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Morals are the welfare principles enunciated by the wise people, based on their
experience and wisdom. They were edited, changed or modified or evolved to
suit the geography of the region, rulers (dynasty), and in accordance with
development of knowledge in science and technology and with time.
Morality is concerned with principles and practices of morals such as: (a) what
ought or ought not to be done in a given situation? (b) What is right or wrong
about the handling of a situation? And (c) What is good or bad about the people,
policies, and ideals involved?

A value is defined as a principle that promotes well-being or prevents harm.”
Another definition is: Values are our guidelines for our success—our
paradigm about what is acceptable.” Personal values are defined as:
“Emotional beliefs in principles regarded as particularly favourable or
important for the individual.” Our values associate emotions to our
experiences and guide our choices, decisions and actions.
“Values are the scales we use to weigh our choices for our actions, whether
to move towards or away from something.”
Types of Values:
The five core human values are:
(1) Right conduct,
(2) Peace,
(3) Truth,
(4) Love, and
(5) Nonviolence.
(1) Right conduct: Right Conduct has its roots in the Sanskrit word ‘Dharma’.
This expression cannot be translated literally. It covers ethical guidelines, ethical
behaviour and moral righteousness. The saying “Do good, see good and be good”
captures the essence and intent of this value. It is rooted in attitudes and habits
inculcated from early childhood that mature into respect and adherence to the
duties and responsibilities that come with one’s life circumstances.
Values related to RIGHT CONDUCT are:

(a) SELF-HELP SKILLS: Care of possessions, diet, hygiene, modesty, posture,

self-reliance, and tidy appearance.
(b) SOCIAL SKILLS: Good behaviour, good manners, good relationships,
helpfulness, No wastage, and good environment, and
(c) ETHICAL SKILLS: Code of conduct, courage, dependability, duty,
efficiency, ingenuity, initiative, perseverance, punctuality, resourcefulness,
respect for all, and responsibility.

(2) Peace: Everyone wants and seeks peace. Lasting peace cannot be found in the
material world. Peace requires the capacity for introspection and self-awareness.
Self-awareness enables one to become mindful of his or her thoughts, words and
deed. When self-awareness becomes a habit, the individual begins to monitor and
modify the habitual patterns that interfere with inner peace. True peace requires
an inner balance regardless of profit or loss, success or failure, pain or pleasure.
To calm the mind and open the heart are essential steps to achieve this peace.
Values related to PEACE are: Attention, calmness, concentration,
contentment, dignity, discipline, equality, equanimity, faithfulness, focus,
gratitude, happiness, harmony, humility, inner silence, optimism, patience,
reflection, satisfaction, self-acceptance, self-confidence, self-control, self-
discipline, self-esteem, self-respect, sense control, tolerance, and
(3) Truth: True happiness is only possible, when we realize, who we really are.
Throughout the ages philosophers have stated that beyond the individual,
egocentric self, there is a deeper reality and a higher self, which is our true being.
This universal truth can be expressed in many ways and be explained by different
names and forms, but ultimately it leads to the realization that everything is
permeated by the one truth. The search for truth requires discernment, intuition
and introspection. The highest truth is unchangeable in the past, present and
Values related to TRUTH are: Accuracy, curiosity, discernment, fairness,
fearlessness, honesty, integrity (unity of thought, word, and deed), intuition,
justice, optimism, purity, and quest for knowledge, reason, self-analysis, and
sincerity, sprit of enquiry, synthesis, trust, truthfulness, and determination.
(4) Love: The human value of love can best be expressed as the all-pervading
life energy. In other words, this value has nothing to do with emotion,
passionate feeling, desire or attachment. Love refers to something much deeper
and more fundamental in the human nature. It is being selfless and detached
from mutual expectations. All major religions emphasize the importance of
love. It is kindness, caring, empathy and compassion.
Values related to LOVE are: Acceptance, affection, care, compassion,
consideration, dedication, devotion, empathy, forbearance, forgiveness,
friendship, generosity, gentleness, humanness, interdependence, kindness,
patience, patriotism, reverence, sacrifice, selflessness, service, sharing,
sympathy, thoughtfulness, tolerance and trust.

(5) Nonviolence: Nonviolence is expressed, when all the human values are
understood and practiced. Nonviolence is the state of mind in which one
recognizes the unity within the apparent diversity. It manifests itself as a non-
violation of the laws of nature and respect for law and order. Nonviolence
requires restraint from consciously doing harmful actions, whether it is against
oneself, others or nature as such. If the ethical principles of nonviolence are
embraced as a means to world peace – then we can find global harmony.
Values related to NON-VIOLENCE are:

(a) PSYCHOLOGICAL: Benevolence, compassion, concern for others,

consideration, forbearance, forgiveness, manners, happiness, loyalty,
morality, and universal love.

(b) SOCIAL: Appreciation of other cultures and religions, brotherhood,

care of environment, citizenship, equality, harmlessness, national
awareness, perseverance, respect for property, and social justice.

PERSEVERANCE is defined as persistence, determination, resolution,

tenacity, dedication, commitment, constancy, steadfastness, stamina, endurance
and indefatigability. To persevere is described as to continue, carry on, stick at
it (in formal), keep going, persist, plug away, (informal), remain, stand firm,
stand fast, hold on and hang on. Perseverance builds character.

ACCURACY means freedom from mistake or error; conformity to truth or to a

standard or model and exactness. Accuracy is defined as correctness, exactness,
authenticity, truth, veracity, closeness to truth (true value) and carefulness. The
value of accuracy embraces a large area and has many implications. Engineers
are encouraged to demonstrate accuracy in their behaviour through the medium
of praise and other incentives. Accuracy includes telling the truth, not
exaggerating, and taking care over one’s work.

DISCERNMENT means discrimination, perception, penetration, and insight.

Discernment means the power to see what is not obvious to the average mind. It
stresses accuracy, especially in reading character or motives. Discrimination
stresses the power to distinguish or select what is true or genuinely excellent.
Perception implies quick and often sympathetic discernment, as of shades of
feelings. Penetration implies a searching mind that goes beyond what is obvious
or superficial. Insight suggests depth of discernment.
ETHICS: Ethics is the word that refers to morals, values, and beliefs of the
individuals, family or the society. The word has several meanings. Basically it
is an activity and process of inquiry. Secondly, it is different from non-moral
problems, when dealing with issues and controversies. Thirdly, ethics refers to a
particular set of beliefs, attitudes, and habits of individuals or family or groups
concerned with morals. Fourth, it is used to mean ‘morally correct’.
INTEGRITY: Integrity is defined as the unity of thought, word and deed
(honesty) and open mindedness. It includes the capacity to communicate the
factual information so that others can make well-informed decisions. It yields the
person’s ‘peace of mind’, and hence adds strength and consistency in character,
decisions, and actions. This paves way to one’s success. It is one of the self-
direction virtues. It enthuse people not only to execute a job well but to achieve
excellence in performance. It helps them to own the responsibility and earn self-
respect and recognition by doing the job.
Moral integrity is defined as a virtue, which reflects a consistency of one’s
attitudes, emotions, and conduct in relation to justified moral values.

WORK ETHICS: Work ethics is defined as a set of attitudes concerned with the
value of work, which forms the motivational orientation. The ‘work ethics’ is
aimed at ensuring the economy (get job, create wealth, earn salary), productivity
(wealth, profit), safety (in workplace), health and hygiene (working conditions),
privacy (raise family), security (permanence against contractual, pension, and
retirement benefits), cultural and social development (leisure, hobby, and
happiness), welfare (social work), environment (anti-pollution activities), and
offer opportunities for all, according to their abilities, but without discrimination.
Indian pluralism
One of the typical characteristics of Indian culture was its diversity,
syncretisation and synthesis which could also be seen in the area of Indian
The major religions of India are Hinduism (majority religion), Islam (largest
minority religion), Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism,
Judaism and the Baha’i Faith. India is a land where people of different religions
and cultures live in harmony. This harmony is seen in the celebration of
festivals. The message of love and brotherhood is expressed by all the religions
and cultures of India.
Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world. Hinduism is world's third largest
religion after Christianity and Islam. Hinduism is the dominant religion in India,
where Hindus form about 84 per cent of the total population. Hinduism is also
known as "Sanatan Dharma" or the everlasting religion.
There is a popular notion that India’s ancient religion ( or religions) was
Hinduism ( actually Vedic Brahmanism) and it claims a special connection with
texts such as the Vedas, the Dharmashastras, and the Puranas etc. During the
period of epics and the Puranas which date to the Gupta era, the religion came
to be called Hinduism. Hinduism was not a monolithic religion, but more a
labyrinth, criss-crossed at different layers and at different regions, sometimes
maintaining their distinctiveness and at other times giving the impression of
merging, to present a unified religion. This intense syncretisation of the local
religions of India had first come to be grouped together and termed Hinduism
by the census enumerators in 1891 onwards, when they had sought to identify
the varied religious practices of India, which could not be termed Buddhist,
Jain, Sikh, Muslim, Christian or Zoroastrian.

At present Buddhism is one of the major world religions. The philosophy of
Buddhism is based on the teachings of Lord Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama (563
and 483 BC), a royal prince of Kapilvastu, India. After originating in India,
Buddhism spread throughout the Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Southeast Asia,
as well as the East Asian countries of China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan and
Buddhism emerged during the period of the Upanishads. They posed a great
challenge to Brahmanism. The appeal, the personality and the sincerity of the
Buddha had a strong impact on the people of India. Their teachings cantered on
a way of life and an inner experience, rather than on sacrifice. With the decline
of Buddhism, Saivism and Vaishnavism emerge, reflecting the syncretism and
synthesis of Brahmanism and local religions.

Jains form less than one percent of the Indian population. For centuries, Jains
are famous as community of traders and merchants. The states of Gujarat and
Rajasthan have the highest concentration of Jain population in India. The Jain
religion is traced to Vardhamana Mahavira (The Great Hero 599-527 B.C.).

One of the prominent religions of India, Islam forms about 12 per cent of India's
population. Though India's contact with Islam had begun much earlier, the real
push came in the 8th century when the province of Sindh was conquered.
Though the Muslims form only 12 per cent of the total population of India but
the influence of Islam on Indian society is much stronger.
Sikhs form about 2 per cent of Indian population. In comparison to other
religions, Sikhism is a younger religion. The word 'Sikh' means a disciple and
thus Sikhism is essentially the path of discipleship. The true Sikh remains
unattached to worldly things.
Christianity is one of the prominent religions in India. At present there are about
25 million Christians in India. It is interesting to note that the Christian
population in India is more than the entire population of Australia and New
Zealand or total population of a number of countries in Europe.
Responsibility: Responsibility is defined as an obligation to perform or
complete the assigned task. It is the duty of the subordinate to complete the
delegated task adequately. It is generated out of a superior-subordinate
relationship, where the junior is bound to perform the task assigned to him by
the senior. Hence, the flow of responsibility is bottom-up, as the subordinate is
responsible to his/her senior. The word responsibility describes a person or
group who is complete in charge of something and will ensure the work will be
done properly.


The term accountability means a sense of being answerable for the final
consequences. When an authority is delegated, the employee is empowered to
perform the task for his superior, but the superior would still take the ownership
of the final result. The flow of accountability is bottom-up, as the subordinate
would be liable to the superior for the task. When a person is accountable for
something, he is supposed to explain the outcomes of his actions, decisions, and
omissions. It denotes an individual or group who are ready to make good or take
the blame if the work is not completed properly.

Collegiality is a kind of connectedness grounded in respect for professional

expertise and in a commitment to the goals and values of the profession and as
such, collegiality includes a disposition to support and co-operate with one‘s
colleagues‟.- Craig Ihara. The central elements of collegiality are respect,
commitment, connectedness and cooperation.

Respect: Acknowledge the worth of other engineers engaged in producing

socially useful and safe products.

Commitment: Share a devotion to the moral ideals inherent in the practice of

engineering. Connectedness: Aware of being part of a co-operative undertaking
created by shared commitments and expertise. Collegiality, like most virtues, can
be misused and distorted. It should not be reduced to „group interest‟ but should
be a shared devotion for public good. It is not defaming colleagues, but it does
not close the eyes to unethical practices of the co-professionals, either.