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Colgate Emery Process
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Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd May, 2017

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Colgate-Emery process, or modifications of it, is the most efficient and essay writing service can
inexpensive method for large scale production of saturated fatty acids
do for you:
from fats and oils, and for the production of unsaturated fatty acids
generally below IV levels of 120 (fish-derived) or 140 (soya, etc). The high CLICK HERE!
temperature and pressure used permit short reaction time.

In continuous, counter-current splitting the fatty oil is deaerated under (/services/essay-writing-


a vacuum to prevent darkening by oxidation during processing. It is service.php)
charged at a controlled rate to the bottom of the splitting tower through
a sparge ring, which breaks the fat into droplets. The oil in the bottom
contacting section rises because of its lower density and extracts the
small amount of fatty material dissolved in the aqueous glycerine
phase. At the same time deaerated, demineralized water is fed to the
top contacting section, where it extracts the glycerine dissolved in the
fatty phase. After leaving the contacting sections, the two streams enter
the reaction zone. Here they are brought to reaction temperature by
the direct injection of high pressure steam, and then the final phase of
splitting occurs. The fatty acids are discharged from the top of the
splitter to a evaporation chamber, where the entrained water is
separated or flashed off. The glycerine-water solution is then (/archive/)
discharged (to evaporation chamber. The sweet water is concentrate to
30% glycerine concentration before pre-treatment section) from the
bottom of an automatic interface controller to a settling tank. Full
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counter-current flow of oil and water produces a high degree of splitting
without the need of a catalyst. However, a catalyst may be used to
increase reaction rate further.

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Method
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Colgate-Emery Process from full
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GREEN CHEMISTRY AND
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Principle 3: The substances used and produced are non-toxic

Principle 5: No harmful solvent and auxiliary are used Marking Service


Principle 7: The raw material is renewable source which come from
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Principle 10: The products are all bio-degradable. the areas of your
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Catalyst improvement.

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No catalyst

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Conversion
Fully referenced,
Process temperature delivered on time.
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250-260 °C you require now.

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Process pressure
5MPa APA Referencing Tool

Composition of final product Harvard Referencing Tool

90% Fatty acids Vancouver Referencing


Tool
10% Glycerine

Study Guides
Process time needed
2-3 hour at 250 °C and 5MPa

Hazardous Reactant/By product


or product
Glycerine INTERESTED IN ORDERING?
May cause eye and skin irritation.

Ingestion of large amounts may cause gastrointestinal irritation

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EnergyUK ESSAYS
consumption
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Energy Intensive

Type of reaction
Endothermic

Raw material cost


Safety factor
High pressure process

No harmful chemical is used

Flexibility of operation
Unreacted vegetable oil is recycled to prevent waste of raw material.

Variability of feedstock such as: corn oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, etc

Catalyst may be added to enhance the process

Process Description
The splitting tower is the most important part of this hydrolysis process.
The Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBD PO) is preheated and
feed into the column bottom by means of a sparge ring, around 1 m
with a high-pressure pump. Water is introduced near the top at a ratio
of 40-50% of the weight of the oil. The high splitting temperature
(250-260 °C) ensures adequate dissolution of the water phase into
the oil so that mechanical means for bringing the two phases into
contact are not required. The oil rises through the hot glycerol-water
collecting section at the bottom of the column and passes through the
oil-water interface into the continuous phase, the oil layer in which
hydrolysis takes place. Direct injection of high pressure steam at certain
points quickly raises the temperature to 260 °C and enhances the
splitting of oil. The continuous, countercurrent high pressure process
splits fats in 98- 99% efficiency in only 2- 3 hours with little or no
discoloration of the fatty acids and an efficient use of steam. The fatty
acids are discharged from the top of the splitter to an evaporator, INTERESTED IN ORDERING?
where the entrained water is separated or flashed off. The
glycerine-water solution is then discharged from the bottom of an
automatic interface controller to a settling tank. The vapour from

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evaporator
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compressed, cooled and then collected at Help
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tank.
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After evaporator, the crude fatty acids are undergoing a series of
distillation to separate different fatty acids according to their boiling
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point. Because of the inherent sensitivity of fatty acids toward heat, the
distillation methods
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temperature as practically and economically feasible while maintaining
the shortest residence time of the fatty acid in the distillation unit. The
separation sequence of fatty acids of palm oil is pre C-14, palmitic acid,
mixture of oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid and residue.

The sweet water is let to settle down to separate into upper phase of
unreacted fat and fatty acid and settle sweet water. It is settles for
approximately 24 h at 80-90 °C and a pH of 4-5. Phosphoric acid is
sometimes used to help break any emulsion, but this is not always
required. The fats and fatty acids are decanted from the top of the
sweet water and returned to the splitter feed for recycle. The settled
sweet water is then sent to the evaporators for concentration. This
alternative method requires two tanks, one for settling and one for
collecting the sweet water. The tanks are alternated every 24 h to run
continuously.

The pre-treated sweet water will pass through 3 evaporators in series.


This is accomplished by joining two or more evaporators in series using
the heat from the live steam. The water vapour obtained from each
evaporator is condensed to process water before being reused in the
splitting column. Through these 3 evaporators in series, crude glycerine
of about 88% can be obtained. The crude glycerine is then store in a
tank.

Reaction System
Fat Splitting Column
Refined Bleached Deodorised Palm Oil (RBD PO) is feed from the
bottom of the column and the water is feed from the top of the column.
The high temperature (250 °C) and high pressure (50MPa) enhance
the solubility of water in oil phase where hydrolysis of oil occurs. The
empty volume of the tower is used as the reaction compartment. The
crude fat passes as a coherent phase from the bottom to the top
through the tower, whereas the heavier splitting water travels
downward as a dispersed phase through the mixture of fat and fatty
acid. The mixture of fatty acid and entrained water is obtained at the
top while the sweet water which contain 10 to 18% of glycerine.
Approximately 2 hours of reaction time is needed to reach degrees of
splitting up to 99%. INTERESTED IN ORDERING?

Separation System

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Evaporator
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The fatty acids are discharged from the top of the splitting column toNotifications
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evaporator, where the entrained water is separated or flashed off. The

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water content is removed to prevent oxidation and degradation fatty
acids. The water vapour are then condensed and collected at the feed
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Distillation Column
Due to the different carbon chain length and level of saturation of fatty
acids, fatty acids can be separated according to their own boiling point.
Due to the sensitivity of fatty acids toward heat, Distillation is carried
out under high vacuum and lower temperatures and with the shortest
residence time allowable. Typically, the distillation unit will work at a
vacuum of 1.2kPa or less and temperature according to the feed
composition and boiling point. After this series of distillation columns,
99% of palmitic acid, mixture of oleic acid and linoleic acid at 99% and
99 % stearic acid are achieved. The light cut or pre C14 fatty acids
contain volatile impurities as well as odor and color bodies. The residue
which consists of the higher boiling components, usually of lower
quality can either be withdrawn separately or recycled directly for
redistillation.

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