350.
• "Contour Map Data" on page 352.
• "Scatter Sets" on page 353.
• "Unassigned Maps Node" on page 355.
• "Surface table" on page 356.
• "Create Simple Mesh Map" on page 357.
• "Export as Generic" on page 359.

Surface Data
The Surface node contains one or more map nodes. Surfaces are always ordered depositionally,
with the most recently formed geological surface at the top.
Different functionality is available at different levels in the tree. It is accessed by selecting one
or more of the nodes and then using the right mouse button to bring up an appropriate pop-up
menu.

Surface options
You can display the Surface Options pop-up menu by holding the right mouse button down
over one of the selected nodes: this includes facility for surface visualization (that is visualizing
mesh and contour maps associated to that surface) and for the selections of associated well
markers.

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Surfaces Data
Maps
The Surface tree provides facilities for visualizing, classifying and managing contour map,
mesh map and surface data. Information entered in this folder is used to help automate the
process of building structural and property models from which simulation models are then built.
Most functions are available using pop-up menu options on the Surface and Map nodes.
Certain functions are also available using the Surface Table.
One of the main roles of the map and surface trees is to provide a quick way to assign maps to
a given surface. Maps may be assigned to a given surface by selecting the node which represents
them and dragging the mouse onto the required surface node.
Pop-up functionality (in most cases) and the assignment of maps to surfaces using drag and drop
can be applied to multiple nodes in one operation. This is done by selecting multiple nodes using
either Ctrl or Shift selection as required.

Note The Unassigned Maps node is populated with both mesh and contour map nodes that
have not yet been assigned to any surface. Nodes corresponding to contour maps are
labeled with the tag [Contour]: prepended to the map property and name. Unless
differently specified, any reference to a Map Node is intended as a reference to a node
representing either a mesh or a contour map.

Note Mesh maps, Contour Maps and Scatter Sets can be imported into FloGrid either from
the popup menu of the Surfaces Tree or by selecting the appropriate entry in the
cascade pull-down File | Import from the main window.

Mesh maps
A mesh map file contains data values represented on a regular grid mesh.

Mesh map attributes and formats


Each map has a set of attributes that describe how the data are organized. Map attributes and
input file formats are described in "Mesh Map Data" on page 781.

Mesh map types


Maps are divided into three basic types - surface, thickness, and property.
Surface and thickness maps define structure. Surface maps can be horizons or unconformities.
For further information on the interaction of mesh nodes and surfaces see "Construction of Units
and Horizons from Mesh Maps" on page 757.

Surface map
A surface map is a 2-D array of depth/height values. Surface maps are used primarily in the
construction of structural models from which property models and ultimately simulation models
are constructed.

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Surfaces Data
Thickness map
A thickness map contains thickness values that are added to a reference grid surface to produce
a new surface. The reference surface used in the process is called Th. Reference.

Note A thickness map surface can be defined based on another thickness map as long as the
reference eventually resolves to a surface map.

Property map
A property map describes the property values of a unit.
Property maps can be assigned explicitly to units in the Property Model module. When
property maps are assigned to units in the property model, the process must be repeated each
time a new property model is created.
Alternatively, property maps can be assigned to surfaces in the main window surfaces tree.
Where surfaces have been created and numbered from top to bottom, property maps assigned
to a surface represent the properties immediately below that surface (that is properties in the unit
bounded above by that surface). Similarly, for a bottom up model, property maps assigned to a
surface represent properties above that surface. Properties assigned in this way are available in
all map-based property models.

Importing mesh maps


To import mesh maps of a given type, select the appropriate menu option. This opens a multi-
file selection dialog. One or more mesh maps can be imported by navigating to the desired
directory and selecting the required mesh map files using the appropriate use of Shift / Ctrl
selections.
The supported mesh map file formats are described below.

Generic
This is a formatted text file containing the mesh map dimensions (nx, ny) and nx*ny values,
where nx represents the numbe