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# Natural and Step

## Responses of RLC Circuits

EE3301
Kamran Kiasaleh
Learning Objectives
1. Be able to determine the natural responses
of parallel and series RLC circuits
2. Be able to determine the step responses of
parallel and series RLC circuits
3. Be able to determine the responses (both
natural and transient) of second order
circuits with op amps
Parallel RLC circuit
The step response of a parallel RLC circuit.
A series RLC circuit.
The step response of a series RLC circuit.
The Natural Response of a Parallel RLC
This will disappear
1. Using KCL,

1 t dv (t )
v (t ) /R + ∫ 0 v (s)ds + C + I0 = 0
L dt
d v (t ) 1 dv (t ) v (t )
2

2 + + =0
dt RC dt LC
The Natural Response of a Series RLC
This will disappear
1. Using KVL,

1 t di ( t )
Ri ( t ) + ∫ i ( s ) ds + L + V0 = 0
C 0 dt
d i ( t ) R di ( t ) i ( t )
2

2
+ + = 0
dt L dt LC
The Natural Response of a
Parallel/Series RLC

v ( t ) = Ae st ⇐ parallel i ( t ) = Ae st ⇐ series
1 1 R 1
s +
2
s+ =0⇒ s + s+
2
=0⇒
RC LC L LC
2
 1 
2
1 1 R  R  1
s=− ±   − s=− ±   −
2 RC  2 RC  LC 2L  2 L  LC
The Natural Response of a
Parallel/Series RLC
There are 3 distinct cases.
1 R
Let α= orα =
2 RC 2L
Neper 1 Resonant
LC frequency
Then,
s = −α ± α 2 − ω0 2
1)α = ω 0 Critically-damped

## 3)α > ω 0 Over-damped

The Natural Response of a Parallel RLC
There are 3 distinct cases.

1)α = ω 0 ⇒ s1 = s2 = −α Critically-damped

 s = −α + j ω 2 − α 2
2)α < ω 0 ⇒  1 0
Under-damped
 s1 = −α − j ω 0 2 − α 2
 s = −α + α 2 − ω 2
3)α > ω 0 ⇒  1 0 Over-damped
 s1 = −α − α 2 − ω 0 2
The Natural Response of a
Parallel/Series RLC
How does the response look like?

v (t ) = A1e + A2e
s1 t s2 t
⇐ parallel
i(t ) = A1e + A2e
s1 t s2 t
⇐ series

## Initial conditions must be used

to evaluate
How do we solve for the unknowns for
over-damped (parallel)?
v (0 )= A + A
+
1 Two equations with two
2
unknowns
dv (0 ) +

= As +A s ⇒
1 1 2 2
dt
dv (0 ) ic (0 ) 1 v (0 )
+  + + 
= = − − I0 
dt C C  R 

## Initial current through the

Initial voltage across the
inductor
capacitor
How do we solve for the unknowns for
the over-damped case(series)?
i(0 + ) = A1 + A2 Two equations with two
unknowns
di(0 +
)= A s + A s
1 1 2 2 ⇒
dt
di(0 ) v L (0 ) 1
+ +

dt
=
L L
[
= −Ri(0 + )− V0 ]
Initial voltage across the
Initial current through the
capacitor
inductor
Example 8.9
The circuit for Example 8.2.

I0 = 30mA;
v (0 +
) = 12
Figure 8.7 Example 8.2.

The Natural Response of an under-
damped Parallel/Series RLC
How does the response look like?

## v (t ) = B1e −αt cos(ω d t )+ B2e −αt sin(ω d t ) ⇐ parallel

i(t ) = B1e −αt
cos(ω d t )+ B2e −αt
sin(ω d t ) ⇐ series

ωd = ω − α 2
0
2

## Initial conditions must be used

to evaluate
How do we solve for the unknowns for
under-damped (parallel)?
v (0 )= B
+
1 Two equations with two
unknowns
dv (0 ) +

=ω d B2 − αB1 ⇒
dt
dv (0 ) ic (0 ) 1 v (0 )
+  +
+ 
= = − − I0 
dt C C  R 

## Initial current through the

Initial voltage across the
inductor
capacitor
How do we solve for the unknowns for
under-damped (series)?
i(0 + ) = B1 Two equations with two

di(0 )=ω
+ unknowns

d B2 − αB1 ⇒
dt
di(0 +
) = v (0 ) = 1+

dt
L

L L
[−Ri(0 )− V ]
+
0

## Initial voltage across the

Initial current through the
capacitor
inductor
The circuit for Example 8.4

I0 = −12.25mA;
v (0 +
)= 0
The voltage response for Example 8.4

s1 = −200 + j979.80
s2 = −200 − j979.80
The Natural Response of a Critically
Damped Parallel/Series RLC
How does the response look like? s1 = s2 = s

v (t ) = D1te + D2e
st st

## Initial conditions must be used

to evaluate
How do we solve for the unknowns for
critically-damped (parallel)?
v (0 )= D
+
2 Two equations with two
unknowns
dv (0 ) +

= D − αD 1 2 ⇒
dt
dv (0 ) ic (0 ) 1 v (0 )
+  +
+ 
= = − − I0 
dt C C  R 

## Initial current through the

Initial voltage across the
inductor
capacitor
How do we solve for the unknowns for
the critically-damped (series)?
i(0 + ) = D2 Two equations with two
unknowns
di(0 +
) = D − αD
1 2 ⇒
dt
di(0 ) v L (0 ) 1
+ +

dt
=
L L
[
= −Ri(0 + )− V0 ]
Initial voltage across the
Initial current through the
capacitor
inductor
Example 8.5 (critically-damped)-R has been changed to
make this happen

ω 0 = 10 6

α = ω 0 ⇒ R = 4kΩ
s = −1000
v (t ) = 98000te −1000t
A circuit used to describe the step response
of a parallel RLC circuit
The Step Response of a Parallel RLC
1. Using KCL,

vL ( t ) dvL ( t )
+ iL ( t ) + C =I
R dt
L diL ( t ) d iL ( t )
2

+ iL ( t ) + LC 2
=I
R dt dt
d iL ( t ) 1 diL ( t ) 1
2
I
2
+ + iL ( t ) =
dt RC dt LC LC
The Step Response of a Parallel RLC
(direct method)
1. First find the natural response
2. Add to the natural response the final value
3. Use the initial conditions to solve for
coefficients
d iL ,n (t ) 1 diL ,n (t ) 1
2

2 + + iL ,n (t ) = 0
dt RC dt LC
iL (t ) = I f + iL,n (t )
The Step Response of a Parallel RLC
(direct method)

diL (0 +
) ⇐ known
iL (0 ),
+

dt
iL (t ) = I f + A1e + A2e
' s1 t ' s2 t

iL (t ) = I f + B e ' −αt
1 cos(ω d t )+ B e
' −αt
2 sin(ω d t )
iL (t ) = I f + D te '
1
−αt ' −αt
+De
2
A circuit used to illustrate the step response
of a series RLC circuit.
The Step Response of a Series RLC
1. Using KVL,

dvc ( t ) d vc ( t )
2

RC + vc ( t ) + LC 2
=V
dt dt
diL ( t ) 1 t
L + RiL ( t ) + ∫ iL (t )dt = V
' '

dt C
d vc ( t ) R dvc ( t ) 1
2
V
2
+ + vc ( t ) =
dt L dt LC LC
The Step Response of a Series RLC
(direct method)

dv c (0 +
) ⇐ known
v c (0 ),
+

dt
v c (t ) = V f + A1e + A2e
' s1 t ' s2 t

v c (t ) = V f + B e ' −αt
1 cos(ω d t )+ B e
' −αt
2 sin(ω d t )
v c (t ) = V f + D te '
1
−αt ' −αt
+De
2
The circuit for Example 8.12
dv c (0 + )
v c (0 + ) = 0, =0
dt
v c (t ) = 48 + B1'e −αt cos(ω d t )+ B2'e −αt sin(ω d t )
α = −1400;ω d = 4800
Second order circuits with op amps

d 2v 0 (t ) 1 1
2 = v g (t )
dt R1C1 R2C2
Second order circuits with op amps
• This is a variation of the second order system
• The output is the double integration of the input
• Depending on the initial charges on the capacitors,
the response will vary
• For a constant input, the output will increase
indefinitely d 2v 0 (t ) 1 1
2 = v g (t )
dt R1C1 R2C2
v g (t ) = V0
V0
v 0 (t ) = t2
2R1C1R2C2
Second order circuits with op
amps-imperfect integrator
dv0 (t ) RbC2
v 01(t ) = −RbC2 − v (t )
dt τ2 0
dv01(t ) Ra C1
v g (t ) = −RaC1 − v 01(t )
dt τ1
τ1 = R1C1;τ2 = R2C2
d 2v 0 (t )  1 1  dv0 (t )  1  v g (t )
+  +  +   0( )
v t =
dt 2 τ
 1 2τ dt τ τ
 1 2 RaC1RbC2
−1 −1
s1 = ;s2 =
τ1 τ2
v g (t ) = V0U (t )
dv0 (0+ )
v 0 (t ) = V f + A1e s1 t + A2e s2 t ⇔ v 0 (0+ ) = =0
dt
V0τ1τ 2 R1R2V0
Vf = =
Ra C1RbC2 Ra Rb

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