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FEB 2008 ISSUE 38

FEB 2008 ISSUE 38

Mobile IP surges
across Europe
LTE, are you ready?
A winning PTN strategy
The fourth generation BTS
Pointing the wind vanes for BTSs

gives fresh breath
The wind vane for
global mobile market

2007 witnessed the continuous growth of 3G networks. GSM networks still have
much vitality in the next five years, and emerging technologies such as WiMAX and
LTE have been highlighted in commercial application agendas. Rapid changes in mobile
network modes and upgrades in technologies have raised a challenge to operators: How to
seamlessly integrate various network modes and technologies?
The accelerated growth of mobile broadband video services - coupled with an ever
greater user base and a higher average Minutes of Usage - is mounting increasing pressure
on mobile operators in terms of network expansion and operation. To win out, mobile
Sponsor: operators not only need to control the construction and operation costs in an end-to-end
Editorial Department of manner, but also need to take up the social responsibility of environmental protection,
Huawei COMMUNICATE, energy savings and emission reductions. Huawei has been focusing on the pressures and
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. challenges faced by operators, and has predominated the four technical directions of “Green,
Convergence, Evolution and Broadband.”
Huawei has proposed its “Green Site” solution that integrates a range of innovative
Hu Houkun, Xu Zhijun, Xu Wenwei
technologies to reduce the number of cabinets required by traditional BTSs from 10 to 1.
Yu Chengdong, Tao Jingwen, Huang Chaowen,
Meanwhile, the BTS capacity is increased from 12 to 36/72 carriers, and the system power
Hou Jinlong, Li Shenzhuo, Yu Xiangping
consumption is halved to 800W. Embodying a win-win situation, the solution delivers
Editor-in -Chief: both environmental and economic benefits for operators.
Gao Xianrui (sally@huawei.com) The need for seamless integration of different network modes and technologies has
inspired Huawei’s fourth generation BTS platform. Breaking the system barrier, the
Editors: integrated platform supports various network modes such as UMTS, CDMA, WCDMA
Pan Tao, Liu Zhonglin, Xu Peng, Xue Hua and LTE. Software upgrades facilitate changes between different modes, and this greatly
Huang Zhuojian, Chen Yuhong simplifies operators’ cost structures in a way that protects long-term investment by
Zhou Huajiao, Yao Haifei, Zhou Shumin ensuring smooth future evolution.
In terms of mobile broadband, Huawei has taken a leading step in IP transformation
research and raised the IP BSS/RAN solution. This solution provides an end-to-end IP-
Peng Bo, Luo Gang, Zhang Wenlin
based architecture, including kernels, interfaces, and service guarantee mechanisms, which
Qiao Xiaoping, Chen Haijun, Qiu Heng
enables operators to substantially reduce transmission cost, improve QoS, and expand
Liu Peng, Chen Wei, Shu Chaohai
bandwidth and throughput, thus allowing flexible mobile broadband service deployment
Yang Xiaozhong, Qiang Jun, Xiong Lening
and smooth service adaptation.
He Jie, Hou Yingzhen, Jiang Tao, Han Jiayin
Now Huawei has become a key strategic partner for mobile operators worldwide.
Li Changzhu, Xu Xueming, Wu Shang
Successful cooperation with Vodafone Spain sparked Huawei’s selection as the supplier
Zhu Nianguo, Wang Yudan, Zhao Yuan
for Vodafone’s subsidiaries in Greece, Romania and Hungary. Telefonica/O2 deployed
Huawei’s dual-mode (2G/3G) BTSs to optimize its GSM networks in southern Germany,
Tel: +86 755 28780808
and was further awarded its HSPA contracts for Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.
Fax: +86 755 28356180
France Telecom selected Huawei to construct wireless networks for its operations in
Address: A10, Huawei Industrial Base,
Belgium, Romania, Poland and the Greater Cairo region of Egypt’s Mobinil. In Australia,
Bantian, Longgang, Shenzhen,
Optus selected Huawei as its sole contractor for the world’s largest UMTS 900 network.
China 518129
In India, Reliance partnered with Huawei in building its GSM network of 300 thousand
E-mail: HWtech@huawei.com
carriers. In Chicago, Huawei successfully deployed America’s first All-IP CDMA network.
Publication registration No.:
The new wind vane for the global mobile market has come to fruition. Huawei and its
Yue B No.10148
innovative mobile solutions represented by the fourth generation BTS will help operators
The information contained in this document is for stride into the new mobile era.
reference purpose only, and is subject to change
or withdrawal according to specific customer
requirements and conditions.

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

All Rights Reserved. Yu Chengdong
No part of this issue may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means without President of Wireless Network
prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
What’s inside:

P.17 P.45
Global Digest Main Topic
01 Vodafone Australia plans national 17 The fourth generation BTS
mobile broadband network Pointing the wind vanes for BTSs
By Xu Peizhong

02 Telefónica/O2 lower European data

roaming tariffs
19 2G BTS draws on 3G technologies
By Pang Yingwen
03 Huawei launches solution
to cut base station power consumption

Expert’s Forum 23 Green BTS gives fresh breath

By Wu Wujun
05 WiMAX leads a new wireless
broadband life
By Li Xiaojuan
25 What can wideband RF
Cover Story bring for GSM?
By Feng Baoshun
09 Mobile IP surges across
Wideband RF technology had been put into commercial
Europe use in WCDMA and CDMA systems. The application of
this technology to the GSM system will deliver with it a
What decisions, plans and choices have Vodafone, Orange breakthrough in traditional mobile networks, which will
and Telecom Italia made with the mobile IP wave surging greatly assist GSM operators to lower TCO and achieve a
across Europe? low cost for rapid expansion. Moreover, it will offer smooth
By Liu Zhen future evolution potential.
Let’s COMMUNICATE beyond technology and share understandings of the latest industry trends,
successful operational cases, leading technologies and more. Based on in-depth analysis of the
matters that lie close to your heart, we will help you stay on top in the competitive telecom industry.

P.15 P.46 P.23

Media Insight Interview
27 Harvesting in the US, India and China 39 The Ferrari of Telecoms: TI
Huawei makes it large in CDMA racing towards record prosperity
By Li Chuantao By Wang Yudan

42 Vitality of mobile broadband

By John Lee
How to Operate
30 International roaming leads Solution
By Xiao Qian
45 WiMAX maximizes your potential
By Liu Wang
As the demand for lower tariffs for international roaming becomes
more pervasive, major mobile operators are beginning to research
methods globally for providing the lowest international roaming 47 Moving towards multi-system
tariffs, while delivering services that are similar to those of a home
network. This, of course, is under the precondition that operators’
business revenue remains ensured. By Liu Ping

Leading Edge
33 Intelligent heart of mobile Internet 50 VoIP over HSPA:
By Chi Zhentao & Zhang Baoguang running in the fast lane
By Li Xuanbo

35 Seeking for a winning PTN strategy 53 LTE, are you ready?

By Bian Mingang By Xu Yan


Vodafone Australia plans national AT&T launches 3G mobile broadband in Baltimore

mobile broadband network
AT&T announced that it had Philadelphia to Northern Virginia now
expanded its 3G mobile broadband have the option to access the Internet
network throughout Baltimore and over AT&T’s 3G wireless data network,
the surrounding suburbs, thanks which acts as a gateway to a variety of
to technology upgrades at 250 “feature rich” web content, including
cell sites in the area.Customers from streaming video and music downloads.

T-Mobile and 3 UK create Britain’s largest 3G network

3 UK and T-Mobile UK have signed As the world's largest known
an agreement to combine their 3G active 3G network sharing agreement,
Vodafone Australia said it plans to Vodafone Australia plans to access networks in a ground-breaking this will significantly increase both
roll out a national high-speed mobile complete its hardware and software collaboration that will lead to almost operators' 3G network quality and
broadband network that will provide vendor selection process early in 2008 complete population coverage for coverage, accelerate the provision of
coverage to 95% of Australia's and has already commenced work 3G services across Britain by the end new high-speed mobile broadband
population by the end of 2008. on its core network in preparation for of 2008 with significant fill in and services and deliver substantial cost
In a statement, Vodafone the upgrade. Vodafone will maintain improvement to dense urban in- savings as well as environmental
Australia said it plans a significant normal mobile network services building coverage in 2009. benefits.
mobile broadband network during the rollout period.
expansion and upgrade to provide It said it will continue its 3G First Wi-Fi / 3G transport network in UK
high-speed packet access, or HSPA, joint-venture with Optus in major
Strathclyde Partnership for station.
to customers, enabling faster metropolitan areas. However,
Transport (SPT) and network operator The new network will enable
download and upload speeds. Vodafone Australia will undertake
Arqiva have announced a ground Subway customers to access the
The upgrade will also improve its own upgrade to its 900 MHz and
breaking deal to provide a combined Internet and mobile phones at
network coverage and capacity for 2100 MHz mobile network in all
cellular and Wi-Fi network across the stations, and provide public access to
standard 2G and 3G voice calls, it said. other parts of the country.
15 Glasgow Subway stations. Wi-Fi services.
Under the agreement, Glasgow This unique Wi-Fi project is part of
Japan: Softbank and KDDI lead in wireless
will become the first UK city to provide the massive programme of Subway
subscriber growth passengers with combined 2G and 3G modernisation and efficiencies being
cellular mobile and Wi-Fi access. undertaken by SPT, which sees great
2007, for an end-of-year total of
Arqiva Wireless Solutions division potential in using Wi-Fi technology
29.19 million subscribers.
will begin deployment of the to migrate some of its existing
Market leader, NTT DoCoMo,
network later this month, with initial applications and services, including
trailed its smaller rivals, adding
testing at Buchanan Street Subway ticketing, onto the network.
just 121,500 new subscribers,
for a nationwide total of 53.15
million. 27,900 of DoCoMo’s new
Japan’s third largest mobile phone subscribers signed on to the so-
operator, Softbank, led competitors called “2in1” service, which allows
in terms of subscriber growth in subscribers to have two phone
December 2007, adding 210,800 numbers and email addresses for a
new subscribers over the course of flat monthly fee.
the month, and bringing its total Meanwhile, EMOBILE, a newcomer
subscriber base to 17.61 million. to Japan’s wireless market, added
Softbank was followed by 83,600 new subscribers in the final
KDDI, which posted net subscriber month of 2007, giving it a subscriber
additions of 138,600 in December, base of 205,900.

1 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38


Telefónica/O2 lower European data roaming tariffs 80.74 million

By the end of 3Q2007, 80.74 quarters in 2007 amounted to 9
Telefónica has announced cuts in starting from early February, pay no
million of China Mobile's customers billion messages. In 3Q2007 alone,
its data roaming tariffs of up to 40% more than EUR0.32 to send an SMS
were using MMS, according to the approximately 18 billion MMS were
within Europe. The company says that from any EU country - representing
operator. This represented an increase sent in the Asia-Pacific region as
consumers in Spain, UK, Germany, a reduction of up to 49% on current
of 16.8% from 2Q2007 and brought a whole, according to Informa's
Czech Republic and Ireland will prices. The new rate will apply to
the share of its customers using World Cellular Data Metrics. Value-
benefit from cuts of more than 40% all customers by April. It will cost
MMS to 23%, according to Informa added services, such as MMS, ring-
in data roaming prices, while the cost nothing to receive a text.
Telecoms & Media. back tones and WAP continue to be
of sending a text message home from Telefónica also intends to increase
To t a l M M S s e n t b y C h i n a the main drivers of China Mobile's
anywhere in the European Union the transparency of data roaming
Mobile's customers in the first three revenue growth.
falls to a maximum of EUR0.32+ prices and reduce the possibility of
taxes. For business travelers, a new bill shock by combining its simple
roaming bundle provides worldwide tariff schemes with a range of usage 210 million
access to data at a price equivalent monitoring tools. From March 2008, The Chinese government said its year. According to the government's
to EUR1 per megabyte (MB) - subject mobile laptop users will be able to Internet population has soared to 210 Xinhua News Agency, China is only
to a minimum spend of EUR50 per monitor their data usage in real time million people, putting it on track to 5 million behind the US, a figure
month. via their “Connection Manager” surpass the US online community this consistent with some American
O2 businesses and Movistar in s o f t w a re , w h i l e a l l ro a m i n g year to become the world's largest. estimates.
Spain will implement a range of customers will automatically receive The official China Internet China still lags the US in many
new data roaming tariffs aimed at a text message containing SMS, data Network Information Center, also respects, however. Xinhua placed
consumers traveling within Europe and voice pricing information. known as CNNIC, said the online China's online penetration rate at
ahead of this year's summer holiday In addition, O 2 and Movistar population grew 53%, from 137 16%, the point Americans were at in
season in July. These will include both customers will not incur penalties if million reported at the same time last the mid-1990s.
significant reductions in the per-MB their phone selects a non-preferred
price and the introduction of time- network - removing any potential
based charging principles, such as daily concerns about hidden charges.
rates. The resultant savings for In 3Q2007, 80% of mobile models on sale has increased
customers will be anything handset models on sale in Japan were 70% year-on-year from 47% of
between 42% and 80% over WCDMA models. The remainder were the models on sale in 3Q2006, as
November 2007 prices. mostly CDMA models (18%) sold by Softbank has strongly expanded its
Recognising the ever- the country's second largest operator WCDMA portfolio and market-leader
increasing popularity of KDDI, while just 2% of models on sale NTT DoCoMo has also continued to
text messaging as a way of were PDC handsets. promote the technology under its
staying in touch, both prepaid The share of WCDMA handset FOMA brand.
and postpaid consumers will,
6 billion
Polish telecom incumbent begins testing FTTH Vodafone has announced plans the next three years on our Indian
broadband technology to spend USD2 billion a year over the operations... We have set a target of
next three years expanding its Indian reaching 100 million subscriber base
Poland’s incumbent telephone which will last until the end of network coverage and improving from the current level of 40 million."
provider, Telekomunikacja Polska SA, November. Residents will be able service quality. The company would He also ruled out any talk of an
is ready to start testing its fiber-to- to browse the Internet at speeds of be launching a range of new services, IPO for the Indian company in the
the-home broadband technology, up to 50Mbps through a Livebox but did not elaborate on what and short term saying that he wanted
after rolling it out to all residents of a FTTH modem, as well as access on- when. to build up the company operations
new apartment building in the Wola demand television, video rental, Speaking during a visit by the UK before any possibilities would be
district of Warsaw. and Internet telephony services, at Prime Minister to India, Vodafone's explored in that direction. The funding
All of the 265 apartments are a cost of just PLN49 (USD20) per CEO Arun Sarin said "We shall be for the USD6 billion of expenditure
eligible to participate in the pilot, month. investing USD2 billion annually for would come from company resources.

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 2


Huawei News
Vodafone UK partners with Huawei to launch their smallest HSUPA USB Stick
Newbury, 11 January 2008 can look forward to enjoying high- real benefits from the ease of use that customers will be delighted
Vodafone UK and Huawei have speed wireless access, both at offered by our USB plug and go with the mobile lifestyle they will
launched the next generation of home and on the go. The plug- device, coupled with our increased enable," said Steven Lau, director
USB device, the Vodafone Mobile and-play featured devices are network speeds. As a result, they of Huawei European Terminal
Broadband USB Modem Stick or compatible with Windows (Vista have increased their usage six- Department. "Consumers expect
E172. Boasting High Speed Uplink and XP) and Mac OSX, whether run fold as they use the service to mobile service providers to
Packet Access (HSUPA) technologies on a PC, laptop or handheld device. work more productively or surf demonstrate constant innovation
and innovative design, it will The Vodafone E172 is the the Internet", commented Kyle and Huawei is very pleased to be
be available to Vodafone UK's world's slimmest and smallest Whitehill, Vodafone UK, Enterprise working with Vodafone to fulfill
customers from today. HSUPA USB stick, and was designed Director. "Vodafone was the first these expectations."
The E172 enables uplink with the elegance of a sleek white to improve download speeds with
speeds of up to 2Mbps and piano in mind. Highly portable, is HSDPA (High Speed Downlink
download rates of 7.2 Mbps. Within perfect for mobile users, and built- Packet Access), the first to increase
Vodafone's HSPA network, the in features ensure that the USB's upload speeds with HSUPA, and
device will facilitate fast Internet cap cannot be dropped or lost. now we're pushing the boundaries
browsing, instant access and the "For personal use or remote of usability even further with a
uninterrupted ability both to upload working, customers buy Vodafone groundbreaking compact design."
and download data. Combining f o r p re d i c t a b i l i t y, u n r i v a l l e d "We are looking forward to
cutting edge technologies with speeds, reliability and ease of launching the E172 in collaboration
sleek design, Vodafone's customers use. Our customers are seeing with Vodafone and are confident

Huawei attains No.1 position in global IP DSLAM market Huawei launches solution to help operators cut base
Shenzhen, China, 14 January Europe and the Middle East and Africa
station power consumption
2008 Huawei announced that (EMEA). By the end of the third quarter China, 18 January 2008 as traditional 40W base stations
according to a report published in the of 2007, Huawei had shipped more Huawei has launched a new and high-efficiency power amplifier
third quarter of 2007 by the leading than 70 million DSL ports to more than solution that can reduce base technologies that make convection
industry consulting firm Gartner, that 90 countries including the UK, France, station power consumption by up cooling, direct cooling, and intelligent
it is currently in the NO. 1 position in Germany, Singapore, Thailand, Brazil, to 60%. The Green Sites Solution, cooling technology in a base station
the global IP DSLAM Market, with a South Africa and China. uses optimized hardware design, possible. This reduces the need for
market share of 31.5%, and that its Huawei IP DSLAM is fully compliant an innovative power amplifier and air-conditioners that cause noise
DSL market share is continuing to rise. with the TR-101 standard and enables power consumption management to pollution and helps to reduce a base
According to a Gartner, report, carriers to provide excellent broadband help operators realize a high level of station's electricity consumption to
published on 18 December  2007, networks with its powerful bandwidth power saving. less than 500W. Huawei's Green Sites
entitled "Market Share: DSLAM handling capabilities and abundant Reducing the power consumption Solution is also able to be integrated
Equipment, Worldwide, 3Q2007" by service features. of base stations has emerged as with environmentally friendly energy
Gauri Pavate, IP DSLAM one of the key concerns of telecom sources such as wind, solar power,
port shipments are operators around the globe. and methane.
rapidly increasing and Huawei's Green Sites Solution adopts " H ua w ei h a s a l w a y s b e e n
in 3Q2007, accounted leading power amplifier technologies, committed to looking after the
for 77.3% of all including DPD and A-Doherty, that environment," commented Mr Yu
DSLAM shipments. boost the power efficiency of base Chengdong, president of Huawei's
Huawei holds the No.1 stations by 45%, reducing the overall Wireless Product Line. "As one of
position in the global power consumption of the facilities. the leading telecom equipment and
IP DSLAM market It also uses a distributed architecture solutions providers, we are putting
and has increased that allows 20W base stations to have this goal into practice by designing
its market share in the same output frequency coverage environmental friendly products."

3 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei to deploy first commercial mobile WiMAX Huawei showcases innovative mobile solutions
network in Central Asia at Mobility World Congress
Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 25 enable its subscribers to realize Hong Kong, 14 December CDMA solutions which adopt next
December 2007 Huawei has been wireless broadband access. Upon 2007 Huawei showcased its generation con-platform and multi-
selected by Babilon-T, the largest completion of the network Babilon- innovative wireless solutions at mode integration solutions that
telecommunication operator in T's subscribers will be able to enjoy the "Mobility World Congress" in provide operators with the means to
Tajikistan, to deploy the Central Asia's high-speed Internet access, watch Hong Kong from 3 to 7 December implement ultra-mobile broadband
first WiMAX commercial network. mobile TV, use VoIP at home, in the 2007. As senior sponsor of the networks while reducing their costs.
Under the terms of agreement, company, or even on the street by congress, held by the CDMA "Broadband mobile networks
Huawei will provide an end-to-end using Customer Premise Equipment Development Group (CDG) and of the future ought to be based
mobile WiMAX network, including (CPE) or a PC card provided by other industry organizations Huawei on IP in order to simplify networks
distributed base station, Wireless Huawei. reinforced its leadership in taking and enhance their capabilities in
Access Service Node-Gateway, "Babilon-T is looking forward mobile networks to IP through terms of transmission, diversified
Network Management Equipment to implement wireless broadband CDMA2000, WiMAX, UMTS/HSPA, service expansion, and intelligent
and Terminals. access infrastructure nationally," GSM demonstrations. maintenance," said Mr Zhao
The network will cover the four said Fayzullaev B, General Director Huawei used the Mobility Ming, vice president of Huawei
major areas of Tajikistan, including of Babilon-T. "By introducing mobile World Congress to exhibit its Wireless marketing dept. during the
its capital Dushanbe. Rollout will WiMAX technology, we will be able mobile solutions with integrated congress. "The major factors driving
start immediately and is expected to provide our customers all over 4G mobile technologies and green mobile networks towards IP derive
to launch during the first quarter of Tajikistan with broadband access to energy sources such as solar/wind/ from the need for operators to
2008. the Internet." firedamp energy that can help reduce their TCO, the abundance
To meet the increasing demand "This new technology will operators reduce their equipment of IP-based convergent commercial
for broadband, and taking undoubtedly bring new market consumption and reduce the applications, and the smooth
into account the mountainous opportunities for Babilon-T," discharge of carbon dioxide. future evolution into LTE/UMB. All
terrain in Tajikistan, Babilon-T is commented Mr Wang Kexiang, Huawei also showcased its FMC of Huawei's IP-based solutions will
adopting WiMAX technology to President of Huawei CIS Region. technologies such as its IP-based help operators grow in the IP era."

TransTelecom selects Huawei to deploy commercial WiMAX network in Europe

Sofia, Bulgaria, 3 January the country's increasing broadband said Mr John Munnery, Chairman of has exhibited total commitment to
2008 Huawei has been selected by needs, and the operator has chosen TransTelecom. "Extensive tests of this the project throughout our selection
TransTelecom, a telecom operator Huawei to deliver an upgraded new technology have surpassed all our process, and has proven them to be
in Bulgaria, to deploy a commercial 16e-based network. Huawei's expectations. In particular, we witnessed one of the leaders in this fast-developing
WiMAX network, covering central 16e-based WiMAX solution integrates Huawei demonstrate one of the first technology. What's more, we are also
business districts and hot spots in the the most advanced technologies such handovers of traffic from one base impressed with Huawei's localized
country's major cities, including its as multiple-input multiple-output station to another in Europe. Huawei engineering and delivery capability."
capital, Sofia, and Varna, Bulgaria's (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency
largest harbor city. According to the division multiple access (OFDMA),
contract, Huawei will supply an end- which features high bandwidth,
to-end WiMAX solution working wide area coverage, large capacity,
o n 3 . 5 G H z f re q u e n c y b a n d , as well as providing better mobility.
including terminals, as well as a Huawei's new base stations,
major upgrade of the TransTelecom enable TransTelecom to quickly roll
central exchange equipment for the out innovative new services to its
operation of a fully mobile WiMAX customers, while reducing Total Cost
network in 2008. of Ownership (TCO).
In 2006, TransTelecom deployed a "We are delighted to choose Huawei
16d-based WiMAX network to meet as our WiMAX equipment supplier,"

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 4

WiMAX leads a new wireless broadband life

leads a new
broadband lifeBy Li Xiaojuan

5 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

The 3rd Global WiMAX Summit authorized by the WiMAX Forum was successfully held in Beijing,
in September 2007. In attendance were a range of high level industry experts from carriers,
vendors, government officials, and research institutes. Discussion focused on the global WiMAX
deployment and its convergence with 3G, and the search for methods of combining industry chain
strengths to effectively guarantee the global popularization of WiMAX.

s we know, WiMAX possesses Cai Liqun: WiMAX has already entered Over the next 5 years, however, WiMAX
unique superiority in a range of a critical phase. In addition to traditional wireless Internet technology is set to take
ways such as remote transmission, operators, there are many new operators its seat as a significant contributor to
high-speed broadband access focusing on WiMAX, such as ISPs. This global broadband interconnection. We’re
and multimedia communication. WiMAX fully reflects the industry’s expectation committed to assist operators fully utilize
has entered the application phase, and has regarding All-IP based mobile broadband WiMAX to increase profit streams, while
already been successfully commercialized by applications. Currently, most operators allowing users better broadband and
some mainstream operators. In China, 3G select wireless access to underpin WiMAX content access. Users who demand more
is drawing nearer, and the mass testing and breakthrough, and our mission is to help bandwidth are not just concerned with
deployment of WiMAX has gradually begun. them meet existing market demands for bandwidth itself, but with the derived
At the 3rd Global WiMAX Summit, wireless broadband access so as to realize subsequent content.
three experts: Mo Shakouri (Vice President the WiMAX global strategy, accelerate the
of the global WiMAX Forum), Hyun-Pyo
Kim (Director of the WiMAX Unit, KT) and
industry’s development, and lay a solid
foundation for future mobile WiMAX
Win-win industrial chain
Cai Liqun (Ex-President of Huawei WiMAX development. cooperation
Product Line, is now in charge of Core Network Mo Shakouri: WiMAX is a supplemen-
Product Line of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.) tary rather than competitive technology. Hyun-Pyo Kim: KT Wibro has enjoyed
offered their views. Though it differs from the Internet in considerable success in terms of WiMAX
terms of its business model, WiMAX is operations. Our first advantage is that we
WiMAX looking ahead to rich in value. It can meet users’ demands
for wireless broadband technology, and
have a range of equipment available for
end users, including terminals. Secondly,
prosperity the number of users is certain to grow at we’ve priced our products at an affordable
a rapid rate. This achievement has arisen level, for example, the promotional price
Mo Shakouri: The outcome of our through unstinting efforts made over the set for 1G capacity is only USD10. Thirdly,
research in the U.S. indicates that wireless past 5 years. we offer the best quality - compared with
broadband will emerge as consumers’ At present, many operators are investing existing 3G networks, mobile WiMAX
largest communications expenditure, heavily and orienting themselves to the offers the highest uplink and downlink
and this reflects a considerable shift future, and this trend is anticipated in speeds. In addition, we benefit from
necessitating much investment. The the WiMAX industry. New capabilities an open IP-based platform to support
WiMAX industr y offers significant and functions are being added to cellular converged services, Internet access, and
opportunities as current technology and networks, one of which is WiMAX, not mobile Triple-play services.
networks have not yet been fully applied. least because of its extra broadband and After receiving our WiMAX license in
We know that in some emerging and Internet-based capabilities. We therefore January 2005, we began deploying the
developed countries broadband forms a believe that both cellular networks and network in some areas before embarking
precursor for increased GDP, economic WiMAX will grow rapidly over the on wide urban coverage including 17
activity and social value - this is why long term to reach maturity. Of course, universities, the suburban campuses for
WiMAX possesses such enormous global compared with cellular networks, WiMAX which were joined under the scheme.
development potential. is still in its infancy. This was complemented by large-scale

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 6

Dr. Mo Shakouri: Board Director and Vice President of Marketing with the WiMAX Forum. He has 22 years of
experience in wireless system, microwave and fiber optic networks. In addition to his position with the WiMAX
Forum, Shakouri is on the board of directors for the Wireless Communications Association and was IEEE MTT-SVC
2004 chairman.

promotional and marketing activities foundation for the future strategy of

prior to its real commercialization in The most essential FMC deployment. Achieving this goal
April 2007. Since then we’ve completed is primarily a concern for fixed network
implementation, our network continues to factor for deciding the operators. Mobile operators, on the
grow, and will soon be supported by the other hand, are mostly concerned with
performance enhancing MIMO. maturity of the WiMAX giving end users low-cost multimedia
Cai Liqun: To equipment vendors, service experiences anywhere, anytime
helping operators achieve fast and low- industry and its future by combining WiMAX with 2G & 3G
cost WiMAX networking is an important networks to maximize the interworking of
factor that requires consideration. We growth pace should be their respective advantages. Therefore, our
know a common problem that operators convergent solution must aim at providing
face is website acquisition and, in view its required large scale, a unified service experience for end users
of WiMAX’s high bandwidth and band through unified services and platforms,
utilization, operators are mostly concerned diversification, and low unified core networks, unified billing
with issues such as identifying ways of systems and authentication management
reducing the number of WiMAX websites cost terminals. organization - this would maximally reduce
and how to utilize existing 2G & 3G costs for existing operators in a manner
resources effectively to minimize auxiliary that adheres to business convergence.
investment. The WiMAX standard is The convergent solution is a key concern Mo Shakouri: A crucial issue regarding
developing and progressing at a steady for both mobile and fixed operators. WiMAX is the authentication of its
rate, which requires us to provide a cost- Integrating WiMAX with existing NGN standard. The first authentication laboratory
effective platform of products capable and ADSL networks must be realized was set up in Spain in August 2005 and
of supporting a smooth evolution that to offer a wired and wireless convergent the second in South Korea. We’re also
protects operators’ current investments. network solution, so as to lay a solid establishing laboratories successively in the

7 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

Hyun-Pyo Kim: Director of Technology Cooperation Division at WiBro (Mobile WiMAX) Business Unit in KT
Corporation. His major responsibilities include WiBro standardization in TTA, IEEE and WiMAX Forum and related
technology cooperation activities in WiMAX area. Currently he is a board member of the WiMAX Forum.

US, mainland China, and Taiwan, and we’re planning Hyun-Pyo Kim: There are various terminal
a laboratory for Japan. So far, some of the products devices that people currently use based on specific
have already passed authentication, and notebook market demands, but multi-mode equipment is set
computer will do so soon. Much more equipment to dominate the market. Some products are already
will be authenticated in the year 2009. In WiMAX available such as typical mobile devices including
authentication, equipment represents the ripest portion Portable Media Player (PMP) with embedded portable
among all, and surely is a most important portion. PC. Additionally, other electronic equipment such as
Cai Liqun: The most essential factor for deciding some digital cameras already integrates WiMAX.
the maturity of the WiMAX industry and its future
growth pace should be its required large scale,
diversification, and low cost terminals. The demands
Latest progress across the
of different operators vary depending on the stage of globe
WiMAX development and, since our applications
mainly rely on fixed and nomadic equipment, Mo Shakouri: Global WiMAX development
the requirements for CPE and PC cards presently presents a gratifying situation. First if we consider
dominate. However, mobile WiMAX development spectrum features, the main WiMAX spectrum
will see mobile and multi-mode terminals integrate allocations include 2.3-2.7GHz and 3.5GHz. The
WiMAX with existing 2G & 3G networks, and these WiMAX network spectrum already covers 2.7 billion
will inherit the mainstream position. In the future, people, which is hugely exciting. We must strive to
WiMAX, IT and electronic product convergence obtain more bandwidth as in some areas operators
will bring greater convenience and enjoyment for still share a bandwidth of only 10MB. We hope to
users. Of course, such preconditions must occur on a help them increase bandwidth and thus accelerate
suitably wide scale and be underpinned by low cost, business growth by establishing a viable WiMAX
diversified terminals and cutting-edge chipsets. mechanism with an enormous customer base. This
will facilitate the efficient operation of the WiMAX
value chain.
It is well known that Sprint-Nextel has developed
many exemplary services and KT provides another
model example, having deployed WiMAX, and
covering 2,500,000 users. This is only the start as
WiMAX is being currently developed in a host of
countries including Pakistan, Chile, Russia and Brazil.
Cai Liqun: Since 2006, Huawei has been
strengthening WiMAX expansion in the context
of a global market platform. So far we’ve already
communicated with over 100 operators across the
globe to discuss the progress regarding the WiMAX
standard, as well as the technology, construction
and operations. We’ve already established 30 trial
laboratories in the Asia-Pacific, the Middle-East,
North-Africa, Europe, Russia, the US, and Latin
America, and we’re currently constructing 8 WiMAX
commercial systems.
Editor: Zhou Huajiao zhouhj@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 8

Mobile IP surges across Europe

Mobile IP
surges across Europe
9 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38
Huawei Technologies

The new telecom era has unleashed a tide of IP that is advancing across the world through
mobile networks. Numerous operators have already started implementing their IP-based
network strategies as part of the inevitable trend. Europe represents a region replete with both
GSM and WCDMA technologies. It boasts the world’s most developed mobile communications’
market with a handset penetration rate approaching 110%, and is home to many leading
operators including Vodafone, Orange, and Telecom Italia. What decisions, plans and choices
have these operators made with the mobile IP wave surging across Europe?
By Liu Zhen

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 10

Mobile IP surges across Europe

ata services are forming a greater proportion into the business-as-usual phase. They need to show
of operators’ overall income in the rapidly investors ongoing profit growth. To do that, they need
expanding mobile communications to chip away at the cost side of the equation. Another
market. However, demands on mobile trend pushing them in that direction is the fact that
networks are increasingly stringent due to the evolving tariffs are falling, too,” he says.
diversity and complexity that characterizes services such Mobile network IP transformation describes an
as mobile video, voice, music, broadband Internet, extremely complex and systematic project that not
video conferencing and interactive gaming. Operators only demands a decrease in Total Cost of Ownership
must effectively respond to a range of key issues that (TCO) and the construction of end-to-end IP
include identifying how to successfully decrease network capabilities, but also focuses on service innovations,
construction costs and deployment times while increasing Quality of Service (QoS) improvements, future-
revenue and enhancing network performance. oriented long-term investment protection and
Richard Deasington, Director of the UK cohesive development. The context of these challenges
consultancy Network Effect, agrees that as mobile has galvanized Vodafone, Orange and Telecom Italia
operators mature as enterprises, serving highly to orient their practices to promote IP transformation
penetrated markets, they also become more concerned in world mobile networks.
than they used to be with finding ways to reduce
costs. “Mobile operators (in Western
are out of

Vodafone extends its leadership

As one of the world’s largest operators, Vodafone is bombarded with competition.
Crucial measures to guarantee its continued leading position and market expansion
are OPEX reductions coupled with a boost in network performance. According to
an officer of Vodafone, “An operator must look at the total cost of ownership. At a

Mobile network IP transformation describes an

a decrease in TCO and the construction of E2E
improvements, future-oriented long-term investment
challenges has galvanized Vodafone to orient its

11 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

rough calculation, only 30% of the total cost of and site numbers are reduced, great savings are made
ownership is directly related to product cost, the in network construction costs.
remaining 70% has to do with product efficiency, Previously each base station used huge amounts of
such as cost of installation, maintenance, operations power to support uninterrupted 24-hour operations,
and transmission. It’s all about working jointly with and air conditioners were essential to lower equipment
the vendor to find more efficient ways to run the heat. “It’s mega-money,” says Richard Deasington,
network.” referring to the enormous potential for savings that
many operators have not yet fully grasped. The
Huawei node eliminates the need for air conditioners
Vodafone Spain shining with by supporting natural heat dissipation, and its power
innovations amplification technology can utilize green energy
forms such as wind, solar and marsh gas. Each Node B
Vodafone’s headquarters of Wireless is situated in can reduce power consumption to below 500W and
Spain, and Vodafone Spain epitomizes the vitality CO2 output by 60%.
and key characteristics of Vodafone’s success. As Statistics demonstrate that since Vodafone Spain
one of the group’s most outstanding and important employed Huawei’s Node Bs to deploy its High-
subnets, it supports 1.2 million 3G subscribers and Speed Packet Access (HSPA) network, 30% less
occupies 65.33% of the Spanish WCDMA market. investment was required to facilitate a much more
Maintaining this market lead is dependent upon environmentally friendly network. The Vodafone
guaranteed network performance and a constant officer mentioned above is quick to point out the
service innovation platform that generates sufficient scale of the financial and environmental impact in
profit levels. the context of thousands of Node Bs. Moreover,
Richard Deasington observes that operators can adopt
Distributed Node B climbs up towers other measures to realize further savings, not least of
easily which is wise vendor selection. He estimates that the
operational technology difference between vendors
European network construction engenders culminates in a cost discrepancy reaching “tens of
two major concerns for operators: environmental millions of euros”, which is exactly why Huawei
protection and TCO reductions. Vodafone Group proved the right choice for Vodafone.
is of course no exception, and in response to both
concerns, Vodafone Spain has adopted Huawei’s Lighting up El Gordo
small and lightweight next-generation Distributed
Node Bs for its 3G network. On 22 December 2007, the Spanish Christmas
These smart nodes possess several advantages. lottery El Gordo (‘The Fat One’ in English), was as
Ropes rather than cranes are sufficient to load a usual announced on schedule in Spain. As usual,
remote radio unit (RRU) onto a tower, and the Lucy was enjoying a Swiss Christmas vacation with
RRU’s location near the antenna allows optical fiber her husband on 22 December. Vacationers like Lucy
connections with the baseband unit (BBU). With have become used to browsing Internet news for the
feeder loss is decreased, coverage is greatly enhanced, numbers, unable to enjoy real-time anticipation,

extremely complex and systematic project that demands

IP capabilities, and focuses on service innovations, QoS
protection and cohesive development. The context of these
practice to promote IP transformation.

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 12

Mobile IP surges across Europe

“Even if I don’t win, it’s still a real those of other operators. The test result sea, Jack and his fellow fishermen frequently
disappointment not being able to enjoy illustrated that the HSDPA throughput lost contact with the people onshore. “Seeking
the live experience on TV.” enabled by Vodafone Spain in its 29 help was impossible if we were caught in a
Developing from a small sweepstake coverage areas was unsatisfied - in these areas storm,” recalls Jack, whose family could do
in southern Spain dating back 200 years, Vodafone had adopted other vendors’ wireless nothing but worry for his safety during his
it was gradually popularized to the rest of equipment to achieve network coverage. days and nights at sea.
the country and now forms a Christmas Shocked by the result, Vodafone Spain’s R e s p o n d i n g t o Ic e l a n d ’s s p e c i a l
tradition worth USD1.7 billion. Due to technical staff anxiously consulted Huawei, landform, Huawei proposed a solution that
its attractive probability, over 70% of the and the two partners selected eight hotspot sought to perfect offshore communications
nation’s 40 million population buy tickets areas in Madrid to be covered by Huawei’s and enhance 120km of sea coverage. In
- which are also available in the U.K. - and wireless network. The new network was May 2007, Huawei began reconstructing
pin their hopes on the fall of El Gordo’s then put to the same HSDPA test as before, Vodafone Iceland’s GSM network. By
150 year-old lottery balls. and then optimized. The results exhibited using the dual-timeslot extended cell
The draw, which lasts 3 hours and an HSDPA with far greater stability and scheme and effectively combining its power
forms a prime slot on national TV to with a throughput that exceeded other enhancement, transmission diversity, and
which most Spaniards tune in, has not operators’ by over 30% on average. 4-way receiver diversity functions, the
historically been broadcast on mobile TV Furthermore, after optimization, single- system has achieved downlink gains and
due to poor network conditions. However, site HSDPA throughput was significantly higher receiver sensitivity. As a result,
2007 marked the first year when people improved. In the HSDPA benchmarking the receiver function is now directionally
like Lucy joined in with the Spanish test that followed, Huawei received high balanced for both uplinks and downlinks.
festivities in real time. recognition from Vodafone Spain. What’s more, Huawei took advantage of
After selecting Huawei for holistic the nation’s unique landform for high
network construction in June 2006, terrain sites and mounted antennas at
Vo d a f o n e S p a i n r e c o r d e d a 3 0 %
Vodafone Iceland covering suitable points to expand sea coverage.
improvement in network performance 120km of seas Consequently, system coverage radius was
subsequent to scheme completion, and increased by 20% and the total coverage
this laid a platform for quick mobile Located near the Arctic Circle, Iceland area by at least 40%. The number of sites
TV service deployment. Providing 10 sits on the westernmost tip of Europe in was proportionally reduced by 30%, which
digital channels for Vodafone Live’s 3G the middle of the North Atlantic. Being both curtailed investment and facilitated
subscribers including El Gordo, travelers the second largest European island, Iceland greater environmental protection.
no longer have any problems accessing the has a 4,970km coast line and an economy Since the project’s inception, the key
Spanish shows that are important to them. that is underpinned by fishing. The performance indexes (KPIs) of Vodafone
numerous of boats leaving shore each day Iceland’s network have all improved
Winning in HSDPA necessitates high-level sea-based as well as considerably. Network quality, subscriber
benchmarking test land-based network coverage. experience, customer satisfaction and
Jack represents a typical Icelandic offshore traffic have all been greatly
In May 2007, Vodafone Spain conducted fisherman who attaches great importance to enhanced, ensuring that Jack and his fellow
a test to compare its high speed downlink high-quality offshore communications. In fisherman can benefit from the greater
packet access (HSDPA) benchmark with the past, these were inadequate, and while at safety that effective communications deliver.

Table 1 Vodafone’s UMTS/HSPA network Table 2 Other operators’ UMTS/HSPA networks

Download Upload Download Upload

Total data transferred 148.90MB 8.29MB Total data transferred 148.90MB 8.29MB

Max. transfer rate 4.65MB/s 0.42MB/s Max. transfer rate 2.06MB/s 0.25MB/s

Average transfer rate 1.74MB/s 0.10MB/s Average transfer rate 266.6KB/s 24.4KB/s

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Orange opens up the Belgian Grand Prix

In addition to other regions, Orange a sea of mobile phone activity as countless fully considered the topographical variations
operates in 22 European countries and fans made video calls to share their among different spots in the circuit and
serves nearly 85 million mobile subscribers. excitement, while reporters from all over landform complexity. Huawei proceeded
Regarded as the most capable European the world took full advantage of the HSPA to implement its wireless network planning
operator in R&D terms, the company boasts network to cover the race. solution and antennas based on existing
16 research institutes around the globe. The Spa-Francochamps circuit is located sites surveys in a move to significantly save
Positioned as a leading European mobile in the center of Belgium and has been the the operator, Orange, network construction
operator, Orange has remained dedicated venue for the Belgian Grand Prix since costs by utilizing current equipment rooms,
to developing new services and solutions 1985. The 6.973-kilometer circuit is the site equipment and antennas. IP and multi-
to perpetuate its stature across the industry. sport’s longest, and is generally regarded as carrier technologies were introduced to
The company has also been searching for a the leading world venue and home to the Orange’s network so as to enable end-to-
long-term strategic partner to help reduce its best races. Tracing the uneven contours of end IP networking from the interior to
TCO and increase its operational revenue, a hill, the circuit is considered to be one of the exterior, while greatly improving the
and a strategic choice came to fruition with the most challenging Grand Prix circuits, system’s bandwidth throughput capability.
the Belgian Grand Prix. the downhill run providing an especially After network reconstruction, Orange
breathtaking stretch. The rugged terrain was able to provide subscribers with a
Sharing excitement on the has always hindered network coverage rich and flexible service experience that
Spa-Francorchamps circuit and high-speed mobile data services included mobile broadband services, VoIP
have remained unfeasible, representing and mobile TV. The communications
“GO, GO, GO KIMI!” On September a disappointment to the legion of fans network covering the Spa-Francochamps
16, 2007, the Belgian Formula 1 Grand wishing to record the action. circuit has remained as a permanent
Prix began in Spa-Francochamps amidst a In April 2007, Huawei began deploying fixture that will benefit legions of fans and
flurry of deafening screams and shouts and Distributed Node Bs in Belgium having reporters for years to come.

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 14

Mobile IP surges across Europe

Telecom Italia: higher speeds and

newer experiences
Telecom Italia is the seventh largest operator in Mobile experiences on high-speed
the world and is famous for its innovation. It plays a
dominant role in its domestic market, and operates railways
in numerous European and Latin American regions
including Germany, France, Holland, Brazil, Argentina, By 2008, Italy will deploy over 1,000km of
Bolivia and Cuba. Having already secured nearly 30 high-speed railway track, with the Rome-Naples
million fixed and 60 million mobile subscribers, the and Milan-Turin stretches already up and running.
company is seeking to expand its activities by investing The highest train speeds reach 300km per hour
EUR14 billion between 2006 and 2008. and, in response to the public need for high-speed
The constant development of the mobile Internet services while in transit, Telecom Italia has
communications industry has necessitated continual planned to launch its high-speed Internet service
base station adjustment in Telecom Italia’s existing in partnership with the railway company. HSDPA
network. Essential upgrades for HSPA and IP technology is adopted for back transmission through
radio access networks (RAN) increase costs and which data is converted to Wi-Fi signals to facilitate
endanger network performance. Telecom Italia the Internet and other high-speed data services.
expects to strengthen its position by providing a O n a h i g h - s p e e d r a i l w a y, c a l l t r a f f i c i s
new network while decreasing capital expenditure concentrated in moving carriages, and solution
(CAPEX) to meet the fast growing requirements for design in terms of construction costs and high-
3G network capacity and the demand for the rapid speed performance should be considered, especially
inception of new services. Huawei’s next-generation technical difficulties brought about by Doppler
Node B solution and its associated business model frequency shifts at high speeds. Huawei’s unique
are designed to save millions of euros in network 40W power amplifier enables bi-directional divided
adjustment areas, and as such attracted Telecom linear coverage. Its unique high speed algorithm can
Italia’s interest. overcome influences from both the Doppler effect

15 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

and excessive cell handovers. Multi-RRU to meet modern requirements and it is

combination technology can improve almost impossible for subscribers to use
HSDPA performance, and BBU pool high-speed mobile data services in Sicily, Telecom Italia expects to
technology can reduce BBU numbers and thus prompting the drive for network strengthen its position by
thus construction costs. enhancement.
To date, Huawei has completed the Guided by the premise of high-quality providing a new network while
solution design and network planning but low-cost customer solutions, Huawei
for the trial section of the Rome-Naples fully employed Telecom Italia’s existing decreasing CAPEX to meet the
high-speed railway. In the near future, resources while ensuring high quality fast growing requirements for
subscribers can conveniently use high- integrity. Including towers, equipment
speed Internet services on trains between rooms, power supply systems and 3G network capacity and the
Rome and Naples with the same results as transmission equipment, reuse has saved
office use. Telecom Italia much investment during the demand for the rapid inception
network reconstruction process. In terms of of new services. Huawei’s next-
Romantic, golden holidays in performance, the download rate of Sicily’s
HSDPA network gradually increased from generation Node B solution
Sicily 1.8 to 7.2 Mbps, and more importantly,
the network was adjusted before the 2007
and its associated business
Sicily provided the scenic backdrop for
the award-winning movie Malena, and is peak season. The KPIs have demonstrably model attracted Telecom Italia’s
widely regarded by both ordinary tourists improved, and problems concerning
and celebrities as a romantic island and network congestion and poor indoor interest.
desirable get-away location. July and August coverage have been completely eliminated.
represent its peak-season months during Network quality has been optimized
which tens of thousands of tourists descend and improved, as enhanced customer
on the island to enjoy the sunshine, the satisfaction and rapidly increasing traffic
beach and the island’s rich history. rates testify. The new network is based on
For Telecom Italia, the clusters of full-rate HSPA technology and enables
tourists bring about huge business Telecom Italia to deploy new services. Not
opportunities as the more diligent tourists only do greater number of subscribers now
utilize the HSPA network to keep up use Telecom Italia’s services during their
with their business tasks, while others use stay in Sicily, but also the increased average
their mobile phones to send photos or revenue per user (ARPU) reflects a positive
videos to relatives and friends. Telecom gain for Telecom Italia.
Italia’s existing network, however, fails Editor: Pan Tao pantao@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 16



The fourth generation BTS

n the mid-1990s, the first generation The BTS accommodating different phase, but can now use multi-carrier
BTS with analog power amplifier (PA) systems develops typically in two technology introduced from 3G networks.
enabled people to have fun in their directions. First is the initial stage, in In a traditional BTS using single-carrier
mobile communications. In 2000, which the equipment room, antenna, technology, each carrier includes a
the second generation BTS with digital feeder and auxiliary equipment are shared, transceiver and a power amplification
PA greatly accelerated the development of while different networks use different unit. Multi-carrier technology employs
mobile networks. In 2005, the distributed types of BTS. Second, the software defined wideband RF technologies, in which
BTS, which represents the third generation radio (SDR) technology is adopted to multiple signals are combined through the
BTS, brought substantial changes to unify the hardware of BTSs in different digital intermediate frequency (IF) and are
network construction. With the application technical systems. As a result, a hardware transmitted through a broadband power
of the wideband RF and IP technologies, module can be configured to support a amplifier. In each multi-carrier module,
the fourth generation BTS has now unique system such as GSM, WCDMA the number of carriers can be flexibly
becoming a highlight in the industry, and and CDMA, or even support two systems configured and power can be shared
fully displaying its features of “Convergence, simultaneously. This can enable smooth among carriers. As a result, combiners
Integration, All-IP and Green.” upgrades and reduce operation costs, are no longer needed, enabling flexible
including the cost of service parts. capacity expansion and reduced power
Convergence consumption.
Integration In a grand expo four months ago in
The constant development of mobile China, the traffic was estimated 10 times
communications has accelerated the The need for greater capacity has been more than usual. The technical guarantee,
upgrades of technologies and products. increasing with the drive of high-speed however, had been proven to be an easy
GSM networks are heading to the enhance data services. BTSs adopting the multi- one. With the help of Huawei’s fourth
data rates for GSM evolution (EDGE) carrier technology have higher integration generation BTS equipped with multi-
and EDGE+, while WCDMA networks and lower power consumption, and they carrier module, the network capacity
are evolving to high-speed packet access can facilitate smooth capacity expansion. was expanded three times through data
(HSPA), HSPA+, and long term evolution Multi-carrier technology is the current configuration in one minute, without the
(LTE). Faced with different systems trend for radio frequency (RF) broadband need of adding new cabinets or renting
including WiMAX, operators have to usage, and it is a key technology for the new equipment room.
invest much on operation and maintenance fourth generation BTS.
if different networks are constructed. Multi-carrier technology was first All-IP
Therefore, convergence has become a major applied in 3G BTSs. The 2G network
concern throughout the industry. used single-carrier technology in its early The increase of data service has raised

17 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

Apple gained a whopping success by wining 10% of operators’ revenue generated from iPhone users, which
raised a heated topic about changes in the value chain. In an industry with stiffer competition, transnational
operators have to fight tooth and claw to get a new market share from their competitors, while regional
operators are striving to grab a larger stage. “The industry is undergoing a hurricane,” a telecom analyst said.
Higher requirements have been imposed on the existing networks with the introduction of new services,
increased number of users and higher average minutes of usage. Facing decreased ARPU and increased OPEX,
operators need a future-oriented wireless network solution to handle these challenges and boost their profits.

Pointing the wind vanes for BTSs

By Xu Peizhong

higher requirements for bandwidth. Operators, fourth generation BTS is to reduce resources
however, have to face various challenges in each like equipment room and energy. Highly-
bandwidth expansion, such as replacing the existing integrated BTSs with low power
equipment at a large scale, or making drastic changes consumption are the key to green
in network architecture, especially in transmission communications.
network. High cost has become a curse in opening The fourth generation BTS
the door of broadband. boasts enhanced features in its
The fourth generation BTS can solve the above- integrity and power consumption.
mentioned problems. Based on IP and wideband Take a 12-TRX BTS of 3 sectors for example. A
RF technologies, the RF channel can be up to traditional BTS requires three cabinets and 8000W
20MB, while transmission interface can support power consumption if air conditioning included.
100MB traffic. As only data configuration is The fourth generation BTS, however, needs only
needed to enable the changes between different one cabinet and 2000W power consumption even
systems, operators can protect their investment in an equipment room with higher temperature. By
during network transformation. For example, a comparison, costs on auxiliary equipment can be
3x4 GSM BTS can be configured to a 3x2 HSPA reduced by over 30%, while power consumption
BTS. This configuration does not require hardware of BTSs can be saved more than 75%. For an
replacement, but the transmission speed can be operator in South Africa, its traditional BTSs can
increased from 2MB to 20MB. consume energy equaling to USD1.2 billion in a
Huawei’s fourth generation BTS has gained five year period. If all the BTSs use Huawei’s fourth
a leading position, thanks to the company’s rich generation ones, a total of USD0.75 billion can be
experience in broadband and IP. In 2006, Huawei saved.
succeeded in deploying an All-IP HSPA network The year 2008 will be characterized by network
in Japan, which marks the very first time that IP transformation. An innovative and quick-response
technology is introduced into mobile networks. partner is needed in operators’ effort to explore the
At the end of 2007, Huawei helped an operator “blue ocean”. Relying on customer-based innovation,
establish its networks in Szechwan, China, using the Huawei positions its technical development on
GSM BTSs based on a wideband platform. “Green, Convergence, Broadband and Evolution.”
Huawei has taken the lead in releasing the fourth
Green generation BTS in the industry, and will always be a
partner in building a future-oriented network with
A major drive behind the development of the operators.

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 18

MAIN TOPIC 2G BTS draws on 3G technologies

2G BTS draws on
3G technologies By Pang Yingwen

T High efficiency 3G PA
wo highlights in the rich macro BTS needs only 6 dual transceiver
development of the 3G networks units (DTRUs) and less combiners and
are advanced technologies and duplexers. Compared with the BTS with technology for 2G
high efficiency. However, the single-TRX’s RFU, the new-generation
GSM network is the most widely applied BTS is smaller, leaner, and offers better To deploy a wireless network with
network in the world. After a decade of radio performance. overall coverage and good performance,
development, the GSM network is still Currently, Huawei is the only vendor thousands of BTSs may be needed. As a
favored and constantly evolves due to the who has developed a QTRU - a type of result, the costs of BTSs account for the
maturity of technical applications and RFU based on multi-carrier technology. biggest proportion of overall network
business models. Each QTRU supports the processing of six construction costs. In each BTS that
Reviewing the 2G developments RF signals. Digital intermediate frequency works as a radio transceiver, the RF power
from 3G commercial applications, people (IF) combining technology is also used. Six amplifier (PA) is the most important
may ask: Is it possible to apply the high- RF signals are combined in the QTRU, component. The linear PA accounts
efficiency and energy-saving technologies and no independent combiner is required. for about 1/3 of the total cost of each
of the 3G systems to the 2G systems? Can Power of the six RF signals can be shared BTS, and the RF PA is a main power
we smoothly evolve the 2G systems to to improve radio performance. The QTRU consumption unit of BTS.
the 3G systems? Huawei’s new-generation based on the multi-carrier technology is To cut BTS costs, an effective method
EnerG GSM solution will offer you the the same size as a DTRU, but has three is to decrease the costs of the RF PA unit
best answer. times the capacity of the DTRU. for each BTS. This requires the use of a
Multi-carrier technology can bring PA that has wide bandwidth, high linear
noteworthy improvements to 2G features, and increased efficiency.
Multi-carrier technology networks. Take Huawei’s indoor macro The “DPD + Doherty” high-efficiency
for 2G BTS3012 for example, since the QTRU digital PA technology does quite well. The
a n d D T RU a r e t h e s a m e s i z e , t h e digital pre-distortion (DPD) technology
In the traditional GSM base transceiver BTS3012 is able to support both the enables signal pre-distortion. A pre-
station (BTS), a radio frequency unit QTRU and DTRU at the same time. The distorter is cascaded over a PA. Because the
(RFU) can only process one carrier signal, DTRU-based BTS3012 can support up non-linear distortions enabled by the pre-
therefore, a 12-TRX macro BTS needs 12 to 12 TRXs and needs combiners. The distorter are equivalent to those enabled
RFUs. Each BTS is cumbersome when QTRU-based BTS3012 can support up to by the PA in quantity but are opposite in
equipped with the necessary combiners 36 TRXs without combiners. To construct function, thus high linear PA output can
and duplexers. With technical innovations, a S12/12/12 site, an operator needs three be achieved.
each RFU can now process two radio DTRU-based BTS3012s or only one The Doherty PA technology has two
frequency (RF) signals, and a 12-TRX QTRU-based BTS3012 with no combiner. main parts: the carrier (C) amplifier and

19 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

the peak (P) amplifier. The carrier PA works constantly,

while the peak PA works only at the preset peak. The
carrier PA works in a nearly saturated state to get higher
efficiency, and it amplifies most signals. The peak PA works
only at the peak value, and does not consume power most
of the time. The linear area with combined output and
input features has been greatly expanded from the linear
area of a single amplifier, which enables high efficiency
when signals are in the linear area.
Huawei’s new-generation GSM RF PA improves
efficiency up to 50% while saving over 49% in power
consumption when compared with a traditional BTS.
This is accomplished by coupling power amplification
technology with some innovative PA power consumption
management technologies like intelligent shut-off of PA
power and dynamic adjustment of PA voltage.
If existing sites are replaced by Huawei’s new-
generation BTSs that adopt the 3G high-efficiency PA
and the multi-carrier technology, a medium-sized city
with 2,000 sites can save 33.29 million kilowatts (KW)
of electricity each year. The environment is spared 22,000
tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the operator
saves money too.

Distributed architecture for

To reduce 3G network construction costs, Huawei
pioneered in launching 3G Node Bs based on the
distributed architecture in 2005. In the distributed
architecture, the baseband unit (BBU) and the remote
radio unit (RRU) are separated and connected through the
standard common public radio interface (CPRI).
The distributed architecture divides the traditional
Node Bs into two small modules, BBU and RRU. This
facilitates site acquisition, simplifies installation, and
drastically cuts 3G network construction costs. Based
on its mature design and application experience in 3G
distributed Node Bs, Huawei launched the DBS3036, a
GSM distributed BTS with large capacity, high integrity
and high reliability.
By applying advanced 3G RF technologies like multi-

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 20

MAIN TOPIC 2G BTS draws on 3G technologies

carrier technology and the high-efficiency digital PA to

the 2G system, Huawei will soon launch the RRU3036
for new-generation 2G distributed BTSs. Each

Huawei’s next
RRU3036 can support up to 6 carriers. For an S6/6/6
site, only three RRU3036 modules are needed. In the
future, big, bulky BTSs with high power consumption Link
genaration GSM
will be phased out in 2G network construction.

End-to-end IP technologies
The GSM and the WCDMA belong to the same distributed BTS
standard system and support smooth evolution. The
IP radio access network (RAN) technology used in 3G By Yin Dongming & Xu Yan
systems has many similarities to the BSS IP technology
used in 2G systems. The IP technologies adopted in 3G 3G distributed Node Bs are maturing and GSM
systems can all be used in 2G systems and guarantee the operators have begun to cooperate with telecom vendors to
sustainable development of 2G systems. explore the possibilities of applying distributed BTSs in the
In product platform development, the BSC and GSM field. However, many products are simple imitations
BTS of the GSM system are both based on an All-IP of 3G distributed Node Bs in appearance, installation
platform. This dramatically improves the integration features and transmission media. The fact is that GSM
of 2G products, decreases power consumption and networks are significantly different from universal mobile
maintenance costs, and enables smooth evolution to 3G telecommunications system (UMTS) networks, especially
systems. In the past, 5 to10 cabinets were needed for a in capacity, evolution and environmental impact.
BSC that supports 2,000 TRXs, including the packet
control unit (PCU) and transcoder (TC). Now only
one cabinet is required with Huawei’s new-generation Not mere imitations
BSC6000 designed with the IP platform technology. The GSM distributed BTSs are not mere imitations
BSC6000 and the radio network controller (RNC) are of the 3G models, but are definitely inheritance and
both based on the PARC IP platform. The BSC6000 can improvement based on the original. Hardware sharing the
be upgraded to a RNC by a simple software upgrade and same platform represents the idea of modular design and
replacement of a few interface boards. product maturity. As the smallest and lightest BTS in the
In networking, Huawei’s new-generation distributed industry, Huawei’s next-generation GSM distributed BTS
BTS provides IP interfaces for 2G networks. The is based on the latest platform that is applicable to UMTS
Gb interface, Abis interface and A interface are all networks and even long-term evolution (LTE) networks.
designed to support IP connection directly. As a result, The next-generation GSM distributed BTS’s baseband
the structure of the 2G network is simplified, the unit (BBU) inherits high integrity from the 3G distributed
transmission expenses in 2G networking are curtailed, Node Bs. Its common public radio interface (CPRI) and
and increased requirements for digital services can board structure are of mature designs, while the remote
be accommodated. For example, the 3G network of radio unit (RRU) has been greatly improved. By adopting
EMOBILE in Japan has saved up to 95% lease expenses the natural heat dissipation mode and compact size, the
on transmission devices each year after adopting RRU is of higher stability, larger capacity, and greater
Huawei’s IP RAN solution. output power. The distributed BTS’ maturity has been
When 3G IP technologies are used in 2G product shined based on in-depth commercial test data, and the
development and IP networking, the reliability and BTS features optimized radio frequency (RF) components,
efficiency of 2G networks can be greatly improved. heat dissipation, and antenna system.
Through IP networking, such functions as the BSC A basic requirement for GSM networks is the
pool or the MSC pool can be conveniently enabled. assurance of smooth evolution to future networks.
If a BSC or MSC in the network fails in transmission, Huawei’s next-generation GSM distributed BTS enables
another BSC or MSC can take up the services and GSM and UMTS systems to share the same platform,
system services will not be interrupted. fully supporting coexistence of 2G and 3G networks
Huawei has diversified and upgraded mobile and smooth evolution to future networks. The product
applications by introducing advanced 3G technologies also adopts the IP platform design mode and uses IP
to the 2G system. By adopting the same technologies,
2G and 3G products will naturally evolve from technical
convergence to product convergence.

21 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

technologies from the core to interfaces. quality of service (QoS) and won’t need to Huawei used the ray-tracing model and
Based on extensive experience in the IP construct more sites or plan more networks, 3G distributed Node Bs to build a high-
field, Huawei has pioneered in using while enjoying the features of distributed quality network, while saving space and
the IP clock server to transfer clocks BTSs. rental costs.
on IP networks and realized IP mobile With the purposes of reducing In Singapore, Huawei used distributed
networking from network elements to the energy consumption, noise pollution, Node Bs to realize the coverage of two
overall network architecture. electromagnetic radiation and interference, different scenarios in downtown areas and
Huawei has transplanted a “green” idea residential areas. By using fiber extensions
Full display of distributed into the design of its next-generation
GSM distributed BTS. By adopting digital
and reading directly the original network
features power amplifier and intelligent power
configuration data, Huawei managed to
speed up the network optimization with
control technologies, Huawei’s next- a record-setting delivery of 100 sites per
Differing from Node Bs in 3G generation GSM distributed BTS achieves
networks, GSM BTSs require larger week.
a power amplification efficiency of more
c a p a c i t y. A t p r e s e n t , m a n y G S M In Japan, Huawei tailored its
than 40%. As a result, power consumption
distributed BTSs in the industry support distributed Node Bs to meet the operator’s
is further decreased while the same output
only two carriers due to technical rigorous requirements for earthquake
power is maintained.
limitations, which seriously limits coverage resistance, moisture resistance, natural heat
scenarios. These BTSs can only be used dissipation, and reliability, and succeeded
as components for macro BTSs or for Experience promises a in constructing the fastest mobile
small-capacity indoor coverage. To utilize bright future broadband network nationwide with more
than 70% coverage.
distributed features, the next-generation
GSM distributed BTSs must support Engineering experience from 3G Although the mature application of
large-capacity networking and provide networks is greatly helpful in deploying 3G distributed Node Bs have significantly
the capabilities of macro BTSs in terms of GSM distributed BTSs. With its 3G influenced the GSM network deployment,
coverage and expansion. distributed Node Bs, Huawei helped operators are still looking forward to a
Huawei’s next-generation distributed Vodafone Spain migrate the networks in next-generation distributed BTS solution
BTS stands out from all the GSM Madrid and Barcelona. By installing RRUs tailored for GSM networks, rather than
distributed BTSs that can be installed on towers to improve coverage, Vodafone equipment that enables simple separation
on towers for its support of S4/4/4 Spain greatly improved its voice quality in physical architecture. The next-
configuration and S12/12/12 after and high-speed packet access (HSPA) data generation GSM distributed BTS can
upgrades. The application performance throughput. truly help operators build high efficiency,
with 30W cabinet-top output power is In Hong Kong, where features the high quality and quickly operable GSM
equivalent to that of a macro BTS. most complicated wireless environment networks that provide competitive services
By using Huawei’s next-generation GSM and great difficulty in site acquisition, and products.
BTS, operators can have up to 36 carriers in
baseband processing, and can add two BBUs
to expand each single BTS to support 12
cells and 72 carriers. This can greatly enrich
the application scenarios of GSM distributed
BTSs and handle the requirements of heavy-
traffic users and highly-integrated services,
whether indoors or outdoors. In each sector,
a single RRU of Huawei’s next-generation
GSM distributed BTS can support 4 carriers,
and the capacity can be further expanded
through cascading. Since the unit supports
transmit diversity and 4-antenna receive
diversity, the receive sensitivity can be up
to -112.5 dBm at normal temperature.
Operators can stop worrying about degraded

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 22

MAIN TOPIC Green BTS gives fresh breath

Green BTS gives

fresh breath By Wu Wujun

lobal telecom equipment sites will save operators over USD120 1,600W in 2007, and the total power
suppliers are rolling out their million in Europe. Due to small dimensions consumption of the site was around
own green BTSs. However, and light weight, more than 70% civil 3,000W. If power consumption of both
each might have a different works can be reduced at the same time. BTS and auxiliary equipment can be
understanding on the definition of a green With increasing price of fuel, more cost on optimized, a site with less than 450W
BTS since currently there is no defined OPEX could be further saved. power consumption will lead to 85%
standard in the industry. In the industry, promoting integration, decrease in total power consumption,
If we analyze the one-time capital adding external combiner, or shortening the which is about 22,000 kilowatt hours per
expenditure (CAPEX) before launch time backup time by reducing battery facilities is site every year. That means 70 million
and the operational expenditure (OPEX) commonly used to make the site acquisition liters of fuel, accounting for USD400
afterwards, it is apparent that a real green easier. Due to low BTS integration and site million, and would be saved for an African
BTS should incorporate environmental limitation brought by tower, space, cost etc., GSM operator with 10,000 outdoor sites
protection into product design and produce the number of feeders and antennas will in 5 years.
to significantly lower the total cost of be consequently restricted. To realize that To achieve this target, Huawei green
ownership (TCO) while saving energy. multiple carriers share the same feeder and BTS adopts enhanced Doherty technology,
The green BTS benefits mobile antenna, an expensive external combiner the latest power amplifier chipset, and
operators mainly in these three important has to be added. brand new hardware design to realize
areas: auxiliary equipment, network The green BTS will be able to provide energy conservation and environmental
deployment, and environmental protection 4 to 6 carriers by one common port. For a protection by a three-tier approach.
and resources utilization. S12/12/12 site, only 1 to 2 battery cabinets First, the latest power amplifier chipset
are required, about 0.5m2 occupied, which and high efficiency scheduling algorithm
makes site acquisition more convenient can effectively reduce more than 60% of
Reducing sites and and flexible, saves CAPEX, and shortens the static power, substantially avoiding the
saving auxiliary cost the network planning and rollout period. unnecessary waste of energy.
Second, industry-wide power amplifier
As the cost of BTS often occupies only efficiency was less than 33% in 2006,
around 30% of one site CAPEX, while Power consumption cut but with the latest chipset and enhanced
in Europe and other developed countries, by 50% D P D & Do h e r t y t e c h n o l o g i e s , t h e
t h e p ro p o r t i o n i n C A PE X i s a b o u t amplifier efficiency is improved from
15%. Reducing the site related auxiliary Environmentally friendly products 33% to 45%. It is safe to forecast that
equipment will directly decrease CAPEX. generally feature lower power consumption, the power amplifier efficiency will be
Higher integration is thus demanded. less noise, less electromagnetic radiation, improved to 50% by the year 2008. As a
Suppose a GSM site with S12/12/12 and lower environmental impact. That consequence, power consumption will be
typical configuration in dense urban, the is precisely what the green BTS aims to further decreased, and fuel consumption
footprint of site with traditional BTS will achieve. and emission of carbon dioxide will be
be over 1.5m 2 . If the footprint can be For example, a typical GSM S4/4/4 site significantly reduced. By using high-
decreased to 0.5m2, acquisition of 10,000 with a traditional macro BTS consumed efficiency power amplifier technologies

23 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

and the latest amplifier chipset, the internal heat the industry’s average. These enable the distributed
generated by the BTS components is greatly BTS to support up to 12 transceivers per sector. The
decreased. The traditional heat dissipation methods capacity bottleneck has been eventually broken.
such as air-conditioning and heat-exchange can The modular design is an innovative new type
be replaced by convection cooling or natural heat of BTS, which simplifies wiring between different
dissipation, eliminating noise and saving energy. modules and enables the BTS to be stacked or
Third, according to a number of industr y assembled in various ways like a building block. This
consulting firms, 750W power supply is a dividing makes site construction simpler, expansion smoother,
line between green energy and fuel engine. If a less- and civil works costs related to site lower. Operators
than 750W BTS uses green energy, investment will benefit from convenient installation and easier
balance can be reached within three years compared site acquisition, reducing the investment on site and
with that uses a fuel engine. For small BTSs or shortening network deployment time.
distributed BTSs in low traffic areas, such as the The green BTS is an effective means of ensuring
BTSs of one sector and less than 2 transceivers, profitability and assisting operators to rapidly lower
their power consumption is far less than 750W. TCO in an increasingly competitive environment.
Therefore, the green energy such as solar, and wind As a leading telecom equipment provider, Huawei
can be used to power the BTSs. This not only saves is making persistent efforts to innovate based on
the investment, but also takes full advantage of using customer demands. Its series of green BTSs will
natural energy to eliminate environmental pollution. bridge the standards gap to realize multi-system
integration, and help operators to lower TCO
through a green way.
Easier installation Editor: Chen Yuhong chyhong@huawei.com
It is well known that a traditional BTS is
composed of many modules including baseband, RF,
combiner, transmission, operation and management.
These cause very complicated wiring and rigid
installation mode, making site construction and
expansion difficult.
In 2005, distributed BTS with open common
port radio interface (CPRI) was developed as the first
modular BTS. As the distributed BTS is physically
divided into baseband module and RF module
interconnected through optical fiber, the flexibility of
site acquisition and installation is greatly enhanced.
With regard to the dimensions, a baseband module
that is 3U to 4U in height can enable the installation
on the existing equipment such as an automatic
power management (APM) cabinet, transmission
equipment cabinet or remote equipment room.
Thanks to its light weight, the RF module supports
various installation modes including installation
on tower, pole, or against wall. Because of its
small capacity (one or two carriers), a traditional
distributed BTS is only applicable to indoor coverage
or small capacity application scenarios.
In 2008, Huawei’s full range of the fourth
generation BTSs will be highly modularized. All
BTSs will be unified to baseband and RF modules.
Due to introduction of multi-carrier and broadband
radio technology, the capacity of baseband unit will
be improved by five times, and meanwhile the height
will be further reduced to 1U to 2U. In terms of RF
module, the dimensions remain unchanged but one
single module can support 4 to 6 carriers, accounting
for 2 to 3 times capacity increase compared with

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 24

MAIN TOPIC What can wideband RF bring for GSM?

What can wideband RF

bring for GSM?
Wideband RF technology had been put into commercial use only in WCDMA and CDMA systems during its earliest stage.
The application of this technology to the GSM system will deliver with it a breakthrough in traditional mobile networks,
which will greatly assist GSM operators to lower TCO and achieve a low cost for rapid expansion. Moreover, it will offer
smooth future evolution potential.

By Feng Baoshun

The necessity represents an unwelcome situation in large-

capacity networks. Given the combiner’s
capacity requirements, helping operators
to lower TCO.

ith today’s flourishing global significant losses, a carrier’s transmission The core concept of wideband RF
mobile communications power needs to be increased to meet technology involves signal combination on
development, operators are coverage requirements. the digital IF module followed by output
increasingly aiming to Wideband RF technology will help through the broadband power amplifier, as
reduce TCO and identify cost-effective solve this problem by utilizing MCPA - the shown in Fig. 2. Wideband RF technology
methods of expanding mobile networks. multi-carrier power amplifier technology was first put into commercial use in
This is necessary to cope with the rapidly - which represents one of the key means WCDMA and CDMA systems. However,
growing needs of users that, to date, of allowing a module to be configured due to the shift to network convergence,
exceeds any previous time. with multiple wireless carriers according to breakthrough progress has been made its
GSM forms a narrow-band digital
communications system, and its present
base stations commonly adopt single
carrier technology. Specifically, each carrier
corresponds to an independent RF channel Baseband DAC PA
as illustrated in Fig.1.
Analog RF

If a cell needs to configure multiple

carriers (for example, 6 carriers) to meet Baseband DAC PA
the capacity requirements, the signals
must be combined through a traditional
combiner before being sent to the antenna
Baseband DAC PA
- for the purpose of saving antennas.
However, each time when signals are
combined, base station power output Fig. 1 Single carrier power amplifier
drops by at least 50%, which of course

25 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

application in GSM narrow-band digital equipment room, without interrupting Multi-carrier technology enhances base
communications systems. base station services. Meanwhile, they do station power amplifier efficiency. As each
The greatest challenge regarding MCPA not have to replace hardware or change carrier can share power resources, then
in WCDMA and GSM systems is achieving cable distribution by re-accessing the site. resources can be dynamically and flexibly
power amplifier linearization and efficiency. After MCPA technology is adopted, each allocated according to different carriers’
Current WCDMA equipment vendors have cell in a typical configuration needs only traffic volumes and power requirements.
so far adopted the digital pre-distortion one MCPA module, and it is unnecessary Savings can be made in ordinary
(DPD) technology in WCDMA systems, to configure the traditional broadband combiners and this substantially decreases
and achieved excellent commercial results. or filter combiners. Therefore, the cable both power losses and carrier output
DPD technology allows a PA to cascade distribution of the base station is greatly power demanded for base station coverage.
over a pre-distortion device - the predistorter simplified, and reductions are made in With the help of multi-carrier technology,
- to realize a cascaded linear system. technical requirements for maintenance power consumption and OPEX of base
W i t h t h e u s e o f M C PA a n d t h e personnel and the probability of cable stations can be reduced substantially. For
application of 3G power amplification misconnection. example, the typical power consumption
technologies such as DPD in GSM of a multi-carrier GSM base station under
systems, operators can substantially lower Large capacity and wide coverage a S12/12/12 configuration can be less than
TCO and achieve smooth future network The typical capacity of a traditional 2,000W, which is an impossible feature for
evolution. Therefore, wideband RF forms GSM base station is 12 carriers, which traditional GSM base stations.
a necessary technology in terms of next- can increase to a highly integrated, single
generation base station design. cabinet capacity of 36 carriers if multi- Alluring prospects
carrier technology is adopted. Moreover,
Three key benefits this technology does not require broadband The linearization and efficiency of
or filter combiners, thus decreasing the power amplifiers are two key issues for
Smooth expansion and easy fault points of equipment and insertion wideband RF technology, and vendors will
maintenance loss. Coverage performance does not in continue prioritizing its R&D. Following
any way decline compared with that of a the successful utilization of MCPA in
Multi-carrier linear power amplification traditional GSM base station. WCDMA systems, GSM equipment
technology can be adopted to enable the Using 6-carrier configuration as an vendors have already begun researching
power amplification of baseband signals example, multi-carrier technology incurs the introduction of multi-carrier
for multiple carriers after the combination an insertion loss of only 1dB, compared technology to GSM systems, and have
on the digital IF module. Carriers can with 3dB for a filter combiner and 7dB already incorporated it into their products.
thus share one power amplifier, and base for a broadband combiner in a traditional At present, dual-mode and multi-mode
stations can be seamlessly expanded. GSM GSM base station. Coverage performance technologies have been developing rapidly
operators can, for example, use three is increased by the use of multi-carrier in the global mobile communications
MCPA modules to establish an S4/4/4 technology that allows power resource market. The inception of multi-carrier
site during the initial phase. The increased sharing among different carriers and need- technology in GSM systems will lay the
number of subscribers may require the dependent idle channel allocation. foundation for the multi-mode base
expansion to an S6/6/6 site. In this case, stations that can share carrier modules.
engineering personnel only need to Lower power consumption and Furthermore, software defined radio
modify the software configuration in the cost (SDR) will play an important role in
multi-mode base station deployment.
In the near future, SDR research and
production will emerge as key technical
goals, the commercialization timeframe for
Baseband which will be elevated by the introduction
of MCPA to GSM systems. Huawei
is set to adopt SDR in its products
Digital IF

during 2008. SDR permits a set of
Baseband DAC
equipment to simultaneously support a
variety of technical systems and software
configuration is the only measure required
Baseband to realize evolution from GSM single-
mode to GSM/WCDMA dual-mode or to
Fig. 2 Multi-carrier power amplifier
WCDMA and LTE directly.
Editor: Liu Zhonglin liuzhonglin@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 26


Harvesting in the US, India and China

Huawei makes it large in CDMA
Persistence and unflagging effort underline the “Never Give Up” ethos integral to success. Indeed, 2007 richly rewarded
Huawei’s perseverance and capabilities with its entry into the world’s three largest CDMA markets: the United States,
India and China.
By Li Chuantao from the Communications Weekly

27 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

uawei’s greatest breakthrough in the While the United States remains the largest
CDMA field was made last year in CDMA market in the world, India is recognized to
India. By mid 2007, Huawei had be the fastest growing one. According to CDMA
secured equipment contracts worth Development Group (CDG) statistics, India’s
USD300 million with Reliance and TATA, two CDMA subscriber base increases by an average of
major Indian CDMA operators who both occupy nearly 2 million each month, with a total number of
places in the global top ten CDMA operators. 60 million subscribers recorded in 2007. Coupled
Leap Wireless (Leap) is the fifth largest CDMA with a market scale lying next to the United States,
operator in the United States. Leap’s initial India is viewed by CDMA equipment suppliers as
cooperation with Huawei began in 2006, and the one of the most attractive markets in the world.
company recently selected Huawei to deploy CDMA Reliance is the second largest telecom operator in
networks for Cricket Communications (Cricket) and India and one of the most rapidly growing CDMA
Denali Spectrum (Denali), both of which are wholly operators in the Asia-Pacific region. Its 36 million
owned subsidiaries of Leap. The new networks cover subscribers account for 25% of the total mobile
the Great Lakes region, which comprises one of the communications market in India. Positioned as a
United States’ key economic areas. domestic leader in terms of network coverage, overall
After a lengthy stagnancy in the CDMA market call quality and customer service, Reliance was
in China, Huawei was exclusively awarded China awarded “Operator Leadership” by CDG in 2007.
Unicom Tianjin’s CDMA substitution project in late On December 29, 2006, Reliance signed
2007. The project involves 1,600 TRXs, which make a contract with Huawei for the commercial
up over 40% of Tianjin’s total CDMA network deployment of 60% of its CDMA network.
capacity. The project marked the first time that Reliance
introduced a non-U.S. vendor into its existing
Sweet harvest network. In early May 2007, Reliance sought
cooperation with Huawei once again, contracting the
As the cradle of CDMA technology, the United company to undertake a CDMA network expansion
States is home to the largest number of CDMA project that involves nearly 9,000 BTSs and will
subscribers. Two of the three largest operators in cover more than 40% of the nation’s territory.
America utilize CDMA technologies, covering TATA is the second largest CDMA operator
over 100 million subscribers. Among the 46 in India with a 38% domestic market share. In
operators globally who have deployed or intended to March 2007, TATA began implementing its goals
implement CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A networks, for improving network quality, attracting CDMA
eight are from the United States, including the subscribers and further increasing its market share.
transnational operators Sprint Nextel and Verizon Launching its large-scale network adjustment
Wireless. With CDMA data services contributing project, TATA deployed Huawei’s All-IP CDMA
20% of operators’ revenue worldwide, the United core network and wireless access equipment in a
States receives the largest proportion for CDMA number of major cities including New Delhi and
data services, followed by Japan and South Korea. Calcutta.
The Great Lakes region covers Chicago and China Unicom, the second largest CDMA
its neighboring areas, and describes the most operator in the world, boasts more than 40 million
important economic and industrial center in the CDMA subscribers. By November 2007, China
United States, next to New York. With modern and Unicom had attracted 4.277 million new subscribers,
developed cities, high population density, heavy and this figure is still growing quickly. Offering
traffic and typically tall buildings, the Great Lakes huge market potential, China is expected to surpass
region remains a network coverage headache for South Korea and become the world’s third largest
telecom operators. Naturally, it was positioned as CDMA market in the near future. In late 2007,
a focus for network deployment by Leap, who is Huawei was solely awarded China Unicom Tianjin’s
licensed to provide mobile services in 35 states. CDMA substitution project. With its network key
Since its foundation, Leap has been striving for a performance index (KPI) commanding one of the
competitive edge with high-quality network services top five positions, China Unicom Tianjin represents
and low service charges. Fully satisfied with Huawei’s a solid example of effective network operations.
equipment and services in 2006, Leap selected Huawei will construct a 1,600-TRX network for
Huawei to construct 1,300 base transceiver stations China Unicom Tianjin, equaling to more than 40%
(BTSs) and deploy a new network in the Great Lakes of the existing CDMA network capacity in Tianjin.
region. China Telecom Tianjin also plans to replace the

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 28


remaining equipment of the network with Huawei’s in one and, compared with other vendors, has delivered greater
or two years. equipment quantities in a very short time. Under Huawei’s
effective coordination, it took Reliance just 4 months to
Keys to success complete the work that would take other operators several
years. Huawei provides professional guidance for long-term
All-IP network evolution, enhancing Reliance’s future confidence.”

Huawei’s success can be attributed to its accumulated Localized solutions

expertise in the All-IP field. Compared with traditional
networking modes, Huawei’s All-IP networking offers To successfully expand its international market position,
greater flexibility and its softswitches and IP BTSs can save an enterprise must possess strong localization capabilities.
more than 60% in transmission costs. All-IP networking can During its cooperation with operators, Huawei put into
help operators provide diversified mobile broadband services play its design expertise to establish CDMA solutions that
such as the transmission of emails with large attachments, fully satisfy customer requirements.
online video camera, mobile TV, and video on demand In the first-phase project with Leap, Huawei’s BTSs were
(VOD). deployed in Reno, Nevada. Situated near the desert, its
After All-IP network cutover, Leap’s existing network outdoor summer temperature exceeds 40 degrees Celsius for
KPI was significantly improved. After network migration, a long time, which melts many vendors’ BTS connectors.
the covered areas have changed from “problematic areas” Conversely, Huawei’s outdoor BTSs remain resilient to the
to “outstanding performance areas”, and the drop call rate extreme conditions, thanks to their unique heat exchange
(DCR) has decreased from 1% to 0.5%. Moreover, the technology.
All-IP networking saves at least 50% in construction costs In a further example of localized solutions, India’s
and OPEX. Leap’s CTO, Glenn Umetsu, praised Huawei’s geography also required condition-specific BTSs given the
capabilities: “Our strategic partnership with Huawei allows nation’s complex landform, monsoons, high temperature,
us to further enhance our focus on delivering the highest tendency for power failures and instability, and fire and
quality networks and consumer services while maintaining theft risks. Widely deployed in Reliance’s network, Huawei’s
our leadership position on cost, especially as we bring BTS 3606AC-R is designed to handle high temperatures
Cricket services to new markets.” and power failures in India. The product includes built-in
Reliance has adopted Huawei’s new-generation batteries that enable 4 hours of uninterrupted power supply,
CDMA2000 All-IP BTSs and BSCs based on the universal and its heat exchange technology has led to savings of 60%
carrier-class IP broadband platform and these adopt a in power consumption.
modular design supporting IP interfaces. To cover 1,000 Equipment rooms in some Indian regions are small and
square kilometers, the number of required BTSs is halved, simple, and road conditions are poor for transportation.
and the IP transmission mode reuses existing IP network For these areas, Huawei supplied its BTS3606C-R which
resources and saves between 40% and 80% in mobile access supports 4 TRX and 6 sectors and promotes minimal labor
network transmission expenses. and rapid installation. To date, the BTS3606C-R has been
widely deployed in dense urban areas, such as Gujarat and
Fast response
Tamil Nadu. Costs associated with site leasing, installation,
Huawei’s rapid response capability has played a key role and operation and maintenance (O&M) have all been
in making numerous breakthroughs and has won broad greatly reduced.
recognition from operators. India, North America and China are three major markets
Leap’s CDMA network previously supported 56K in the global CDMA industry. CDG statistics indicate that
signaling, which falls below the international standard there are 421 million worldwide CDMA subscribers, which
of 64K. For this reason, Huawei had to pass an array of has increased by more than 100 million per year since 2005.
stringent testing criteria when it first entered the network. The Asia-Pacific and North America continue to boast the
Huawei’s response speed was amazing - only 7 days were widest CDMA technology application and largest subscriber
used to finish the whole process that covered protocol quantities, with 49% of all CDMA subscribers residing in
analysis, problem relocation, development, testing, the Asia-Pacific region and 32% in North America.
commissioning, and online interconnection. According Huawei’s 2007 successes have paved the way for its
to John Saboe, Leap’s engineering Vice President, “It subsequent development and achievements in the CDMA
would take other vendors a month to solve such network field. Huawei’s continuous investment and innovation will
problems.” Reliance’s Logistics Director offers further no doubt contribute to the global CDMA development.
testimony: “Huawei is outstanding in terms of delivery Editor: Liu Zhonglin liuzhonglin@huawei.com

29 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Fixed network transformation - An imperative for NGN Huawei Technologies

The international roaming service is bringing greater profits for mobile operators, and currently comprises 10% - 18%
of European mobile operators’ business revenue. Nevertheless, as the demand for lower tariffs for international
roaming becomes more pervasive, major mobile operators are beginning to research methods globally for
providing the lowest international roaming tariffs, while delivering services that are similar to those of a home
network. This, of course, is under the precondition that operators’ business revenue remains ensured.

International roaming
leads everywhere By Xiao Qian

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 30

International roaming leads everywhere

t the end of November 2007,
around 30 top global
Roaming among a single home country numbers at a local tariff rate
for local calls. A nominal 10% was added
operators including NT T
DoCoMo, AT&T, Vodafone
transnational group for international calls between the three
countries, while received calls remained
and T-Mobile convened in Beijing to
discuss International Roaming Services’
network leads itself to free. Prepaid subscribers, moreover,
could recharge their accounts with a
Cooperation for the 2008 Beijing Olympic
Games. Held by China Mobile, the
lower charges, given that Celtel rechargeable card in any of the
three countries. In the end of 2007, One
conference focused on identifying ways to
yield high-quality and convenient mobile
the benefit is exclusively Network was expanded to twelve Celtel
African subnets, with existing plans in
roaming services to visitors from all over
the world during the Games. Mr Wang
enjoyed within the group, place to gradually extend this to fifteen.
Confronted with the reality of Celtel’s
Jianzhou, the president of China Mobile,
suggested that operators should greatly
and associated services competitive advantage following One
Network’s inception, other operators in
reduce their international roaming tariffs,
including those for voice services and
are more easily acquired Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya - MTN,
Vodacom, and Safaricom - quickly formed
data transmission. As such, China Mobile
would be willing to provide preferential
due to uniform group a roaming alliance under which their
KamaKawaida plan was launched in
services for all international operators.
Cooperation for the Beijing Olympic
deployment. January 2007. This allowed mobile phone
calls to be made and SMs (short messages)
Games represents only one of the trials sent among the three countries at the local
involving international roaming services roam to another network for an additional tariff. Safaricom’s statistics indicate that its
that have occurred over the past few years. £0.75 for each connection, while other international traffic has increased by 400%
Depending on the scenario, international fees remain the same as in the UK. since KamaKawaida implementation.
roaming can be categorized in two ways. Calculations exhibit that a 1-minute call However, Celtel’s comparative superiority
The first concerns roaming among a single gives a tariff saving of nearly 10%, which is reflected by its better coordination
transnational group network and the rises to 50% for 2 minutes, before peaking in increasing or decreasing different
second across different group networks. at 90% after 4 minutes. The Passport plan countries’ roaming revenue. The loss of
The latter, moreover, can be subdivided has successfully reduced roaming tariffs via revenue in one country, for instance, can
directionally into inbound and outbound. a roaming alliance that has demonstrably be compensated by the international traffic
stimulated international roaming traffic and subscriber increase in other countries.
Roaming in a single growth and enhanced high-end subscriber
loyalty to mobile services.
For MTN, Vodacom and Safaricom, lower
roaming revenue can only be compensated
group network By June 2007, the number of registered by increasing network traffic and
Passport subscribers had reached 6 million, subscribers.
Roaming among a single transnational including 62% of Vodafone’s high- The reduction of international roaming
group network leads itself to lower charges, end customers. Moreover, commercial tariffs remains in its infancy, and most
given that the benefit is exclusively enjoyed customers increased their average roaming subscribers focus on tariff
within the group, and associated services international roaming call duration by comparisons. The greater convenience
are more easily acquired due to uniform 15%, post-paid individual customers by of the One Network service and thus its
group deployment. 39% and prepaid individual customers enhanced long-term development potential
by 105%. Vodafone Passport represents a will become gradually evident only if sharp
Vodafone Passport successful attempt to lower international competition spirals international roaming
roaming tariffs, despite the fact that it has tariffs closer to cost, giving broadly
As early as July 2005 Vodafone Group
not yet joined its service to the networks homogenous pricing strategies among
launched a Passport plan in which all
of different operators. operators.
mobile subscribers who registered for this
service could benefit from close to local Celtel’s One Network
prices when roaming through Vodafone’s Roaming across different
subnets and preferential networks. In September 2006, Africa’s Celtel group networks
Cu r re n t l y, t h e n u m b e r o f g l o b a l Group launched One Network, the world’s
networks joining the Vodafone Passport first transnational international roaming Domestically or regionally confined
plan has reached 21, including some non- service. At first, the Tanzanian, Ugandan mobile operators lack the luxur y of
European countries and regions such as and Kenyan subnets in east Africa were transnational network resources, and
Australia and Japan. Vodafone UK, for included, and Celtel subscribers could larger-scale or transnational operators
example, allows a British subscriber to roam between them while retaining their usually formulate higher international

31 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

roaming tariffs to maintain customer encourages SIMM usage after reaching advantages of avoiding a high international
loyalty. Thus a significant challenge a destination. A rational approach can roaming cost, extending the service range
arises for those operators in terms of be taken with regard to service tariff for network subscribers, enhancing QoS,
avoiding expensive international roaming formulation, such as a 10% - 20% brand equity and subscriber loyalty, and
settlement to provide competitive services? increase on local tariffs, so as to reduce reducing the ratio of local SIM cards used
Fortunately, the answer is embodied by the influence on international roaming by outbound subscribers. For host country
Single IMSI Multi MSISDN (SIMM), revenue settlement. mobile operators, the outbound SIMM
a transnational roaming service that is Effective service package design can service gains considerable high-level
divided into inbound and outbound. stimulate traffic, and number reservation roaming subscribers from the cooperative
with a rental fee will encourage the loyalty of operator, thus greatly enhancing their own
Inbound SIMM frequent travelers to a given destination. The network traffic.
difficulty operators’ face in terms of balance The current outbound SIMM business
Inbound SIMM allocates a temporary
return can be ameliorated by offering a describes an “MVNO network traffic
local number to a roaming subscriber
small-amount recharge mode, extending the wholesale and number resources rental”
for making and receiving local calls, and
marketing channels for recharge cards and international roaming model. This reflects
the tariff is set at a local rate. These are
promoting recharge convenience. a shift from the previous system within
processed through the local network, along
Given the enormous number of which the host country operator controlled
with service availability, billing, recharging,
Muslims who embark on a pilgrimage to pricing, while the home country operator
and other associated services. The ease of
Mecca each year, Saudi Arabia reflects a passively operated. The outbound SIMM
applying for inbound SIMM adds to its
country with optimum inbound SIMM surrenders operational initiative to the
value given that entry into another country
conditions. At the end of September 2007, home network, thus facilitating a win-win
initiates an SM from the SIMM service,
Saudi Arabia STC officially launched its situation through cooperation.
the activation of which is determined
inbound SIMM for commercial use by In March 2006, China Mobile
by the receiver’s reply to the SM. This
issuing a complimentary call fee of 5 Riyals Guangdong and China Resources
strong promotional tool increases traffic
(USD1.5) beforehand, thus obviating Peoples Telephone Co. Ltd., Hong Kong,
by actively pursuing subscribers, and the
the need for prior recharge. Promotional partnered up to launch a Guangdong-
service attractiveness is enhanced by the
activities could be comfortably simplified Hong Kong SIMM service, targeting
fact that a local SIM card is unnecessary
to short welcome SMs, and this was China Mobile GoTone subscribers who
to gain network admission. Moreover,
demonstrated as the first month of the frequently travel between Guangdong and
inbound SIMM’s prepaid status eliminates
service secured 50,000 subscribers, a fact Hong Kong. To date, around 200,000
deliberate fraud and payment default risks.
that testifies to the service’s potential. people have subscribed to the service, and,
Nevertheless, inbound SIMM has
to register, a GoTone subscriber sends the
its defects. The need to recharge before Outbound SIMM SM “BLYKDH” to 10086 before receiving
use causes some subscriber loss, and the
a Hong Kong number that is allocated
difficulty of dealing with a non-extendable Outbound SIMM allocates a local
by the system. Subscribers have to pay a
remaining balance discourages some from number to a subscriber from a visited
monthly rental fee to retain the number,
taking up the service. Moreover, significant country’s cooperative operator before
thus guaranteeing that China Mobile’s
numbers of international roaming entering the country. Arrival stimulates
SIMM service revenue does not fall below
subscribers activate SIMM to benefit from network access and preferential tariff
that of the previous international roaming
local tariffs, and a number of operators are activation. Host operator cooperation in
service. Furthermore, the actual rise in
concerned with potential reductions in the visited country is essential in terms of
traffic has in turn increased income.
international roaming revenue as a direct number and mobile service resources, while
Over the past two years, there have
result of SIMM. Actually, the answer the subscriber’s home country operator
been various international roaming services
to this problem is whether operators should be responsible for service provision,
with diversified features and different
can compensate for revenue losses due billing, number management and
requirements for operators. In the context
to international roaming services by marketing, and fee forwarding to the host
of local conditions, mobile operators
increasing both traffic and subscribers. operator for number and network rental.
must make available the most appropriate
These two aspects -traffic and subscribers Therefore, the role of the operator of
roaming services, and the prevalent current
- are to an extent symbiotic, and exert a the home country is more like a special
problem remains low tariff provision.
multiplier effect on operators’ revenue. mobile virtual network operator (MVNO),
However, innovation is sure to mitigate
Marketing via advertising and which rents the host operator’s network
this issue and, in the future, international
promotions prior to a given subscriber and number to provide the outbound
roaming will cover ever ywhere with
traveling provides an effective, proactive subscriber with mobile services in the
service experiences that mirror domestic
tool to increase subscriber numbers. Flight visited country.
brochures can be utilized to introduce For the home country operator, the
service registry and use procedures, which outbound SIMM service possesses the Editor: Xu Peng xupeng@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 32

Intelligent “heart” of mobile Internet

Intelligent “heart” of
mobile Internet
By Chi Zhentao & Zhang Baoguang

ith the fast development without discrepancies. Such a channel is make a profit on the surging data traffic by
of mobile Internet, mobile usually known as a “dumb pipe”. shifting from “pipe lease” operation model
data traffic volume increases Since packet core network can not to intensive operation?
rapidly. However, restricted identify different services accurately, The transition of mobile data service
by technical means of service control, mobile operators have to use pipe lease billing operation calls for the emergence of an
operators have been mainly adopting the based on traffic or time instead of their intelligent packet core network, which,
traditional “pipe lease” operation model, and virtual values to perform flexible billing, based on service awareness, has abundant
only earning limited pipe rental fees. As a management and control. For example, P2P functionality like content-based billing,
result, the traffic volume has tremendously download of flat rate users has accounted service control, bandwidth management,
increased but the income has not kept for 50% - 80% total traffic, and munched service analysis and personal firewall,
pace. Then how to implement intensive a great deal of bandwidth resources, but etc. The intelligent packet core network
management of bandwidth resources and generated zero additional income. gives new vitality to mobile data service
maintain continuously growing profits? On one hand, volume-based billing operation, and is regarded as the intelligent
system is confusing and unattractive for the “heart” of the mobile Internet.
ordinary users because “data traffic volume” Service awareness means to distinguish
Intelligent packet core is difficult to understand and measure. the various services carried by the
network On the other hand, the simple time-based network through deep inspection into
billing system, especially the surge of data the service data packets. Operators can
The traditional mobile packet core traffic catalyzed by monthly flat rate billing, charge according to the services that the
network is no more than a transparent has worsened the pipe transparency for users actually use, as is called content-
channel for service bearing. Since it can’t operators day by day, tipping the balance based billing. The control of services is
distinguish from the varied streams of between operation and profit. totally dictated by the operators, who can
services passing through the channel, How can operators promote mobile strategically control the access of services
all services are processed as bit streams data business effectively, and continuously to the network, and assign different

33 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

bandwidth resources to different services. In order to reduce the impact of service component interoperability and service
For example, with P2P services, operators awareness on network performance, upgrades. It also makes deployment
can deploy specific restriction manners or Huawei’s high-performance intelligent flexible, reduces the comprehensive cost,
billing policy to allow network resources packet core network is built on its in- and secures the stability and continuity of
to converge towards the value services. house advanced router platform. It service policies.
With service awareness, operators adopts the separation of control and The deployment of intelligent packet
can accurately grasp the characteristics data, and features a unique distributed core network is not accomplished in one
of user behaviors when introducing and architecture for the independent deep move. New applications and services are
deploying new services. In this way, packet inspection engine. Signaling, data constantly emerging. The key to success
operators can then implement and fine- plane and service awareness are based on in the mobile data business is the rapid
tune the strategies according to the service different processors respectively. This helps deployment and adaptation of new services
implementation. obviate your worries since it not only to meet user needs and improve user
The commercial application of mobile can enhance service analysis ability, but experience. With its sophisticated and high-
broadband means more demanding also avoid degrading system capacity and performance router platform, powerful
security requirements. Precise service performance, after deep packet inspection research and development strength and
awareness allows you to control and filter is enabled. abundant experience in the IP field, Huawei
services that might threaten network Hu a we i’s i n t e l l i g e n t p a c k e t c o re is able to implement in-depth optimization
security. Meanwhile, operators can provide network effectively protects your and customized development efficiently,
flexible rules and policies for users, and investment, which is fully compliant helping you to quickly deploy new services
set up personal firewalls to improve the with 3GPP standard and thus guarantees and win the competition.
security level for commercial customer convenient equipment purchasing, service Editor: Xu Peng xupeng@huawei.com
services and steer the smooth deployment
of commercial applications.

Huawei to build European Packet Switched

Here is the best choice
Core Networks for T-Mobile International
The intelligent packet core network has Link
realized effective control and management
on data services, bringing operators not In December 2007, T-Mobile of Deutsche Telekom chose Huawei to build its
only profits but also challenges. intelligent packet core network in Europe, covering five European countries, including
First of all, service awareness requires in- Germany, England, Austria, Holland, and the Czech Republic. Mr Joachim Horn,
depth analysis of the data packets, which the technical director of T-Mobile said, “Through adopting Huawei’s leading solution,
takes up a great deal of system resources. T-Mobile expects to offer excellent and reliable services to the users, and realize our
This will seriously degrade equipment strategic commercial goal. We see Huawei as a reliable and trustworthy partner, and
capacity and performance, causing a huge we look forward to long-term cooperation with each other. ”
impact on the network. Also, an intelligent "We are delighted to continue our work with T-Mobile," said William Xu,
packet core network involves obtaining user President of Huawei Europe Region and Executive Vice President of Huawei,
and service information, service control, "We look forward to commencing work on this latest project. At Huawei, besides
and the deployment of billing policies. A lot providing advanced solutions featured with large capacity, high performance,
of different equipment entities or interfaces intelligent billing and full 2G/3G integration, we are committed to providing fast
are needed to realize those functions. delivery and excellent service, ensuring a win-win outcome for T-Mobile."
During the deployment process, the 3GPP
incompliance of equipment and interfaces
will lead to high-cost transformation,
upgrade and maintenance.
Finally, in regard to the complex and
varied mobile data services, consumer
demand changes fast. Those who can’t
support and respond rapidly may lose
market opportunities.
Through years of efforts, Huawei has
launched the high-performance intelligent
packet core network solution, effectively
solving these problems and winning a
great reputation in the industry.

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 34

Seeking for a winning PTN strategy

odafone, by mid-2006 had deployed Lucent, Nortel and Cisco, as well as important
high-speed downlink packet access standardization organizations like the ITU, IEEE and
(HSDPA) services in most Western IETF.
European countries, providing Various solutions and strategies have been put
Vodafone’s 3G subscribers with varied and richer forward after heated discussions. Some questions
mobile data service experiences. This also ramped still remain unanswered: Is the next-generation
up the development of global mobile data services synchronous digital hierarchy (NG SDH) already
like mobile Internet, music download and online at the end of its lifecycle? Which technology is
gaming, leading to a marked increase of data traffic. preferred, transport multi-protocol label switching
The mobile backhaul transport network is saddled (TMPLS) or provider backbone transport (PBT)? Is
with increasing pressure from bandwidth limitations. PTN now a mature technology?
Since 2006, Vodafone has been searching for and The solution lies in one two-part question. What
verifying new transport solutions. After numerous is the proper method for enabling the evolution
discussions with leading vendors in the industry, from NG SDH to PTN, and when should it be
Vodafone gradually settled on adopting the PTN implemented?
platform to optimize and reconstruct its mobile It is now commonly accepted in the industry
backhaul transport network. that compatibility is the key to seamless evolution
Many other mainstream parties are highly in the mobile backhaul transport network from NG
interested, including BT, DT, Orange, Huawei, Alcatel SDH to PTN. Why?

35 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

Seeking for
a winning
PTN strategy
In light of the All-IP trend for mobile networks, it’s crucial that mobile backhaul transports are
optimized and reconstructed. What is the best strategy for the mobile backhaul transport network
evolving into a packet transport network (PTN)?

By Bian Mingang

Service development widely used, the average proportion of data

service revenue to the total telecom revenue
still vital for telecom operators in the short
run and remain a focal point for network
requirements is less than 15%. An optimistic estimation optimization and reconstruction.
is that in 2010, data services will contribute The trend of service revenue changes
The All-IP concept is so popular in to 30% of total revenue. At present, data indicates that the evolution to All-IP will
the telecom industry that a discussion services might be the only way to stop the be a long process. From the perspective of
not based on All-IP is outdated. People average revenue per user (ARPU) from service bandwidth, and after discussions
have great expectations for All-IP network declining. But it is hardly possible that with mainstream operators based on the
a r c h i t e c t u re t h a t c a n b e a r s e r v i c e s such services will become a major revenue worldwide development of mobile services
through IP technologies while providing source to telecom operators in the coming and subscribers, we conclude that various
high flexibility and efficiency in service years. Therefore, real-time voice services are granules will coexist for a long time on the
management and control. The All-IP
represents a long-term pursuit of service Bandwidth
flexibility and controllability.
At present, all talks about the transport
platform in the All-IP architecture are
based on the assumption that the network
will complete its evolution to All-IP very
quickly. Many discussions emphasize that
IP transformation is actually emergent IP RAN
at all network layers due to the rapid
development of data and video services.
Data services have been developing fast
over the past few years and in some areas, R99/R4 IMA E1
the annual compound growth rate has
been over 300%. Yet, data services have GSM TDM
contributed only a small portion to the
total revenue of telecom operators. Even 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Year
in Western Europe, where data services are Fig.1 Evolution trend of various granules

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 36

Seeking for a winning PTN strategy

access side of mobile networks, as shown in Fig. 1. with GSM/R99 base stations in at least 3 - 5 years,
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) granules or gradually replace GSM/R99 base stations. Base
will exist for a long time with the introduction of station equipment of different systems will coexist in
3G. In 2008 - 2009, the IP radio access network mobile networks for a long time.
(IP RAN) will be introduced and gradually begin With the understanding that All-IP is a long-term
large-scale applications. Later, the IP RAN will bear and complicated evolutionary process, compatibility
most mobile data services. The service bandwidth becomes a basic aspect to be considered in the
of the GSM network might be slightly decreased optimization and reconstruction of transport
as subscribers migrate to 3G networks. However, platforms. Such compatibility involves not only
PTN compatibility with TDM, ATM and IP
services, but also its compatibility with NG SDH,
covering services, network features, management
and maintenance. Compatibility is actually the most
important feature of the PTN platform.

PTN Results from multiple

technology choices
PTN is a next-generation transport platform
NG SDH gradually recognized by the industry after years
of discussions. The name indicates two important
characteristics: packet and transport. PTN will be a
packet-orientated network solution that supports basic
features of the transport platform. It will not only
enable packet-based switching, flexible broadcast/
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Year multicast, flexible QoS control and GE/10GE
Fig.2 Cost curves for NG SDH and PTN interfaces, but also realizes end-to-end service

PTN is a next-generation transport platform gradually recognized

by the industry after years of discussions. The name indicates two
important characteristics: packet and transport.

because the original bandwidth of GSM services is management, end-to-end operation and maintenance
not high, a lot of subscribers will remain in the GSM (OAM), protection switching, synchronization,
network due to their needs for basic telecom services timing, and native processing of TDM services.
like voice services and short messaging service (SMS). The major technologies that support PTN are:
Time division multiplexing (TDM) granules will exist TMPLS, PBT, multi-protocol label switching
in the network for a long time. Operators have been (MPLS) tunnel control, service encapsulation
consistent in the overall development trends despite represented by pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge
their differences in service development plans, user (PWE3), as well as IEEE1588 clock synchronization,
backgrounds and operation modes. generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS),
In addition to granules, service revenue and and other technologies under development such as
networking equipment will experience a long OAM and protection switching.
evolution process, and the network structure As most of the technologies above are still being
adjustment will also be lengthy. HSDPA services are considered, they have aroused controversy. Most
still concentrated in business areas or urban areas, disputes are about the choice among the three tunnel
despite rapid development. The IP RAN will coexist control technologies, namely, TMPLS, PBT and

37 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

MPLS. In 2006 - 2007, after in-depth discussions NG SDH equipment is quite cheap in procurement
about technical maturity, compatibility, inheritability and maintenance. In contrast, as the PTN equipment
and upgrading capability, there is a consensus in adopts a lot of new technologies and is not put to large-
the industry that the technologies supporting PTN, scale commercial applications, and as the R&D and
have much more in common than differences. trial application costs of vendors are not amortized,
The technologies might adopt different processing costs of PTN equipment are much higher than those
mechanisms in encapsulation formats and protocol of NG SDH equipment. The cost of a TDM E1 in
labels, but they realize and support the same network a PTN is 2 - 3 times as much as that in a NG SDH
features. Examples include multi-service bearing, network, and the cost of a GE interface in a PTN is 1.5
end-to-end protection on virtual channels, SDH- times as much as that in a NG SDH network.
like maintenance and management operations. Such The network evolution costs should be calculated
features are the transport requirements described in according to the service evolution trends. NG SDH
the PTN platform, and they are also basic features and PTN enable TDM/ATM/IP multi-service
inherited from the NG SDH platform. transport through various technical systems. Due
The choice of technology is closely related to the to the differences in the basic technical systems,
application scenarios and implementation costs. different costs might arise in different service
Whatever technology is selected, the basic standard scenarios. By calculating different scenarios for
is that it should be compatible with the NG SDH service evolution, we have worked out the following
network while enabling network transport features. two cost curves for NG SDH and PTN, see Fig. 2.
The conclusion made by analyzing different
Need for investment protection scenarios and considering such elements as technical
cost decrease and chipset maturity in the future is:
Many TDM ser vices cannot be discarded When the packet traffic occupies over 70% of the
during network evolution. In addition to TDM bandwidth, the application cost of PTN will be
services, existing TDM network resources cannot lower than that of NG SDH. However, this won’t
be discarded either. After the quick development of occur until 2009 or later.
mobile services over the past few years, most mobile NG SDH will remain a most important solution
operators have more or less constructed NG SDH in most network applications for 2008 in terms of
transport networks due to the burden of leased line service requirements and technical costs. But PTN
costs. Carriers that lease circuits to mobile operators will be gradually deployed in network layers where
have built large NG SDH networks. packet services take a big proportion. Therefore,
Other important assets for operators, apart from compatibility of PTN will be of great importance.
the physical equipment resources, are actually the PTN construction will result in significant
end-to-end circuit management and maintenance optimization and reconstruction on the existing NG
modes formed in transport networks, their rich SDH network, or the PTN will possibly replace the
experience, and human resources. Then how can NG SDH network. What evolution strategy should be
operators maximize inheritance of existing resources taken to maximally decrease costs during this process?
during network optimization and evolution? In long-term network evolution, IP services will
During gradual evolution, SDH-like management gradually become the mainstream granules. TDM and
and maintenance as well as SDH interfaces will ATM granules will still exist for a long time, although
help PTN equipment make minimum impact they will be gradually decreased. In a NG SDH
on the existing network. More importantly, they transport network, service interface cards account for
can be a reserve for the existing management and 60% - 70% of the equipment investment. Whether
maintenance modes and teams. or not the huge number of TDM and ATM service
interface cards configured in the existing NG SDH
Most cost-effective evolution networks can be inherited in the PTN is one of the
most important concerns for the industry.
scheme The service interface cards in Huawei’s PTN
equipment are compatible with those in the existing
Network evolution is a long process and many
NG SDH networks. As a result, 60% - 70% of
evolution schemes are available. Evolution costs
existing equipment investment can be protected
should be the next consideration. Two factors to
when the NG SDH networks evolve into PTNs.
consider are timing and cost: When will operators
Currently, this is the most cost-effective PTN
start using the PTN equipment? What is the real
evolution scheme available in the industry.
cost of switching from NG SDH to PTN?
After years of large-scale commercial applications, Editor: Liu Zhonglin liuzhonglin@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 38

The Ferrari
of Telecoms:
racing towards record prosperity
By Wang Yudan

39 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38


elecom Italia is a complete telecommunications group, spanning fixed-line and mobile telephony,
Internet access, multimedia content, TV, news, and so on. The group combines tradition and
experience with innovation and quality through the Telecom Italia, Alice, Telecom Italia Mobile
(TIM), La7, APCom, MTV Italia, and Olivetti brands. Its tradition and experience also underpin the group’s new
technology offerings. The group currently serves 35.3 million mobile customers in Italy, 29.2 million mobile
customers in Brazil, 22.8 million fixed-line customers in Italy, and 10.7 million broadband users across Europe.
A reporter with Huawei Communicate recently interviewed Mr Maurizio Marcelli - director of IES Wireless
Access, TIM - on Telecom Italia’s perspective on innovation, indoor coverage with UMTS 900M, TCO saving,
wireless access infrastructure, and more.

Reporter: How does Telecom Italia develop its and capability for providing a global solution. Up to now,
competitive advantage and maintain its leading position this is something that is really true in the market. 80% of
in such a competitive market? We know that Telecom the mobile market today is GSM.
Italia has always considered innovation as a key element of Second, the dream now is that in a few years, 3G could
market positioning. replace 2G as another success story. To guarantee this really
Maurizio Marcelli: Okay. I’d like to describe how lucky path, we, operator and manufacturer, all the eco-
Telecom Italia sees innovation. In Telecom Italia, particularly systems, must work together, to target the standardization
within our technology department, the Telecom Italia Lab is of the long-term evolution (LTE) architecture. We are really
our way to approach innovation. More than 700 people are committed to implementing as soon as possible, this kind
working in this area specifically to support innovation, new of architecture in the field. We can then ensure that our
product engineering, and new services. company maintains its current position in the global market.
Our competence center, the Telecom Italia Lab, has Furthermore, this is a great opportunity to have
internal knowledge related to all elements of the value standardized solutions that could provide duly priced
chain, starting from the handset, home environment, terminals, duly priced infrastructure, and guarantee top of the
and also various technologies, fixed and mobile. This line voice service as well as SMS, the basic service.
investment is very important to our operations. The main Last but not least, we have to build a new business
center is in Turin, but our Rome and Milan facilities are model that is dedicated to data. We expect that in 2 years,
also involved in these specific activities. we can set up a business model for data on top of voice
We have put a lot of efforts in generating innovation and SMS, 3G standard architecture, while having LTE
through patents and in supporting initiatives with our architecture as our target.
manufacturers, as well as with our partner Huawei, to
provide value through new ideas and innovations. So Reporter: I see. So you believe that data development
for us, this is a key element in a market that is based on in the 3G field will be a main focus in your 3G market?
standard products and standardization. We are totally Maurizio Marcelli: Absolutely.
committed to having differentiation and proven quality for
the end users in the product and new services areas. Reporter: Which is more about the indoor coverage
of the UMTS signal? We know that sometimes in very
Reporter: Telecom Italia is now progressing with 3G complex cities with thick walls, maybe the indoor
deployment, and has already launched HSDPA. What coverage is not as good as the 3G case that you refer to.
do you think will be the most outstanding technological So what is your opinion about that? How is Telecom Italia
innovation in your network within a time frame of 2 years? strategizing to recover this gap?
Maurizio Marcelli: You know we had a positive Maurizio Marcelli: I absolutely agree with you. The
experience in the 2G world and it is a success story. Telecom opportunity to provide our end users with a real quality
Italia Mobile is a leading provider in Italy and we also have service indoors is a key factor to ensure that in addition to
much important experience abroad. The strategic factor for voice and SMS service; also data service could be perceived
repeating this success story in the 3G arena is to keep in as a quality factor. And no doubt about the fact that 3G
mind a few important facts. today doesn’t perform indoors.
First of all, 2G is success because of its economy of scale This is an element that doesn’t allow us to have the

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 40

ramp-up we would expect for this kind of new service. So for investigation, while maintaining the integrity of the
we are really committed to investigating and supporting Telecom Italia infrastructure, the Telecom Italia technology,
the solution that could improve dramatically the indoor and the Telecom Italia approach to our market. Together,
level of quality. we can have superior results that could be the differentiator
Currently, we see two approaches that are realistically between us and our competitors, and realize the best return
possible. The first approach is to share with other operators on investment, such as HSDPA for instance.
and regulatory entities to define the opportunity to reuse
the 900MHz frequency we use today for GSM services Reporter: We are now stepping into the All-IP era.
that could also be used for 3G. This will enhance the How does this affect the wireless access infrastructure in
performance that we can obtain from 900MHz indoors your network? Are you looking for new equipment to
and also allow for better redesign of outdoor coverage cover this All-IP criterion?
infrastructure. This is a general approach. Maurizio Marcelli: As you know, I am responsible for
The other innovative approach that could provide us also wireless access in Telecom Italia. We started a couple of
with the synergistic contribution from the fixed line, is to years ago trying to maximize our competitive advantage
adopt a solution based on the Femto Cell. This is something and have Italy’s biggest IP backbone. Since then, we have
new. It could be seen not only as a way to implement tried to connect all of our network elements to this IP
a better level of signal indoors, but also to provide new backbone. So the IP interfaces in all network elements
services. We are in the process of defining a new way for the could help Telecom Italia to maximize the economical
end users to have in the home environment, a new device benefit from the investment we have in the IP backbone.
that could be a great tool for supporting new and complex This is a general trend and up to now we have seen
services. So these are two ways to improve quality but also many cases that are valuable and efficient solutions
new approaches to multimedia offerings for the customer. interconnected to our IP backbone and network elements.
Also the Femto Cell could give us a more flexible approach So the cooperation with Huawei in the area could help
for the defining services. us to have this kind of solution in the field, and to have
return on our investment in the IP backbone network in a
Reporter: Now I want to ask your opinion on managing very short time.
another important issue: how to save TCO. We know that
all operators nowadays are extremely interested in lowering Reporter: Finally I have to ask the most important
the equipment cost and expenditure, but it is no more question in regard to the selection of a new partner. We
than 30% of TCO. As a matter of fact, the OPEX has know that the selection of a new partner, or new vendor
always been the biggest part of all the expenditures. Are from your vendor list is a very strict process in Telecom
you analyzing ways to benefit from innovation to lower the Italia. We have been cooperating for quite a number of
OPEX in your network? How could Huawei contribute? months. Which criteria do you use to select Huawei as
Maurizio Marcelli: We absolutely believe that Huawei your new working partner? How about the progression of
can make a valuable contribution. One of the reasons cooperation with Huawei? Any suggestions on improving
that Telecom Italia selected Huawei was their ability to this cooperation?
substantially contribute. I would like to highlight the fact Maurizio Marcelli: We are very happy to have Huawei
that on the last occasion we had for providing HSDPA in as our partner and vendor in mobile access. We expect you
the Telecom Italia network. Another reason that we selected continue to emphasize the value. There are several reasons
Huawei is also due to our evaluation in the TCO, and the why we selected Huawei for HSDPA. The first is that in
solution you can provide for us to minimize OPEX. the competition arena, you are a player that is quite able to
It is safe to say that we are paying maximum attention to emphasize the economic scale to the cost, with the highest
this topic. And also in the future, we have the intention to grades for functionality and innovation in your products.
stress this as a value, an absolute value for Telecom Italia. According to the opportunities in the competitive market,
How significant is innovation in this matter? Our you provide the best economic results for the operators, and
consumption, square meters, and innovation could provide excellent performance for the end users. So these are the two
us with a competitive advantage while having the same key factors we expect you to keep your eyes on regarding the
results for the end users. Once again, I would like to stress top 10 topics you will discuss in the future with Telecom Italia.
that we have hundreds of people devoted to innovation in In the end, I’d like to emphasize that, it’s essential to listen to
Turin, Rome, and Milan and we expect that Huawei will your customers, as the customers know what they want.
cooperate with our team in investigating the best way to
minimize TCO. Reporter: Thank you again for the ideas you shared
In the future, we do not want non-standardized with me, and we hope to talk more with you again in the
technology in our network. We can maximize the final future.
results, having the best know-how, the best conditions Editor: Zhou Huajiao zhouhj@huawei.com

41 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38


Vitality of mobile broadband

t the beginning of 2007, Huawei set up a goal, “In the next five years, Huawei will be committed to leading
telecom networks and services to the All-IP FMC era, and thus becoming a reliable partner of operators in
their transformation and development.” The Wireless Network Product Line of Huawei chose “Leading Mobile
Networks to IP” as its theme. What are the significance and value of IP to mobile operators? How do overseas operators
view the IP-based network evolution? What changes will IP bring to operators’ network operation and maintenance? With
these questions in mind, a journalist with Communications Weekly interviewed Zhao Ming, Vice President of Wireless
Marketing Dept, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

By John Lee from the Communications Weekly

Reporter: What are the significance the peak downlink rate may amount to
and value of IP to mobile operators? 140Mbps or even higher, with the peak
Zhao Ming: First of all, the future uplink rate exceeding 50Mbps.
development of mobile broadband is Under this circumstance, it becomes
sure to be integrated with IP, which harder and harder for the traditional
is the source of vitality of mobile transmission mode to meet the
broadband. There is a more and more requirements of the evolution of mobile
obvious tendency for wireless mobile networks in the direction of broadband.
communications to evolve in the direction The annual rental fees for one E1 in
of broadband, and for GSM to evolve into Europe are about EUR5000, and one
GPRS and EDGE. More and more mobile E1 only provides a bandwidth of 2MB.
data services will be introduced during the If HSPA is to support a downlink rate
process of such an evolution. of 14.4Mbps, a transmission resource of
In terms of 3G, the peak uplink/ about 20MB is required even if the average
Mr Zhao Ming is the vice downlink rate was only 384Kbps when traffic is about 6Mbps in a community
president of Wireless Network the 3GPP launched the R99 version. and 3x1 base stations are deployed. In this
Marketing for Huawei Technologies. However, after HSDPA is introduced at case, 10 E1s have to be rented, incurring
He is responsible for product the R5 phase, the maximum downlink rate total annual rental fees of EUR50,000
management in the Wireless Network will amount to 14.4Mbps. The year 2007 to EUR60,000. In view of this, if the
Marketing Department. has seen widespread applications of the problem with transmission is not solved, it
7.2Mbps downlink rate worldwide. After will be very hard for mobile broadband to
HSUPA is introduced at the R6 phase, become a reality.
the actual and the theoretical maximum Se c o n d , v i e we d f ro m t h e m o b i l e
uplink rates will reach 1.92Mbps and communications platform, the core
5.76Mbps respectively. At the HSPA+ network and the bearer network are
phase, the maximum downlink rate can already IP-based. The IP-based platform of
reach 42Mbps and the maximum uplink the wireless access network is conducive to
rate can reach 11Mbps. In the 4G era, the improvement of the overall efficiency

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 42

of mobile networks. the network side. Currently, Huawei has made relevant
Last but not least, viewed from the trend of service optimization oriented at many services at the access side.
development, all services in future will be carried over Our main focus is user experience. We need to focus on
the packet switched domain. Thus, the network will customers other than technologies in network construction
eventually evolve in the IP direction. There is no longer and optimization. That is also the direction of future
such a concept as “circuit switched domain” in Long-Term development.
Evolution (LTE), which best illustrates this point.
Reporter: Will early investments in IP technologies
Reporter: What is Huawei’s advantage in leading increase operators’ CAPEX?
mobile networks to IP? Zhao Ming: In the long run, application of new
Zhao Ming: Currently, competition in the mobile technologies will help reduce costs. Though investments
communications field is no longer limited to power in a single site or single equipment may increase a little in
amplifier and baseband processing technologies. Instead, a short period of time, the CAPEX will actually be greatly
the focus of competition has shifted to the overall reduced if you take into consideration saving of costs in
capabilities in transmission, integrated products, IP, radio transmission and services as well as future evolution.
frequency, algorithm, and understanding of the networks. Currently, more and more services are carried over
Compared with other vendors, one of the advantages the Internet. In future, more and more such services will
of Huawei is that it has the most comprehensive range of appear. As mobile networks evolve in the direction of
communication product lines in the industry. For example, broadband, all services will be carried over IP networks.
in products like base stations and controllers, we have Thus, IP is beneficial to operators’ overall investments.
integrated advanced technologies in fields like broadband, If IP has already been in place, there is no need to
transmission and data communications. Huawei is capable invest more in the ATM of the transmission network. If
of integrating technologies, experiences and capabilities operators fail to construct future-oriented networks earlier,
from different fields into our base stations. they may find problems with their initial investment in the
This also reflects another trend of the industry: foreseeable future.
Instead of being a mere pipe, the access network should
be perceptive to services. In other words, the access Reporter: When Huawei communicates with overseas
network should be optimized to cater to the voice service, operators about All-IP, what are their concerns?
broadband access, instant messaging, and the various Zhao Ming: Since the end of 2004, we have started
mobile multimedia services according to the characteristics to discuss with operators the issue of saving transmission
of different services. The access network in future is resources. After HSDPA appeared in 2005, we put forward
required to be perceptive to services. the concept of IP transmission. However, we were facing a
After mobile communications has developed to a very big problem then: QoS of IP of the entire network is
certain degree, more and more fields will be involved. hard to guarantee.
Future competition in the mobile communications field Under this circumstance, we put forward the concept of
is surely not specific to one product line; instead, it will “mixed IP”, that is, voice services are still carried over the
involve multiple fields such as broadband, transmission, TDM but data services are carried over IP. In 2005, we put
data communications and even services. Basically, Huawei forward such a “mixed-IP” transmission solution, which was
is among the top 3 in each of these fields. By integrating successfully put into commercial application in countries
all these fields, we will be able to provide the most like Japan, the United Arab Emirates, and Singapore.
competitive products and end-to-end solutions. IP networks in Japan are All-IP-based, with guaranteed
Currently, we have become fully aware of where our QoS. But we adopt “mixed IP” in the United Arab
core competitiveness is. Emirates and Singapore. Currently, one base station of
Huawei can support two protocol stacks; and Huawei
Reporter: Just now you mentioned “perceptive is now the sole vendor worldwide to provide such base
capability to services”. How can this capability be stations.
developed? Through communications with operators, we find their
Zhao Ming: The access network is required to be top concern is the QoS issue brought by IP. Generally, top
perceptive to key parameters of relevant services, and give operators require long-time tests and trial applications, as
top priorities to the guaranteeing of these parameters as they have too many worries: whether the existing services
much as possible during the service access. For example, will be affected, whether security will be guaranteed, how
the index for the end-to-end delay should be guaranteed to evolve into the IP-based public network, and how to
for the voice service. avoid being attacked, etc.
Besides, the access network gets to know about the
status of the service by identifying system information at Reporter: What changes has IP brought to operation

43 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38


and maintenance of mobile networks? construction with EMOBILE, an operator of Japan, we’re
Z h a o Mi n g : T h e I P t e c h n o l o g y h a s b r o u g h t required to put RNCs only in several key cities in Japan,
revolutionary changes to network optimization and thus raising very high requirements for delay.
maintenance. For example, before softswitch was adopted, We conducted a test by putting RNCs in Tokyo and
the number of MSCs of a mobile operator amounted Osaka and base stations in Hokkaido. We also tested
to several dozens, or even hundreds. If new services are HSPA by configuring an IP transmission simulator in the
deployed, every MSC has to be upgraded and uploaded system, which can be used to change the delay.
with services. And one MSC involves hundreds of We and EMOBILE spent quite a long time in verifying
thousands of users, which makes remote operations our system, and finally proved that our system could
impossible. Consequently, several months is needed for fully meet service requirements. Besides, EMOBILE has
service deployment at a time. no traditional networks. Thus, how to realize the clock
After IP is introduced, the MSC server is just deployed function is another issue concerned about by EMOBILE.
at the regional level; and each province just needs to
upgrade several MSC servers, which makes operation and Reporter: What is the goal of Huawei at the next phase
maintenance of the entire network much simpler. in leading mobile networks to IP?
Besides, IP has also flattened the network, and thus Zhao Ming: At the initial phase, we mainly solved the
reduced the system delay, which will in turn greatly deployment issue of IP-based mobile networks. In future,
improve user experience. Meanwhile, the network has we will pay attention to the performance of IP-based
become much more secure. After the IP technology is mobile networks. We will focus our attention mainly on
adopted, the network can support the N+1 backup and quality and stability of IP-based mobile networks. Our
the “pool” functions. goal is to guarantee the basic network performance even if
For example, if a certain controller is faulty, data the QoS of some networks is not so good.
packages on it can be routed to other controllers, thus Besides, IP will still be a topic frequently discussed
guaranteeing the reliability of the entire network. in the development of mobile networks. How to realize
However, even though the “N+1” backup may be realized finer management and how to provide networks to cater
in theory in the TDM era, the cost of doing so is too high, to requirements of the various services will be our main
thus making the “N+1” backup hardly feasible. focus in future. In future development of the entire
Wireless Network Product Line, Huawei will take into full
Reporter: Have any operators raised any special consideration the evolution into the All-IP era rather than
requirements for IP? limited to WCDMA.
Zhao Ming: When discussing a 3G network Editor: Zhou Huajiao zhouhj@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 44

WiMAX maximizes your potential

maximizes your potential
In October 2007, ITU consolidated WiMAX as a 3G technology by adding it to the official IMT-2000 standards. As
operators such as Vodafone, Brasil Telecom and NTT further commit themselves to WiMAX development, the WiMAX
market is rapidly expanding. According to the report of Infonetics Research, the worldwide sales of fixed and mobile
WiMAX equipment increased by 6% to USD206 million in the third quarter of 2007, followed by a 14% jump in the fourth
quarter. WiMAX is gaining momentum.
By Liu Wang

n 2007, Huawei unveiled its new interoperability of different products and reliable evolution of network, and provide
generation WiMAX commercial specifications. customers with manageable VoIP and
s o l u t i o n s t h a t f e a t u r e LT E / Through the global deployment of GSM, converged services.
UMB co-platform infrastructure UMTS, and CDMA networks, Huawei Huawei’s wireless DSL solution also
and integrate 4G technologies such as can facilitate WiMAX network deployment provides two or three level VPN services
multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) based on its rich experience and knowledge and end-to-end QoS solutions to meet the
a n d o r t h o g o n a l f re q u e n c y d i v i s i o n regarding customers’ needs. Huawei’s varied requirements of individuals, families
multiple access (OFDMA). The solutions convergent solutions cover WiMAX and enterprises. Moreover, Huawei’s
include gateways, distributed base stations, independent networking, and convergent WiMAX system can run on a spectrum
transmission, network management networking between WiMAX and NGN, ranging from 2.3/2.5GHz to 3.5GHz.
systems and terminals. In these solutions, GSM, CDMA, and UMTS networks.
WiMAX can be integrated with GSM, WiMAX + IMS
CDMA, IMS, NGN and DSL networks, Wireless DSL
which helps operators to provide a variety The wireless “WiMAX + IMS” solution
of high-speed mobile broadband services. Huawei’s wireless digital subscriber combines the advantages of IMS core
line (DSL) solution forms a highlight in networks and wireless access technologies,
voice service provision over the WiMAX enabling the delivery of various services
Solutions fit into your network. To meet the unique requirements across a unified broadband platform.
expectation of different network stages, operators With its future-oriented network
can configure their network elements architecture, the IMS simplifies the
With its long commitment to WiMAX (NEs) flexibly, and can maximize the service development process, increases
research since 2001, Huawei to date has speed and economy of WiMAX service service innovation speeds, and reduces
more than 1,200 engineers involved in its delivery. Huawei’s wireless DSL solution, OPEX. The IMS provides rich multimedia
R&D. As a major member of the WiMAX for instance, can be applied to rapidly applications and a platform for killer service
forum, Huawei holds more than 100 deploy a network during the initial stage, development. The WiMAX network is
WiMAX patents and remains committed to so as to realize high-speed Internet access characterized by high-speed wireless access,
16E 1X and 16 M standards’ optimization. and unmanaged voice services. With the wide coverage, stability, and can provide a
Within the company, Huawei has adopted increasing of customer base, the integration platform for innovative multimedia service.
a platform sharing strategy to ensure the of WiMAX with IMS/NGN will ensure the Huawei’s “WiMAX + IMS” solution

45 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

benefits from simple operational and between different networks. operators’ requirements concerning coverage,
management systems and provides services installation, and maintenance.
such as unified authentication and billing. STC already possesses 2G and 3G
Available multimedia services include Serving STC networks into which it hopes that Huawei’s
SharingX (bundled voice and multimedia solutions can be fully integrated. Based
Saudi Telecom (STC) began deploying
services), Push to X (one key service access), on All-IP technologies, Huawei’s WiMAX
the first WiMAX 802.16e-based network
VCC (voice call continuity), multimedia solutions work smoothly with NGN, IMS
in the Middle East in August 2007,
conferencing, convergent Centrix, and and Wi-Fi networks, and are compatible
covering cities including Riyadh, Jeddah
ringback tones. with Long Term Evolution (LTE). This
and Dammam. STC, however, faced major
significantly reduces network construction
WiMAX + 2G problems in broadband coverage and
and maintenance costs, and the solutions
network convergence.
seamlessly integrate various NEs spanning
For operators with 2G networks, Unlike the developed market with
applications, transmission, rating,
WiMAX facilitates service differentiation universal ADSL access, the broadband
authentication, and security mechanisms.
possibilities. It boasts the capability of penetration rate of Saudi Arabia is less
“ Hu a we i h a s t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d
forming a 2G/WiMAX hybrid network, in than 2%, leaving many remote areas
technology advantages in the WiMAX field
which a data network rich in multi-media unconnected. Broadband service provision
and its WiMAX 16e solution enables the next
services can be realized by employing the via cables incurs both high costs and a
generation network evolution,” commented
high spectrum and low cost per bit rate of lengthy construction time, prompting STC
Bandar M. Al Qafari, general manager of
the WiMAX network. to select WiMAX as its major method of
STC’s Network Department. “Huawei
Challenges arise when considering how realizing broadband coverage. Considering
has successfully delivered more than 5,000
to effectively utilize existing 2G resources in coverage requirements, Huawei partnered
wireless projects, and I’m confident that it
a WiMAX network. Huawei’s “WiMAX + with STC to establish a mobile WiMAX
will provide us with an excellent network that
2G” solution adopts the same site for both solution that reduces the number of sites
will allow us to provide wireless broadband
WiMAX and existing 2G base stations, by employing technologies such as MIMO
access service to our subscribers.”
and uses the same feeder for transmission. and OFDMA.
As a leading WiMAX solution supplier,
This reduces site space and enables rapid In response to the difficulty of site
Huawei has assisted operators to launch
network launch time. The WiMAX and 2G acquisition, Huawei applied the distributed
their commercial or trial WiMAX
networks also share the same core network base stations in the WiMAX network. Based
networks in Africa, Europe, Russia, United
for authentication and billing, and these on Huawei’s application specific integrated
States, and South America. Huawei will
factors combined have little negative impact circuit (ASIC) and powerful amplifiers, STC
continue to play an active role in the
on user experience. With network evolution, saved over 30% in TCO. The distributed
development of WiMAX.
the virtual channel connection (VCC) in an base stations are also highly integrated,
IMS network can ensure seamless switching small in size and light weight, which meets Editor: Huang Zhuojian huangzhuojian@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 46


volution from 2G to 3G to 3.5G and to
4G in the future is mirrored each time
with significant changes in mobile
access technologies, which compels operators to
upgrad their networks again and again. However,
repeated hardware-based upgrades bring with
significant challenges, and have led operators
to question - whether this describes the most
effective and economical way of achieving
network modernization?

47 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

Moving towards
By Liu Ping

A new platform is capacity and reliability. The unified dual-

star and dual-plane switching network
be otherwise required for tasks such
as surveying and installation. Quicker
required meets mobile network development needs deployment and commercial application
via its powerful switching capability, high can be therefore achieved. In addition, it
Wireless network integration represents board reuse rate, modular design, flexible is possible to use one BTS to construct
an inevitable trend that subsumes a service combination, and easy expansion networks on two bands for operators who
transition from multidimensional and evolution potential. utilize both core and extension bands. One
competition. To enhance this process, is allocated for voice services and the other
Huawei has proposed a unique base Multi-system support for data, and this is especially beneficial to
transceiver station (BTS) platform strategy 3G operators who only have a bandwidth
which merges the platform and design of From GSM to UMTS to HSPA or of 5MHz on a particular band.
its wireless products for various systems. HSPA+, and finally to LTE, cabinet
Including BTSs and base station controllers replacement is not necessary to upgrade
(BSCs) for GSM, UMTS, CDMA, and a network, and only a corresponding How to carry it out?
WiMAX networks, the concept focuses on baseband processing board is needed. As a manufacturer capable of providing
the advantages of individual products and Like wise, the radio frequency (RF) multiple wireless access products, Huawei
integrates them to form a product series component adopts software defined radio has for some time prioritized multi-system
that harmonizes pattern, architecture, (SDR) technologies, and only requires integration and has made a significant
installation and maintenance. software upgrades in order to support commitment to its R&D. Its long-
different systems. Since the baseband term experience in this field has solved
Unified platform processing boards for GSM, UMTS, and a broad range of difficulties, leading to
LTE systems are all the same size, different the launch of its platform-based multi-
The future oriented, IP-based BTS boards can be mix-plugged into the same
platform delivers high capacity and system integrated BTS that has laid a solid
cabinet, with different systems supported. foundation for multi-system integration.
powerful data processing capability via
fewer, smaller modules that are fully Multi-band support Modular design
concordant with inevitable technical
development trends. Currently, all GSM, One BTS can be configured with two Design represents an important
UMTS, CDMA, and WiMAX series’ RF components that support both 2.1GHz consideration for a multi-system integrated
BTSs are based on this new integrated and 900MHz and share the same baseband. BTS platform. A BTS is composed of a
platform. Meanwhile, the BSCs of all As a result, an idle GSM 900MHz band few modules, which are shared by different
systems are deployed under an advanced can be used for deploying a 3G UMTS900 systems and possess identical specifications
new platform that incorporates All-IP network, thus realizing significant human such as weight and size. A UMTS BTS, for
hardware architecture and expands both and material resource savings that would instance, features just three types of basic

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 48

Moving towards multi-system integration

modules: the base band unit (BBU), the Distributed architecture modes in a way that gives it a leading role
remote radio unit (RRU) for Distributed in various complex wireless environments
BTSs, and the radio frequency unit (RFU) From the modular design, it can be seen and, in compliance with development
for cabinet BTSs. These can be combined in that the essential aspect of the integrated orientation, Huawei’s multi-system
different ways to become BTSs of specific BTS platform is its distributed architecture, integrated BTS platform demonstrates its
patterns that can cater to different scenarios. which refers to both the Distributed BTS superiority in a number of ways.
that comprises BBU and RRU, and the Multiple: Future mobile networks will
All-IP frame cabinet-type BTS that comprises BBU and differ from the 2G models that provide only
RFU. These have a common feature in voice services. Data services may coexist
Broadband networking is an inevitable that the previously inseparable baseband
trend for the future development of mobile with voice services or even substitute the
and radio frequency modules are divided latter completely, hence creating a multi-
networks, not least because it provides into two parts, thus forming distributed
higher transmission rates, enhanced system coexistent environment for access
architecture. This decreases construction network. The integrated BTS platform
user experience, and a wider data service costs and OPEX, and allows the wireless
application range. Accordingly, the that supports multi-system integration will
a c c e s s n e t w o r k t o b e c o m e s m a l l e r, naturally surpass any others.
requirement for transmission bandwidth develop more effective coverage, and
will increase, meaning that traditional E1s Efficient: Rapid network construction
offer more flexible installation and greater reflects a key requirement for operators. The
and SDHs will fail to meet data service environmental adaptability. The distributed
requirements for transmission resources. BTS platform boasts numerous benefits
and cabinet-type BTSs complement each with its modular design, high performance,
IP transmission fills this gap as it not only other and support both distributed and
reduces network construction costs, but is light weight, small size, ease of site
centralized installation, alleviating site selection, convenient installation, flexible
also capable of providing wider transmission deployment difficulties for operators and
bandwidth, higher transmission efficiency deployment and low configuration costs.
increasing implementation speed. Its construction time is reduced by about
and easier transmission resource acquisition.
Wireless access network equipment must Large capacity and high integration a third in comparison with the traditional
support IP transmission, and Huawei leads macro BTS, and it will inevitably garner the
the industry in terms of its All-IP solution. A multi-system BTS must have favor of the majority of mobile operators.
All interfaces support IP transmission, different baseband boards to process the En h a n c e d : Hi g h p e r f o r m a n c e i s
thus facilitating transmission network related baseband components to support prerequisite for network operations. The
construction, and IP technologies are different systems. If each baseband board BTS platform features high integration,
utilized for internal BTS and BSC switching is not highly integrated and has limited large capacity and IP architecture so that
modules. This greatly enhances switching capacity, the restricted baseband slots can it assures a mobile network that delivers
capability, lowers internal switching support fewer subscribers. This is obviously effective coverage, excellent performance,
complexity and elevates product reliability. unacceptable to areas with continually high reliability and abundant services.
increasing mobile subscriber penetration Economical: Saving investment and
rates, but Huawei’s technical progress has maintenance costs is a particular priority
realized baseband board integration and for operators when site resources are
raised their capacity, and thus paved the lacking, given the context of network
way for the launch of its multi-system BTS. coverage and performance in terms of
multiple service provision. Thus, selection
Superior benefits of a wireless BTS that complies with
development trends has emerged as a key
Wireless technologies are undergoing concern for operators.
continuous and rapid innovation coupled Multiple system coexistence represents
with the move towards upgraded BTS the future mobile network developmental
technology that will respond to a new pattern. Many operators have become
generation. Viewed from the development aware that hardware upgrades do not
process of the BTS itself, its products will form the most economical and effective
become adaptable to various complex method. Huawei’s multi-system integrated
wireless environments. Macro BTSs BTS platform allows software upgrades to
will develop as all-modular, which will support a network’s smooth evolution, and
simplify their configuration in a manner its superior “Multiple, Efficient, Enhanced
that resembles laying bricks, thus greatly and Economical” characteristics have
expediting expansion and upgrade raised the bar with respect to multi-system
convenience. The flexible Distributed BTS integration.
alters traditional network construction Editor: Xu Peng xupeng@huawei.com

49 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

VoIP over HSPA:

running in the fast lane
By Li Xuanbo

If calls carried over the R99

circuit switched domain are
regarded as a short path in a
village that you can glance and
see its end, VoIP over HSPA
can be considered as a super
highway without a speed limit
leading out of town. Despite
the fact that the road is under
construction and the end is not
in sight, it promises a quicker
and more rewarding journey.

ll-IP is a hot trend in wireless
network evolution. The IP
transformation has been
broadening the service platform,
core network, access network, and even
the entire wireless network architecture, so
end-to-end All-IP services are also on the
Huawei took the lead in demonstrating its
IMS-based VoIP audio and video services
that are compatible in different wireless
network standards, especially VoIP over
HSPA. In addition, the early stages of All-
IP services were shown.
Cu r re n t l y, t h e n u m b e r o f H S PA
mobile broadband subscribers has been
growing quickly, with more than 58
countries already deployed over 115 HSPA
networks. Gartner - a leading research
and advisory company - estimated that

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 50

VoIP over HSPA: running in the fast lane

there would be over 200 million HSPA

Millions HSPA mobile broadband subscriber forecast subscribers by 2009.
1000 With the substantial amount of HSPA
subscribers, the trend towards an All-IP
wireless network is clear and VoIP over
HSPA has a lot of room for development.
On one hand, HSPA networks that have
600 VoIP services attract more customers with
higher quality and more varied offerings.
On the other hand, VoIP over HSPA will
400 become a problem for operators as the
HSPA network is moving to HSPA+, flat
LTE architecture and All-IP.
VoIP is not a new concept in fixed
networks. Several operational modes
0 already exist, such as Skype that uses the
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Internet and intelligent terminals, and
Fig. 1 HSPA mobile broadband subscriber forecast (Source: GSMA 2007 Q2; Gartner) Yahoo! BB that is carried over VoIP.
Despite some disagreements about the
operational modes of VoIP networks, the
convergence of various VoIP services will
DL: ~141Mbps be accelerated. Full consideration will be
UL: ~50Mbps
given to factors such as convergence of
DL: ~42Mbps mobile and fixed networks, introduction
UL: ~11Mbps
~100ms DL: ~14.4Mbps HSPA+
of IP multimedia subsystem (IMS), and
UL: ~5.76Mbps the use of session initiation protocol
HSPA (SIP). Operators will then be able to
~70ms solve problems in operation, maintenance
DL: ~384Kbps and management. Yet, some questions
UL: ~384Kbps ~45ms remain such as: What benefits can VoIP
3G-WCDMA over HSPA bring to customers? What can
operators do to deal with the challenges?

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 or later Larger capacity
Fig. 2 HSPA evolution roadmap
For the wireless and fixed networks
o f f e r i n g Vo I P s e r v i c e s , t h e b i g g e s t
Voice users AMR 12.2Kbps voice users per cell difference lies in air interface resources.
No detail emulate data
The development of wireless networks
is mostly driven by the fact that wireless
networks can provide greater service
100 bandwidth with less spectrum bandwidth.
The VoIP service provision emerges in the
80 WCDMA R99 and HSDPA phases with the
presence of intelligent terminals. However, in
60 the R99 architecture, the VoIP is incapable of
offering more benefits than CS voice service
40 does. VoIP is a service requiring symmetrical
bandwidth in the uplink and downlink. Even
20 in the HSDPA phase, therefore, problems still
exist in providing outstanding performance
R99 CS Voice VoIP over HSPA VoIP over HSPA R7 VoIP over LTE due to bandwidth imbalance in the uplink
and downlink of the HSDPA. As a result,
Fig. 3 Comparison of voice capacity between VoIP over HSDPA and R99 CS the VoIP over HSPA takes a center stage only
after the high-speed uplink packet access

51 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

(HSUPA) is deployed on a large scale starting yet longer latency reduces voice quality. A in the near future. Using IP technology
in 2007. balance point between latency and system to carry voice, high-speed data, and
HSPA’s development is further driven capacity should be selected to split the multimedia services simultaneously,
by the introduction of new channels, difference. In Fig. 3, we can see the increase operators can have effective management
hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) of subscribers brought by VoIP services. over the network, reduce OPEX, and
and soft combination functions, as well as Air interface resources limit the number introduce new services easily.
an advanced Node B scheduling algorithm. of voice service subscribers over the R99 CS Compared with the existing traditional
HSPA enables the downlink data rate up domain. Even if factors such as interference services controlled by signaling No.7, the
to 14.4 Mbps and uplink data rate up to can be well controlled, the actual number of service development on the IP layer is
5.75Mbps, with the latency reduced to less users per cell has trouble exceeding 80, due based on a relatively open architecture,
than 70 ms. to the restrictions on user code quantity and allowing a radio network to smoothly
Currently, the general and commercial soft handover overhead. Theoretically, the inherit the previously successful service
downlink data rate of the industry is constant VoIP over HSPA is free from code restriction. modes in the fixed network. After HSPA
at 7.2Mbps due to restrictions on terminal Although the VoIP over HSPA does not show is deployed, many fixed services can also
chips. In addition, along with the introduction evident advantages at the HSPA initial phase, promote mobile features and services
of HSPA+ and LTE, the downlink data the emergence of HSPA R7 has doubled that are directly added, like video-sharing
rate can achieve over 140 Mbps and the the system capacity of the VoIP over HSPA sites that can be easily migrated to mobile
uplink data rate is 50 Mbps with the compared to that of VoIP over CS. phones. The end-to-end IP service over the
latency further reduced to 15 ms. These HSPA network is also gradually perfected
features enhance the vast potential of VoIP
applications in the future.
Wider range of services with the introduction of VoIP, providing
an outstanding platform for all message,
Apart from the available bandwidth, interactive, and communication services.
The voice service provided by VoIP
another key influencing subscriber over HSPA can be a killer application,
numbers is the required bandwidth traffic but what really attracts operators is not Evolution to an All-IP
for each voice subscriber. The 12.2 Kbps
adaptive multi-rate (AMR) audio codec is
the simple capacity expansion for voice network
service subscribers. The point is that VoIP
widely used in the traditional GSM and can be combined into diverse services Another advantage is that the VoIP
UMTS CS voice services. As for a typical with the further development of end-to- over HSPA, an end-to-end IP service,
VoIP protocol stack, it adopts routing end and IP-based radio networks. Service can be smoothly carried by a variety of
table protocol (RTP) and user datagram combinations can include those with IM, technologies such as WCDMA, HSPA,
protocol (UDP) packets that are carried information query, web, call center, voice HSPA+, LTE, or even the forthcoming
by IP. Apparently, in case each IP packet conferencing, and more. 4G technology. In terms of development
is added a standard RTP/UDP/IP header, In addition, with the fixed and mobile trends, all the evolution technologies of the
the typical voice after standard VoIP convergence implemented by the IMS, UMTS move towards an All-IP network. At
coding requires a bi-directional data rate of operators can enhance the control the LTE phase, the work division of CS and
32 Kbps or 64 Kbps for transmission. and operations over the VoIP service. packet switched (PS) domains on the access
This is a big waste for a wireless system Meanwhile, the combination of the IMS network is removed, and the network uses a
that already needs more air interface and IP-based mobile bearing networks, unified IP-based packet access.
resources, but there is now a workable together with the technical guarantees At present, Huawei takes the lead in
solution: employment of robust header such as MPLS, enables full control of introducing the LTE UMTS multi-mode
c o m p re s s i o n ( RO H C ) . T h e RO H C the end-to-end QoS for each new service base stations, which utilizes software to
technology can minimize the packet length and makes possible barrier-free services evolve the existing UMTS network into
to 1 byte, thus making the required bit anytime and anywhere for any terminal. HSPA+ and LTE networks. Experience
rate of the VoIP only 10% to 20% higher By paying higher service fees, users can shows that evolution is usually not
than that of CS service of the same code. have a high quality voice or video channel completed in a short period, and multiple
The maximum number of supported for important business services. For the low access modes can co-exist for a long time.
subscribers is not simply calculated by end users, operators can offer discounted The emerging VoIP over HSPA provides
dividing the total bandwidth by the common chat services by using idle radio a universal voice solution. Since the VoIP
bandwidth of each voice subscriber. In resources with decreased QoS. Most price over HSPA is carried above the IP layer,
actual cases, the interference of the radio conscious subscribers don’t mind the different access modes can be avoided.
environment, system capacity, and end-to- intermittent decreased voice quality and are The good news is that VoIP over HSPA
end time delay also need to be considered. quite pleased to get a whopping discount. is adaptable regardless of future network
Allocating longer latency and scheduling Most insiders believe that services like development, allowing operators to focus
time can lead to more subscribers voice, high-speed data, and multimedia on service development and operations.
simultaneously supported by the system, services will be more effectively integrated Editor: Pan Tao pantao@huawei.com

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 52


are you
ready? By Xu Yan

Act 1: Imagine that you are traveling on a high speed

train in Europe and you urgently need some documents for
an unscheduled project meeting. Exceeding 1GB, however,
these documents include files and pictures that can be
downloaded quickly providing that your computer and data
card are connected. This would remove the headache of
having to jump off the train and rush to an Internet cafe.
Act 2: Suppose now that you are traveling in Fiji and
have just recorded the torch lighting ceremony with your
high definition camera. The several hundred MB files can
be uploaded onto YouTube.com within one minute through
your mobile phone connected with your camera, enabling
people around the world to share your experience.

53 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

I Taking the initiative to

n a mobile broadband world based experience in the field. Operators globally
on long-term evolution (LTE), these have begun to do so. In Europe, Vodafone
scenarios are no longer just dreams. secure users Spain has deployed its HSPA network and
As a solution for future 3GPP has recorded its elevated performance, and
UMTS/HSPA evolution, LTE can reach a Users have for some time demonstrated Telecom Italia has implemented its HSPA
peak downlink data rate of 100Mbps and a solid demand for high-speed data services in Italy. In the Asia-Pacific region,
a uplink data rate of 50Mbps, increasing services. The 3G R99 remains unable to Singapore’s StarHub has deployed the very
frequency efficiency by two to four times carry services such as video sharing, high first commercial HSUPA, and EMOBILE
when compared with 3GPP R6. definition television (HDTV) and online has released the fastest HSDPA network in
In October 2007, Huawei successfully gaming, given its time delay and limited Japan. Choosing Huawei’s HSPA solutions,
demonstrated its LTE-based multi- speeds. On the other hand, users are these operators now provide their users
channel HDTV in an air interface. Results expecting anywhere, anytime broadband with high-speed services boasting 7.2Mbps
showed that the downlink data rate services. Facing a market replete with uplink and 1.92Mbps downlink.
reached 140Mbps and uplink 50Mbps. competition, operators cannot afford to I n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , Hu a w e i w i l l
According to the latest statistics, 80% of just wait for LTE, but must instead lead help operators introduce LTE and 4G
LTE standards were confirmed in 2007 the way to enhanced broadband service technologies into existing networks,
and LTE will see its commercialization in provision. employing technologies such as 64QAM
2009. In a research company’s November Fig. 1 illustrates that, in terms of and MIMO in the HSPA+ phase. This
2007 report, LTE is set to emerge as the network evolution, HSPA/HSPA+ can will provide 21Mbps downlink and
successor of mobile broadband technology provide higher bandwidth and a faster 28.8Mbps uplink mobile broadband
over the middle and long-term, with an network speed, which can even match services to assist operators to secure LTE
estimated user base of 24 million by 2012. that of a fixed network. HSPA/HSPA+ user groups. Operators need therefore to
Huawei has already performed LTE represents a powerful tool to meet existing provide LTE-like services to help users
demonstrations with leading operators market needs. form their using habits, and to spearhead
such as T-Mobile, Orange, Vodafone, When constructing or upgrading the smooth evolution to actual LTE
Telefonica, and Telecom Italia. A belief mobile broadband networks, operators services. Multimedia broadcast multicast
that LTE has a bright future is far from need to select solutions that support all- service (MBMS) has been specified in
enough, then how operators can best performance HSPA and HSPA+ roadmap, the performance requirements of an LTE
accelerate the arrival of the LTE era? and select par tners with long-term evolved universal terrestrial radio access

PON 1~10Gbps

600ms >200Mbps
100Mbps 600ms

LTE 25~100Mbps
ADSL2 24Mbps
12Mbps HSDPA+ R8 42Mbps
HSDPA+ R7 28Mbps
HSDPA 14 Mbps

1Mbps 200ms
ADSL 150ms
256Kbps R99 384Kbps
56Kbps 70ms
28.8Kbps 45ms 50ms
GPRS 53.6Kbps 20ms

< 1990 1995 2000 2002 2005 2007 2009 2011 2015 Year

Fig. 1 HSPA+ enables similar performance as fixed broadband

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 54

LTE, are you ready?

As a mature solution, Huawei’s next this case, lease and construction costs
generation base stations construct a are reduced in traditional time division
unified-wireless access platform. Via these multiplexer (TDM) transmission, and
base stations, operators can build a base sufficient bandwidth is provided for high-
station platform in which various systems speed data services. In the GSM system,
coexist. The platform facilitates the the IP transformation of A interfaces can
changes of network systems and capacities reduce transcoder (TC) and network costs,
by adjusting radio frequency (RF) and enabling transcoder free operation (TrFO)
baseband modules. Operators can realize a and enhanced voice quality. Interface IP
dual-mode network by inserting GSM and transformation has less impact on the
UMTS modules into the same cabinet, entire network architecture and is easy
along with LTE RF modules. These can to achieve. Successful examples can be
share the same power, transmission, seen with StarHub in Singapore, Etisalat
antenna feeder, and baseband resources, in Saudi Arabia, EMOBILE in Japan,
and modules can be added to cope with and China Mobile, who have all selected
network (E-UTRAN). increased user and service quantities. Huawei’s IP RAN/IP BSS solution to
Correspondingly, mobile TV services Huawei has also proposed the deploy their networks.
such as HDTV and holographic television innovative idea of evolving networks by The second stage involves the IP
will become killer applications. With introducing software radio technology. transformation of the kernel. As the keys
MBMS Phase1 already successfully Simple software operation allows operators for mobile network IP transformation,
o p e r a t i n g i n Ho n g Ko n g a n d w i t h to switch a GSM RF module to a UMTS prerequisites to avoid failure are strong
Huawei’s successful tests with Qualcomm, or LTE one, or use a single RF module to network capabilities and a thorough
MBMS has already undergone actual support two network systems. This delivers knowledge of transmission and data
commercial application, and MBMS- the advantageous capability of adjusting communications. The Huawei-developed
based mobile TV services are increasingly network performance and service models, BSC features an IP kernel and supports
garnering the attention of operators. as well as defining network attributes based the IP interfaces between base stations
Based on Huawei’s Mobile TV solution, on service needs. and core networks, it also realizes IP-based
each cell can carry four 128KB or eight switching and achieves control. Data sent
64KB TV channels. The forward access
channel (FACH) and MBMS share lub
Paving your way to All-IP from a base station to the BSC through
IP is not switched or decoded, but is
transmission resources, removing the need transmitted to the core network directly
Telecom and Internet networks are
for additional bandwidth after Mobile TV through an IP switch. Highly-integrated
becoming further converged with an
deployment. Huawei plans to enhance its digital signal processing (DSP) and
increasingly vague boundary between
MBMS solution in 2008 with each cell multi-kernels can be applied to enhance
telecom and IT technologies. The telecom
able to carry fourteen 128KB or sixteen equipment performance, reduce power
world is undergoing an evolution to All-
64KB TV channels, giving users an consumption and save resources.
IP and FMC, including fixed network and
improved HSPA-based service experience. The final stage describes the IP
future-oriented LTE.
Once MBMS across an HSPA/HSPA+ transformation of services. When NEs
Traditional architecture will differ
network is accepted, smooth evolution and the entire network are transformed
significantly in an LTE network, with
to LTE-enhanced MBMS services will be to IP, service access can be simplified to a
the base station controller (BSC) or radio
seen, including the evolution of service connection between servers and gateways.
network controller (RNC) integrated into
usage modes and user habits. With the help of an OSS/BSS system,
the access or core layers in a dual network
structure. Base stations are connected to operators can deploy and manage telecom
Building a network for the system architecture evolution (SAE) services just as Internet service providers
smooth evolution through IP, and services are accessed run their Web services.
The IP transformation of the mobile
through gateways. The traditional circuit
Ne t w o rk l i f e c yc l e e x t e n s i o n a n d switched domain is removed and service network is an important step for LTE All-
smooth evolution play important roles in access, bearing, switching, coordination, IP and flat network architecture, and also a
operators’ unceasing drive to reduce TCO. charging, and control are packet domain preparation for LTE network architecture.
The impending arrival of LTE networks a n d I P - b a s e d . Mo b i l e n e t w o r k I P The evolution from existing networks
has encouraged operators to use software transformation can be realized through to LTE is a smooth and gradual process
to upgrade their existing networks, three steps. through mobile network IP transformation.
especially wireless access networks, so as to First comes the IP transformation of It is thus time to get ready for the rise of the
realize smooth evolution and save legacy interfaces. IP transmission can be used LTE mobile broadband network.
resources. between 3G base stations and BSCs. In Editor: Pan Tao pantao@huawei.com

55 FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38

Huawei Technologies

Reach for the sky and

transform your vision into reality.
Realize Your Potential

FEB 2008 . ISSUE 38 56